Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 60

1.

INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH DESIGN


1.1. INTRODUCTION
In the present era of globalization and development of a world market for traditional and herbal medicine, research & development is needed to promote the production and export of quality products in the form of drugs, food supplements, toiletries and cosmetics. There is an intense competition from other countries in the trade of herbal products. Indias share in the world market is negligible. The revised extra-mural research project has, therefore, been designed to encourage R&D in priority areas so that the research findings lead to validation of claims and acceptability of the AYUSH approach and drugs.

A separate Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy (ISM&H) was set up in 1995 to ensure the optimal development and propagation of AYUSH systems of health care. The Department of ISM&H was re-named as the Department of AYUSH (an acronym for - Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Homoeopathy) in November 2003.The Department of AYUSH under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, promotes and propagates Indian systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy, and is committed to infuse the wisdom of traditional medicine with the methodologies of modern science, scientifically validating the systems and presenting them in the scientific idiom. The Department has, over the years, developed a broad institutional framework to carry out its activities. The National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB) functions under the Department to coordinate activities relating to conservation, cultivation, marketing, export and policy making for the development of the medicinal plants sector.

There are two statutory regulatory bodies, namely Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) and Central Council of Homoeopathy (CCH) for laying down minimum standards of education, recommending recognition of medical

qualifications, registering the practitioners and laying down of ethical codes. Four research councils, for Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), Unani (CCRUM), Yoga and Naturopathy(CCRYN) and Homoeopathy (CCRH) are responsible for the officially. Sponsored research activities. So far, eight National Institutes are existing at national level for teaching, research and clinical practices. For standardisation and testing of

drugs, various agencies have been put in plan by the Government of India. Four different Pharmacopoeia Committees are working for preparing official formularies /pharmacopoeias to evolve uniform standards in preparation of drugs of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy and to prescribe working standards for single drugs as well as compound formulations. A Drug Quality Control Cell is working in the Department to deal with the matters pertaining to licensing, regulation and control of drugs and the spurious manufacture of Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha Drugs and other matters.

Two apex laboratories, namely, Pharmaco-poeial laboratory for Indian Medicine (PLIM) and Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeial Laboratory (HPL) are functioning as Standard Setting-Cum-Drug-Testing Laboratories for Indian Medicines and Homoeopathy respectively. Indian Medicines Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. (IMPCL), a Public Sector Undertaking, manufactures classical Ayurveda and Unani drugs. The Department also manages the CGHS Ayurveda Hospital at Lodhi Road, New Delhi. Since the creation of a separate Department, there has been a substantial increase in the infrastructural facilities under AYUSH systems in the country. Presently, there are 3360 hospitals (with about 68000 beds),21769 dispensaries, 7.26 lakhs doctors, 485 educational institutions (with admission capacity of about 27000 UG students and 2252 PG students) and 9197 drug-manufacturing units under AYUSH systems. Under NRHM, AYUSH facilities have been co-located with 208 District hospitals, 910 CHCs and 3883 PHCs

1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Exports and Imports play an important role in a countrys economy and it has its effect on a countrys Balance of Payment position. India has been trading a number of AYUSH products to various countries not only to meet its own domestic demand but also to import/export the scarcely available products. The main rationale behind this study is to get an overview of AYUSH products & its future prospects and also the export potential of AYUSH products from India.

1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The objective of the research project is: To study about the working of Department of AYUSH in India. To study the export potential of AYUSH products from India. To Study about the export of ayurvedic products from India.

1.4. PERIOD OF THE STUDY


The processing and analysis of data is taken for the past five years from 20082009 to 2012-2013

1.5. METHODOLOGY
The basic knowledge about the workings of AYUSH has to be gathered thorough the secondary data available on the internet and the documents available in the institute library. The quantum of information on this subject matter is enormous and updated. The secondary sources such as internet and news articles cover almost all major players.

Research is a common parlance refers to search for knowledge. It comprises defining and redefining problems, suggested suggestions collection, organising data, making detection and determines whether they fit the formulated hypothesis. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. Research is thus an original contribution to existing stock of knowledge for its advancement.

In short, the research for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to the problem is research. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. When we talk of research methodology we not only talk about research method but also consider the logic behind the research method we have used in the context of the research.

THE STUDY
This is exploratory study to analyze export of Ayurvedic products from India and to develop the comprehensive understanding of the factor affecting the export and to develop suggestions to overcome it.

THE SAMPLE
The data of last ten years (2002-03 to 2012-13) based on the present AYUSH products export from India to other countries and its growth as per past years data is selected.

1.5.1 SOURCES OF DATA


The system of collecting data for research projects is known as research methodology. The data may be collected for either theoretical or practical research for example management research may be strategically conceptualized along with operational planning methods and change management. Some important factors in research methodology include validity of research data, Ethics and the reliability of measures most of your work is finished by the time you finish the analysis of your data. Formulating of research questions along with sampling weather probable or non probable is followed by measurement that includes surveys and scaling. This is followed by research design, which may be either experimental or quasi-experimental. The last two stages are data analysis and finally writing the research paper, which is organized carefully into graphs and tables so that only important relevant data is shown. Types of Research Methods

Qualitative Quantitative Mixed Critical and action oriented

Data collection Data collection depends on the research design (quantitative or qualitative design). Tutors India helps in a survey tool validation and also online and face to face data collection process. We help you to conduct surveys [in person Interviews: Formal to informal; structured to unstructured; focus group discussion, observations, self-administered questionnaire, diaries, citizen report cards, Delphi techniques, expert judgment, online surveys, secondary sources such as journals, newspaper articles, annual reports, government sources such as census, budgets, policies, procedures, etc.

Quantitative consulting Benefits The preparation of a successful dissertation involves conducting effective research, analyzing data and results presentation all which require a high level of statistical expertise. We at tutors india provide solution from formulating methodology to the results presentation. You can approach statswork with any or all of the following steps:

Framing your Research Methodology Study design Sample size calculation and justification Development of questionnaire Statistical techniques Research is undertaken within most professions. More than a set of skills, it is a way of thinking: examining critically the

various aspects of your professional work. It is a habit of questioning what you do, and a systematic examination of the observed information to find answers with a view to instituting appropriate changes for a more effective professional service. When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process; 1. Is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( approaches); 2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability; 3. Is designed to be unbiased and objective. Philosophies mean approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy. Unbiased and objective means that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interest. (Bias is a deliberate attempt to either conceal or highlight something). Adherence to the three criteria mentioned above enables the process to be called research.

1.5.2 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES


Data Collection Secondary Source: Those, which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been through, the statistical process and thus are available on internet sites and any other media for that matter. The secondary data will be collected from internet and references from Library.

Data Analysis: The data were analysed through Trend analysis technique using SPSS statistical software for a suitable forecasting model based on export data. Graphs and tables will be used for presentation of the data and findings to make it apparent and understandable

1.6.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


Although utmost care will be taken in making this report a complete

information regarding the subject, however changing scenario, changing government policies as well as the limited data available with the sources, moreover the methods used in gathering the data are the factors on which the report depends. These factors affect the report and so limit its scope on matter of the 100% coverage. It is also important to add that in such case the reports of the magazines and above it the latest government policies should be approached.

1.7.

CHAPTER SCHEME

The report is divided into five chapters. 1. The first chapter, i.e., is introduction with the concept of the topic, various previously done studies in the related field and objectives of the study, Research Methodology, takes a look how the research was conducted. Mainly it discussed the study and tools. 2. In chapter two deals with Review of Literature, 3. The perspective of the selected industry & explanation of the theoretical objectives is chapter three. 4. In the Chapter fourth, analysis of data. 5. Chapter five deals with conclusion, summary and suggestion.

