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AND ITALY

CITIES ROMAN

IN

DALMATIA

ROMAN
IN

CITIES

ITALY

AND

DALMATIA

BY

A.
PROFESSOR

L.

FROTHINGHAM,
OF AT ANCIENT PRINCETON HISTORY AND

Ph.D.
ARCHEOLOGY

UNIVERSITY

WITH

SIXTY-ONE

FULL-PAGE

PLATES

NEW

YORK

STURGIS

WALTON

COMPANY
1910

:.v::0X

AND

Copyright,

1910

By

STURGIS

"

WALTON

COMPANY

Set

up

and

electrotyped.

Published

April,

1910

CONTENTS
FAGS

Prologue

I.

Rome

and

the

Latin

League
....

3 10

Praeneste

n.

The

Cities Alatri Ferentino Anazni

of

the

Hernican

League
.

38 43

49
54

Legni
III. The Pontine Norba Terracina Circeii Via Appia Plain
and the

60

Cities

of

the

67
80

97
101

IV.

Rome The The

and

Etruria

106
113 118

Temple
House

Perugia
Falerii

128
141

V.

The

Umbrians Narni and

and

the

Flaminian

Way

147
149
155

Terni

Spoleto
Assisi Todi and

172

Spello

187

Aquino
V

19@

vi

CONTENTS

PAGE

VI.

Northern Turin

Italy: and

Ariminum
....

201

Susa

209
225

Aosta

Verona

244*

VII.

ISTRIA
Salona Trieste

AND

DaLMATIA

264j 266
284

Pola and

288

Flume

Zara

295

Asseria

and and

Trajan's
Diocletian

Route
....

299
308

Spalato

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS
FACING PAGE

Map
Lake

of

Italia
Site of of

Nemi:

Temple
Latins

of

Diana,
......

the

tional Na12

Shrine Detail Ficoroni of Ficoroni Cista

the

Cista, from
from of
Praeneste

Praeneste

(Woltman)
. .

12 21

(Martha)
as

Praeneste,
Renaissance Mastarna

Temple

Fortune

restored

by

Late 21

Architect

(Durm) Tullius)
Graeco-Etruscan

(King
Fresco
at

Servius of

Freeing
Art

Caeles from 28

Vibenna,
Tomb
Bronze

Vulci from
a

Statuettes

Praenestine
-

Cista

(Fer28
. .
.

nigue)
Ferentino, Alatria, Alatria, Ferentino,
Window
Main Corner in

Gothic
of

House

39 39
42

Entrance of the

Citadel

Citadel and
Gate called "Porta upper

City

Wall

Sanguinaria,"
part
Fourth

(lower

part

Polygonal,

Century

B.C.)
Fourth
500

49

Ferentino,

City Gates,
Before

Century,
b.c

B.C.

52
.

Segni, City Gate,


Plan
to

52

of

Norba

(Ruins
Centuries
Gate

Dating

from

Eighth

(?)
69

Fourth

b.c.)
in

Norba,
Round

Principal
Tower

Second

Circuit

with

76
in

Norba, Cori,

Bastion

Second Hercules

Circuit

86 86

Temple

of

vii

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS
FACIKG FAGK

Spello,Small
Arpinum,

City Gate, probably


Gate
or

preb.c.

Augustan
or

190
.

Arpinum, City
Rimini, Arch Rimini, Turin,

Janus

c.

41

earlier
b.c.

197 197
204 204

Colony
of

Arch

(half flooded)c.

41

Augustus
of

Bridge
Porta

Augustus

Palatina,

City
the

Gate

of

Augusta
211

Taurinorum

(age

of

Augustus)
Alps
Combin Rosa
on

Aosta,
Mt. Monte

general view,
Blanc
on

with

and in

Passes.

left. Grand
and Monte of

center,
222
. .

Cervino

right.)

Aosta,
25-20

Ground-plan
B.C.)
Theater:
end

Augusta

Praetoria

(c.
227
238

Aosta,

wall and

Aosta, Theater:
Aosta

plan

elevation

(Promis)

238 243

(near) Bridge
of

Verona, Amphitheater (only remaining section


outer

circuit)
Porta Dei Borsari

243

Verona,

(principalAugustan
Gallienus
....

City Gate)
Verona,

restored

by

254

Amphitheater
Augustan
on

259

Verona,

Bridge

(Medieval

tions restora-

right)
and

259

Salona,

Basilica

Cemetery

270 270 270

Salona, Amphitheater Salona, Sarcophagi Pola, Harbor Trieste, "Arco


with Di

Amphitheater
Riccardo,"
Gate of Roman

270

Tergeste

(early Augustan
with
one

age)
of the Entrances
.
.

284

Pola, Amphitheater
interior

286

Pola, Amphitheater: section

(restored)detail

and 289

(Durm)

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS
FACING

xi
PAGX

Pola, Detail
for
use

of of of

Amphitheater, showing (Durm)


Pier of

method 293

Awning

Pola, Detail Pola,

Right
of

Colony
from

Arch old

293

Temple
of

Augustus,

print
^00

(Casses)
Pola, Temple

Augustus:

Detail

of

Gable
^00

(Wlha) Spalato, Plan by


with of Palace of Diocletian
as

restored
^^^

Adam
of

Spalato, Plan

Modem
Palace

Town

in

connection 30T

Diocletian's

Spalato, Birds-eye view of (The Esplande (Durm) lapped originally Spalato, Sea-front
existed in the the of

the is
an

Palace,
error:

restored
the
sea

Fa9ade)
of Diocletian
as

309
it 311
...

Palace

XVII

Century
half-buried

(Adam) (Wlha)
from

Spalato, Porta Spalato, Detail Spalato, Court

Aurea,
of

312
.

Doorway
of

of Mausoleum
old

312
. .

of Palace

(Adam)

print
314

showing fragments Spalato, Fa9ade


Spalato, Detail Spalato,
view old

Grill between

columns)
.

of Vestibule

of Throne-room

.316 316 316

of Court

(Wlha)
toward Mausoleum

Spalato, (near) Aqueduct


from Court

(from Spalato,

print in Cassas)
of

318

Spalato, Interior
Dome

Mausoleum Mausoleum

(Wlha)
of

320
. . .

of

Diocletian
321

(Wlha) Spalato, Mausoleum Spalato,Temple


Spalato,
Detail

of Diocletian of

section

322
. . .

Aesculapius
Aurea

322 322
...

of Porta

(Durm)

Spalato, Tunnel

Vault

of

Temple (Wlha)

324
...

PROLOGUE
To This know Rome
not
;

well be but
true

you of

must

go

elsewhere. ruled

would

Greece,
with

by

individuahsm

Rome and

her

tenacious

traditions, her
her

pervasive
unalterable she from
of
set

reconstructive
of

perialism im-

plan

stamping
both and

her rored mirwas

impress
the

wherever cities

foot, Rome
she
sprang The

which
her

mirrored
of
Latium

in each
and
not

colonies.
with which

early cities
she
was rounded sur-

Etruria

only

furnished
w^as

the

elements

out

of

which several
with
can

her

civilization

constituted

but

for

centuries

developed
in touch

along parallel hnes


with
to

her, and

kept
to

her,

so

that

we

logicallyturn
itself and
of the

their ruins
recreate

fill in the

gaps of

in Rome
the

to

the

atmosphere
Then,
even

drama
was

early

Roman of her

history.
colonial

closer each
town

unity

system:
line

in

colony
and

the

sacred
the the the

pomerium
laws forum and and of

around

territory,
arch,

organization, Capitoline
the

the

memorial

temple, reproduced

archetypes
^ills, her

mother

city.

Even

her

seven

four

regions,the

xiv

PROLOGUE
were Capitol as copied

elevated site of her


as

fully faith-

local conditions

allowed.

made from the pictures, composite of these earlycontemporary buildings best-preserved


A

series of

cities and
out at various

of the colonies of Rome

sent

times,would

give an idea

not

only

sive Italybut of the Rome of each succesin her mutilated such as Rome herself, epoch, need to conjure. We state, is now powerless but he these pictures. Livy is vivid reading, and in the ruins givesus onlyan indirect vision,

of ancient

of Rome

the concrete

reahties for the

seven

turies cen-

Augustus are so fragmentaryand to grasp ; and then, after few as to giveus little were a large all, part of the activitiesof Rome
before outside of Rome. Should
we sum

up

in historicorder what
it amount

is

left in Rome
with what
we

what
can

would

to, compared
of the
same

find outside Rome

kind?
the

tombs found in the forum, on early Quirinal and elsewhere Palatine, Esquiline, The
compare in numbers, wealth
or

cannot

extent

of

time

to the similar material in the

of necropoli

Alba, Praeneste, Falerii, Narce, Caere, Veii,


Vetulonia
deduce and

from other cities,


the

which

we

can

of Rome originally necropoli contained in the royaland early centuries, republican what the early Romans and consequently

what

". C
,

t II tl. t

It

"

lit
ttt lit

'"(.t
c

PROLOGUE

XV

wore,

used

and

decorated
were

themselves

and

their and
use

houses

with, what

their

their customs.

For

the

rites religious form and original Roman

of the domical and


so

vaulted

constructions

for the origins of the great imperial important styleas expressedin the Pantheon, the Baths of Diocletian and the Basilica of Constantine, and of which in Rome itself hardlyanything is left but the Cloaca and the "Mamertine prison,"
we

can

turn

to dozens

of works

at

Praeneste,

gia, Veii,Vetulonia, Cortona, Signia, Norba, PeruAlsium, Caere, Vulci, Quinto Fiorentino and We other know Etruscan that the and Latin

cities.
was

surrounded

by

the

earlytown of Rome Quiritiumand an fossa


no

en earthbut
we

rampart, of which
can
see

traces

remain:

what

Antemnae.
stone

walls

by by going to nearTo complete of the our picture that once probablysurrounded the

it must

have been

Palatine, or
their mounds
we
can

the later wide


to

circuit of

the walls

popularlyattributed
and
use

Servius

TuUius, with
and

their fosses, of dozens

towers

gates,
south. way arch-

make

of wall

circuits in

Etruria, Umbria, Latium


From
Ascoli
we

and

further
the double

can

reconstruct

of the Porta

and
the

even commoner

the

Capena,the Porta Carmentalis Porta Trigemina; from Aquinum, type of singlecity gate; from

^m.

xvi

PROLOGUE

Spoleto the earlymemorial


Fabii. We
imagine

arch

like that of the

the founders
or

of

Rome

to

Have

lived in circular
were
or

oval wattled

huts, whose

types
and

perpetuated in
Romulus,
so

the sacred huts

of Faustulus

often

piously renovated,
of

symbolized
form
earthen is

in the

temple
for found
us

Vesta.

Its

actual

reproduced
cabin-urns

in the
in

contemporary
itself and,
of

Rome

in far

greater numbers, in the earliest tombs


Corneto, Vetulonia
we

Alba,
If

and the

Bizentium. houses reached


that
a or

want

to

visualize when under

the

Romans

lived
of

in

they
the

higher
when know

grade
that

culture the

Tarquins,

they rebuilt they


with
central in and

cityafter
then

the Gallic fire, we Etruscan

were

of the square and there

type
detail
of the the of

atrium

is
in

no

difficulty

whatever of

them reconstituting
structure

every
some

form

if

we

visit The

Etruscan

chamber-tombs.

houses

of

livingwere
the

exactlyreproduced
and

in the houses

dead,

provided
bit of

with

corresponding
Rome for itself such
a

furniture, utensils and


furnished

ornaments.

hardly

material

reconstruction.
If
to
we

passing from
to

the civil and

privatestructures early period,


of the

the

architecture religious
reconstruct

of the

attempt

the appearance

PROLOGUE

xvii

early Roman
temple
the and
on

shrines of

and

of especially

the

ished van-

Jupiter Capitolinusas

built
cotta

by
liefs re-

Tarquins, with
figures,we
texts

polychromy,
do
not

terra to

need

rely merely
The

the

of

Livy
at

and

Dionysius.
Alba
at

temples
Norba,

discovered Falerii
allow and
us

Satricum,

Fucens,
and of the

Aletrium,
to

Luna remains Vlth


to

Telamon,
sacred

handle from

actual the

structures

dating
Even Hellenistic

Ilnd

century
earlier
some

B.C.

for the later


architecture Rome
can

days

of the

republic when
the

replaced
can

cruder fine

style and
beautiful

herself be

stillshow

examples, these

mented suppleat

by equally
Tivoli
After and

temples
has

Cori,

Palestrina.
this

period
Ilird

Rome

more

to at

offer.

Yet
of

the the
a

well-preservedforum curiously
Ilnd
or

Assisi,

century
of
some

B.C.

is

suggestive
of the before

for

reconstruction Roman forum

features

vanished the Rome form

of

the

Republic,
At this very but

building of
was

the basilicas.
a

time,

developing

simple

impressive

of utilitarian architecture

for

tures, public struc-

in is very

tufa, peperino and

travertine, which characteristics, untouched

typical of by

Roman In

Hellenism.

and the

near

Rome mutilated

it

is

represented mainly by
on

badly
Mulvian

Tabularium

the

the Capitol,

bridge,

xviii

PROLOGUE

the

Ponte
what it

di
was

Nona

and

the

JSIarcia
it had

aqueduct.
made
of

Of
the

capable and
of
can

what

external

appearance
we

Rome

in the
even

century
better in
at

before
numerous

Augustus,
structures

judge
this time

of

and

type

Palestrina

(Praeneste), Ferentino, Anagni, Cori, Bieda, Asisi, Todi, Vulci, Spoleto,etc. for Even the succeeding days of Cicero,
and

Caesar

Pompey,
when
we

of

Marc

Antony
Rome
we

and
to

Augustus,
furnish
that

might

expect

abundant

monumental

material,
of the

find

the fires and


as

reconstructions
as

Empire,
have

quite
but

much

time
or

and

vandalism,
deface

helped
a

to

obliterate works.

fundamentally
Augustan

all

few
we

It is to the What

colonies
ple tem-

that

turn.

remaining Augustan
in Assisi?
those of

in Rome
those of
or

can

compare and Avith

with preservation What

Pola

Augustan
What

arches

gates

Aquino, Aosta, bridges Spoleto,Rimini


at the

Pola Rimini, Spello, in Rome and It

and

Verona?

equal those

of Narni,

Vulci?

might reign

seem

to logical

pause
to

close of in
to

the

of

Augustus

and

allow

Rome,

which
be

henceforth

the life of

all

Italy seemed
and

centralized, to speak for herself alone.


even now

Yet

Rome
monuments

had the

no

monopoly,
and

the ages

of

Flavian

Antonine

ROMAN

CITIES

IX

CENTRAL

AND

NORTHERN

ITALY

AND

DALMATIA

Rome

and

the

Latin

League

Earliest

Struggles

Several
Rome: Sabines the in

races

claim
Latins in

precedence
almost

as

sponsors

for
the and in

every

field;

number

of

religious
customs;
the

institutions Etruscans
manners

primitive
ritual and modern had when have union

agricultural
and of

the advanced

augury
customs

cult, in

civilization. but

Each Latin until

race

has

found

protagonists,
seemed the been with
even

preponderance
the last

quite
results of

secure

decade,

excavations,
to

slowly
how cities close of

digested,
was

tending
the

show

the

neighboring
before the

Southern

Etruria,
Rome,
influence
The Rome and

Etruscan in
some

kings
ways,

of the

also of

how

direct,
Greece.
now

archaic conclusion

safest
was

seems

to

be

that

fairly representative
of the Not Italic
race,

of

the

politanism cosmo-

especially
her she
emergence

of

its
as

Latin
a

section. in the
as

long

after

city
the

eighth
the

century,
of

began
Latins,

to

come

to

fore

emporium
3

the

break-

ROMAN

CITIES

ing gradually through


which tiny territory,
over

the

originalbounds
extend her
on

of her any On side the

did not

^ve the

or

six miles

beyond
a

walls.

west

Tiber

formed
for

natural

boundary

which it

she

hardly passed
only
of twelve

centuries, for
away,

beyond

loomed,

miles

powerful Veii,
cities, forming
base
sea-

richest, perhaps of the Etruscan


the
was

apex

whose threatening triangle,


one

marked, and,
on

on

side, by Caere other, by Capena


of Mt. Rome

near

the

coast

the
mass

and

Falerii

flanked But

bv the
on

Soracte.
could and

the

north the

expand,
eastward

after
to

while, beyond
Alban the

Anio,
a

the

hills, across
race.

belt of also
at
soon

minor

towns,

all of
sea-

Latin
on

She

reached The
two

the

coast,

the

south,

Ostia.
most

earlier

cities to which both of them

traditions

closelybound
in this she

her,
sea-

Latin,

were

Lanuvium,
which

belt, her sacred


with
reverence;

Mecca,
and

always

treated

fountain Alba, her political

head, leader

of the Latin
to

league, whom
so
as

necessity
to
secure

obliged her
her

destroy ruthlessly gradual


course,

place.
meant,
and

This of weaker

extension the

of

Rome's of the first the the

limits
smaller this
was

absorption
destruction

adjoining cantons. by
of the its

At of

often the

done

town,

annexation
of

territory,and
its

transfer

part

at

least of

population to

THE

NE^^

YOT?K

RAPy

PUBLIC
:

"n ASTOR. LE

"""^-r^^iOx^^
TOV TILDEIN

ROMAN

CITIES

of
we

Latium,
may

as

far

as

Terracina
it had Latin
an

and

Circeii,and
inland had
to
a

conclude
extent.

that

spread
federation
and

similar reached

The

then

the

point of
Rome.

offensive

defensive

alliance with
At whose about
causes

this time and

came

an

historic crisis of
know but little.

extent

we

During
had

the seventh
been the
not

and

sixth centuries

the Etruscans

extending their neighborhood


far from

dominion.
of the

ing StartCiminian
we

from

mountain,
Central

Viterbo, in what

call

Etruria, where

they

had
to

been

incubating
of

for centuries, they had


and
annex

begun

attack steadily

the

existing Italic
side and

communities
to

central

Italy,penetrating first
seaboard
on one

the

ranean Mediter-

to the

valley of they
and
or

the

Tiber

on

the other ; then


as

crossing it eastward
Whether
Po
at

into Umbria
also

far

as

the Tiber.
to

pushed

northward
to

the

valley
this

reached
whether

almost

the

Alps
of is
one

time,

their northern
remnants

settlements, like Bologna


their of the

were '(Felsina), across

gration earlier immi-

the

Alps

problems
seem

we

apparently cannot
have

yet solve.
of the

They

not

to

reached

Umbria
became

until early in the sixth

cen-

tury. What
we

do
as

not

quered populationsthey conlikelythat know, but it seems

they

existed

subjectraces

under

an

Etruscan

ROMAN

CITIES

militaryaristocracy. SucH
Falerii, which Hellenic,
seem

cities

as

Caere

and
as

the
not

Romans
to have

always regarded
been
The

radically changed wealthy


Tar-

by
the

the

Etruscan

conquest.

quiniiand
exiled

Clusium, whose

Porsenna the

supported
Roman the than
on

kings,were
of well
Caere

among

can leading Etrus-

opponents

the
as

newly established
the
nearer

republic, as
of friendship

Veii, but
more

certainly betraysa
with
in

brotherhood superficial
the
coast

Rome.
the

Even Volscian

south

of

Rome,

and

the Campanian territory, maritime and commercial and had

Etruscans

had, through'
a

superiority, gained
fleets in
union of the

strong foothold
the Phoenicians of seemed this

their

with
merce com-

acquired control
of the around

part

Mediterranean. Rome. embroiled


into

They
with

to be

closingin
was

While
the

Rome

thus
was

being
forced

Etruscans,

and

making
ity authoron

and humiliatingconcessions of territory to Porsenna, there began a movement


east

her
not

flank

which

threatened
Latin

to

overwhelm

only her
cause was

but the whole

confederacy.