10

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1. Export Performance Desai (1988) studied Medical Ethics in India. Medical ethics in the Indian context is closely related to indigenous classical and folk traditions. This article traces the history of Indian conceptions of ethics and medicine, with an emphasis on the Hindu tradition. Classical Ayurvedic texts including Carakasamhita and Susrutasamhita provide foundational assumptions about the body, the self, and gunas, which provide the underpinnings for the ethical system. Karma, the notion that every action has consequences, provides a foundation for medical morality. Conception, prolongation of one's blood-line is an important ethical aim of life. Thus a wide range of practices to further conception are acceptable. Abortion is a more complex matter ethically. At the end of life death is viewed in the context of passage to another life. Death is a relief from suffering to be coped with by the thought of an eternal atman or rebirth. Shankar (2001) conducted a survey of drug use patterns in western Nepal. In Nepal, traditional health care providers have an important role to play in the provision of health services. Non-doctor prescribing of allopathic medicines is commonly carried out by compounders, health assistants and other practitioners. Self-treatment in which herbal remedies play a large role is also common. Most of the previous studies have been carried out in the Kathmandu valley. As studies in the Pokhara valley are lacking the present study was carried out. Methods: The study was carried out in Pokhara submetropolitan city and the surrounding villages in the month of September 2001 using a semi-structured questionnaire by the health workers of the community medicine department. The pattern of drug use in the preceding 6 month period was noted. Differences in the proportion of patients using self-medication and complementary medicines according to age, place of residence and socioeconomic status of family were analysed by the z test of proportions (p<0.05). Findings and conclusions: 112 households were surveyed during the study period. 120 individuals from these households had been prescribed medications during the study period. There was a total of 164 encounters with the health care system. Self-medication was practiced by 39 families during the study period. Home remedies accounted for 18.9 % of the

11

drugs used. 71.6 % of the respondents using prescribed medications had used modern medicines. Self-medication was more common among rural households. Improving accessibility to medicines, improvement of the government health care system and greater integration of traditional and modern health care systems are recommended. Ryan (2003) studied the Use of Herbal Medicines in Wound Healing. Healing of chronic lower extremity wounds is a global problem, especially in the developing world where it is often only folk and traditional medicine that can be afforded. In the structured health services of the developed world, there are usually a wider range of possible therapies. In India, traditional medicines flourish in parallel with Western systems, and those who treat wounds may use the expertise of more than one system. Ayurveda is a traditional system that has evolved in India over centuries using especially native plant sources as remedies. Like many Asian systems, its theoretical basis concerns balance and energy in the individual. In this perspective paper, the author advocates awareness of plant products available for wound healing and a study of the extent of their utilization. They must be developed for safe use and their efficacy reviewed, taking into account cure well-being and patient satisfaction as well as cost. Developing a list of products and classifying them appropriately is a beginning for such studies. Joudrey at al (2004) studied Perceptions of Alternative and Allopathic Medicine. This exploratory study of student nurses is based on the results of the responses to one question on an open-ended questionnaire: How would you define the relationship between alternative medicine and allopathic (conventional) medicine? A specific goal of the study was to find out how the surveyed respondents conceptualized the relationship between allopathic and alternative medicine. Three themes were identified: (a) They are not at all alike, (b) The two can or should be used together, and (c) Those who practice alternative medicine and those who practice allopathic do not get along very well." The discussion suggests some reasons for these perceptions and considers some implications for future health care. Patwardhan at al (2005) discussed that Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has 12

been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets. Datta at al (2009) discussed theories and Management of Aging: Modern and Ayurveda Perspectives. He explained that Aging is a complex phenomenon, a sum total of changes that occur in a living organism with the passage of time and lead to decreasing ability to survive stress, increasing functional impairment and growing probability of death. There are many theories of aging and skin remains the largest organ of the study. Skin aging is described as a consequence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The most common amongst visible signs of skin aging are wrinkles and there are various therapies including antiaging cosmeceuticals, sunscreens, chemical peeling, injectable agents, such as botox, fibrel, autologous fat grafting as also few surgical procedures have been used. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional medicine, describes aging with great details. This review provides modern and Ayurvedic perspectives on theories and management of aging.

Gehlot at al (2009) studied the Ayurveda Education in India: How Well are the Graduates Exposed to Basic Clinical Skills? Ayurveda is an ancient system of healthcare that is native to India. At present, in India, there are more than 240 colleges that offer a graduate-level degree (Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery BAMS) in Ayurveda. Even though the Central Council of Indian Medicine, the governing body that monitors the matters related to Ayurveda education, has imposed various educational norms and regulations, the standard of education has been a cause of concern in recent years. The mushrooming of substandard Ayurvedic colleges is the most important factor that is being held responsible for this kind of erosion in the standards. The present study is a mailed survey, which was carried out to evaluate the Extent of exposure to basic clinical skills during BAMS course as perceived by the sample groups of students and teachers drawn from 32 Ayurvedic educational institutions spread all over India. A methodically validated questionnaire was used as the tool in the study, to which 1022 participants responded. The study indicates that 13

there are some serious flaws in the existing system of the graduate-level Ayurveda education. Since the Ayurvedic graduates play an important role in the primary healthcare delivery system of the country, governing bodies are required to take necessary steps to ensure the adequate exposure of the students to basic clinical skills. Along with the strict implementation of all the regulatory norms during the process of recognition of the colleges, introducing some changes in the policy model may also be required to tackle the situation. Most importantly, the rising health care costs of Western allopathic medicine and its inability to effectively improve the health of the worlds population stress the need for a more holistic system of health care to come to the forefront. It is estimated that approximately 80% of the worlds population cannot afford modern medicines (Aggarwal, B., Ichikawa, H., Garodia, P., Weerasinghe, P., Nair, M. G., Sethi, G., et al. 2006). However, Ayurvedic Medicine has the potential to provide a more natural and cost-effective alternative to Allopathic medicine. Although there is a growing compilation of research that has been conducted worldwide on Ayurvedic methodologies, there is a necessity for additional research that validates the therapeutic efficacy of Ayurveda as a means to treat disease. Some of the more prominent studies have found that Ayurveda is effective in treating some of the most deadly and debilitating diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, and most of all, Cancer.

P. K., Shukla, V. J., Ravishankar, B., & Cloudhary, A. K. 2009 The results show that both iron complexes in 55 mg/kg dose (5 times the therapeutic effective dose) for 60 days exhibited no serious toxic effects in Charles Foster albino rats (2009). Both the drugs showed significant recovery from chronic toxic effect after 45 days of recovery period (2009).

14

3. PERSPECTIVE OF THE SELECTED INDUSTRY & EXPLANATION OF THE THEORETICAL OBJECTIVES

3.1

INTRODUCTION
Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy (ISH&H) was set

up in 1995 to ensure the optimal development and propagation of AYUSH systems of health care. It was renamed as the Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) in November, 2003. The Department continued to make steady progress during the year 2005-2006. Emphasis was laid on implementing the schemes which address the thrust areas identified by the Department like up gradation of educational standards, quality control and standardizations of drugs, improving the availability of raw material, research and development and awareness generation about the efficacy of the systems domestically and internationally.

The involvement of AYUSH in the national health care delivery systems including National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was given a thrust in keeping with the strategies laid out in National Policy on ISM&H-2002.Standardisation of drugs and quality control continued to receive focused attention. Department of AYUSH issued three Orders to ensure Quality Control of ASU Drugs. Displaying on the label of the container or package of an Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani drug, the true list of all ingredients (official and botanical names) used in the manufacture of the preparation together with the quantity of each of the ingredients incorporated therein has been made mandatory. All the State ASU Drug Licensing Authority have been directed to take action against the defaulting ASU Drug manufacturers for failure to comply with the Good Manufacturing Practices notified under Schedule T of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945. Testing for heavy metals, viz., Arsenic, Lead, Mercury and Cadmium in all purely herbal Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani drugs has been made mandatory for export purposes w.e.f. 1st January, 2006.

The Department has been taking serious initiatives for integrating AYUSH with the modern medicine. Mainstreaming of AYUSH is envisaged in the National

15

Rural Health Mission. The Department of AYUSH is implementing a Centrally Sponsored Scheme for promoting Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy.

The scheme covers a) Establishment of specialized therapy centre with hospitalization facility for Panchkarma/Kshar Sutra therapy of Ayurveda or Regimental therapy of Unani Medicine of Siddha or Yoga & Naturopathy or Homoeopathy; b) Establishment of speciality clinic of ISM&H i.e. system specific outdoor treatment centre; c) Setting up of ISM&H wing in District Allopathic hospitals outdoor as well as indoor facility of one or two systems of ISM&H; and
d) Supply of essential AYUSH drugs to rural & backward area AYUSH

dispensaries.

The Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy(AYUSH) is headed by a Secretary to the Government of India. The Secretary is assisted by a Joint Secretary and four Directors/Deputy Secretaries and a number of Advisers (at present three) and Dy. Advisors (at present six) of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani & Homoeopathy. The total sanctioned staff strength of the Department in Group A, B, C, & D is 268, which include Secretariat and Technical posts. Concerted efforts were made to fill up vacant posts. A post of Joint Secretary in the scale of Rs.18,400-22,400 in lieu of the post of Director in the scale of Rs.22,40024,500 + NPA has been created in the Department of AYUSH with the approval of Union Cabinet.

The Department has, over the years, developed a broad institutional framework to carry out the activities in the field of AYUSH. The institutional framework consists of two statutory regulatory bodies, namely, Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) and Central Council of Homoeopathy (CCH), for laying down minimum standards of education, recommending recognition of medical qualifications, registering the practitioners and ethical matters; apex research bodies known as the Central Councils of Research for Ayurveda and Siddha, Unani Medicine, Homoeopathy, Yoga and Naturopathy; apex educational institutes such as

16

National Institutes of Ayurveda, Homoeopathy, Naturopathy, Unani System of Medicine, Yoga and Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth; Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine & Homoeopathy Pharmacopoeial Laboratory; Pharmacopoeial Committees for the different systems of medicine and Ayurveda Hospital, Lodhi Road, New Delhi which has been transferred from Department of Health to Department of AYUSH for its management.

A Public Sector Undertaking, viz., Indian Medicines Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. (IMPCL), has been functioning for manufacturing of classical drugs of Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine. The modernization and expansion of its activities have been approved and infusion of equity has been permitted.A National Medicinal Plants Board is functioning under the Department to coordinate activities relating to conservation, cultivation, marketing, export and drawing policies and strategies for the development of medicinal plants sector. The Medicinal Plants Cell (MPC) working under the Department for implementing the Central Scheme for development and cultivation of Medicinal Plants and developing agro-techniques has now been transferred to the National Medicinal Plants Board.A Drug Control Cell (AYUSH) is working in the Department to deal with the matters pertaining to licensing and regulation of drugs and control of misbranded/adulterated and spurious manufacturing of Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha Drugs and other matters. The DC Cell also deals with developing Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) and matters relating to Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) as also coordination with Government of India Ministries/Departments concerned with IPR and patent claims.

Besides, Information, Education & Communication (IEC) Cell and a Facilitation Center have also been functioning in the Department.

The Department realizes the need to develop itself into a dynamic and flexible organization in a rapidly changing and complex environment. The Department also realizes the need for appropriate human resource policy to maintain the motivation and cooperation of its employees to increase their Adopt DOTS if test confirms T.B. efficiency. In order to streamline the working of the autonomous bodies, amendment in the composition and constitution of Governing Bodies and other Committees has been completed. The Scientific Advisory Committees (SACs) continue to ensure that 17

proper technical & scientific inputs are available for undertaking promising, contemporary areas of research keeping in view the strengths of these systems.

AYUSH SYSTEMS

1)

Ayurveda Ayurveda is perhaps as old as our civilization. This "science of Life" (Ayu

+Veda) takes an integrated view of the physical, mental, spiritual and social aspects of human beings, each impinging on the others. Ayurveda was referred to in the Vedas (Rigveda and Atharvaveda) and around 1000B.C. the knowledge of Ayurveda was comprehensively documented in Charak Samhita and Sushrutha Samhita. According to Ayurveda health is considered as a pre-requisite forachieving the goals of life Dharmas, Arth,Kama and Moksha (Salvation) and all objects and living bodies are composed of five basic elements, the Pancha Mahabhootas, namely: Prithvi (earth), Jal (water), Agni (fire), Vayu (air) and Akash (ether).

The philosophy of Ayurveda is based on the fundamental harmony between the universe and man, a healthy balance between macrocosm and the microcosm. Ayurveda believes in the theory of Tridosha: Vata (ether + air), Pitta (fire) and Kapha (earth + water). These three 'Doshas' are physiological entities in living beings. The mental characters of men are described by Satva, Rajas and Tamas. Ayurveda aims to keep these structural and functional entities in a state of equilibrium which signifies good health (Swastha). Any imbalance due to internal or external factors causes disease and the treatment consists of restoring the equilibrium through vari-ous techniques, procedures, regimen, diet and medicine.

The treatment in the Ayurveda system is holistic and individualized having two components; preventive and curative. The preventive aspect of Ayurveda is called Svasth-Vritt and includes personal hygiene, regular daily and seasonal regimen, appropriate social behaviour and Rasayana Sevana, i.e., use of rejuvenative materials/food and rasayana drugs.The curative treatment consists of three major categories of procedures, Aushadhi (drugs), Anna(diet) and Vihara (exercises and general mode of life). Ayurveda largely uses plants as raw materials for the manufacture of drugs, though materials of animal, marine origin, metals and minerals 18

are also used. Ayurvedic medicines are safe and have little or no known adverse sideeffects. Ayurveda developed into eight distinct specialities, i.e., Kayachikitsa (Internal Medicine), Kaumar Bhritya (Pediatrics), Graha Chikitsa (Psychiatry), Shalakya (Eye and ENT), Shalyatantra (Surgery), Visha Tantra (Toxicology), Rasayana (Geriatrics) and Vajkarna (Science of virility).

During the last 50 years of development in the teaching and training in Ayurveda, twenty two specialties have now been developed. These are Ayurveda Sidhanta (Fundamental Principles of Ayurveda), Ayurveda Samhita, Rachna Sharira (Anatomy), Kriya Sharira (Physiology), Dravya GunaVigyan (Materia Medica and Pharmacology), Ras-Shashtra (Pharmaceuticals using minerals and metals), Bhaishajya Kalpana (Pharmaceuticals), Kaumar Bhritya - Bala Roga (Pediatrics), Prasuti-Tantra evum Stri Roga (Obstetrics and Gynaecology),Swasth-Vritta (Social and Preventive Medicine),Kayachiktisa (Internal Medicine), Rog Nidan avum Vikriti Vigyan (Pathology), Shalya Tantra (Samanya) (Surgery), Salya Tantra-KsharKarma avum Anushastra Karma (KsharsKarma and Para-surgical procedure), Shalakya Tantra-Netra Roga, Shalakya Tantra - Shiro-Nasa-Karna Avum Kantha Roga (ENT), Shalakya Tantra Danta Avum Mukha Roga (Dentistry), Manovigyana avum Manas Roga (Psychiatry), Panchakarma, Agad Tantra avum Vidhi Vaidyaka (Toxicology and Jurispru-dence), Sangyaharana (Anaesthesiology) and Chhaya avum Vikiran Vigyan (Radiology).

Ayurveda provides a host of treatments for complex diseases, and the traditional and time-tested systems of Ayurveda for holistic healing are available around the country. During recent years, Kshar Sutra and Panchkarma have become popular among the public. Kshar Sutra is an Ayurvedic para-surgical intervention using a medicated thread, which is extremely effective in the treatment of if stula-in-ano and conditions which demandgradual excision of overgrown soft tissues like polyps, warts, non healing chronic ulcers and sinuses and papillae without the need of hospitaliza-tion, antibiotics or anesthesia. Panchakarma is a unique therapeutic procedure for the radical elimination of disease-causing-factors and to maintain the equilibrium of doshas. The Panchakarma therapy reduces the chances of recurrence of the disease and promotes positive health by rejuvenating the vital body systems.

19

2)

Unani: The Unani System of Medicine, which originated in Greece and passed

through

many

countries

before

establishing

itself

in

India

during the medieval period, is based on well-established knowledge and practices relating to the promotion of positive health and prevention

of diseases. The Unani System has grown out of the fusion of the traditional knowledge of ancient civilizations like Egypt, Arabia, Iran,China, Syria and India. The system of medicine was documented in Al-Qanoon, a medical Bible, by Sheikh Bu-Ali Sina (Avicena) (980-1037 AD), and in Al-Havi by Razi (850-923 AD) and in many other books written by the Unani physicians. The Unani system is based on the Humoral theory i.e, the presence of blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile in a person. The temperament of a person can accordingly be sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic depending on the presence and combination of humors. According to Unani theory, the humors and medicinal plants themselves are assigned temperaments. Any change in quantity and quality of the humors, brings about a change in the status of the health of the human body. A proper balance of humors is required for the maintenance of health. Treatment in Unani consists of three components, namely, preventive, promotive and curative.

Unani system of Medicine has been found to be efficacious in conditions like Rheumatic Arthritis, Jaundice, Filariasis,Eczema, Sinusitis and Bronchial Asthma. For the prevention of disease and promotion of health, the Unani System emphasizes six essentials (Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooria):- (a) pure air (b) food and water (c) physical, movement and rest (d) psychic movement and rest (e) sleep and wakefulness and (f) retention of useful materials and evacuation of waste

materials from the body.