Some

forcing certain
and of

mountainous

tribes of
torians his-

the

Apennine

tablelands, called by Roman


Volsci, to seek
Latium
across an

Aequi
the seaboard Sacco
and

outlet toward of the

the vallev

the Pontine

plain,over

the Hernican

8 and

ROMAN

CITIES

Volscian

hills.

They penetrated as
and held such

far

as

the Alban Latin

mount,

captured

tant imporand

strongholds as
and established
on
an

Velitrae, Cora
advanced
of the Alban
a

Pometia,
on

fortress
group.

Mt.

Algidus
were

the

edge

They
line

stopped
Latin
to

with

difficulty by
Tibur,

splendid
from the Tus-

of

fortresses, extending
the and
sea
"

Apennines
culum,
cities of

Praeneste,
the

Signia

Norba;

helped by
of Rome. the

strong

the Hernican

league,which
and
B.C.

usuallytook invading
tide its

the side of the Latins It ebbed


way
was

before

450

that

at this

point,and
the lower and

eddying
spurs of mastered

back
the the
over

found
Ausonian whole
a

between Volscian maritime


these

and lower

ranges

of

Latium.

But

for

century
sional occa-

longer

Aequi
and

and

Volsci, helped by

Sabine
a a

Ausonian

incursions, kept up
It became Romans
to

harassing and regular thing


a

desolatingwarfare.
every year these for the

expect
mount,

raid
on

from
Mt.

peoples, who
the back of the

would

either meet
or

Algidus, at
the upper be

of Alban Pontine the


aged rav-

along

edge
received

plain.

Word

would
or

from
or

Hernicans

Tusculans the

Lanuvians.
Rome
were

Sometimes,
reached.
wars,
so

even,

gates

of

Many
that

cities

exchanged

hands

in these know

it is sometimes

difficult to

ROMAN

CITIES

whether Volscian Suessa

to

call

them

Roman This
was

and
the

Latin
case

or

and

Aequian.
and
more

with An-

Pometia,

Cora, Velitrae, Satricum,


many often received
to
"

tium, Labici, Bola,


were

more.

Several

burned

once

or

like Satricum
once or

and Roman

Pometia;
colonies

others in order

twice

keep
the

them

loyal and
the
sea;

satisfyneedy
Etruscans: with Samnites

Romans. for

Fortunately
with

Rome,

struggles of
on

Greeks,

both

land

and

in the south, and

with

Celts

in the

north, while

largely outside
an

the
to

direct

Roman

sphere, yet by putting


in

end

Etruscan

ponderanc pre-

Italy,were

preparing the ground,


of

during
Roman retarded that her the This

the fifth century, for the establishment domination.

Still,this

was

considerably
career,
B.C.

by

the

second

crisis in Rome's in 390 the

of her

capture by the Gauls


loss of
and
a

and

consequent
Hernicans made of her of

prestige with

Latins,

other

surrounding peoples.
bloody
before the
tion renova-

long, patient and


necessary

influence

gation subju-

Italy could
four

again

be undertaken. for
a

So between

the

long struggle raged


three and
centuries various and these

period of
380
:

before enemies The

B.C.,

between

Rome

cans, Etrusseat

Volscians, Aequians, Sabines.


war was never

of

far

enough

from

the Roman

Cam-

10

ROMAN

CITIES

pagna from

to

give Rome
And of

itself any she her


could

feelingof safety
not

capture.

always
the which
a

feel

absolutely sure
and had

usual

allies of both
was

Latin she

Hernican
at times to

leagues, with

of

struggle.

It

always
cities most this

fight
mately inti-

for life. There


were

several

groups Rome

of

interrelated

with the
some

during
them,
the

period.
Latins,
Aricia

First, of
the and while

course,

cities of the of in

ancient

prisciLatini,
Tusculum,

such Latin

as

merged
to act

League,
were

others, like Tibur

and

Praeneste,

ciently suffi-

powerful
Beside such
been
as

with

individual

policy.
had
prietory pro-

these
Norba

were

the

neo-Latin
which

foundations,
colonies she had
were a

and

Signia,to
and In
a

sent

by Rome,
interest.

in which third class


as

the Hernican
not

cities, friendlyto Rome


as
new

rule, but

closelyrelated
era

to

her.

Before before wider of

attacking the
Christ when

of the fourth

century
new

Rome

passed
some

into

and

fields,I will
each

describe
groups.

typical cities
Praeneste

of

these

Though
she
seems

Rome
not

was

the
been

emporium
even

of

Latium,
the earliest

to have

among which

foundations in the Alban

of the Latin

race,

centered
to

hills, extended

eastward

the

ROMAN

CITIES

11 Tibur

Samnite
and and

borders

in the

Apennines beyond

westward the

to the

seaboard, the Pontine

plain

Tiber, dotting this region with


of between before three the and
ten

cities at

intervals

miles, in the
and

palmy
Of
about

days
these
the

Volscian

Aequian
at

invasion.
Latin
same
a

cities built Before

Rome

or

time, only
of
is

one,

Praeneste,

has

preserved
Of
a

semblance
there

its

antique splendor.
trace

Alba few

Longa
volcanic
stratum

hardly a
which

except for
buried them

simple graves
a

with

early cabin
rock.

urns,

under with
a

eruption
of

covered

peperino
Lavinium,

Tusculum,

Aricia, Lanuvium,
members In of the

the other faint

principal
remnants.

league,have only
Tivoli,
we

Tibur, the modern


of the

breathe

the atmosphere

imperialvillas
days
But of the

and

at the earliest

that

of the last

Republic

in its fascinating

temple.
fortress its

Praeneste, the impregnable


of all

par excellence

Latium, has
walls

not

only
the

incomparable site,its cyclopean


of its and

and

remnants

temple

of Fortune,

the most

nificent mag-

colossal its tombs

temple proof
and

in of
over

Italy, but
the life of

has
its

yielded from people


After
seem
as

in

profuse detail
time.

quite a long
it would
next to

period of

the

early destruction
and

of Alba
were,

if Praeneste

Tibur

12

ROMAN

CITIES

Rome,

the

largest

and

most

influential

Latin
the

cities,one
other the the

dominating the Praenestine


Tiburtine
hills Alban
as

and

Alba

had

dominated
nexed an-

slopes of the
the smaller

mount.

Praeneste her

townships in
as

neighborhood
at
one

in the time her

same was

way known

Rome have

was

doing and
least

to
never

at

eight towns
Latin

in of

power.

She
a

lost her

independence
part of
of
to

action
as was

by

complete merger
when she

in the the the


as

league,
Rome Lake Rome

shown
the

took

against

league before
497.
as

battle

Regillus in
as
a

She Rome
of

was was

necessary

bulwark

to

her, when
and

she had
tacks, at-

to

bear

the brunt for


while

Aequian
site
to
was

Volscian

her
open of

impregnable
weakness
was

her

rich
the

was territory

devastation.

During
after for
to
a

half

century
the

Rome's

the time
an one

capture by
the end time

Gauls, Praeneste

leader

of the Latins supremacy,

in their effort and her

put
at

to Roman
came as

troops
Even

far

as

the ColHne

gate.

after neste Praeher

the final submission


never

of the Latins her

to Rome

lost

strategicimportance,

or proud spirit

her
to

wealth.

An

excursion and
a

Palestrina, the ancient


of her

neste, Prae-

study by

tombs

will

therefore

carry

one

back

almost
to

infinitesimal
age

stages

from

imperial Rome

the

of

her

begin-

ROMAN

CITIES

13

during nings, illustrating


of the influences

all this time

the

action of For

of the Orient, of Greece, and

Etruria
any
one

within who

the
is

purely
to

Latin

sphere.
the

willing

abjure

poetrywith

destroyingrailway and to get his local flavor along the antique way, leisurelyprogress,
easiest road is the

the
esting inter-

Labicana,
Via

but

the

most

is the ancient is farther parallel,

Praenestina
even

which itself,

north,

though by taking
the site of Lake
B.C.

it one

gives up
freedom sided
Via with

the chance the Romans

to pass

Regillus,where
their had

in 497

recovered forces that

by defeating the
the

Latin

Tarquins.
starts

The

Praenestina

due

east

from

Porta

Maggiore,
At

that most

spectacularof
is the

the works in the

by city.
the

early imperial engineers remaining


one

mile the of
one

out

Torraccio,

among

largest of
diameter

early circular mausoleums,


hundred
to the last

with
one

forty-tw^oand
century
the of the

half

feet, attributed

lic. RepubAqua

Shortly after
Bollicante, which
of Rome
on

passing

stream

of

marked

the

primitiveboundary
of the

this side, the

ruins
on

imperial
of

villa of the Gordians


the such Tor di Schiavi, of

stand

the

slight ridge of
preserved
to the

perhaps

the best

groups

buildingsnearer
mile is the viaduct

city than
di

Hadrian's
At

villa.
of the Ponte

the ninth

14

ROMAN

CITIES

Nona,

built to

keep
of

the

ancient It is
one

highway level
of the most of the
at

in

crossinga deep valley.


works the

pendous stu-

engineers
to

late the

Republic. Though
time
of

attributed
of

Sulla

his reconstruction Its


seven are

Praeneste,
of

it may
stone

easily be earlier.
with tufa
to

arches of

Gabii

buttresses

ing unequal height,ow-

the

and slope,
here

of

harmonious
of du

proportions.
the

We

see

the

prototype
of the Pont

marvelous
in Southern

imperialviaducts
France,
in
of

Gard
and
a

Alcantara,
favorite

Merida

Segovia

Spain.

This

local stone,

fine sort of

peperino, called Lapis Gabinus, got its name the neighboring Gabii, three miles beyond, from
on

the

low

ridge of

an

extinct

volcano,
such

at

the

modern

CastigUone, whose
associations said
to

site has

strong

sentimental
Gabii ancient Remus
Roman
was

with
a

earliest Rome. of Alba


more

be
to

colony
which

than
were

Rome,
sent to

Romulus The

and

learn
w^as

Greek!

early

debt

to Gabii

ceremonial

of

colony.
wore
as

The

priestwho
Empire.
in the
to

damental in the funperpetuated laying out a Roman row plowed the sacred fur-

his robes
as

after the Gabine


At the
same

fashion time
she

even soon

late

the
a

became her

thorn

flesh to Rome,

preventing legendary

extention

the

northeast.
the

Her

capture by the Tarquins and

fact that with

ROMAN

CITIES

15

Fidenae,
of

Veil

and whom the the

Fregellae
the
curse

she of

was

on

the

list
was

cities upon

the

gods
of

called, shows relation, when


a

bitterness

of dress
soon

this
was

stage

the

Gabine
w^as

considered
and her

badsfe of

war.

She

absorbed

inliabitants
was

made

Roman

citizens. franchise

Perhaps she
in this way, the inhabitants

the first of

city given the


the had been the

instead
to

by
as

transportingof
case

Rome,

with

Antemnae,

Collatia The

and

others.

historic

temple

of Juno the

at

Gabii, sung

by

is Virgil, ruin blocks


on

identified

with

only present

visible

the

site,a solid temple-cellaof peperino


rent

which, though

by
in

an

earthquake, is
only
near

still almost
sort

complete. Republican
the similar columns
a

It is the
age
or

ruin the

of

the

of

the

Alban
use same

beside hills, of stuccoed is

cella at Aricia. and

The the

capitals of temple
and

peperino

sign

of

quite early date, perhaps


the
on

pre-Gracchan.
was a

Below^

its axis

w^ide semicircular the bench in the forum

stone

bench, which
of local

brings

to mind

for the sessions

trates magissame

of Assisi, placed in the

relation After arches

to the

temple.
we

leaving Gabii,
of the Claudian
tract

pass

some

picturesque
ing after tread-

aqueduct, and
of the ancient
"

along quite a
reach another

paved road,
Amato,

bridge-viaduct

the Ponte

16

ROMAN

CITIES

two

hundred
same same

and

feet long, thirty-five blocks of date the


as

built

of

the

splendid
late

Gabii

stone

of the Nona. As

Republican
is

the Ponte

di

Palestrina
as
an

now

approached cityin
two

it

can :

be

visualized the

ancient
as

forms before

either

antique fortress

it

was

the
terrace

structio de-

by Sulla,
Cyclopean
walled of the the walls above
or

with

terrace

upon the
an

of
set

connected the else

with

citadel,

quite high

city, by
as

arrow-like

causewa}^;

the

pleasure ground
of Cicero

w^ealthyRomans
when

of the the

age

and

early Empire,
were

frowning by
and the

w^alls and

embankments

crowned Fortune of villas.

gorgeously
remains

enlarged
a

shrine

of

garlanded with
are

luxuriant which The Praeneste

wreath
to
one

There of
now

with

reconstruct

either
us

these

tures. pic-

that

interests the most Like toward this

is the first.
gic strate-

occupied
in Latium.

important
Tibur the land the

point
was

(Tivoli)
of

she the

an

advance
"

post
At

enemy

the

Aequi.
almost the

point
hills
on

Apennines
off
a

after
east

running
leaving
out
as

due

south

sheer
as

to

the

Praenestine

spur with

ting jutthe

if to

join hands
the
crater

the south the

Yolscian

hills, across
with the

valleyof
of
the

Sacco, and
mount.
a

westward At the end

Alban

of this Praenestine

branch

narrow

ROMAN

CITIES

17 the

ridge, after gently fallingfrom


sweeps up in
a

mountain,
and for
a

final

peak

seven

hundred

sixty-sixmeters
citadel, before
meters two
was

high, just large enough sinking again nearly three


a

dred hun-

to

slope four hundred


which
the bulk

and

seventythe

meters

high, on
from Castel

of

city

built.
The view called

the

ancient

arx

or

citadel,
tensive. ex-

now

S. Pietro, is

wonderfully
as

Latium south
as

unfolds

itself almost

far
ley val-

misty Circeii,seen
the

partly along the


and Alban the

between

Volscian
sweeps

hills.