There are four forms of treatment in Unani medicine-Pharmaco therapy, Dietotherapy, Regimental Therapy and Surgery. Regimental therapy (Ilaj BidTadbir) is a special technique/ physical method of treatment to improve the constitution of body by removing waste materials and improving the defense mechanism of the body and protect health. The Unani system of medicine offers various methods of treatment which are used for specific and complicated diseases. It emphasizes the use of naturally occurring, mostly herbal, medicines and also uses some medicines of 20

animal, marine and mineral origin. During the last 50 years,seven Post graduate specialities have been developed (i) Kulliyat(Fundamentals of Unani System of Medicine (ii) IlmulAdviya (Pharmacology) (iii) Amraz-e-Niswan (Gynaecology) (iv) Amraz-e-Atfal (Paediatrics) (v) Tahafuzzi-wa-Samaji-Tib (Social Medicine) (vi)Moalejat(Medicine) and (vii) Jarahiyat (Surgery). and Preventive

3)

Siddha: The Siddha System is one of the oldest systems of medicine in India and is

practised in the Tamil speaking parts of India and abroad. The term Siddha means 'achievements' and Siddhars were saintly persons who achieved 'results' in medicine. Eighteen Siddhars were said to have contributed towards the development of this medical system. Siddha literature is in Tamil and it is largely therapeutic in nature.

The Siddha system of Medicine emphasizes that medical treatment is oriented not merely to disease but has to take into account the patient, the environment, age, sex, race, habits, mental frame, habitat, diet, appetite, physical condition, physiological constitution, etc. This means the treatment has to be individualistic and ensures a low probability of incorrect diagnosis or treatment. The diagnosis of diseases in Siddha involves identifying its causes through the examination of pulse, urine, eyes, study of voice, colour of body, tongue and the status of the digestive system.

The system has developed a rich and unique treasure house of drug knowledge in which use of metals and minerals is liberally made. Siddha medicines containing mercury, silver, arsenic, lead and sulphur have been found to be effective in treating certain infectious diseases including venereal diseases. The Siddha system is effective in treating chronic cases of liver, skin diseases especially "Psoriasis", rheumatic problems, anemia, prostate enlargement, bleeding piles and peptic ulcer. During the last four decades, there has been continuous development in Siddha medical education and this has led to the establishment of the six specialities in post-graduate teaching and training. These are Maruthuvam (General Medicine), Sirappu Maruthuvam

(SpecialMedicine), Kuzhanthai Maruthuvam (Paediatrics), Gunapada(Pharmacology), Noi Nadal (Pathology) and Nanju Nool and Maruthuva Neethinool (Toxicology). 21

4)

Yoga: Yoga is primarily a way of life, first propounded by Patanjali in systematic

form. It consists of eight components namely, restraint, observance of austerity, physical postures, breathing exercise, restraining of sense organs, contemplation, meditation and samadhi. These steps in the practice of Yoga have the potential to improve social and personal behavior and to improve physical health by encouraging better circulation of oxygenated blood in the body, restraining the sense organs and thereby inducing tranquility and serenity of mind. The practice of Yoga has also been found to be useful in the prevention of certain psychosomatic disorders/diseases and improves individual resistance and ability to endure stressful situations. Yoga is a promotive, preventive and curative intervention. A number of postures are described in Yogic works to improve health, to prevent diseases and to cure illness. The physical postures are required to be chosen judiciously and have to be practised in the correct way so that the benefits of prevention of disease, promotion of health and therapeutic use can be derived from them.

Studies have revealed that Yogic practice improves intelligence and memory and help in developing resistance to situations of

strain and stress and also help individuals to develop an integrated personality. Meditation can stabilize emotional changes and prevent abnormal functions of the vital organs of the body. Studies have shown that meditation not

only restrains the sense organs but also controls the nervous system. Yoga today is no longer restricted to hermits, saints, sages and it has taken its place in everyday life and has aroused a world-wide awakening and acceptance.

5)

Naturopathy: Naturopathy is a drugless, non-invasive therapy involving the use of natural

materials in its treatment based on the theories of vitality, toxiemia, self healing capacity of the body and the principles of healthy living. Naturopathy is not only a system of treatment but also a way of life. It is a system of medicine widely practised, globally accepted and recognized by WHO. Naturopathy is a system of living in harmony with constructive principles of Nature on the physical, mental, moral and spiritual planes. It has great promotive, preventive, curative as well as restorative potential. Naturopathy is a scientific system of healing, stimulating the body's 22

inherent power to regain health with the help of five great elements of nature - Earth, Water, Air, Fire and Ether.

It is a call to "Return to Nature" and to resort to a simple way of living in harmony with the self, society and environment, advocating 'Better Health without Medicines'. It is very effective in chronic, allergic and stress related disorders. The theory and practice of Naturo-pathy are based on a holistic view-point. The advocates of Naturopathy pay particular attention to eating and living habits, adoption of purificatory measures, use of hydro-therapy, cold packs, mud packs, baths, massages, fasting,etc.

6)

Homoeopathy: The Physicians from the time of Hippocrates (around 400 B.C.) have observed

that certain substances could produce symptoms of a disease in healthy people similar to those of people suffering from the disease. Dr. Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann, a German physician, scientifically examined this phenomenon and codified the fundamental principles of Homoeopathy. Homoeopathy was brought to India around 1810 A.D. by European missionaries and received official recognition by a resolution passed by the Constituent Assembly in 1948 and then by the Parliament.

The first principle of Homoeopathy 'Similia Similibus Curentur', says that a medicine which could induce a set of symptoms in healthy human beings would be capable of curing a similar set of symptoms in human beings actually suffering from the disease. The second principle of 'Single Medicine' says that one medicine should be administered at a time to a particular patient during the treatment. The third principle of 'Minimum Dose' states that the bare minimum dose of a drug which would induce a curative action without any adverse effect should be administered. Homoeopathy is based on the assumption that the causation of a disease mainly depends upon the susceptibility or proneness of an individual to the incidence of the particular disease in addition to the action of external agents like bacteria, viruses, etc.

Homoeopathy is a method of treatingdiseases by administering drugs which have been experimentally proved to possess the power to produce similar symptoms 23

on

healthy

human

beings.

Treatment

in

Homoeopathy,

which is holistic in nature, focuses on an individual's response to a specific environment. Homoeopathic medicines are prepared mainly from natural substances such as plant products, minerals and animal sources. Homoeopathic medicines do not have any toxic, poisonous or side effects. Homoeopathic treatment is economical as well and has a very broad public acceptance.

Homoeopathy has its own areas of strength in therapeutics and it is particularly useful in treatment for allergies, autoimmune disorders and viral infections. Many surgical, gynaecological and obstetrical and paediatric conditions and ailments affecting the eyes, nose, ear, teeth, skin, sexual organs, etc. are amenable to homoeopathic treatment. Behavioral disorders, neurological problems and metabolic diseases can also be successfully treated by Homoeopathy. Homoeopathy can also be useful for de-addiction from drugs, tobacco and alcohol. Apart from the curative aspects, Homoeopathic medicines are also used in preventive and promotive health care. In recent times, there is an emergence of interest in the use of Homoeopathic medicines in veterinary care, agriculture, dentistry, etc. Homoeopathic medical education has developed in seven specialties in post-graduate teaching, which are Material Medical, Organon of Medicine, Repertory, Practice of Medicine, Paediatrics, Pharmacy and Psychiatry.

24

3.2

ABOUT THE INDUSTRY


Seven thousands company in India produce Ayurvdic medicines, but most of

THE AYURVEDIC MEDICINE INDUSTRY IN INDIA

them are quite small, including numerous neighbourhood pharmacies that compound ingredients to make their own remedies. It is estimated that the total value of products from the entire Ayurvedic production in India is on the order of one billion dollars (U.S).Less than a dozen major companies have dominated the industry for decades, joined recently by a few others that have followed their lead, so that there are today 30 companies doing a million dollar or more per year in business to meet the growing demand of Ayurvedic medicine. the products of these companies are included within the broad category of fast moving consumer goods (FMCG; which mainly involves foods,bevereges,toiletries,cigarettes,etc.).Most of the larger ayurvedic medicine suppliers provide materials other than Ayurvedic internal medicines, particularly in the areas of food and toiletries (soap,toothpaste,shampoo,etc.),where there may be some overlap with Ayurveda, such as having traditional herbal ingredients in the composition of toiletries.

NATURE OF THE AYURVEDIC INDUSTRY Ayurvedic drug manufacturing companies, whether in the organized or unorganized sector, are mostly family owned business. The origin of these companies can be traced back to a vaidya who used to prepare some formulations for dispensing. The gradua acceptance of the medicines over time led to the growth of such units. Third generation owner-managers are now running many such companies. The ownership pattern has helped in transfer of knowledge from one generation to another, thereby enriching the knowledge base of families. This is particularly so in the matter of standardization of raw material as well as medicines. There are around six thousand licensed ad perhaps a similar number of unlicensed manufacturing units.

COMPOSITION OF THE INDIAN AYURVEDA INDUSTRY Ayurveda system is predominant amongst Indias health care systems and has a 70% share formal medicine it is estimated that the total annual turnover of the industry is around Rs.40.4 billion, although the figures are uncertain due to the large

25

number of micro units market. Ayurvedic manufacturing units can be broadly classified into two groups: Organized Sector: Comprising well-established manufacturers who operate in both domestic and international markets. These could be large or small units. Often a small manufacturer can be considerably strong in a niche market. Unorganized sector: Comprising mainly practicing ayurvedic doctors (vaidya) and micro-units manufacturing only a few products and operating at local levels. Why 6000 units in India:-

Comparatively low infrastructure costs. Acess to raw material. Simple manufacturing process. Lack of standardization of quality and efficiency of medicines.

Organized Player in the Industry Himalya Drug Company Dabur Baidyanath Morepen labs Hindustan lever Ltd. Zandu

ABOUT DEMAND OF INDIAN HERBAL PRODUCTS Russia, U.S.A., Germany, U.K., France, Switzerland and Japan are major importers of Indian ayurvedic products. The major exports from India are in crude forms: herbal medicine that is in the form of roots, leaves, herbs powder can be sold in processed form only if the formulation is registered in the county of import. This is a lengthy and costly process, hence most of the ayurvedic drugs are either sold as para medicine or food supplement. During the last decade, exports reached a value of Rs.4.46 billion recent report by the planning Commission estimates massive potential increases in the export volume, to Rs.30 billion by 2005.

26

The global demand scenario provides a very considerable potential market for ayurvedic products.however, despite estimate of rapidly increasing demand. Indias share of the world herbal market is quite insignificant-the value of herbal exports from China and Thailand, for example. are much higher (e.g. Chinas exports are around Rs.220 billion compared to Rs.4.46 billion for India).

DISTRIBUTION Kind of a channel also depends upon the kind of the market size ad its potential. The distribution channel of these companies is through there in the developed companies as the market is very competitive due to the presence of the allopathic drugs. Companies like Himalaya health care have there own stores in Germany. Dabur distributes through their own distributors.sma layers like Shraddha exports are more through E-mail and visits by the company export employee.

STATUS OF AYURVEDA IN INDIA The Indian government and Non-Goverment organizations have been collecting statistics on the ayurvedic system in India and these data about the manpower and institutional aspects of Ayurveda have been emerged: Number of registered medical practitioners:366,812 Number of dispensaries: 22,100 Number of hospitals :2,189 Number of hospital beds: 33,145 Number of teaching institutions (undergraduate):187 Number of upgraded postgraduate departments:51 Number of specialities in postgraduate medical training:16 Number of pharmacies manufacturing ayurvedic medicines:8,400

In India, 60% of registered physicians are involved in non-allopathic systems of medicine. In addition to the nearly 4, 00,000 Ayurvedic practitioners, there are over 1, 70,000 homeopathic physicians; India has about 5,00,000 medical doctors (similar to the number in the U.S., but serving nearly 4 times as many people). Reliance on Ayurvedic medicine is heavy in certain regions of India, such as Kerala in the Southwest. Many Ayurvedic practitioners in small villages are not registered.

27

3.3

THEORITICAL OBJECTIVES AND EXPLANATION

BEST DIAMONDS IN INDIA A diamond is forever. Indian society has unanimously agreed with this statement generations ago. The shine of diamond sales are soaring high in the recent days. Explore the best dazzling diamonds that captivates the hearts of millions of Indians.

Nakshatra Diamonds The world renowned Nakshatra diamonds were launched in 2000, with an equally dazzling, Aishwarya Rai, as its brand ambassador. In the present scenario Nakshatra diamonds occupy a leading position in the fashion diamond jewelry segment. The traditional diamond is the most wanted design among Nakshatra diamonds. Nakshatra diamonds claim to shine your glamor and love life. They have aptly put their slogan as "brightest circles of light." Elegant and graceful Nakshatra diamonds are the epitome of passion, attitude and independence.

Adora Diamonds Adora Diamonds were launched in India in July 2003 by Mumbai based Concept Jewelry (India) Ltd. On the present day the still expanding retail network centers of Adora expands to 117 outlets in 47 cities of India. Adora means glory in Spanish and claims that its diamond collection is themed on love. Adora diamonds are for adornment of every moment, occasion, and phase of life through its up and downs. The Swaranjali signature collection of living legend Lata Mangeshkar is a unique feature of Adora diamonds. Each piece of Swaranjali collection is conceptualized and approved by Lata Mangeshkar and bears her laser printed signature.

Tanishq Diamonds

28

Tanishq diamonds are India's largest, most desirable and fastest growing Jewellery brand in India. Tanishq, launched in 1995, is the Jewellery business group of Titan Industries Ltd. On the present day Tanishq has 84 outlets in 61 cities of India. Tanishq diamonds embark the aspiration of emerging Indian women who uses tradition rather than being used by it. Tanishq diamonds bring together the work of Karigars, who specialize in different ways of making the Jewellery. Tanishq diamonds comprises fashion and style in tradition bound category through its innovation driven 'collections' strategy.

Kiah Diamonds World's largest volume manufacturer of diamonds-Sheetal manufacturing Company (SMC) launched its exquisite Kiah diamond collection in October, 2004. Kiah diamonds are claims to be for celebrating womanhood. The brand name 'Kiah' means beautiful place. On the latest Kiah diamonds have won the Best Showroom in the DTC Diamond Season for 2005-2006.

Nirvana Diamonds Nirvana Diamonds from Fine Jewellery (I) Ltd. was launched in 1987 in India. Nirvana diamonds are targeting at fashion conscious, modern and independent thinking women. Internationally acclaimed Nirvana diamonds are manufactured by using state-of-the-art technology. As a proof of their quality Nirvana was among one of the brands to offer lifetime warranty to its consumers.

D'damas Diamonds D'damas Diamonds are part of Gitanjali Digico Group and one of the earliest diamond houses established in India in 1966. On the present day D'damas Diamonds offer highly modernized diamond cutting and polishing facilities at five locations in India. D'damas Diamonds claim to promote a range of emotions through their collections.

29

The sparkling diamonds have always fascinated women from time immemorial. Diamonds are the best way to express to your someone special that she is very precious to you. Check out the best design that you can find out from these unique brands and make a special place for itself.

The utilization of herbal drugs is on the flow and the market is growing step by step. The annual turnover of the Indian herbal medicinal industry is about Rs.2300 crores as against the pharmaceutical industrys turnover of Rs. 14500 crores with a growth rate of 15 percent. The export of medicinal plants and herbs from India has been quite substantial in the last few years. India is the second largest producer of castor seeds in the world, producing about 1,25,000 tonnes per annum. The major pharmaceuticals exported from India in the recent years are: Isabgol, Opium Alkaloids, Senna derivatives, Vinca extract, Cinchona alkaloids, Ipecac root alkaloids, Solasodine, Diosgenine/16DPA, Menthol, Gudmar herb, Mehdi

EXPORT CHANNELS

30

In India, enterprises provided typical export flows for their exported medicinal natural products. For example, one Indian enterprise operating in a Special Export Zone (SEZ) provided an example of their U.S. trade channels. They export to a single exclusive master distributor who in turn re-distributes into four different channels: Manufacturing Facility in SEZ - Exclusive / Master Distributor in the USA.