In

fact, the view


across

from

Sabine
over

range

the valley of the Anio, then

the Tiber

toward One
can

Veii

and

to

Rome here

and the

grasp the

from

Campagna. relationstrategic
and

the

ship of
to

various

peoples. Aequi
to the
;

Sabines

the north; Etruscans

northwest; Rome
and

and

the Latins

to the west

Volscians

Latins and

on interpenetrating

the

south; Hernicans
Praeneste
held
was

Volscians
Her very

to

the

east.

the
an

key.

strength,as
made

Strabo
a

says,

added
center.

peril and
She tina reduce of and

her
the Via

perpetual

storm

controlled Via

Latina, the Via

Praenescould
state
cessive suc-

Labicana.
Her

Only starvation
in in
a
a

her.

people lived
and

continued series of

high-strung endeavor
crises, as long
2
as

Latium

played any part

18 in Italian
water

ROMAN

CITIES

When politics.
of his
to

Pyrrhus,

at
was

the

highhave

mark

strugglewith Rome,
capture
and

ing marchto

northward reached had


a

it, he is said

Praeneste first and

from

its citadel to have fore be-

last view

of his great enemy,

turning back.
The

superposed
remind called
a

terraces
one

into

which

Praeneste

is divided it was
once

of

Strabo's

saying
citv.
the

that

the multi-crowned wall led up

From

these terraces

double feet

mountain

nearly a
into
other
at
a

thousand around

to the

citadel,expanding
I know of of
a

circle

its rock.

one

such
a

well-defined

arrangement,
the

del cita-

great height above

city,connected
it is at
can

with

it

by

fortified that

causeway: of the walls

Circeii. still be

[This wall traced:


pean

and

citadel

like the

terrace

they

are

of

cyclotheir

masonry We but
as as

of
cannot

the be

highly-finished polygonal
at
was

type. date;

all certain
a

as

to

Praeneste sixth
seem

flourishing city as
centuries been its have ence in exist-

early

the

and

seventh

fortifications
at that

likelyto

period. exceptional architectural


the earliest The Fortune feature of

The

other

Praeneste
of Fortune.

from

period was
of Fortune

its shrine
was

Praeneste

called Fortuna

Primigenia,or giver of
all

the Firstborn
men.

of Jove, the

good giftsto

20 before the
one

ROMAN

CITIES

whom

there inclined
to

still remained

large parts of
up from

broad
terrace

esplanades leading
by
Rome.

another, the sweeping hemicycle


a

at

the

top

crowned in

temple
Even

said

to

be

like

the that

Pantheon remained

the

fragments
have the
vival re-

after

this

papal

destruction

exercised

numberless

since archaeologists

of humanistic
to follow

studies, and
the
mazes

it is

interesting
town,

through

of the modern side

in cellars,basements
of

and In

streets, the traces


its reconstruction

the sanctuary.
we

imagining
with all
our

must
as

do

away

preconceived
in

ideas

to

classic
must

temples either
go
to

Italy or
the

in

Greece, and
structures

the colossal
or even

Hellenistic

of Asia

Minor

to

staged
had its

pyramidal temples and


and

observatories
every

of

Babylonia

Assyria.
inclosure
a

Of
or

course

temple
that that

sacred

temenos
no

which
extent

rounded usually sur-

court

of
to
renown

great

served
of
an

as

an

approach
of wide

the

temple;
was

but

oracle

of

quite
Some

different elements

proportions and
for reconstruction

arrangements.
are

furnished

by

old

drawings

such

as

the

one

by Rainaldi,

here

reproduced.
sacred
way,

Those

in Greece
up

comprised a long
shrine and
and

winding
art.

to the main

passing minor
works
on a

shrines, treasure-houses
But
even

dedicated
were

of

when

these

not

level

^n^fi^^K,

RAK^

LI'

PUB

-S^-r^

Ficoroni

Cista

from

Praeneste

(Martha)

Praeneste, Temple

of

Fortune
Architect

as

Restored

by Late
Plate
III

Renaissance

(Durm)

ROMAN

CITIES

21 sudd^en rise

there

was

no

such

spectacular and
no

inside the inclosure,


ral
no even

such

unity

of architectu-

composition, no
such

such

pj^amidal upbuilding,
of the whole shrine in this
scene,

simultaneous
a

view The

from

distance. those

Latin

must

have
effect

far outshone
if inferior

of Greece other

general

in every
as

respect.
to

In

its final
82

form,
b.c,

given
rose
a

it

by Sulla,
four

shortlyafter
up

it

in

pyramidal shape
and

the mountain
and At

side to
or

height of nearly
one

hundred
meters.

fifty feet
its base feet

hundred
over one

fifty
and
four

it

was

thousand

'three hundred

wide
; at

(four hundred
its summit about

twenty-five meters)
hundred
feet wide

(one hundred
hundred

and
of

twenty-five
the

meters).
Avas

The
than

crowning hemicycle
one

shrine

less

feet the base

in
was

diameter
a

(thirtymeters).
open square

Around

large

in which and

the first

story stood
a

; flanked columnar

by

wings

entered Above this

through
rise
as

propylaeum.
connected like and The each

five

stories

of

diminishingheights as
some

well

retreating width,
planades es-

Babylonian temples by by
the round

crowned

temple.
area
use were

right and
inclosed

left sides of the lower


a

by
Both

reservoir
are

for

the

of

the and

city below.
among

in

good
of

condition

the most

important

their

kind.

One

22 of

ROMAN

CITIES

these

can

be

visited: that
Its

occupying
is
over

the west hundred


one

side of the feet

area.

length
six

three

(one
feet

hundred

and

meters) by
and

dred hun-

(thirty-three meters)
halls connected

it is divided

into ten
seven

vaulted

nearlyninety feet (twentyby


doors. the west with
statues.
was a

meters) long,
the
sacred which

The side
seven

face
of

of this reservoir, which


square,
was

forms
decorated

niches
the east and
a

probably
decorated
one
on a

contained there Doric


to

On

side instead wall

of niches with
went

portico

half -columns the the have main reservoir other. A

through
and which monumental the
center

which is

down

lower

level than
seems

fountain of the
square;

to

occupied
or

and

the

north

wall, which
decorated
a

formed
with

the face

of the first arcades

story, was
tions; sec-

twenty-nine
twelve with

in three

central with

projection with
arcades. for
may

five, and

two to

wings
have

each

They
the be

seem

connected

chambers and

numerous

of 23ersonnel substructures The

the
of of

temple
the first

called

the

shrine.

top

this

story
and has
a

can

be in

studied that
near

in especially the

the

Barberini

gardens,

of

Cardinal
Porta

of Palestrina del Sole. three and It

in the streets

the
one

length
and

of

about

thousand

hundred

ninety

feet
a

(four

hundred

twenty-five meters) and

ROMAN

CITIES

23

widtH

of

eighty-sevenmeters
which
cannot
now

and
be

had
seen

on

either

side cisterns
one

(eightyremains
of

meters

by thirty meters).
are

The

walls The

here

of

no

architectural

significance. length
site of has this been

modern

Corso
seems

marks
to

the level of the second


had
a

story, which
as

have been

the

same

the The

but first, modern hall of

to have

trifle lower. the


a

cathedral
the old

occupies temple,

central

which
on

christened
there
were

the
a

civil basilica, and number of

story

spectacularbuildings,
squares.
an

colonnaded
seems

and porticoes
to
on

The
eastern

ment arrangeand
a

have

included

western

hall

either side of the central


can

basilica.
near

The

south

wall Parts

be

seen

in the square, wall


are

the

cathedral.
meters

of the eastern

(twenty-five
well the served preings buildto

by
and of the

thirteen
can

meters)

quite

be visited

in especially
as

Seminary.

Belonging
among

it does

Sulla's

restoration, it is

ing the finest remain-

examples
of the of four

of the architectural This

styleof
of

the close
a

Republic.
had

is especially true

group terior infor


a

Corinthian

engaged
niches
a

columns.

The

large

probably
metopes
to many

intended

statues

rising from
of and

basement

decorated

with

frieze

triglyphs and
paterae
similar

filled with
that
we

settes roon

find

Etruscan

sarcophagi of

the

third

century

B.c.^

24 and of
are

ROMAN

CITIES

on

sucH Etruscan
at

architecture
These

as

the Arch
niches and

Augustus
divided
At

Perugia.
alternate end smaller
was

arcaded

by
the

semi-columns
a

laster piniche

great

square

inclosing three
recent

ones.

Delbrtick, in his
architecture pure of and

work
uses

on

the

Hellenistic

Latium,
severe,
as

the details of this hall, so of his series, and with such with it the
can some

the climax
to

it

certainly
of the

enables

us

reconstruct

degree
as

certainty the
Tabularium

interior in

of

buildings
which it

Rome,

seems

contemporary,
Tabularium Praenestine mosaic
and
art

though
itself had We

is

doubtful

if of

the the the

magnificence

work.

judge
mosaic

of this from This

which

covered

its floor.

intricate

wonderfully

executed
an

of Alexandrian

reproduces
has been the the other

elaborate

Egyptian
many
a

scene,

and On

subject of
elaborate of the between and the

monographs.
grotto
has been

side from another be


one

this hall

found, with
it
seems

mosaic

pavement:
of the

to

early
lower

shrines

goddess. by
Forum from Madonna the

The

space

this

civil basilica

(at the Cathedral)


the of free

shrine, represented
the

present Seminary,
Praeneste,
much

forms
as

tive primiat

distinguished
lower,
that have the been

imperial Forum,
dell'

Aquila.

It is there of the

found

the

fragments

famous

Roman

26

ROMAN

CITIES

the

west

and

east

sides.
of

Several

bases

and

the
on

foundation both
sides

wall
of

the
were

hemicycle remain,
arcades
of

which

Corinthian which
a mounted sur-

columns.

The the

small

circular and

shrine formed

hemicycle
the

sort

of

ethereal M.
whom

sixth

disappeared. story has entirely


French for shown
a

Fernique,
we

to archaeologist

are

indebted

valuable that

resume

of upper

previous studies, has


additions

the two round

stories, including hemicycle and


were

temple,
its

of the time up

of
to

Sulla, but the main


that

body

of the structure

point,with
to

Cyclopean retainingwalls, belongs

the

early
the
it

temple
certain

of the sixth

century
such stories.
every

or

earlier,except for
the
halls
on

enlargements
and
be
seen

as

second
could

fourth from

In

its final form

near

point of Latium,
hills.
As
a

from

the

Alban

and of Roman
a

the

Volscian

public monument surpassing the


its Latium

grandeur equaling if Capitol,it


is

not

unique
of

in

juxtapositionof
with
art

the that

cyclopean art
of into the
most

itive primthe that

exquisite
during phases
as

Hellenic

introduced of the

Latium
two

last century
are

Republic;

as

impossible of

amalgamation
contrast

oil and

water.

Exactly the by
the works

same

curious
art

is furnished in the

of

and

industry found

ROMAN

CITIES

27

necropolisof
large
which
corpus
we

Praeneste. of works draw thus

They
far

form

the

only
from

discovered
Latin It is Etruria

can

to reconstitute

life during
a

these prefact other


mass

Augustan
from
one

centuries.

curious
to

that

while

end

of

the
a

ancient

necropolihave extending
century
and
B.C.,

been from
from

found the

with

of material
to the first

tury eighth cen-

the age
urn

of the in the

circular Alban
iron
urns,

hut

the

Villanova marble

age

to

that

of

the

carved

cinerary
and the

the entire has

region south
search and for

of the Tiber

Anio

no yielded practically

corresponding
necropoli
cities has of the been and

material.

The

the

Latin,
almost
some

Volscian
fruitless

Hernican
for
no a

except
of here

few

stray tombs
The

small

groups has been been

importance.
at

only
the

exception

Praeneste, where
Its tombs

necropolishas

found, and

yielded
us

and spectacularas objectsso startling feel that in the time far inferior the in art Roman
we

to make

of the and
was
are

kings either
to

Rome

was

culture far told and

Praeneste from To

or

else that

different he
was.

the

homely
Praeneste

creature

quote
B.C.

Fernique,
commercial and

in the
was a

sixth

seventh

centuries

rich and

powerful city,in
sumptuous

close

and

artistic relations with

cians the Phoeniand

Etruscans,
life. "At

leading

luxurious

religiousceremonies

the

ROMAN

CITIES

priests put on gold ornaments workmanship, the women pins of gold


use

of
wore

the

most

cate deli-

in their hair made

and and

amber;
vases

at

banquets they
the

of

cups

of
war

precious
the chiefs

metals

worked
rich with

in relief.

In

time

put

on

armor;

their bronze of
or griffins

shields other eyes

were

decorated

heads
more

fantastic of brilliant
were

animals,
enamel of
ber, am-

made
the

startling by
of their their sheaths
or

handles
and

poniards
were

often decorated

with

scenes

of the chase
can
see

of war." of this in Rome


museum,

One

proofs
the tomb

in the old where chief the of

collection
contents

of of

Kircherian of
a

the

Praenestine found of

this
are

period (Tomba
exhibited. in the The

Bernardini),
same

in 1876, peared ap-

sort

objects
by
far

Castellani

in the and, especially, contains the

Barberini

collection, w^hich

greatest quantity

of Praenestine been

objects.
gold
ornaments

Nothing
tombs that

that

has

yielded by early Italian


than the official costume sixth these
to
some now

is
once

more

unusual

decorated chiefs of

the the

of

the
turies, cen-

priestsor they
the The

and

seventh

preserved
may be

in both

collections,though
of the

compared

piecesin
Vatican.
a

Regulini-Galassitomb,
minutest
of

in the in

workmanship

is shown

let front-

gold plate only eight by

five inches, which

"i/i"rb4.

Amlil2J.'"!"

Mastarna

(King
of

Servius

Tullius) freeing
Art from

Caeles at

Vibenna Viilci

Fresco

CTraeco-Etruscan

Tomb

Bronze

Statuettes

from

Praenestine

Cista

(Fernique)

Plate

IV

ROMAN

CITIES

29 with of

in this small and sirens

area

is decorated

one

hundred

thirty-one small
and with the

figures

lions, horses,
rows

chimeras, arranged in

and

cuted exe-

greatest delicacy. Similar


faced sheaths and
are

tiny
elecwere

sphinxes
trum

and

humanThe
men

lions of

appear

on

fibulae.

his

daggers gold

of
more

silver with

animals
some

in relief. similar

Even
ments orna-

extraordinary
in the been

Barberini sewed

collection, which
to

must

have originally
are

garments.

There of delicate

two

shoulder

pieces formed
and from

by

mass

parallel stripsof gold tiny doves quadruple


the

silver
;

fringe with
there

hanging
line of

the ends

and

is

winged
and
to

sphinxes
three
are

attached

to

groundwork
a

parallel bands gold gold


of and silver

nearly
sacred and
zones

foot

long.
with

There

wands,

lotus

decoration, gold clasps


cases,

fibulae, gold papyrus


of animals,

disks

with

funerary
silver

diadems

gold leaf,
with

quantities of
While the

small

plaques,
of of

often
a

palmette decoration, forming part


oriental character

costume.

most

of
an

the

decoration

is evident, it is clearest the

in

ivory
and
of the

plaque
of the

of

Kircheriano,
Another

with

the of

procession
sure

Nile

boat.

class

characteristic silver The dishes


two

Phoenician
or

pieces
with

is that in

flat cups

scenes

relief.

only

other

important finds

of such

pieces

30

ROMAN

CITIES

have
and

been

the

cave

of

the

Idean

Zeus
in

in

Crete

the Cesnola

and

other

discoveries All and


are
one

Cyprus,
staples
seventh of in

especiallyin
Phoenician of artistic

Larnaca.

evidently of
of the and

workmanship
commerce

in of

the them
a

eighth
the
few

centuries;

in

most

imitation

Egyptian
Latium
of of

art is

evident, in
It

the influence
to

Assyria.
of trade
to
an

is curious

find

such

proof

the

realityof
end

that

Etrusco-Phoenician which

monopoly
was

in the

Mediterranean

brought
over

by

the

victory of
B.C.

the

Greeks

their combined

fleets in 435 the Praenestine


to

Up
have fourth
alluded

to

the present time

tombs fifth
or

yielded nothing belonging


centuries.
to there
seems

the

After is

the gap.

archaic The

works
next

just
group second of of the
turies cen-

quite a
this

of tombs centuries.

to date

from
must

the third be
a

and

But In
some

matter

chance.

yet unexplored section


tombs of
to

necropolis the
will

these

two

middle there
was

surely come
in the
we

light,for
the gap

no

intermission
the present the thread of

prosperity of
assume

the

city.
take

For up

must

and

again
the

at the time

lution when, after the dissoin 338 had


was

Latin

league

the

cities of

Latium,

including Praeneste,
system.
class of
Praeneste

become then

part
oned reck-

of the Roman

in the

allied cities

foede{civitas

32

ROMAN

CITIES

Praenestines their
But
neste

were

made,

even

after

they had

lost

independence.
the tombs
had its
not

also show abated


one

that at this time whit its love

Prae-

for

art,

and

high
and

level of culture. of the commercial

With

the

growing
between

importance
Southern of

relations the

Central

Italy,through
Praeneste and cultivator
course

opening
of

the

Roman

highways,
as
a

maintained
purveyor

her
art.

supremacy The of

life is of four

quite
abreast

different

from
of

that

centuries it
most

before, in its modes


of the

expression,but
fashions. found called
are

keeps

latest

The

characteristic circular
or

class of ob oval metal have


some
are

jects

the famous

boxes tical mysnow

cistae,long considered
or

to

religious significance. They


as

recognized
Some
at the bath

nothing
contained

but

objects of daily use.


men

of them
;

implements used by
used

others those
are

bv

women

for their ment boxes, oint-

toilet.

There boxes

mirrors, perfume
vases,

and

pins, nail polishers and


and
even

combs cleaners, strigils, Better


can

bath of

slippers. ties antiquifeminine

than
one

in any here

other

singlegroup
the entire called

recognize
the Romans form
a

toilet outfit,what

the mundus of the


so

muliehris, and

they
of

fit illustration Roman age.

Hterary
meager

sources

early

literature

for the pre-

Augustan

ROMAN

CITIES

33

The

cistae articles

which of

contained
commerce,

these
were

objects,
often
tremely ex-

though

artistic.