Wholesale Distribution Companies servicing retail stores Retail Stores Wholesale Distribution Companies servicing practitioners Practitioners (Doctors of Chiropractic, Naturopathy, and Osteopathy, among others)

Mail Order Companies servicing consumers Own Company Outlets (health stores, nutritional consultants (Vaidyas) and spas);

Some of the enterprises stated that they do not export directly at this time but their authorized dealers are exporting their products to countries including Malaysia, UAE, and USA. This product manufacturer desires to eventually export and market its products directly to selected foreign markets. They are also aware that there may be some risks involved with the present situation of products being exported only via secondary distributors.

In the current scenario the manufacturer is selling to about 2,000 franchised retail pharmacies in India. Some of these franchises are exporting products directly to clinics and doctors in foreign markets including the UK. The manufacturer may not even know how many Indian retail pharmacies are exporting its products and under what conditions. It is also possible that some pharmacies may have notified or registered the manufacturers products in certain foreign countries without the manufacturers knowledge. In any case, neither the Indian retail pharmacy exporter nor the foreign clinic or physician importer will have the capacity or resources for proper legal notification and registration of these medicinal products. Therefore, the product manufacturer is considering how to take control over its current export business which is presently occurring outside of their control.

31

INDIAN EXPORT PROMOTION STRUCTURE

Presentations made at the Hi-MAPs Conference 2008, organized by ASSOCHAM and NMPB, clarified the India export promotion structure for natural medicinal products under three separate export promotion organizations as shown in Table below:

INDIAN EXPORT STRATEGY FOR NATURAL MEDICINAL PRODUCTS The Report of the Sub Group on Research & Industry of the Steering Committee on AYUSH for the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2007-2012)42 have proposed two export-oriented schemes: Schemes for Development of New Formulations, Technologies, Tools and Practices with Validation of Existing Products and Procedures, and Scheme to Identify, Promote and Develop Star product (s) for the International market and Brand Promotion for the ASU sector domestically and internationally.

The central objectives of the Schemes for Development of New Formulations, etc, would be to 1) Provide funding for AYUSH Industry / entrepreneurs who are desirous of launching new products and aiding their technical development and validation as per GLP, GCP, GMP and other norms for a world class product dossier; 2) Provide funding for research & development of new products that fall within the classification of nutritional and dietary supplements; and 3) Promote development of technologies, tools, practices and implements to aid the growth of AYUSH/THS practices. 32

The measurable outputs for this Scheme in the 11th plan would be the 1) Development of globally acceptable standardized AYUSH formulations catering to immense global demand for natural products through PPP model; 2) Acceptance of AYUSH products for foreign drug control and food regulatory authorities for marketing and distribution; 3) Rise in exports of products put up for retail sales from the AYUSH sector to Rs 3000 Crore by 2012 from Rs 120 Crore in 2005; and 4) Diagnostic tools and implements for a minimum standard of AYUSH practices in the country. The total outlay for this Scheme for the 11th plan (5 years) is estimated at 50 Crore. The central objectives of the Scheme to Identify, Promote and Develop Star product are as follows: 1) To identify star product(s) from India to the world on the lines of ginseng and develop it for the international market; 2) Establishment of a Export Certification mechanism for accrediting individual Product Dossiers for ease in Registration in foreign countries and guarantee of pre-shipment Quality Assurance; 3) Establishment of a National Fund for creating brand equity in AYUSH mark and TQS for domestic and foreign markets 4) To promote bilateral discussions between Health Ministries of foreign countries and India, for automatic acceptance of AYUSH registered products and AYUSH practitioners

The measurable outputs for this scheme for the 11th plan would be:

1) Emergence of AYUSH products having international standing; 2) Prevention of adverse reports regarding Quality of Ayurvedic formulations in foreign markets;

33

3) Establishment of a bilateral dialogue between India and health authorities for acceptance of AYUSH products; 4) Promotion of AYUSH brand through awareness campaigns undertaken in major markets for natural products; 5) Facilitation for AYUSH Industry to participate in global trade fairs, expositions and gain insight on global benchmark; 6) Establishment of a network of laboratories as essential technological infrastructures to aid and assist TQS and scientific work in our country; 7) Increase of exports of value added from the sector to Rs 10,000 Crore from the current Rs 1200 Crore; 8) Establishment of an ASU Brand promotion agency and programme in interest of AYUSH sector in India and internationally.

QUALITY CONTROL AND CERTIFICATION Quality assurance and certification mechanism to further the cause of export of botanicals needs to be developed and put in place; Lack of quality control, standardization and non-availability of accredited certification mechanism form one of the major reasons for Indias meager share in global trade of botanicals. Even for the national trade, the same very factors keep many a potential clients away from the classical formulations. The need for putting in place a quality assurance regime and a certification mechanism need no emphasis. It assumes greater significance in view of the WTO guidelines. Quality assurance and certification mechanisms will be studied and an appropriate system put in place.

Enabling Legal and Administrative Measures: That enabling legal and administrative provisions for cultivation and export of medicinal plants needs to be put in place; The medicinal plant sector at present is governed under a multiplicity of rules and guidelines. No wonder that these legal and administrative provisions have failed to regulate the collection, cultivation and marketing medicinal plants. Issues like price harmonization between cultivated and collected medicinal plants and putting in place a cultivation friendly regulatory regime in place for medicinal plants on the restricted list of

34

exports are some of the major areas requiring attention. There is thus a felt need to study all these provisions and evolve national guidelines to promote this sector. Nation-wise policy studies will be initiated and representatives of various stakeholder groups involved in formulating policy guidelines for development of this sector. Special Medicinal Plant Processing Zones: The herbal sector has remained neglected over a long period and needs a kick start to give it developmental push. It is proposed to set up agro-climatic region-wise medicinal plant processing zones (MPPZs) to promote organized collection from wild and cultivation of priority species. These MPPZs will also be provided with facilities for post harvest management, storage, semi-processing, quality checks, packaging and trade. It is intended to gradually reduce the exploitation of the gatherer and the farmer engaged in medicinal plant collection and cultivation and to ensure better returns to him. The MPPZs will, in future, become centres for production and procurement of quality botanicals.

35

BARRIERS TO HERBAL EXPORT Indian exports to the western countries are being increasingly threatened with various non tariff barriers raised by the regulatory bodies of these nations. Pharmaceutical exports from India to the US, Europe, Africa and Latin America are already in trouble on account of the entry barriers imposed by the European and US governments during last two years.

Now, India's ayurvedic exports to Europe are going to get hit quite badly from 2011 if the European Union is successful in enforcing the Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive (THMPD). The directive is expected to take effect from April 2011 and can seriously bring down the Indian herbal exports to these countries. The directive does not seem to be entirely a non tariff barrier as there has been certain serious quality issues relating to Indian herbal exports in the past. THMPD is stated to have framed to provide a regulatory approval process for herbal medicines entering the EU countries.

Since October 2005, herbal medicines in most EU countries are being controlled under the EU regulation, 2004/24/EC. This new rule stipulates that a company intending to export its herbal medicines to EU needs to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the same through traditional use. It demands that for a product to apply for traditional use registration, it should provide sufficient data to prove that it has been in use for a minimum period of 30 years and 15 years in use within the EU. A transition period of seven years is, however, given to companies to take necessary corrective measures to comply with the new EU norms as many of their products may not pass the new registration procedure.

The demand for herbal products and ayurveda system of treatment have been on the rise in Europe and North America mainly because of the growing Indian population. A large number of ayurvedic preparations are being thus exported to these countries over the years. These exports were never subjected to strict regulatory scrutiny for several years in these developed countries as they were regarded as food supplements and 36

nutraceuticals. But after detection of certain substandard herbal and ayurvedic products with heavy metal contents in recent years, the regulatory authorities in these countries have become cautious. THMPD was framed after such quality problems were noticed.

India lacked quality guidelines for herbal products for long and there are thousands of small and tiny units manufacturing these products but observe no standards in procuring raw materials and in manufacturing. This approach needs to be changed and manufacturers of these products have to adopt modern scientific practices if they have to remain in the market and sell their products abroad and in India. National Medicinal Plants Board under the Department of Ayush, in collaboration with the WHO's Country office for India, has issued a comprehensive guideline on Good Field Collection Practices for India. The Department has also started an 'Ayush' certification as a mark of quality standard approved by the Quality Council of India. These are positive initiatives by the Central government and the units of all sizes have to fall in line sooner than later if they have to survive in the competitive environment.