One

of
one

them

has

long

had

world-wide

as reputation

of the most

exquisite
cista

products of
of the in These the

ancient

art; it is the
museum,
on

Ficoroni which

Kircheriano

tions compositype.
dency ten-

graffitoare
are

of

pure, the

Greek

cistae which

typical of
observe

strongest
Out and had of

we

in this Praenestine Hellenism.

art,
the

the

tendency medley
the Latin

toward
of

earlier works

Phoenician artisans

Etruscan

artists and
a

fashioned
we

for themselves know We the

Latin

style which, when


a

shall

it better, will have


have
seen

clearly local flavor.


in period especially
were

it in the and

first

ivory carvings

bronzes, which
art.

less

dominated it in

by foreign
in

Xow

we

are

finding

in vase-paintings,
a

the

of graffiti

cistae and

mirrors, and
that the
were

quantity of objectsof daily use


at home.

manufactured
Greek cista
we

By

the side of the of

pure

work
can

in
set

the

of graffiti versions

Ficoroni
some

the

Latin bronzes
more

other fifty Etruria


we

cistae.
can

Beside
set

imported
that
are

from

many

Latino-Greek. There Praeneste is every is the


reason

to

feel, therefore, that


a

citymost

capable of giving us
of conditions in Rome,

fairlyexact
3

counterpart

341

ROMAN

CITIES

not

only

on

account

of

its size and and

wealth

but

because and of

of its commercial All

influence religious
came

connections.
Fortune all
as

Latium
went

to its Oracle

all Latium

to

Rome;

it felt

keenly
Rome

current

artistic,commercial,

social,
of after

and political should

religious changes.
not

Students
but

only

visit Praeneste, with


care

impregnating
should

themselves
with

her her

atmosphere
in antiquities and
a

study

loving
Of
as

Rome,
Rarberini

especially those
collections.

of

the

Kircherian there
are

course

few

scattered
and St.

elsewhere,

in the well
as

Louvre,
in

at

Berlin

Petersburg, as
the immense

tions; private collecto

but Barberini.

majority belong
because

the

This

is natural

the Barberini itself


ducted con-

princes,with
and their

their two

palaces in
their

Palestrina have

large landholdings outside,


on own

the excavations
not to

estates.

It is

many

years

since I
some

was

asked

by

the Barberini their trina Pales-

purchase
finds,

for

American

museum

archaeologicalcollections
which
were

including
remember
was

the

practically unknown
my light defilled

except
as

to

few

I specialists. after drawer

drawer

opened,
the third

with of

the unrestored
Latin Last the
men

objectsof
and
women

intimate of

daily use
tury cen-

the

B.C.

year

dealer and

in Florence
was

secured

them

from

family

holding

them

ROMAN

CITIES

35

there

awaiting some
which
to be

arrangement
would would in either add it to

with allow
one

the Italian the tion collec-

government

sold, or
museums

of the government it

Rome,
that

where

certainly;
to

should and

be.

It

seems

Italy
at

is not

lose

it

that

it is to be

opened

last to

the

public.

This

is fortunate for its loss.

because

nothing could
the

sate compen-

We the

can

now

pass Latin

beyond

narrow

sphere of
field of the of

girdle
In of

of

cities into

the

colonies, the allies and


Rome. south Italian the

enemies
we are

of Latium about
to

and

region
and

enter,

the

Tiber

the

Umbrian
as

plain,the
more

peninsula as
district built is in
stone
a

far down

the

purely
ruined
and posing im-

Hellenic
cities
once

thickly

dotted

with

peculiarlyrugged
masonry. The
not

styleof
are

large blocks
laid in regular cement,

polygonal cubes, irregular,


courses

but

fitted

together, without
Sometimes
without
any
are

in

apparent
are

disorder.

the

largest
to cut

blocks
and

juxtaposed
and

attempt

fit them

the interstices
more
are

filled in with Neither


cases are

smaller beds
outer
a nor

stones,
faces
are

or

less

roughly.
In other the beds

tooled.

the

faces

left

rough
is

but

given
of the
to

regular
and the

surface each

in the block

natural

direction

block

carefully joined
often of the

the

next;

joints being

proverbial

36 into
we

ROMAN

CITIES

closeness Then of

which find

the the

penknife
more

cannot

enter.

again
smooth-

developed
as are

scheme

facing
beds.

the

blocks There

well

as

giving
to

them
these

regular

subvariations
on
a

principalstyles,depending
blocks,
or on
on

the

use

of of

fairly uniform-sized
small
and

mingling

large stones,
masonry. has been

an

approach
to

to the

regular-course opinion
modes
are

No
as

unanimity
whether used

of

reached

these simulas

successive There

in time,

or

were

tanously.
whether
very

is also heated this

controversy
masonry is late

to

all of

polygonal
it is not and

really
as

early,or
of

whether

quite as
its broke

the

regular-coursemasonry,
to

due peculiarities

the kind

stone

used, which

naturally
of unusual

into these
At

polygons.
these for

all events

ruined

cities

are no

interest.
this

Except

sporadic cases,

others
a

of

type
and
even

exist in the civilized world

except
to the
were

very

few
age, the

in Greece, where in Asia

they belong

Homeric
built

Minor, where

they
of

by

earlier Hittites.
in the

They excited scientific


the

interest

eighteenth the Italian Signora Dionigi, the century, when Frenchman Petit-Radel, the Englishman Gell
first decades and
our

first American
were

amateur

archaeologist,
who felt the

Middleton,

among of

those

pecuhar

glamour

their

gloomy

majesty.

ROMAN

CITIES

37

Purely
surpasses the

as

works in

of

architecture
and also

the

Itahan numbers what


is

group

grandeur
the

in

both ests interthat this than

Greek

and

Asiatic.
in this

Finally,
connection

us

especially
of

class

city
with

is

more

intimately

connected

any

other

Rome/

^I

have

followed

the

traditional

interpretation
convinced been of

of

the

ruins

of

Palestrina,
another

without

being
has

quite

its

accuracy.

Quite
van

interpretation
in

recently
the

given
and

by

Mr.

R.

D.

Magoffin, of
Praeneste,

Study
1908.

of
He

Topography
reduces

Municipal
area

History

greatly

the

of

the

temple

enclosure

and

its

architectural

splendor.

II

The

Cities

of

the

Hernican

League

There

are

some

ancient

cities
to

in

the

hills that

along
have

the been

railroad
most

line

from

Rome in

Naples
their

successful

keeping
not

attractions
the
to

concealed. of
any

They
author the
who

have

decorated himself

pages covered dis-

believes
towns

have have

hill
any

of

Italy,
sketch

nor

they ways highcause

slipped

into

fugitive
One

of

Italian
the

and
to
were

byways. regrettable
not

might
of
to

believe
comfortable

be

the there
state

absence
reason

inns,
as

every
ever

be
been

skeptical
made
a

to

this

of

affairs

having

ject sub-

of

investigation.
towns

These

still

keep

their

antique
and

names,

"

Anagni,
to
name

Alatri,
the

Ferentino,
of the

Veroli;

they
gave

longed beits

tribe

Hernici,
which
as

who
on

to

the the

range

of

hills
as soon

rise it has end

the

north
the

side
Alban

of

railway
on

passed
the

mount

the the

right, th^
left

of the

Praeof

nestine the

ridge
the

on

and

enters
or

valley

Sacco,

ancient
me

Trerus
as
a

Tolerus. and

They

fascinated

boy,

they

have

88

t"

."

C/3

riate

ROMAN

CITIES

39

not

changed
of

for

me

since

then. flavors

For
one

tion combinahave

unspoiled antique

would pass

to

go

far to find their

equals.^ You
up
a

through
street

the with

pre-Roman
long
lines
stone

city gate,
of

winding
set

Gothic

windows all the

in of
an

the age
un-

mellow

walls, with
them
as

patina
burr
on

still lingering on rubbed


the
a

like the you


to

etching,and
casement

look
catch and

approvingly
the pure dark eye

at

mullioned
with

of

maid you

coal-black
a

hair

Greek

file, pro-

have for

picture

untouched
even,

by modern
is centuries

contrasts,
older its than

her

costume,

the Gothic

house, in its heavy textures,


and bold broad which

simple patterns
of the

colors,
"

the in

costume

Ciocieria,of

the models

Rome For

give a sadly freshened


over

and

de luxe edition.
years
"

two

thousand
or

fiYe hundred centuries

"

perhaps
people
in their

for

two

three

longer,
lived

the

with and

the

strong

straightfigure,the
head
have

free here

carriage

proud
town,

Greek

own

surrounded
with

by
a

their walled

immense citadel

polygonal
about
*

stone

ramparts,
it and of
with

standing within fifty feet


stations

overlooking
unbroken
and

its streets masonry.


that all main of

by

superb
their
names

The

dubbed

with Still the

Segni
Veroli For

are

far characteristically Alatri


two
are

from

the

towns.

but

and these of

easily
one

reached

directly
take

from
a

line. the

I believe

still must

diligence at

station

Frosinone.

40

ROMAN

CITIES

The

ancient

name

of

Aletrium and

has the

been
women

served prestill

in the modern feel

Alatri that

proud
credit

of the of

legend
instead

gives them
walls.

most

of it

the
were

building the antique


of

If

in Greece,
of half the

Italy, an
in bad
bed

abandoned

ruin

size and and

preservation,
and

difficult to reach devoid


recent

quite bare of
of years

board,

of the mellowness

and

marred flock

by
to

diggers,we
much

should
as

undoubtedly
we

it amid

discomfort, But,
admire show

do

to

Tiryns

and

Mycenae. rigueur
subsidized
to

being
places

in

Italy, where
the Baedekerized of

it is de
and

only

and

things
of

imperial
main re-

times, these
the

ruins, unsurpassed in the world,


appanage

peaceful

their

proud

habitan in-

One

day when,

as

boy, I
to

was

walking
was

across

the hills from


my first inner

Ferentino
vision of

Alatri, I

given meval prifive

the heroic

sturdy
days

life and

passions of
miles
spur,

those The

of

pendent early inde-

tribal life.
to
seven

towns,
on

though only
some

apart, always
not
as

precipitous
one

rocky

could

be

seen

from

another

like the cities, such

Assisi Spello,

and

Perugia,
mony hegethe and

strung along the gentle slopesabove

the Umbrian

plains.
Etruscan

Nor

could
more

they
such

stand

in isolated

like the

widely spaced
as

cities of

league,

Volsinii, Caere

ROMAN

CITIES

41

Clusium,
as

self-sufficient in their wealth.


were

Hidden

they

from

each
were

other bound
more

by
than

the

quick
the

folding en-

hills, they

by
into

closest
cans, Etrusopen,

fellowship, because
their

far

the

people
an

swarmed

out

the

livingthe They
Greeks
least
or

life of

agricultural race,
or

close to the

soil, unspoiledby luxury


did
not

foreign traffic.
Etruscans,
not
so

trade

with and did

w^th
in the
at

Phoenicians,
Latin

show

the

cosmopolitanism
we can

evident freedom-

Praeneste.

So

understand

these born

loving tribes, close blood-brethren,


and

fighters,
it
was

sticklers for local


so

rights. Long privilege by


full
to

after

esteemed
be

great
Rome

most

towns

to

given by

the

rights of keep

Roman

zenship citi-

they preferred
autonomy,
to be

their

municipal
friends the

considered

the allies and and

of the Roman

people, not part


this carried

parcel of
it the
was

octopus,
to

because

with

sion submisallowed
cities

Roman

magistrates.
from
the and Veroli

This

them

because

beginning
days
the when

the three been

of Alatri, Ferentino friends


to

had

stanch
haps, per-

Rome,

in the
or

it meant, of

the

making
These

marring
a

Rome's

ambitions.

cities formed
constant

solid
war

wedge
"

separating those Aequi


the in the

partners in
hills and the the mutual

the in

northern It
was

Volsci

southeast.

to

interest of

42

ROMAN

CITIES

Hernicans
which
It would

and

Romans

to

fight their junction,


them of both. the group,
one

have

overwhelmed that the the

is curious the

greatest

Anagni,
which walls
once

of capital

league, is the only

has and

not

preserved its originalpreliistoric


In their

citadel.

place are
their way,
had

other but
a

walls built well after the

equallymagnificent in
Roman
supremacy

after

become
or

established
the

fact,
war.

some

time

just before
because the

Pyrrhic
and
most

Is it not

Anagni,
ambition
some

richest the
one

most

of sophisticated be

cities and into the such

likelyto

swayed by
with under her

dangerous expedients, joined


other
as

of

Hernican

towns

influence

Capitulum, in
Anagni
lost

the anti-Roman and then the lost

confederacy of
rest?
her

Samnites,
306 most
B.C.

Etruscans

This

was

in and
same

autonomy
at the

of her land. she her

It is probable that

time times

walls,
the the

punishment
on

several faithless

inflicted

by

Romans walls
were

friends.

Afterward
later

probably
the
no

in the ^rebuilt,

of straight-course blocks, style the time of


were

such when

as

prevaileduntil
of and the

Gracchi,

the Hernicans

Anagni
become

longer
wark bulthage. Carsome

feared

city could
shall

Roman
or

in the As

struggle with
we see

Pyrrhus
it
was

with

also the

after defenses

siege,some

struggle in

which

of

JCrAv',

.i-*--

.i*^"

*-

Plate

VI

P"^^"-^
TB^

pTSBUC

44

ROMAN

CITIES

to

half-dozen

Once specialists.
and
men

they
came

had
to

few,
secrate con-

rivals in

Italy; popes
them.

cardinals like them.


or

Great
and three

St.

Thomas
were

Aquinas

lived
with had

died

in

They
four

peopled
monks central
in the

hundred

hundred

and and

daughter
towns

monasteries
I
was

throughout
then

southern

Italy.

tracing
of this

neighboring
monastic
town

the
on

influence

northern

Gothic

the natives, in their

churches,
tino and

halls and
are

houses.

Alatri, Ferenin secular

Anagni
no more

rich particularly

Gothic;

unspoiled even
remain
still
a

if

quite simple
the

palaces and
made
series of But

houses and

in
more

Italy,and
and

turesqu pic-

people
the

ery picturesquescen-

quest

continuous

delightful
in these
powering over-

surprises.
was spirit

if the medieval
the
at

strong
the

towns,

prehistoric spiritwas
from Alatri, especially

simply
wall

moment

when

one

catches town,

sight of

the

citadel

while
one or

crossingthe
of the its two

until, after passing under


and
on

antique doorways
incline
and
one

up the

the steps

long
of

stands

edge
scenes

of of

the the

ramparts

tries to recreate The hills and


are

the

days
and does

Tarquin.
so

stillso

unchanged
that this

the town
not

archaic

soft-toned

requireany

strenuous

imaginativefeat.
the
old

The

three-stepped base

of

sanctuary,

ROMAN

CITIES

45 and

under
have

the present cathedral, is beside


come

us,

we

through

the old

gate

up

lute into the abso-

stillness. The

stood acropolis

on

the and

highest peak
the

almost selves themWe

in the center had have there


no
are a

of the town,

citywalls
miles.

length
as

of

nearly three
either
was

clue

to

when earlier

built, but
on

traces
"

of
a

fortifications of small much


of
a

the

acropohs,
and the wall from modest natural
not

of

rough
of

first wall did

extent

height, which
aspect
the

not

change
second
direction

ground;
of

very

different
one,

in extent

and
less

the

present

though
advanced

perfect

workmanship.
It is built in the

This, then, is the third acropolis.


most

technique of the
sometimes tween be-

with large blocks polygonal style, three and any

four

meters to

long, perfectly
be

fitted, without
smaller

crevices
Faces and

filled in with
are

material.
The

beds and

carefully
are

prepared.

door

jambs
the

corners

strengthened by settingthe diagonal inward


to the wall

upper
same

blocks
slant from

with

slant, and

given
nal inter-

itself prevents dislocation


For
a

thrust. its summit

this third

was acropolis

given at
here
a

broad

expanse the been

by making highestlevel

large artificial plateau at


central

of the

peak
we

after it had
measure
some

quarried down.
we

When

of the blocks

begin

46
to entertain

ROMAN

CITIES

quite a high opinion of


these the main
entrance

the

building
trave archi-

capacityof
over

engineers. The primitive


is wide.
over

five meters On the architrave


stone
a

long, and
of

nearly two
three

meters

of the minor group

gate

is carv^ed
two

in the
ones

the phalli;
one

outer

zontal, horiof

the
course,
a

central

vertical.

They had,
Beside

religiousmeaning.
with their passages is
a

the into

two

doorways
bow^els

leading
curious

the
of

of

the

hill,there

group

three
wall.

three quasi-openings,

niches, in the
consecrated contained
to

south three

They
of the

are

probably
may

gods
or

cityand
An
two

have

emblems
a

sculptures.
between

inclined

plane

in

way passage-

polygonal walls
;
a

leads to the top the


same

from
way,

the main from


the

door

of steps,in flight
one.

smaller
one

There

is, besides,
about the
access

very
to

remarkable

liarity pecu-

the

top.

At

present
the

the

third

and

common

way

is, not

through

inside but

along
one

the outside
is

by
to

gently inclined
as

plane
because

which

tempted
the

regard

modern
the

it nullifies the

defensive
existence and

of qualities of the

citadel.

But, beside
which of is
an

antique
the

retainingwalls
find
a

bound

support it,we
under I will

proof
This

its

construction

Romans.

which inscription

give

here because

it is by all odds

the best

explanation

ROMAN

CITIES

47

of the way after


Sont
ludunt lacum arduom ob
. "

the

cities prehistoric

were

transformed
It reads
"

they came
de
" "

under
sententia
"

Roman
" "

rule.
infera coiravit
.

L. Betilienus
"

L. F. Vaarus
"

senatu
"

| Haec quae | facienda


qua

scripta |
"

"

semitas
campum
"

| in
"

oppido

omnis

porticum
" "

I in

"

arcera
"

eitur

"

ubei

| | | |
.

"

horologium
"

macelum
"

| basilicam
ad
" "

calecandam
"

seedes
"

balineariura

lacum
"

pedes
.

"

CCCV
censorem
"

| portam fornicesq | fecit


"

aquam

in
"

"

opidum
soledas
.

adou

fistulas
"

fecit

hasce

res
"

"

fecere
"

"

mereta

| ese

iousit

populusque

filio | senatus stipendia statuam censorino. | donavit bis


"

"

This
out

magistrate Betilienus
a

Varus

then,

ing carryhave He

decree

of

the

senate, appears
interior of
the
a

to

quite transformed
reconstructed

the

city.
top
of of

all the

streets, built

colonnaded

portico from
above
in the games dial

the

main

gate

to

the

the
the

citadel, including evidently the creation

esplanade supporting this portico. Below,


town

he established itself, be

forum
a

where

could

held, placed here


it with

public sun
public city

and

surrounded
a

public buildings,a
and
near
a

market-hall,
bath. He

basilica,public seats
a

also built

large cistern height of pipes had


source

the
on
a

gate and, best


pressure and
ten ten

of all,brought water
at
a

in three
a

highof ply sup-

aqueduct
feet.
The and

hundred

lead
the
was

diameter
water

centimeters
on

of the

Monte the

Paielli

hardly
are

six feet
five

higher
other

than Roman
one
*

outlet.

There

only
known

high-pressureaqueducts
is much
are

and

this
beMinor,

at Alatri They
at
at

the others^ the earliest,


Laodicea in and

Pergamon,
and Aries

Aspendos

in

Asia

and

Lyons

France.

48

ROMAN

CITIES

ing

of

the

imperial

age. and been

The

most

interesting
The date of

fact is that
and this the of the

this cistern

part of the aqueduct


found.

portico have
of

transformation character
of the from the

Alatri

is determined about the

by
time been
a

inscriptionat
135
to 100

of the Gracchi, deteiTnined


4.12

B.C.

It has had

that
meters

colonnaded

ascent

sage pas-

wide, ascending along the north


and that the

flank about

of

the

citadel

columns,
an

placed

2.52
a

meters

apart, supported
in

architrave what
was

with

Doric

frieze, similar
the

style to
Xorth

current to

under

Republic from

Etruria

Campania.
I will

refer

only briefly to
ruinous

small

temple
the

found, in very gates.


It
was

condition, outside
no

city
is

evidently of
from
era

importance, and
the

interesting only
of the
a

the

scarcityof
far

temples
It
two
sists con-

Republican

thus
a

unearthed. with

had

single cella
on

and

pronaos

only

columns

the
terra

front.
cotta

The

important part

in the

decorations, which
in

ment supple-

those of Falerii
the It ornamental

helping
of
an

us

to reconstitute

scheme
with
court

Etruscan

temple.
and

is reconstructed
in

its decoration

poly-

chromy

the

of

the Of
a

Etruscan
the

[Museum

(Villa Giulia)

in

Rome.
not

really important
found.

temples

of Alatri

trace

has been

r
'

THE

JJEW

YORK

PI PUBLIC

L"''RAR?*"

ASTOR,

I.ENOX AND

tii.di;n

foc -//-TLOi-n-.

Plate

viT

50

ROMAN

CITIES

partialdestruction
place.
and, the
gone Romans
were

of

the walls

and
restored masonry
or

gates took
at
once

They
in
not

were

doubtless of

fashion the
ever
new

cyclopean

having
else the

out

fourth

century,

having practised it,the repairs style,similar


The the
to

in

the
wall.

that

of
over

the the
as no one

Servian

straight architrave
round
in Etruria. the The

gates
was

was

replaced by
current to

arch, such
There
was

also

attempt
method violent.

temper

transition
contrast

from

to the other.

is obvious

and

Entirely of
the

this later

styleand epoch
in this of

is

most

and interesting

picturesque double unique


and

gate
in

below haps per-

walls.
the

It is
most

region,and
walls It

important
their has of

its class

Italy.
main. rewas as

Only
built

the The
on

arcades
upper usual

connecting

part

disappeared. forcing the

the

plan

enemy

he
the

approaches

to face

his

unprotected side
the

toward
it
an see

city wall.
not

But

it is unusual

in this that

does

lead

into directly the

city but
as
we

into shall

with approach parallel


at

wall,

Segni

"

modification
The broad

of the

scheme primitive leads into


an
a

of

defense.

single arch
was

inclosed

square

court, which

entered

by

similar arch of

at the

opposite end.
that
we

It is of the sort
must

simple Janus

gates

imagine

to

ROMAN

CITIES

51

4iave

existed
we

at Rome

of its massive the better


at

ture superstruc-

can

judge
later
It is
a

from

preservedbut (see

somewhat p.

city gate
fine in

Aquinum

197).
and have
to do

sonry piece of simple-course ma-

shows

what

style the
had after
courses

Ferentines

would
work

built their

citywalls
or

they had
400
B.C.

the The

shortlybefore
complete
Servian age,

method
and

of

alternate
was

of headers
at least
as

stretchers,here used,
the walls

current

early as
the

and

lasted

until

about

Augustan
the Hellenic is
a

though displacedoccasionally
in in needs with

by
to

type.

There the

passage
wars

Livy (IV, 61) relating


404
B.C.

Volscian

in

this
"A

valley

and

these
was

hills that

quoting.
the the battle
a

pitched
between

battle

fought
and the laid
at

Volscians

Ferentinum favor
was
an

Ecetra;

going

in

of then

Romans,

Artena,
the enemy

Volscian

city,
back
to

siege to by
a

tribunes.
was

During
the

attempt
the

the sally, and


an

driven

into

town

opportunity given
every

Romans

of

forcingin, and
Into
a

place was

taken tected pro-

except the citadel.

this fortress, well of armed


were men

by nature,
Beneath
The could

body
many
was

retired. and tured. capit

the fortress citadel

killed

then

besieged; but
because it
was

neither be taken

by

storm

held

by

garrison sufficiently large to defend

it.

52 could it be

ROMAN

CITIES

nor

forced

to

surrender, all the


the citadel have slave

corn

having citywas
fortress

been

conveyed
; and

into

before

the

taken
worn

they would
not
a

retired

from
the mitted ad-

it,being

out, had
Romans.

betrayed

to the

The
a

soldiers

being

by
took

him

through

place difficult
After

of access,

it; the guards being killed, the rest, panic-

stricken, surrendered.
the
were

demolishing
the

both

citadel and led back


Roman

the

city of Artena,
the Volscian
was

legions

from

and territory;

the whole
To

power

turned

againstVeii.
the

the traitor,besides

his freedom,
as

property
His
name

of two
was

families

was

given

reward.

Servius

Romanus."

This such
to
a

is the fullest

descriptionI have
and cyclopean city,
one

seen

of

capture
more

of than

it

helps

solve

puzzle.
been of what

The

so-called

destruction
course,

could is
an

have

of only partial,

and
at

example
well

pened probably hapthe

Ferentinum.
as

In

fact, the site of


as

destroyed Artena,
to

of

Ecetra,

seems

have

been how

identified.

Then

again,
was

trates it illusin those

important the citadel


the

after cities,
v/e

capture
from Latin
was

of the town.

And

finally
of the the

can

explain
and

the

extant way

ruins

Hernican

the cities,

in which the

citadel of Artena

betrayed to "through
a

Romans.

They

were

admitted

place

difficult

Ferentino, Cit}' Gate, fourth century, B. C.

M
'^^^";
"

*'

III,

"""

Segni, City Gate,


Plate
VIII

before

500

B. C.

ROMAN

CITIES

53

of

access": did

that

is, they did


come

not
a

scale

the wall,

neither there which In the


are are

they

through
certain

gate?

Now,

in all these walls

small

doorways
of
access.

evidentlynot ordinarymeans
there is
one

citadel at Alatri
the

opening
There
is

at

quite a height above


on

city level.
gate
which

one

the

left side of the and

main

in the
one

walls at
enters
a

Norba

Signia,through
passageway.

long
in the and

subterranean

There

are

others Circeii mous. fa-

citywalls
The

of Ferentinum, Those of

Aletrium,
were

other

cities. Etruscan

Praeneste

sites like Clusium In

(Chiusi)
subsoil which

are

full

of

them.

fact, the
vaulted

ancient passages

was

honeycombed
There
two

with
or

passed out through


are

beyond
:

the walls. considers


to

theories

one

them

to

be

sewers

or

outlets

for the water, other

protect
could

the

walls from
as

disintegration ; the
which outside the
or

regards them keep


the it

by sally-ports
with the

garrison

in touch In my

surprise the
are

enemy.

opinion most
opening
of number
cannot

of them and

sally-ports ;
proves

size of the in
a

of the corridors

cases.

We

tell what

system
But

was

used

to protect

these
in my

openings.
the
the
common

their existence

solves

mind of

objection to
in which
to

Livy's

account

way

Camillus

finally
it

captured Veii.

He

is said

have

done

by

54

ROMAN

CITIES

running
been But

mine

under
we

the walls and


are now

into the citadel have time.

itself,which,

told, would
that

impossible to
if
we

the

engineers of
that he

can
one

imagine
of these heart

gained

entrance

through
the

vaulted
of the

passages

which

led

directlyinto the

city,ending
the it
was

under

temple

of

Juno

Lucina,

appears. disdifficulty in this way and

It is

probable that
was

also that Norba Fidenae have


been
was

betrayed to Sulla,
v/hen the it is said Romans in

that
to

entered

by Livy
435

captured by
which
as

B.C.

by

mine

reached
to

to the citadel.
use

The modern.

doubt
Even

their

is

by

no

means"

in the time
uses

of

Augustus, Strabo
mentioned
says in
nection con-

speaks of

the two

I have He

with

Praeneste.

"the

city was
passages,

everywhere perforated by
some

concealed
off of

of

which

are

for

carrying
one

the

water,
the

others younger

for

sudden

sorties, in
was

which

Marius
was

caught

and

killed This

when is
ferred re-

Praeneste
to

captured by Sulla."

by Appian.
Anagni

In that rather
an

one

of

those

frank
as

and
a

charming
boy
wrote

letters
to

Marcus

Aurelius

his'
of

pedantic professor Fronto,


he made
on

he

speaks
to

excursion

horseback

Anag-

56

ROMAN

CITIES

die

Ages,
and

the

birthplaceand
its
of the the

residence
and

of several cathedral
to

popes,
are

episcopal palace
by
of

reminiscent VIII

dastardly insult
envoys

Pope Philip
and
Even

Boniface

King

le Bel, commemorated

bv
not

Dante.

But

Anagni
town
as

was

always
and its

as

small
it.

quieta

^larcus

Aurelius

found

Virgilcalls
describes it

it dives
as

Anagnia

Silvius

Italicus

pinguis,for
So
we can

territorywas
of it in the

rich
last and
as

and

fertile.
of the

think

days
other
not

Republic
Romans

when

Cicero, Brutus
owned

prominent
fallen swallowed

places here,

completely
up
most

into

the

obscurity that
But
turies cen-

had
of

of the earliest cities. in

course

she made before

her mark

historyin

the

her

revolt against Rome ill-judged

in 306 The

B.C.

ancient Monte

Anagnia
Porciano

of

those above Rome the should

days lay
the

on

the

ridge of
the

point where
to pass

three

highways
as
one

from
toward

joined
have

southward

Campanian

der. bor-

Strictly speaking, I
it first instead But of last among

described
towns.

the Hernican the

it has lost

of everj^thing
was

j)rimitive period
it,at Compitum
shrine
to

of its

history. It
near

just above
the the
was,

Anagninum,
was

where

tribal

ana Di-

built and

where

great meeting place


in what

of

the

Hernican

people

Livy

calls

ROMAN

CITIES

57 Via

the

Maritime

Circus, that
to

the

Praenestina,

after

joining Rome
the and
most

Praeneste, passed into the


was

valley of
Labicana nia the

Trerus the Via

and

joined by
This
as

the

Via

Latina.
center

made well

Anagas

important
the valley the

the the

capitalcity of
neck
as

Hernicans.
on

She

guarded
the side.

of the

north
on

side of

river She

Signia
of

did

opposite her
sent

the south in the


was

is said

to have

aid to Rome

fabulous

days
the
to

King
that kind

Tullus the
was

Hostilius, and

certainly
no reason

largestcityin
doubt
same

valley. There
walls

is

she of

surrounded originally
as

by

the

cyclopean

Verulae,

Signia,Aletrium
to

and

Ferentinum,
"

but

they seem
down,
haps, per-

have

entirelydisappeared,
B.C.

torn

in 306 The into

city resisted
Latium
to

Pyrrhus
Rome,

when

he it
we

advanced
was now

attack

and
w^alls

then
see,

probably
which in
are

surrounded among the


are

by
most

the

perfect of
in

their class
courses

Italy. They
headers medium
rather of

built and

regular

of

alternate tooled Hellenic circuit

stretchers, of
of

carefully
Their be the lowed fol-

sized than

blocks the

travertine, in the
mode.
can

Etruscan

irregular octagonal form

almost side
are

completely,but only
well

on

north
of

they
a

preserved.

In

the

center

this side is

particularly imposing

section whicH

58

ROMAN

CITIES

gives
the

the

originalheight
0.55
a

of

the

wall, built of
At this

eighteencourses
walls
some

meter

high.
double

point
across

make time

decided

curve,

which,

after, but
a

still in

quite early
or

Repubhcan
was

times,

platform straight
four Between

loggia piers

flung, supported by by round


arches.
an

nected high piers con-

the line of

and

the walls

is

ing. interesting early barrel vault-

On
common

one

of the

piersis carved
of the

the phallus,

emblem religious this rather


was

Hernican

cult,
this

and

leads to the

suppositionthat
needed either above
a

arcade

built to
some

give the

line straight
or

bounding
below. used there
on

sacred

inclosure

The

piers are

bossed,
at the

not peculiarity

in the walls, and

spring of
with

the

arches

rise

engaged
rest

columns

Doric
must

plinths,
have

which

square

which pilasters

supportedsome
connected

perhaps superstructure,
with the

an

itrave, arch-

shrine

or

ing publicbuildarchitectural

that overlooked feature

the walls. has

This

of

the

structure

not, I think, been


so

noticed.
of this

It is

because interesting,

little detail this the

early date
The have

remains

in

place in
of

part
walls

of

Italy.

travertine

blocks

themselves

in their lowest

courses,
numerous

originally
son's manumerous

perhaps
and

covered

by earth, quite
are

marks, which

among class

the most in pre-

interestingof their

Augustan

ROMAN

CITIES

59
with those at

times.

They
in the

can

be

compared
wall
at

Castrimoenium

(Marino), Tyndaris, Pompeii,


Servian
in

Cumae,
Porta

Rome,
If
we

and
set

at the

Augusta
walls

Perusia.
those

these gin ori-

travertine
at

beside

also of the far


B.C.,

Roman
coarser

Falerii, but
from wall

built of about
240

tufa

and the

dating

the

period of
and

Anagni

seems

decidedly earlier
character

this

is confirmed

by

the

of

the

mason's

marks.

Perhaps their greatest interest


one

lies in the
as

use

might
of the

make

of

them

in

arguing
do

to

the

age

cyclopean styleof polygonal masonry.


modern
date of critics who the cities of that
to the not

Those in the
with form

among

believe

early
of in

Central
the kind

Italy

this

styleof walls, claim


the blocks
was

polygonal
of took
stone

due

used

this

region, which
of

naturally
the

this

form irregular

cleavage in
the

quarries.They
been

contend
stone

that

had

soft

tufa

the

local would

here been

instead
cut

of limestone, the blocks

have

in In

quadrangular
their

instead

of

lygonal po-

shape.
walls be be and the

opinion the polygonal not only walls may straight-coursed


but the
were

contemporary,
later; that

polygonal walls
in fact used

may

they

almost
as

until

imperial times.

So of

these
a

critics dub

childish fictions the claim

pre-Roman

epoch

60

ROMAN

CITIES

for the Their


and

majority of
arguments
walls of

extant
seem

polygonal ruined
to
me

cities.

decidedly weak,
one

these

Anagni suggest
are

of

these

weaknesses.
of of been

They
when

in the heart and


were

of the

region
out

polygonal
fashion in the

masonry

had

it not

gone

they
It

built
not
as

would the

have

polygonal

and

in

straightwas

coursed
not

style.
work. If blocks

is not
as

if
as

travertine
limestone

occasionally used
It there and

well

for
at

polygonal
Saturnia.

is seen, is
a

for

example,
suited

material
to

for ling, hand-

squared

unsuited

polygonal regions it
into

it is the
no

light, punky,
lines. In but

volcanic

tufa, that has


is cut

cleavage
Latium
and

all other in the

into of

squared blocks,

polygonal region onal polygand


at

it is sometimes

tortured

irregular shapes, as
The
to

Empulum
forms

Tusculum.
would blocks which
seem
were

most

satisfactory explanation
the different
of the ways in

be that

not

caused

by

the of

different
stone
were

the

various
were

kinds caused

easiest structural

but quarried,

by

different

ideals and

fashions.

Segni All these Hernican cities


one were on

the

north
with

side of the them

valley,but

naturally groups
side, not

Signia,on

the south

only because,

ROMAN

CITIES

61

though
is built

it is
in
a

Latin

and

not

Hernican
and

city,it
Feren-

similar
it

style to

Alatri

tino, but because


cities in the A from sunrise the
one

joined hands
top

with

the Hernican

early wars.
the of JNIount
are

from

Soracte the

and lights de-

acropolis at Segni
remembers than
"

among years. cities


"

for of the
even

many

Signia
we are

is

higher

any

cyclopean

studying,
over

higher

than feet

Praeneste,

ing stand-

two

thousand
on

(six hundred
northern

sixtyspur

eight meters)
the range Volscian

the

highest
A

of
the
sent

mountains,
narrow

separated from colony


and it
was

by

valley.
to

here, according

Livy
in
510

and

Dionysius, by
was
on a

Tarforced reinspur

quinius Superbus
or

B.C.,

restored

in 495.

It stands
at
a

which

projectsfrom

the mountain

height of
then rises
extreme

five hundred
to

sixty-seven meters,
meters sixty-eight

and
at

six hundred

the

end
same

where
wa}^

the
as

city

was

built The

somewhat

in

the had

Praeneste. it toward

Aequians
which I

passed
as

in

beyond
as

the Alban and

ing reachhills, the have

far

Velitrae;
in
was

Artena,
in the way

Romans

destroyed
from

406

quoted

Livy,
its

midway
been

between and
we

them. have

Its natural
no

strength was
of
ever

phenomenal having
is ensconced
in

record

captured.
one

The

modern

town

corner

62

ROMAN

CITIES

of

the ancient
the

circuit of walls.