37

3.4 SUMMARY
Ayurvedic medicines are produced by several thousand companies in India, but most of them are quite small, including numerous neighborhood pharmacies that compound ingredients to make their own remedies. It is estimated that the total value of products from the entire Ayurvedic production in India is on the order of one billion dollars (U.S.). The industry has been dominated by less than a dozen major companies for decades, joined recently by a few others that have followed their lead, so that there are today 30 companies doing a million dollars or more per year in business to meet the growing demand for Ayurvedic medicine. The products of these companies are included within the broad category of "fast moving consumer goods" (FMCG; which mainly involves foods, beverages, toiletries, cigarettes, etc.). Most of the larger Ayurvedic medicine suppliers provide materials other than Ayurvedic internal medicines, particularly in the areas of foods and toiletries (soap, toothpaste, shampoo, etc.), where there may be some overlap with Ayurveda, such as having traditional herbal ingredients in the composition of toiletries. The key suppliers in Ayurveda are Dabur, Baidyanath, and Zandu, which together have about 85% of India's domestic market. These and a handful of other companies are mentioned repeatedly by various writers about the Ayurvedic business in India; a brief description is provided for them, arranged here from oldest to newest: Dabur India Ltd. is India's largest Ayurvedic medicine supplier and the fourth largest producer of FMCG. It was established in 1884, and had grown to a business level in 2003 of about 650 million dollars per year, though only a fraction of that is involved with Ayurvedic medicine. Last year, about 15% of sales volume was pharmaceuticals, the remaining 85% were mostly non-medicine items such as foods and cosmetics. Dabur's Ayurvedic Specialities Division has over 260 medicines for treating a range of ailments and body conditions-from common cold to chronic paralysis. These materials constitute only 7% of Dabur's total revenue (thus, less than 50 million dollars). Dabur Chyawanprash (herbal honey) has a market share of 70% and chewable Hajmola Digestive Tablets has an 88% share. Other major products are Dabur Amla Hair Oil, Vatika (Shampoo), and Lal Dant Manjan (Tooth Powder).

38

Sri

Baidyanath

Ayurvedic

Bhawan

Ltd. (Baidyanath for short) was founded in 1917 in Calcutta, and specializes in Ayurvedic medicines, though it has recently expanded into the FMCG sector with cosmetic and hair care products; one of its international products is Shikakai (soap pod) Shampoo. Baidyanath has a sales volume of about 350 million dollars, but most of the product sales are in the cosmetic range. The company reports having over 700 Ayurvedic products, made at 10

manufacturing centers, with 1,600 employees. Included items are herbal teas, patent medicines, massage oils, and chyawanprash. Zandu Pharmaceutical Works was incorporated in Bombay in 1919, named after an 18th-century Ayurvedic. The company focuses primarily on Ayurvedic products (in 1930, pharmaceuticals were added, but the pharmaceutical division was

separated off about 30 years later). However, today Zandu has a chemicals division and cosmetics division. Its total sales volume is about 45 million dollars. One of its current projects is to develop a dopamine drug from a plant extract, applying for new drug status in the U.S. The Himalaya Drug Company was established in 1934 in Bangalore. It currently has a business level of about 500 million dollars and has a U.S. distribution division (Himalaya USA). It is known in the U.S. for the product Liv-52, marketed as a liver protector and therapy for liver diseases like viral hepatitis; the product was first marketed in India in 1955. Charak Pharmaceuticals was founded in 1947, and currently has three distribution centers in India; it produces liquids, tablets, and veterinary supplies. It has gained a large advantage with its new product

39

Evanova, a preparation containing 33 herbs and minerals and non-hormonal active ingredients used as a menopause treatment alternative to HRT. Soya is one of the main ingredients in this product. The product also contains Ayurvedic herbs that act like selective estrogen receptor modulators as well as asparagus root (shatavari), which reduces the frequency and intensity of hot flashes. Vicco Laboratories was established in 1958. It mainly produces topical therapies based on

Ayurveda and is best known internationally for its toothpaste product, Vajradanti, which has been marketed in the U.S. for more than 25 years. The Emami Group, founded in 1974, provides a diverse range of products, doing 110 million dollars of business annually, though only a portion is involved with Ayurvedic products, through its Himani line; the company is mainly involved with toiletries and cosmetics, but also provides

Chyawanprash and other health products. Aimil Pharmaceuticals Ltd., incorporated in 1984 and engaged in manufacturing and sale of both generic and proprietary Ayurvedic medicines, with a business level of about 20 million dollars annually. Its wide range of Ayurvedic herbal formulations, covering most therapeutic segments, was honored by the Indian government's National Award for Quality Herbal Preparations and National Award for R & D in the year 2002. It is known for its proprietary formulas for hepatitis, diabetes, menstrual disorders, digestive disorders, and urinary diseases.

40

4. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 4.1 INTRODUCTION


This chapter comprises the analysis, presentation and interpretation of the findings resulting from this study. The analysis and interpretation of data is carried out in two phases. The first part, which is based on the results of the questionnaire, deals with a quantitative analysis of data. The second, which is based on the results of the interview and focus group discussions, is a qualitative interpretation. This process usually includes the following steps: Organizing the data for analysis (data preparation) Describing the data Interpreting the data (assessing the findings against the adopted evaluation criteria)

Where quantitative data have been collected, statistical analysis can: help measure the degree of change that has taken place allow an assessment to be made about the consistency of data

Where qualitative data have been collected, interpretation is more difficult. Here, it is important to group similar responses into categories and identify common patterns that can help derive meaning from what may seem unrelated and diffuse responses. This is particularly important when trying to assess the outcomes of focus groups and interviews.

It may be helpful to use several of the following 5 evaluation criteria as the basis for organizing and analyzing data: Relevance: Does the intervention address an existing need? (Were the outcomes achieved aligned to current priorities in prevention? Is the outcome the best one for the target groupe.g., did the program take place in the area or the kind of setting where exposure is the greatest?) Effectiveness: Did the intervention achieve what it was set out to achieve? Efficiency: Did the intervention achieve maximum results with given resources?

41

Results/Impact: Have there been any changes in the target group as a result of the intervention? Sustainability: Will the outcomes continue after the intervention has ceased?

Particularly in outcomes-based and impact-based evaluations, the focus on impact and sustainability can be further refined by aligning data around the interventions Extent: How many of the key stakeholders identified were eventually covered, and to what degree have they absorbed the outcome of the program? Were the optimal groups/people involved in the program?

Duration: Was the projects timing appropriate? Did it last long enough? Was the repetition of the projects components (if done) useful? Were the outcomes sustainable?

42

4.2 ANALYSIS Table 1


TREND ANALYSIS EXPORT OF CUT & POLISHED DIAMONDS FOR THE CURRENT YEAR (Value in Rs. Crores.)

Country

Export in 2013 Rs. In US $ in 9,25,52,96,650 6,40,66,72,153

HONGKONG (HKG) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (USA) UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE) BELGIUM - EC (BEL) ISRAEL (ISR) THAILAND (THA) NETHERLAND - EC (NET) JAPAN (JAP) Total Others Overall Total

5,42,09,73,70,129 3,74,10,35,63,839

2,77,52,32,02,126

4,74,31,07,235

88,86,22,77,828 74,46,11,89,709 38,62,02,58,087 19,36,11,40,443 17,76,74,37,252 1,43,27,96,43,94,1E,+12 66,23,73,81,822 1,49,90,33,82,12,4E,+12

1,52,24,63,137 1,27,10,65,220 66,40,71,195 33,40,61,083 30,25,41,729 24,49,92,78,402 66,23,73,81,890 90,73,66,60,292

43

Exhibit 1 EXPORT OF CUT & POLISHED DIAMONDS FOR THE CURRENT YEAR

44

Table 2
Export of ayurvedic Products for 5 years

YEAR 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013

Value in USD 124.56 136.78 147.84 156.96 182.18

45

Exhibit 2 Country wise Export of Rough Diamonds for 2013

Export in 2013 Country

Rs. In
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE) BELGIUM - EC (BEL) HONGKONG (HKG) NETHERLAND - EC (NET) ISRAEL (ISR) CANADA (CAN) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (USA) TANZANIA (TAN) SOUTH AFRICA (SOA) SINGAPORE (SIN) Total Others Overall Total

US $ in 77,98,84,911 54,17,38,451 20,61,52,536 6,06,41,207 5,09,35,361 2,51,49,910 1,65,60,461 52,85,149 38,02,764 26,35,721 1,69,27,86,471 36,66,67,821 2,05,94,54,292