These
and

walls

are

among

most

extraordinary
whole
not
as

perfectly
The
to

preserved
ancient which it side its twin

in the
was

cyclopean large
watch
as as

district.

city
of

Anagnia,
on

corresponded
the

as

dog

the

site oppowas

valley,or
on

Norba,

which

guardian
The
reason

the

other

side of the The


a

tain. moun-

is evident. it commanded it
was

site

was

not

selected On
was

because

fertile

plain.
It

the

contrary,
a

too

far

in the

hills. modern

mainly
its walls

military station.
its foundation
to

The
the

schools of the been

attribute

and year
was

building
when have
to

about

the

495,
said

Roman converted In and


my

military camp
into
a

permanent

ony. military colthe

opinion, however,

city

existed pre-

simply
How
not

received many

Roman centuries

garrison
before

at

that I
two

time. would
or

this

venture

to

suggest;
the of this
to

bly probageneral

three.

Aside
most

from walls

propositionthat
or

I believe
to
seem
are:

polygonal
period
and of in this the have ularly pop-

cyclopean
B.C.,

masonry facts

antedate
to
me

495

two

point

direction.

These the

the

city gates
main

temple
been

on

acropolis. Three
The
most

gates
one,

identified.

conspicuous
on

called Porta

Saracinesca,
all.

the north of
enormous

side,

is

typicalof them

It is built

64

ROMAN

CITIES

circuit has

the

primitive characteristic
on a

of

not

ing* be-

built in the least


the undulations Norba with of

level but

of

following
at

the hill.

The

arrangement
and

its artificial terraces This is another of

levels is far

less archaic. of antiquity

argument
as

for

the
at

the wall
to date

Segni,
about arrival

the terraces
B.C.

Norba

seem

from
the

490

Signia,
Romans.

therefore, antedates
The and

of

the

acropolis is comparatively insignificant,


the main
defense
must

have
are

been
two

the

city w^alls.
stand
close

Here,

however,
and The

notable which

buildings, the
circular

cistern

the cistern of of

temple,
is
an

together.
a

enormous

well, with

diameter
not

about

sixty-five
sonry ma-

feet

(21.50 meters), built


like those in other of As blocks

polygonal

but cyclopean cities,

of

quadrangular
of opus heated

peperino on
to

foundation
there
one

signinum.

the

temple
of it

is

controversy which
of the

makes

of
age.

the It has

crucial monuments
rises been
on
a

early Roman
such the base for

three-steppedbasement
to

as

claimed
or

form of the
races

the

open-air
Sabines

hieron
and of

shrine

primitive Latins,
before the

other

Italian These be

introduction
bases for

temples.
can

triple, pyramidal
in and
a

worship
at

traced

number

of

early sites
this
one

in Samnium,

Sabina

elsewhere, but

Signia is not only well preserved but supports

ROMAN

CITIES

65
has The
same

an

antique temple
into
a

cella

which
use.

been

verted con-

church

still in of
as

basement,

about blocks

ten

feet

high, is
limestone
to

the the

polygonal
the pass But

of

white

walls, with

greater approach
to the

horizontality requiredto
the square
corners.

flat

top

line and

the

temple

cella

restingon
in

it is built of

squared
as we

peperino
have columns
the

blocks

regular courses,
in the cistern.

such
It has

alreadynoted
which
cella walls

lost the

probably
are

formed

its

but portico,

still intact.

It is

by
or

far

the

earliest known

temple
has

cella in Latium

Etruturies. cen-

ria, antedating any


It
a

other

by

two

or

three prove

triple division
Roman all authorities

to

its then

dedication

to

the

Capitolinetriad
agree of the establishment
or

introduced.
it from the Roman

I think about

ing in datof

the time in 510

colony
of

495

B.C.

The

only
the

difference

opinion is
or

whether

its

dation fountriple whether

is contemporary cella

and earlier,

replaceda primitive open-air shrine.


the cella has lost its decorative which
we

ably Probof

features

stucco

and the

terra-cotta,
finds
or

migjitsupply
and
us,

from

at
even

Satricum,

Alatri It

Civita
at

Castellana

Capua.
of

gives
w^hich
age

all

events, another
of

solid fact upon

to

base the

constructions re-

temples

the

of

Tar-

quins.

I believe that the

base triple

is earlier than

66

ROMAN

CITIES

the

temple

cella,

and

that

the

Romans,
the

not

using
peper-

polygonal
ino

masonry,
a

brought
in order

volcanic
it

from

distance

to

use

for

their

course

masonry
as

in

the

new

Capitolium
local
limestone

cella,
could

as

well

in

the

cistern. be

The

not

readily

used,

as

we

know,
the

for

course

masonry.

Here,
the

again,
choice time
of

it

was

style
the
reverse.

that

determined
At

material,
the

not

the

same

(c. 495?)
built
all
a

Romans

added
with blocks.

to

the

w^alls

and

double

city squared

gate

arched This

openings:
gate
It

of

peperino
approach
but

formed
has been

the

main

of

the

new

colony.
that it

destroyed,
the arched

we

may

infer

resembled

gate

of

Ferentino.

Ill

The

Via

Appia

and

the

Cities

of

the

Pontine The Via of

Plain the
as

Appia
the

intersects

happy
it takes toward spurs

hunting
its way Alba of
as

grounds
in and wavy

Latin

people,
from the

straightness
after hills
across on

Rome first

then

leaving
its

the
a

Volscian bullet

left

shoots

straight
to

the of Latium

Pontine
at

plain
Terracina. in

the

southern

boundary
Built
the Rome first
to

by Appius
of the

Claudius

312

B.C.,

it

w^as

great

highways
on an

inaugurated

by

bind
It

her

yoke
the

already subjugated
of the

region.
with

marked

close

long struggle
of the Latin To in
an

the

Volscians,
and the it
or

the

dissolution of
we

league
pass

subjugation
even

Campania. easily
can

along

now,
a

as

automobile,

on

long-tailed horse, loping


in
an

and is

Campagna
to
see
on

bred,
either
the way
so

or

antique
all the Roman
we

diligence,
ancient

side

nearly
of

sites

that On left

made
our

drama
to

earliest

history.
pass
;
on

the

Alban absorbed

hills

the the

CoUatia,

soon

by

Rome

on

right Politorium,Tellene
67

and

Bovillse, early Latin

68

ROMAN

CITIES

towns

of small

size that

soon

fell into
were

obscurity. grouped,
the

Around
after

the crater

of the mountain of Alba, the


near

the destruction
and

important cities
which
at Lake
was

of Tusculum

Lanuvium,
shrine of

famous
where
so

national many

Diana

Nemi,

wonderful

finds of the

pire earlyEm-

have
a

recentlybeen
Vehtrae,

made.
a

Just

beyond

it

on

spur
a

was

at times

Volscian

city,at
in about invasion

times
500

Latin-Roman
to stem

fortress, founded

B.C.

the tide of the Volscians'

when
on

these tribesmen Mount


of

saucily placed a stronghold


which
ened they threatLatin spans

nearby
the The

Algidus, by
the

seat

race.

Appia
hills and
a

then

the

gap

between

the

Alban

the Volscian

range of

of the Monti the

Lepini, edge
coast

picturesque spur
the main
the the Pontine

Apennines along
We
to

running parallelto
of and

range

the the
are our

plain
at
we

until

it reaches

mountains If

Terracina.
look

still in the foothills.

seaward

right
and than
or

we

can

place,near
earlier than

the water,
Rome and

Laurentum
even

Lavinium,

earlier

Alba, the sacred cityfrom

which
Rome.

the

penates,

household

gods,

came

to

Then,
an

only
cities La-

six miles

farther,Ardea

of the Rutuli,

tant impor-

seaport, another
and tium.
next to

of the and
of

Latin primitive
the

Rome
circuit

Alba tufa

largestin
in

Its

walls, built

part

"^^^'^^ ^^"^^ THE

-RAR^^
L

PUBLIC

AND

-Lt^NOX

.cTO'^

r;'

,\.

!"

/
A
\ t

"
rP^C
:
'J'

./

4ir

/"

""

".-""//

Plan

of

Xorba

(ruins

dating

from

eighth
C.)

(?)

to

fourth

centuries

B,

Plate

IX

70 In

ROMAN

CITIES

this

neighborhood
which
were

are

some

of

the of

thick

tangled maccJiie
but than
a

the
as

refuge
be
more

factors, male-

so

unhealthy
the real

to

deadly

papal prison. begins


the Pontine then

Here

plain, now
as

marshland, dreary pestilential


its way
as

fertile in
the

proverbialvalley of
and fallen
as

Tigris through
below
more on

and
We

Euphrates,
can

low

in its estate.

follow

its border
to

from

Satricum
range
once

modern
the rock the that left Via
on

Cisterna of Norba.

the
as

mountain
we

But

stand
must

Appia
our

at this

point,we
mountain
its well and

not
we

forget
have ancient

left, some
up
on

five miles

back,

high

the

side the

Latin

cityof
When

Cora

with

preserved triple earlybold


threatened
not
an

circuit of

polygonal walls
the

its very

bridge.
upper

Volscian the south

invasion
Cora
was as

Latium
a

from

sidered con-

sufficient

protection and
with the the

outpost
that will

Norba

was

selected, and
us

it is Norba
means

mainly
these

furnish

of

judging
In the

Latin

cities of
Suessa

middle
was

period.
to

too, plain,

Pometia
not

built, a large and


escape

wealthy city,but repeated capture


From
to

strong enough

and

early destruction.
the

below

Norba,

Appia, keeping strictly


flightin
lute abso-

the

begins plain,

its arrow-like

across straightness

the Pontine

plain to

the

ROMAN

CITIES

71

sKrine

of
a

Feronia

near

Anxur-Terracina.

At

present

sometimes depressing,

tiful, fabulouslybeauand

sometimes

ghoulishlyslimy always
the
more or

repellant
Republic.
Volscian mountains
curve

stretch, it was

less the

unhealthy and
late

marshy
Aside
hills into
on

from from
the

time

of

the

picturesqueand
the

rocky they

left and

Ausonian
as

which there

they dimly
is hides

melt
see

ward, east-

nothing to

but the rank


sea

and

tall

vegetation that
the

the

line

on

the

right,

sluggish miasmatic
Circe, Mount
Terracina.

canals of

and, directlyin
the

front, rising superbly out


of

haze, the rock


visible in.

Circeii,almost
In

with parallel

the thickets game and

of this marsh"

land

there

is

great varietyof
"

wild boar,
now

wild

duck, partridges, quail


emerges either
a

even

and

then there
groups

solitary tawny bull,or


campagna cattle

of the

superb half -wild


will survive sunk

with

their centaur-like

shaggy-legged guardian long


after the western desuetude.
into innocuous

cattlemen, who

cowboy
Until

will have
one

enters sent

here upon
out

the real marshland

the hills have


the

ridges into the plain like

exposed
Norba

roots

of

some

large trees, but


sink throw
to

at and

beyond
flatness

the rocks One


of
can

abruptly
a

into the
the

below.

stone

from

polygonal walls
hundred feet

Norba

fall

nearly

fifteen

into straight

the

springs of

Ninfa.

72

ROMAN

CITIES

Even

along

the

mountain
to

line, though
race,

spot
were

sacred peculiarly

their

the

Latins It

obligedat just here


from From say

this that

point to
he gave

let go

their hold. Saturn

was a

in the old when and


was

legend

found

hiding place
heaven

expelled by Jupiter
the

civilization to
was

earth.

this latibulum

the land

called

Latium,
Saturnia.
said
to

these

fabulists, and

from
w^as

the

god
them

His
be

earliest historic
near

shrine

by

Setia.

Setia, the
and
would

next

city to Norba,
on

though strongly walled


rock,
scians
was

strongly set
seem,

its Volwas

occupied,it
not 382 383

by

the

and

recovered
or

until their
it

power

broken, in
a

b.c.^ when

again received
cuit, cir-

Roman

colony. Cyclopean walls, citadel


can

bastion, temple sites

be either

studied
at

here,
or

though
Norba. that

less

perfectly than
commanded
into the

Cora

Setia

the

first wide hills and

valley
nects con-

leads with

deep
the

Volscian the

valley of
this

Sacco, the
the

ancient

Tolerus.

Through
unknown
time

valley

Volscians

poured
at
some

into the Pontine

plain from
after

the northeast Rome had

500, when
the

been and

weakened the
loss

by
of

the

expulsion of
Setia of

Tarquins
Near
west

Etruscan

support.
on

the and scians Vol-

mouth

of the
on

valley stood
the

the

Privernum

east, both

which

the

captured. Privernum

they kept

until the

ROMAN

CITIES

73

end, when
the

Rome

punished
in 318

its
B.C. one

obduracy by
to

ing forc-

inhabitants build
a

leave

their hill

cityand
ruins for it not

defenseless

in the the

valley. Its
excavator,

still exist, most

invitingto

only has
but and
was

monuments

of the late the

lican Repubtime of villa of


one

age,

superb sculptures of
Tiberius.
here. I
on

Augustus

The

favorite
how
to
see
a

Sejanus
years fort ago built

remember
my

day
of the who

as

was

way
at

primitive

by

the

Volscians
to the

the
a

neck

valley,I
was

listened

song

of

shepherd

herding on
this villa.

the southern The first of

slope below
the words

the ruins

of
were:

to his song

Marciano,
Tutte

Marciano
son

le pecore

""di Sejano.

The

name

of

Sejanus
survival

and of
a

of

his

head

man! herdsfor

Strange

local tradition

perhaps
Soon range
we

nineteen after reach


at the

centuries! in
shrine

passing by this opening


the ruins end of the famous of the last spur before and

the
of

Feronia,
cina. referred
was

Terra-

Here
to

were

fountain, grove Horace,


led to with the

shrine,
it

by Virgil and
of

founded,

said,by Lacedemonians
out

emigrate from
severe

Sparta

discontent
the

laws

of

Lycurgus.
Circeii

Now

marshland

ends, and
enter

ing leav-

to towering

the

we right,

the

74

ROMAN

CITIES called
both

city which
Terracina.
Here the the
was

the

ancients

Anxur

and

the southern
Here
Here

frontier
were

of Latium
some

in
of

earliest times. earliest


into and

located
the

legends.
a

magician
lover

Circe
son

changed
of

wood]3ecker

her

Picus,
~

Saturn

king
it
was

of

the

Ausonians.

Under
the and and
a

the

Tarquins
with

still Latin, but


rest

fell to

Volscians
was

the

of

southern
a

Latium

kept by
It is

them

for

nearly
look while
must

century
at

half. Circe

interestingto
that the Romans
393
B.C.,

across

Mount
was

and

remember

Terracina
have

stillVolscian

raided
a

that

mountain
and
a

in

turned

it into

fortress
even

thorn their
sea

in the

side of

the

Volscians
it could

though
only by
had
In been

communications
until the

with of

be

conquest

the Volscians

completed.
as

fact,

Norba
at the

had

been

defensive
the
was

wark bul-

for Rome
at the north
an

beginning of
Circeii

struggle placed as
The and

end

of its area,

offensive

wedge
I

in the south

at its close.

two

fortresses

illustrate shall

different

types

periods and
Both
are

study

Circeii after

Norba,

in

splendidpreservation.
the

Long
there

before

building of
another

the

Appian
in

way this

had In

existed

great road

region.

fact, the Appia had

serenelydisre-

ROMAN

CITIES

75

garded
cina.

every

city between
stretches The

Velitrae

and
had

Terraall to

Cora, Xorba,

Setia, Privernum
of

be reached

by long
from

specialroadways
road
was,
we

branching
see,
as
a

it. for

Roman

not

designed

local

commmiication,
to
to

but

great

inter-provincial artery
with

establish insure the

communication

Campania
from time this

and

free

despatch of troops point.


From
were

Rome forward

to any

ern south-

the

mediate inter-

cities

to

diminish steadily
were no

in size and needed


as

importance.
fortresses loss of
able in
a

They

longer

completely friendly country.


sent

The and the

independence
and of the
came

the

more

ambitious With free labor

to Rome

other the

large centers.
old

abandonment
and

system
of

of slave

culture agriand

substitution the

large estates
of the up

neglect of
after of

the old network

underdrainage. gradual
farther subtle and

Soon inroads

there

commenced

malaria, reaching
the
coast

farther The

from

line and of the

from
old and

the south.
towns

source

of the wealth first became

failing,they decayed.
are

fossilized

then
we

But
went
B.C.
on

not

concerned the third

with and

this

decay

that

during
these

second

centuries

What is
a

antique

cities represent in history in Rome

stage of culture
of the

corresponding
the earliest

to the age

kings and

Republic.

76

ROMAN

CITIES

It

was

then time
a

that

they
was

lived

their full life.


on

At

that but the with


and

highway
above side.

built not
than

the way

plain
up

quitehigh
mountain

it,more

half

It first connected
hill and the

Velitrae itself

the cities of the Alban then

Rome

joined Velitrae
Then

to

Volscian
a

hillside
torrent

at Cora.

leaving Cora
even

it crossed

by

bridge which
age,
"

as

it stands

is of the Republican
"

perhaps pre-Appian,
three Cloaca

for of

it is archithe

constructed volts

of

superposed
Maxima. its down
can

lines

like the

It

followed
in the

hillside to Norba,
and

risingto
out

gates
to

zigzags
narrow

then

passing
but

and

valleyof only to
I do

the Visciola.