45,19,02,85,101 31,41,68,45,131 11,91,25,95,164 3,39,90,12,095 3,02,70,58,694 1,54,04,64,600 99,42,81,175 31,89,46,434 23,01,83,000 15,17,52,800 98,18,14,24,194 36,66,64,257 98,54,80,88,451

46

Table 3
Country Wise Export of Ayurvedic Products (values in USD million) APR-MAR 2012-13 COUNTRY USA Japan UAE Germany Russia Australia (Quantity) 28.35 16.68 1.77 15.56 14.67 9.91

47

Exhibit 3 Country Wise Export of Ayurvedic Products (values in USD million)

Country Wise Export of Ayurvedic Products (values in USD million)


30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Export Value in USD

48

Table 4
Economic region wise Export Analysis for AYUSH Products [Rs Lacs]

Economic region Developed region Developing Country Least Countries Grand Total

Mar.2011 Mar.2012 10906.73 9718.99 11232.81 10899.12 4167.82

Mar.2013 16331.28 12581.43 3691.12

Percentage CAGR 50.09 38.59 11.324 22.37 13.78 10.72

Developed 3011.04

23636.76

26299.75

32603.83

100

17.45

49

Exhibit 4 Economic region wise Export Analysis for AYUSH Products [Rs Lacs]
18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Developed region Developing Country Least Developed Countries Mar.2011 Mar.2012 Mar.2013

50

Table 5
Japan Export of Ayurvedic Products from 2008-2009 to 2012 -2013

Year 2008 -2009 2009 -2010 2010 -2011 2011 -2012 2012 -2013

Value (Dollar $) 315.06 320.08 365.60 359.56 383.07

51

Exhibit 5 Japan Export of Ayurvedic Products from 2008-2009 to 2012 -2013

Export to Japan From India

1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

52

Table 7
China Export of Ayurvedic Products from 2008-2009 to 2012 -2013 S.No. Year 2008 2009 0.11 20092010 0.06 -45.24 51.07 25.00 -51.05 0.22 0.25 20102011 0.12 88.84 38.02 52.10 0.31 20112012 0.03 -70.95 33.03 -13.12 0.10 13,534.8 8 -25.12 -100.00 22.98 -30.44 20122013

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Values in US$ Million %Growth Total export of commodity %Growth %Share of country Total export to country %Growth %Share of commodity

9,353 11,617.88 15,482.70 18,076.55 .50 24.21 33.27 16.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

53

Exhibit 7 China Export of Ayurvedic Products from 2008-2009 to 2012 -2013

20,000.00 18,000.00 16,000.00 14,000.00 12,000.00 10,000.00 8,000.00 6,000.00 4,000.00 2,000.00 0.00 Total export to country 0.11 0.06 0.12 0.03 0.04

54

4.4 SUMMARY
The study will help all the individuals who are associated with the agriculture industry Sector in India. This research project aims to help to get them the total information of the coming trend and present situation of AYUSH products exports

1 For Exporters The study will help them to find out the potential of AYUSH products. The research study helps in analyzing the current scenario of AYUSH products all over the world.

2 For Researchers The study being based on secondary data available through Internet, Newspapers, Journals, Magazines, Government Websites etc. highlights the areas where researchers can carry out further studies to understand Indian Herbal Industry.

3 For Government The study has generated useful suggestions for the government. If the

government implements the suggestions generated on the basis of study. It will help to promote Indian Herbal Industry.

55

5. FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS 5.1 FINDINGS


The results which are being obtained by analyzing the data with the help of trend analysis which has shown that there is a lot of potential in exporting of AYUSH products to the different countries.

The major markets for AYUSH are Africa which represents 6% of AYUSH exports, CIS (mainly Russia and Ukraine), SAARC, Middle East and ASEAN.

Products that are primarily exported includes following Dietary Supplements single herb tablets, massage oils, poly herbal simple OTC formulations Ayurvedic branded medicines Rx and OTCx formulations Ayurvedic classical products only SAARC Ayurvedic personal care products toothpaste, hair oil, creams, etc...

The salient feature of Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani medicines is that the raw materials are used by in large in wholesome form providing synergy of the phyto constituents to form the basis of therapeutic effect.

It is generally estimated that over 6000 plants in India are in use in traditional, folk and herbal medicine, representing about 75% of the medicinal needs of the third World countries. Three of the ten most widely selling herbal medicines in the developed countries, namely preparations of Allum Sativum, Aloe barbedensis and Panax sp. Are available in India.

Renewed global resurgence of interest in the plant remedies has over the years given a tremendous fillip to the growth of traditional medicine sector in the country, where classical medicines described in the recognized texts of Ayurveda, Sidha and unani systems as well as the proprietary & patent formulations are regulated under the provisions of Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.

56

National Medicinal Plants Board under the Department of Ayush, in collaboration with the WHO's Country office for India, has issued a comprehensive guideline on Good Field Collection Practices for India. The Department has also started an 'Ayush' certification as a mark of quality standard approved by the Quality Council of India. These are positive initiatives by the Central government and the units of all sizes have to fall in line sooner than later if they have to survive in the competitive environment.

India is a developing country and a member of World Trade Organization, therefore maintains benchmark in this category that are exported to different countries. Hence, the Result and Trend has shown ultimate growth in this sector.

57

5.2 SUGGESTIONS

Based on the study of the exports of the AYUSH products to different countries I recommend the following: Scientific standardization for products needs to be done. We need to popularize crude herbs and extracts into value added formulations. India lacked quality guidelines for herbal products for long and there are thousands of small and tiny units manufacturing these products but observe no standards in procuring raw materials and in manufacturing. This approach needs to be changed and manufacturers of these products have to adopt modern scientific practices if they have to remain in the market and sell their products abroad and in India.

Assistance should be provided to AYUSH manufacturing units to establish inhouse quality control laboratories for testing of raw materials and finished products to ensure quality control of AYUSH products.

Proper assistance should be provided to AYUSH units to upgrade their infrastructure to acquire certification for export purposes.

It is also recommended that future steps be designed and differentiated at levels appropriate to size of enterprise, micro-, small-, medium-, or large. A program to assist micro- and small- sized companies grow sustainably within their local or regional markets may be the most appropriate program approach.

To safeguard patent rights of AYUSH products.

58

CONCLUSION
After analyzing the past 13 years data using trend analysis and predicting future data, a growth can be seen in the exports of AYUSH products from India. If exporters follow, the norms and standards placed by World Trade Organization, then for sure there will be a high growth and India will be able to export more AYUSH products to the these countries. If there will be total government support through good reforms and policies then there will be good amount of growth in the exports of AYUSH products and this sector will become one of the decent foreign exchange earners in the upcoming years. Product wise analysis shows that: Homoeopathic products allowed in almost all countries ; traditionally from Germany. Unani products common heritage to GCC countries. Ayurveda Ethnic rights to use their system of medicine. Siddha ASEAN potential has immense value.

Large industry units like Dabur, Himalya, Charak and Zandu are hardly fourteen in number each with average annual turnover more than Rs. 50 crores. These entrepreneurs contribute major part of the export of herbal health care products. There are many medium and small units having a good range of R & D based quality health products, but there presence in global market is not seen owing to numerous reasons, the prominent being stringent regulations and high registration fee for market authorization. Such entrepreneurs having potential to enter foreign markets need hand holding and support. Expert assessments in each target country of the potential opportunities for selected star Indian natural products that could stand on their own as condition-specific products in competition with allopathic drugs and/or other natural medicinal products that share the same indications for use. The star product selection may likely vary from country to country due to cultural differences and varying health concerns among the targets groups of consumers, as well as regulatory differences concerning the allowable indications for use for this class of products. So, understanding of global market and emerging trends is the basic prerequisite to stay and grow in international markets

59

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books: Marketing management by Philip Kotler Innovation and Entrepreneurship by peter Drucker Project appraisal for SSI, HPH 1990 Planning of small scale industry a guide to Entrepreneurship by Rajiv Jain Project appraisal techniques Oxford Publishers Mumbai Mercantile law by Avtar singh Business law by N. D. Kapur

Websites:
www.indianmedicine.nic.in . www.pharmexcil.com . www.commerce.nic.in . www.indianembassy.org www.ayurvednews.com www.eximbankindia.com www.ayurveda-herbal.com www.pharmabiz.com

60