Its line

be

traced

not

Setia

beyond
that

until it debouches of
one

above

the Amaseno
not

valleyin
believe

front any

Privernum.
before line of

myself
this
over was

had

tracked

continuously
I had

the it
to

prethe
no

Appian
entire
easy

highway.
stretch
to

surveyed
Setia. It

from it
on

Cora

job
and

trace

account

of the many still lined

early
side the hillone a

polygonal retainingwalls
others that in into

that the

distance
It is

fooled
now

thinking them
the foundations

ancient. these

quite

generalopinion that
were

ancient

retainingwalls

for lines of
to

buildingsalong
later.
a

the
course

hillside. the

shall refer
was

them

Of

highway

also

supported by

hne

ROMAN

CITIES

77

of walls which

differed

from

early city walls only


After
as
a

in their

roughest of the superior roughness.


the

certain
center

preliminary rambles
from of Cora
to

from

Norba
a

I started

reallymake
walked
there

consecutive
the shoes their slant way
were

tracing
all askew

the

road
I

and

all my into

to

Terracina. and

When
my

got

feet

huddled

I
to

was

a steep on rightsides from walking steadily direction, so that while for four days in one return inclined to give myself up for my

the

luxury
order

of
to

the

stuffy diligence,I
their

was

obliged,in
back

restore

shape,
these

to

walk

along the

same

hillsides !

]\Iy consequent certainly had


would of the have
one me

intimacy

with

hillsides
else
sense

good
so

result.

Nothing
close
a

given
these

strong and
in
we even

antique
of of

life here

times. prehistoric
must

In
our

thinking
ideas

cities life and

eliminate
Roman

modern

of

life

"

the life of the and

city.

For

these Latins, Hernicans


was

Volscians, the life


as

that

of the
we

country,
at their

strange

this may

seem

when
The

look

grandiosewalled
most

cities.

cities held, it is true,

of

the

temples;
was

the

or acropolis

citadel
one

on or

the
two

highest point

supplemented by
in
was

enormously strong

lines of walls, sometimes

concentric, sometimes
iThe circuit of the walls

superposed
in
some

terraces.

cases

two,

78

ROMAN

CITIES

three
and

or

even

four
were

miles

in

so length,

that

Tiryns

Mycenae
we

small
upon

in

yet

must

look

these

comparison. And cities as mainly the


of

refuge

of the inhabitants of their

in times

danger
life that

and
was

the center

government.
so

The than

essentially more agricultural;


most

of

other had
was

groups

of the

peoples
Umbrians

in

Italy, though
and

they
There

rivals in
not

Sabines.
merce com-

the

development
we

of

art, of
on

and of them

of in

industrythat
Etruria No and fleets

find

either side

in Latium.
no

Campania or even brought imported works,


no

in

pampered
of
art

aristocracyexisted,
were

luxurious
a

works

produced.

It

was

plain,

hard-working people.
For

them
The be

the unit remained

the
means

the territory,

land. it could
each

citywas kept.
each

mainly
Here
as

the

by
not out
"

which

elsewhere marked

only by
a

citybut

was territory

ditch and

consecrated

by
Where often

the

priesthood, a
the

eral gen-

Italic custom. the I it was territory

highway entered defended by a fortress. primitivepolygonal


lines between Norba Priverand tween be-

found

these
on

unique

and

blockhouses
num

the border

and

Setia, between
and Norba.
noticed
be wall traced
or

Setia and I do not

Cora
ever
^

believe

they have
f orts.^
is
a

been
They
can

at least

recognizedas
Near Amiternum

elsewhere, however.

fjyclopean

nearly

forty

feet

high

connected

with

the

ROMAN

CITIES

79 defended the

In

the

plain, other
the station.

blockhouses

approaches to just above


along
the

like that below the hillside, It


was

Norba,

outside

the walls, houses farmI have


was

hillside,that line upon


the

line of

supported by
mentioned
were

retaining walls
to

built; and
a

each

citizen

probably assigned
below,
wealth the from of the which

lot
came

on

the all We

Pontine

plain imagine
on

the
can

agricultural
well

community.
wattled
the huts

temporary

in the of the

plain and
urns,

after the hillside, such huts


are

type

cabin

cause be-

still built
same

by

the herders
not

and
the

shepherds
Pontine

for the but

purposes,

only

on

plain
show

north of

of Rome
the Maremme. of peace

in the

sponding corre-

stretches passages of the that


not

Several
a

in times

large part

people
and

only stored their produce but


towns,
in

lived

outside

the walled

houses farmvillages, of which


is

villas, the
So

destruction
these
as

recorded.
must

that beside the

visualize
more

hillsides

huts we primitive thicklysprinkled


In all
seen

with

substantial
now

buildings.
a

this

region where
were

hardly
the

soul is to be

there
in the

several between before

hundred

thousand fourth and

people
the

period
natural between times

turies eighth cen-

Christ.
a

rock the

of

ravine and

whose
the

purpose
Vestini
was

of

marking
marked

the

boundary
in
Roman

Sabines

even

by

terminal

cippus

inscribed

FINES

SABINORVM.

so

ROMAN

CITIES

Researches
some

by
of

M. the

de

la Blanchere

have

given

inkhng

painstaking and
of the

efficacious worked
a

methods

by
He
some

which

these ancient

tribesmen
desert

their land

and

made

present

den. gar-

discovered of which

elaborate
were

networks

of

sages, pas-

large enough
of well

for

man

to

explore,and
They
where
were

built

constructed
to

stonework.
use

evidently intended
and would
it it

for

carryingoff

water water

for

underdraining
stand.
utilize the

the lowlands

otherwise

This
every whole

careful inch of

system made

possibleto

ground

and

honeycombed
material
have and in

district from
is Both
an

the Alban

hills to Terracina. of
this

There

abundance Cora
and

region.
remains of
are

Setia

magnificent
foundations
at

of their

polygonal walls
of

temples of
two

the

and early period,

Cora

there

temples

the Hellenistic

age.

thing Some-

remains

of the Privernum
the

of the

Republic,
so

though the site of destroyed by the


not
even

cyclopean city was


Romans that But
on

well

vindictive

it has I shall

been
on

located.

in this wealth Circeii and


to

concentrate

Norba,
am

Terracina, Satricum,
removed

for

though
was

tempted

speak
has

of

all that

there interesting

been

and

the site is too

unhealthy to
NORBA

visit.

once

spent

about

two

months

in

survey

of

HOMAN

CITIES

81
of cold
on

the ruins of Xorba,

on

daily diet
were

pork
the for

chops.
spot.
centuries that

To In

be

sure

the

porkers

raised

fact, their favorite


had been
a

abiding place mysterious


face heart of of of
cavern

large and
from the

seemed

to extend

the

the the

cliff

overhanging
curious

the

plain into
know

city
I

in the direction
was

of the main

group

temples.
of

to

whether the with


a

it could

actually
the

have

reached
and

under connected
to

foundations their of

temples
then I

for favissae,

hoped

find

mass

broken down But Each

pottery,

utensils, and

offerings
several be

thrown

by
my I

the osity curiwas

priestsduring
could driven back there the
never

centuries.

satisfied.
of

time

by legions
from

stalled predatory fleas, inwith

generationsin harmony
was

pigs.

The seemed

combination
then
to
me

too

strong.
seems

Norba
most

and

still

the

promising of
I
once

the ruined

cities of
excavate

early times
it and
some

in

Italy.
I may

hoped by

to

day
done.

tell the story of


on

why

this could the

not

be

Spurred
of of

our

survey,

Italian
to
our

Department
School the

Fine

Ai'ts, after
Studies the

denying

Classical
survey

of privilege

pleting com-

by

some

modest Its

excavations,

proceeded
have who believe

itself to

excavate.

archaeologists

all,apparently, joined the phalanx of those


in the late date of these

polygonal

82

ROMAN

CITIES

and cities,

in their excavations themselves


was

they
with

seem

to have

mainly

concerned that Norba

discovering
before
sent
was a

proofs
492

not

founded
was

B.C., when

the Roman tried


to

colony
that it is

there. oughly thor-

In

fact

they
Roman

prove

it

city. Now,
as
a

recognized by
custom

Roman

historians of
were

general
colonies
to

in

the

establishment

Roman
sent

that

wherever

possiblethey
of
to

ters already existing cenare

population.
this rule.

There It
was

hardly any
a

tions excep-

which peculiarity the

the distinguished
were

Romans of

from

Greeks, who
The

in the of
auxere

habit

choosing fresh sites.


year

passage

Livy

reads, in the
colonorum

492, Romani

^^et
et

Velitris
Norhae

numerum

in montis

novam

coloniam^
There

quae is

aroo

in in

Pomptino
its The

esset, miserunt."
to prove

nothing

wording

that Norba passage how


we

did not in should

preexist.
of

corresponding
shows

Dionysius
of

Halicarnassus

it, interpret
the

for, after

speaking

of

the

reinforcing
"A few
a

colony
a

at

Velitrae, he says:
was

days after, city of the


This that in the
was

new

colony

sent

to

Norba,

Latin

people of
of
a

considerable
to Norba

importance/'
proves
sources

applied qualification opinion already


if

Dionysius
well known

and

his

Norba
B.C.

citybefore
aside

492

Now,
to

set archaeologists

preconceivednotions

84

ROMAN

CITIES

Journal
^ines

the gorgeous

colors of
the
masses

the flowers

and

that ahnost churches Around


move

conceal

of its ruined
and

unroofed
towers.

and
and

monasteries, walls

through
of the it its name, fishermen

it stand

rather

than

the waters that

famous

stream

ad

Nymphas by
many

give to

still frequented

enthusiastic

for its
are

large and
some

flavored delicately frescoes


town
on

trout.

There
one

dim
little

the

walls

of

church.

The the be

hall is even

in fair

preservation ; but
mill.
We
cannot

only
tain cer-

sign of
Norba

modern

life is

of it, but it is quite probablethat when


on

ancient few in

the
were

cliff above

was
a

destroyed,the
be

survivors
the A

forced

as

punishment
not

to build

plaina

town

that could

defended. easily

causeway

zigzags
two to
name

up

the

steep mountain
near

until in about

miles it passes the


and

the ancient

city and
adopted
much stricken
here

on

modern
was

Norma

which

has

its

probably
by
below. Ninfa

settled not
the

before

the

Renaissance

feverFor up
zone.

refugees from
far above before

they are

the

dangerous
the

fever

Even
the

startingup
eye
sort

causeway of that the

from historic pre-

plain,the city:a

perceivestraces
of

blockhouse
the

defended

the

approaches
of

from

lowlands,
masonry

long

and

fugitive lines
the

polygonal
levels,and

striating

slopeat

various

having evidently^

ROMAN

CITIES

85 villas
a

served

as

foundations
establishments

for

the that

numerous

or

farming
suburb
to

formed
were

sort

of

the

fortified the

city and
of

the

quarters head-

for
the

cultivation

the

territoryin
in
us.

plain.
we

Before

reach

the

ruins

the
war

old

passage

"Appian's history of
It is dramatic
of

the

civil

prepares

in its brief last

simplicity.He
the the Italian of

ing is tell-

the and

days

of

struggle between
wealths, common-

Marius

Sulla, when
had

which
with
w^ere

all practically

them of

sided

the

defeated

democratic
or

party

Marius,
the

being

decimated

destroyed.
Norba
was

After

destruction

of Praeneste,

last in the

hopeless struggle,besieged by
Aemilius
*'was

Sulla's

general,
The

Lepidus.

He

could

not

capture it,but
this each with

admitted
were

in the

night by treachery.
by
fell
on

inhabitants Some

maddened
or

treason.

killed themselves

other's ropes. the

swords, others
Still others
town.
so

strangled themselves
the

closed

gates
fanned

and

set

fire to

strong

wind the

the flames, which


no

far

consumed
In

place that
did
is the

plunder
of

was

left in it.
men

this way
This beside

these

stout-hearted
Norba

perish."
to stand

requiem
of been

worthy
Since
a

the defense
not

Saguntum.
lived in
are
as

that time, 82 B.C., it has

town.

The

signs of principal

later life

the

86
villas of

ROMAN

CITIES

some

Romans Sulla

of the

Empire

and

few site

medieval
to
one

graves.

probably
as was
we

gave

the

of his followers, else it

he did other

cities that off


to the at

he

destroyed,or
bidder. is earher of the

auctioned
shall
B.C.
see

highest
Norba,

What
than
82

then,
is not

This

the

opinion
the
me,

Government
and

who archseologists,

believe that

temples
This
than

city were
more

rebuilt under doubtful


to

Empire.
any
a we more

seems

than

the

Byzantine fragments
trace
to

prove
As

medieval

township.
it we
can

approach
road
that

the ancient

pre-

Appian
on

joined it
on

its two

neighbors
Rome We
on

either side, to Cora


to

the

side toward of

and
enter

Setia in the

direction

Terracina.

Norba

by
corner,

large fortified gateway


defended
The
on

the
a

southeast

the

right by

large circular
seven

bastion.
feet In

wall its

circuit of about
is practically

thousand

with

gateways
with

complete.
it is not

comparison
course

later cities than the

large,and
of

is,of

far

smaller
on

great
summit
these

Etruscan
a

cities like Veii.

Standing
has been

rocky ledge, there


years the but
a

in all

two

thousand
earth
over

tion slightaccumulastreets

of their

site; several

with

sidewalks, three
well

temple
and

groups,

the

city

reservoir, several
some

treasure

chambers,
which
divide

civil

buildingsand

the

walls

Xorba,

Bastion

in

Second

Circuit

Cori, Temple
Plate
XI

of

Hercules

ROMAX

CITIES

87

the

city into terraces

can

still be

seen

inside the

walls. The

specialfascination grain.
into the There

of

Xorba,

aside
Its

from

its situation,is its state is to grow

of desertion. is
no

only use
and

modern Run
a

medieval
stick
a

the old. cityobliterating foot

pointed
hit the

ground
The

and

you

may

ancient
on

sidewalk. We

original street
see

is almost the ferent dif-

the surface. levels


were

can

exactly how
bv lines of

obtained

artificial
same

terraces

supported by retainingwalls
construction that
on as

of the

Cyclopean
I do site
not

those

of the outer ancient the

city.
walls

believe of many

anv

other

Itahan

north
so

Magna
traces

Graecia,
of of

city
the the their

inclose The
towers

buildings.
interest circular
are

special points
or

two

bastions,
two

one

and

other

square;
;

the the

acropolis hills overlooking


small

with

ings build-

hillock and

the

Pontiae various

plain;
gates

the and It

large
is

cisterns; the

posterns, with
verv

their subterranean
to

passages.
towers at
more

unusual walls. noticed

meet

with these the far

in

Cyclopean city
none

Beside

Xorba
merous nu-

have and

been

except

regularly disposed
at
more

towers

at

Cosa
are

and

the

possible bastion sign


I of
a

Alatri.

They
Xorba

certainly a
science, and

advanced
at

military
to

should

assign these

88

ROMAN

CITIES

the time
The
was

of

the

arrival then have

of

the Roman

colonists. this

city must
done
on

been

enlarged and
Pontine

the

side

opposite the
of
an

plain
tending ex-

by
with

the

construction from the

artificial terrace

main

gate (Porta Maggiore)


at least
as

the circular

bastion

far

as

the next

main

gate,

the Porta
was

Signina.
much
was

As

the

city level

along
and

this line

not

above
made

the surrounding

ground
was

the

wall

unusually high
a

strengthened at
the earliest of feet about twelve

its

principal angle by
is the in ancient its base feet.

projecting square
well It is
as

bastion, which
its class wide
at

largestas
Italv.^
and

nearly forty
a

still
of its

rises to
stones

height of
ten

forty
feet

Some

are

and

long.
cannot must

How

much

was higher it originally

be have

determined,
risen It has
no
case

but

both

wall

and

tower

considerablyabove
been asserted that in these rise above of Norba

the this

level of
was

the terrace.
so :

not

that did

in the

cyclopean
the interior
are

fortifications level of the

walls

city.
to

The the side the and

walls

conclusive whole

evidence northeast

contrary. Along
we

nearly the
wall between

find

second

running
was

parallel to
filled up

outer

wall; the space


asserted
above the that while

Dennis
rose

at

Cosa, Volterra
never was

and done

Rusellae in the

the cities

walls

inner

level, this
and the

of

the

Latin, the

Volscian

Hernican

hills.

90

ROMAN

CITIES

beam

which
B.C.

was

undoubtedly consumed
I discovered, by the way,

by the
ous numer-

fire of 82
traces

of this fire among

the ruins of the

city.
of its

I
492

imagine
B.C.

that before
new

the Roman stretch


of

colonists wall with

built this

great gate, the main

entrance
to

to Norba

had

been where

just
a

around
of

the

corner

the

southwest

gate

considerable
below the
enters

size minor
here
to

(Porta
bifurcates the

Ninfina)
The
two

stands

just

acropolis.
in the plain, both

early road

which

directions, one

descending
certain

other these with


a

keeping
gates I
them of and

on

the upper

slope. Inside
walls

noticed with the

connected formed which


the

city walls which


or

sort

irregularplace d'armes
in
case

court

could

be defended It is the

the enemy of what age the

stormed
Roman

gates.

embryo

engineers
into such
an

before

the

Augustan
Cosa,

developed
inner
court

architecturally symmetrical
we

as

shall

see

at

at

Spello, at
city by

Aosta

and

several other
Another colonists cliffs may

cities. addition have


to

the

the

Roman the is cludes inof

been the

all that Pontine inner

part toward

overlooking
the the

plain
bastions. the

which This

beyond
Juno,

long
hillock is

line of
on

which

stood

temple

which

formed partly artificially be of earlier date.

with

materials

that cannot

ROMAN

CITIES

91

This

means,

of and

course,

that the

the

internal
this side

arrangements
were

levels
two

of

city on
of the

changed.
seem

The

centers

primitive acropolis
the

city

to
on

be

undoubtedly
the the
very outer
as

the

two

hills.

That

edge
one

of

city,
Porta but
or

immediately

to

left

enters

Maggiore,
two temenos.

is

quite small
with

and

holds

nothing
inclosure had
a a

temples
Each

their
seems

sacred

temple
that
on

to have

arate sep-

approach ;
that
on

the

right by

staircase,
Their
structure super-

the

left

by

an

inclined

plane.
all the

stylobatesstill
has wall and

stand

intact, but

disappeared. Stylobates,temenos
walls From
are

encirchng
masonry.

all of

polygonal
of the

cy-

clopean
and
were

fragments
that third

columns

terra-cottas

it is evident second
or

temples
B.C.,

rebuilt that thev with

in the
were

century

and

of the usual

type of cella and


covered with

pronaos
terra-cotta

columns
then

first of wood of stuccoed

and
a

stone.
arcc

Evidently
or

this which

was

sacred
on

hill; not

the

citadel,
farther

stood

the

larger acropolishill

north.

On In
the

the
case

citadel of the
were

hill,also, there
others
we

was

temple.
to

cannot

say

what

deities have

they
head

dedicated, but
was
a

the

excavations An
to

shown

that this which

temple

of Diana.

archaic

originally belonged

her

92

ROMAN

CITIES

cult-statue

is in the

style of
of

the

sixth century
the preexisting

and

is another

proof
To

Norba's
a

[Roman
was

colony.
The

give Diana
to the
at

supreme

tion posicognate
Aricia
Latin

quite natural
national

Latins Xemi

and
near

tribes.
%vas

shrine of Diana

the

rehgious
the

center

of
was

the

league:
of Diana

that of the Hernican


at

cities

the shrine
Tarwas

Compitum;
Rome the

attempt by the
national So
this the

quins to
marked

make

the arbiter of Latium


of
a

by
out
as

building
on

Latin

slirine to Diana
not

the
to

Aventine.
consider of

it would

be

of

place
of the

temple

at

iNorba

the

shrine original Roman


as

cityprevious
sider con-

to the advent

the

other

temples
in the
was
new

colony,and to later. Perhaps


part
of the of

the

temple

of Juno the

looking city over-

plain
of

the

shrine

the

new

colonists.
At
open the

foot

the

acropolisis
one

an

enormous

cistern, nearly

hundred

feet
water.

square, It is but the


are

which
built
stones

supplied the
of
the

whole

city with
laid also

usual
of

polygonal
The floor

masonry, up

instead
in

being simply
have had

dry

bedded
cement
seems

cement.

is of and

hea^y
which the
liest ear-

which
of known floor.

analyzed

interest peculiar mixture


on a

since it is about

large scale
are

for

tight water-

Of

course

there

other

small

cis-

ROMAN

CITIES

93 of

terns

in different

parts

of the

city. One

quite

primitiveconstruction
for the
use

is in the sacred

acropohs,
It is
a

of the

of priests in

the the

temples.
usual

circular

well, vaulted

primitive

pseudo-domical way
courses

by projecting horizontal
Another

of is of

masonry.

cistern, less

cient, an-

its

peculiarconstructive interest because barrel of two intersecting covering is formed


of unusual

vaults

construction, showing
use

tive primi-

and
a

tentative
of

of this method

of

attaining
way in

sort

cross-vaulting.It
is situated

is in its small

the

most

interesting piece of
and

construction
of the

Norba,
cistern. Almost

southwest

large

with the citywalls parallel


Pontine

on

the side

facing the
walls the which

plain is
the

the

line of and
newer

retaining
from
a

divided
and

lower

middle

older

city,supporting
blocks

terrace

which of

joined the
Juno. from

ple level of the hillock of the tem-

Between

this terrace inclined


two

was

reached
which

the lower
the of

city by
of

planes

connected

streets

the

sections.

This
to the

difference

levels added

picturesqueness

city.
not to give or interesting possible of the various demonstration styles

It would
a

be

technical

of
nor

Cyclopean
to

masonry
a

used

in the walls of Norba,


of

attempt

arrangement chronological

94

ROMAN

CITIES

them.

hope

to

do

this

some

time is

in

more

technical
the
not

study.

One
the

thing
were

that interesting; found

quarriesfor wholly,on
on

stone

partly,if
be located

the site itself. and

They

can

both

the northeast Another

southwest

sides within

the walls.

thing is that
on

the least ancient

part
the

of

the walls, that

the

northeast, is also
been

least well

preserved; it
pressure of

has
the

located partly dis-

by
behind

the

artificial terrace
to the level below.

and it,

partlycast

down I must

Before its

leavingNorba
at work
a

say

word
a

about

necropolis,because
I
was

hereby hangs
of the iron

tale.
me

While
a

there, a peasant brought


tomb age far

few

objectsfrom
me

which
not
a

interested
trace

extremely
discovered

because
of

thus

had

been

the

necropolisof
him
as

Norba.

I could not these

get any

clue from

to the to

spot

where

thingswere

found.

Needless

say, I

prospected on
and found

all sides of Norba


none.

for traces

of tombs

When
excavate

the

government

decided archaeologists

to

here

they
but

not

only
trial

examined

the entire
in

neighborhood

dug
went ward to-

trenches

all

likelyspots.
hills and

They
trace. to

northward
the
to

toward

the

southward

plain

without

finding a
descending again
toward

Then

the

southeast, after
to

the

plain

and
a

beginning

rise

Sermoneta,
ex-

necropoliswas

discovered

of

considerable

ROMAN

CITIES

95

tent

and

of very

early date.
to

In

fact the

objects
were

found several
upon the be

belonged
centuries

the

iron than

age. the

They
date

earlier

settled
of

that as by the government archaeologists

founding
dated
later Some

of

Xorba
the

and

could
or

not

very

well
turies. cen-

than

eighth
were

seventh
above

ruined

tombs

found

the

monasterv

of Valvisciolo.
me

Evidently
before

the similar the

objectsbrought to
had
nasi

years

by

peasant
Sata-

been

from

this

necropohs.
graves of Xorba.

Fade
must

retro

Avaunt!

These

not, cannot,
not

be of the inhabitants that them where

It mattered

they
to

are

in from

we just the position

should
Etruscan

expect
cities,
on

be

the

analogy
not

of

the the

is necropolis

usuallyin
on

the hill the

which

city itself slope.

is built, but
not

nearest

available

It mattered

that the government

had archaeologists
was no

themselves
other

proved
Xorba
a

there

in necropolis
not

any

direction.

It mattered

that

the

distance less Xorba

between in go than

and
of any

this

necropoliswas
cities.

than
must

number without

Etruscan

necropolis whatever
theory that Xorba
should And
a was

rather
not

that

the

pet
B.C.

founded

until 492

be
so

overthrown!

they
one

invented be
sure,

town, hypothetical but


a

small

to

town
on

earlier

than

Xorba, marked

by

few

walls

the hill-

96

ROMAN

CITIES

side not
that

far above
were

this
not

necropolis.It
first to and
not

so

happens
these

they

the

discover

walls ; both decided


that

my

surveyor

I studied

them

and
were

they were
up

of

earlydate, but Ages

probably put
of
It
seems

in the Middle Cistercian

for the protection

the
me

abbey of Valvisciolo!
that in these tombs of Norba's
were we

to

quiteclear

should

recognizethat part
researches
to

necropolis
buried
will
a

in which that

its earlier inhabitants in this

and

further

region
at

ably prob-

bring
distance.
It
to
was a

lightthe

later tombs,

greater

great pleasure to
of the

me

while
the

at Norba

do the honors

place to
which
was

Government
down To
to

Commission Archaeological the investigate work


I

came

doing.
had them been had

all of

them, in fact
Rodolfo
sealed Since
.

to every

Italian

archaeologist except
until then
a

Lanciani, Norba
book and
none

of shown

visited her.

then

they

have

much

interest.
was
a

The

truth
not

probably
and

is that
or

Norba the

city
492

founded

long before

after

tury, eighth cen-

enlarged
its destruction What
I would Setia

strengthened in
before
to say

about

'and changed in the regular course


in
82

of events

until

Christ. about the

have and of

cyclopean
in
a

ruins of

Cora

would
sure,

be
a

way
at

repetitious.There

is, to be

variant

Terracina,

Substructures

of

Temple

of

Jupiter

Plate

XII

RO:\IAN

CITIES

97

Cora

In the

arrangement

of

the walls, which Cora

are

terraced
on

in tliree circuits.
account
:

But

needs

ing visit-

of

quite

another
are,

architectural both of them,


age and
ples tem-

feature of the

its two

temples. They
era,

late

Republican
In both

and

in their

are preservation

paralleled only by
cases

the two

of Tivoh.

the

picturesqueness
of the town, adds valley, been from shown zontal hori-

of their site, juttingout with


a

at the
an

edge
have

superb view
the

over

extensive

to their intrinsic to

beauty. They
Hellenic

exempHfy
and

variations

vertical lines to One


of and them
was

produce
the the

certain
the

optical Capito

effects.
tolium and

probably
temple

temple
of the

the other stood


at

of Castor the

Pollux

which forum

approach
of the
was

square
to

in the of

positionappropriate
city and evidently
for the
ple tem-

their

character of

guardians
forum

messengers

Jupiter. The
Sulla,
of the
or

remodeled
the

under

shortly before,
in front of the

retaining wall
"

square

Capitolium,
that

which
"

is

popularly called
of opus

of Hercules,

is constructed

incertum

points to

this age. Terracina

It

remains

to

visit Terracina of the

and At

Circeii, at
the

the southern Via

end
was

plain.
to
a

Terracina

Appia

brought

halt at the seaboard

9S

ROMAN

CITIES the

by
and

sharp rocky ledge projectinginto


forming the last offshoot
The Roman of the

sea

Ausonian

range. the but

engineers at
to
on

first shirked
over

difficulty by carrying the road


later

the hill
face of

they
and

decided left in
we

cut

away

the

the rock and

have

its surface

their marks
one

measurements

lengths
still can
now

of

hundred The rock

twenty feet which


called Pisco Terracina cities
between
account
we

read.
a

Montano is the

rises like
one

needle. ancient
chasm

only

of

all the

have

passed
its

which
and

bridges the
the

the of

legendary age
port

Empire.

On
the

healthy position beyond


and its central and

marshes,

its excellent

tion localost and

between

Rome

Campania,
rebuilt

it

never

importance. Augustus Capitolinetemple.


the best architecture.
rear
a

its forum
one

The

temple remains,
in wall

of

preserved examples
The cella of the
was

Italy of Augustan
still

keeps in
revetment

its

large part
at

rich marble

which
the

just this
The upper

time

taking
in

the

place of

stucco.

Appia,
end

traversingthe city,
forum
Even

entered arch
of

the

of the in

through
the

an

which
area

still remains of the forum of

part.
are

flags
the of

the

in

place,with
evidently
the

unique
the author

distinction

bearing
scheme,

the

signature

architect, Artorius
of the

Primus,
"

the

whole

temple, the

ROMAN

CITIES

99
square,

memorial

arch

adjoiningit,the

the Au-

gusteum.
when works
he
on

Tiberius

also liked the

repairedthe
the

port
and

that

city. Trajan, Appian way, began the toninus were completed by Anand made
of

Pius it one

ISIarcus AureHus,
on

of the finest
we

the coast.

Then, if
town
we

follow the ancient

road out of the


northeast

and

up

along

the hillside to the

find it Hned

at intervals with

ancient

monuments,
of

which

give a
than of

better any

sepulchral impression
road I

such
seen

an

arrangement
besides those
of course,

other and

have which The

Rome

Pompeii,
are

are,

infinitely superior.

interest and

uniquenessof

Terracina
that

increased
the hill

by

the colossal substructures

crown

overlooking the city. They high


and broad
on

consist

of
cellent ex-

lines of

vaulted
some

arcades

of

brickwork

which

structure
once

of

must great size and magnificence

have

stood.

The

\nilgarnamed
the Gothic

it Palace

of

cause Theodoric, beto have

king
have

was

known here.

liked

the

city and
has

to

Uved

But

the brickwork

recentlybeen
or even

found

to be

of the finest

Augustan
for

pre-

Augustan
be the

type and

cavations ex-

have
a

shown

it to

substructure

largetemple of Jupiter Anxur, the famous youthful,beardless Jupiter,the boy god, son of
Saturn. In
a

way

it must

have

almost

rivaled

100

ROMAN

CITIES

the it

temple
was

of

Fortune

at

Palestrina, with

which tively respecand


on

closely connected.
the northern
and

They
southern If

were

outposts
one

of beacon-lights

Latin

faith.

stands
the

this
at
a

rocky promontory,
heis^ht of
site will
over one one a

jutting
thousand
a

into

sea

feet, I
sense

think of the

the

give
of

strong
of these

hypnotic
situated

effect ancient
or

wonderfully
on a tain moun-

shrines, whether
the
sea.

top
shrine
with
was

by

Certainly the original


Augustus
of and this

earlier

than

coeval
monu-

the

citv.
character

No

substructures exist elsewhere.


sea

mental Gaeta and

The

gulf

of

on

the

left, the free


to the

in front, Circeii the panorama.

the marshes

rightform
hideous

Terracina
town

is still a vivid

bit of color.

The

old
pecially es-

away

from

the

modern
square,
or

port,

around crowded
in with

the

cathedral

is often

people of
feels,

oriental blood
"

dressed
the there and

strong oriental
One
no

colors,
as

breath

from that ancient

Levant.
was

at

Ravenna,
between

here

great

break that

medieval when there


rear,

life, and

since
to

the

Middle
the Seen

Ages,
chasm,
in the

Byzantium
has from of

helped
the

bridge
new.

happened nothing
one

narrow

streets

filled with
has

antique color, the


so

cella of the

Capitol temple
mellowed

much

of

its marble

revetment,

by

ROMAN

CITIES

101

time, that
square, In

one

expects
the

to

see

Its

gable rise
medieval

In the
panile. Camthose Is few the
der una

place of

Its gorgeous of
on

But of most the

columns

Its

porch
of
one

are

and temple portico, link with the

one

them of the that

curious

past,

public Byzantine Inscriptions, stating


church
the

and

square

were

repairedand
cathedral

cleaned
In

Byzantine
The wonderful medieval and
w^e

emperor

Constantlne Itself
was

the

eighth century. by
those

rebuilt

neo-classic
Rome and of

seml-orlental their

artists of furniture When


wall

filled with

pavements
remember
from the the the

mosaic of

inlay.

stretch
Latin-

polygonal
city,
of

remaining
the

Volsclan

below

forum,

ancient

shrine

Jupiter
port
the

Anxur,
and
the

the

Augustan
line
seems

forum,
of

the Antonine
outside
a

double

mausoleums
well w^orth and

walls, Terracina

visit, less regard-

of Its wonderful

scenery

picturesqueness
one
can

and,
take

not

the

least, of the fact that here

boat

to Circeii.

CiRCEII

We

took
of

small boat
twelve

at Terracina

for the

the

cursion ex-

about

miles

across

bay

to

the

promontory colony
of

of Circeii,the southernmost

itary mil-

early Latium.
island from

It is the
sea

huge rock
to
a

like rising

bleak

height

102

ROMAN

CITIES

of
one

over

sixteen hundred There fabled

feet
seems

hundred (five
but little doubt

fortythat
never

meters).
was

this

the
an

island

of

Circe, that
so

reallywas

island, but
as we

appeared
its base

to
as

the

cient an-

mariners
nears

they passed. Only


see

the boat

it, do
of of

that

joins the long


furrowed
with
a

stretches network This


wants

the

lowest

marshes

canals. is the

excursion
to

only
citadel

for of

the Circe
not

hardy
far

if

one

reach
the
east

itself. from

We the

land water,
to

at

end.

Here,

at the

modern
the

villageof

S. Felice,

seems

have the

been

originalsettlement,
of

judging
But end the of

from

traces

polygonal
are
on

walls. the
east

really interestingruins
the

long ridge forming


called Civita
a
or

the top of the mountain. Monte della


one

It is now Here and


is

Cittadella. hundred

rectangularcitadel,about

meters, ninety by ninety-five

with

heavy

lygonal poat

walls of
times from
a

superb construction, tapering


below
at

thickness
to
one

of

nearly

wo

and s'^out the

one-half
one

meters

the

summit
as

cf

and

one-half

meters.

Here,

at

Norba,
that

walls rise above had


a

the inner

level to show

they
it is

chemin

de ronde

and of

perhaps

battlements.

The

interest special
from the

this citadel is that is far below

quite distinct
at

which city,

it,
pro-

S. Felice.

long and

steep causeway,

Sarcophagus

from

Caere

in

Louvre

Museum

t^^ ltm#S%^,

Sarcophagus

from

Citta

del la

Pieve

Plate

xnr

ROMAN

CITIES

103 the had

tected

by

two

solid

polygonal walls, runs


city to citadel.
but here
at

up We

mountain
seen
even

from straight

this at

Praeneste;

Circeii it is

and plainer,
at
was

the citadel it has


B.C.

exists almost

intact,

while

Praeneste in 393 and

It
a

that

disappeared. the Romans, beginning


to win
a

determined

steady attempt

back

the

Pontine

plain,captured Circeii by established a colony there, with which


hold until walls close later w^ork The

raid

and

they could
many years The

communication
the of

only by
show

sea

for

intervening region
the citadel
we

was

annexed.

the careful

tooling and
with the the later

joints that
at Norba.

usually associate
that of Cosa
or

polygonal stylelike
site is The ideal
one

an

for

tress. forprehistoric
Even is

ancients

appreciatedits poetry.
of lush the down the

now

it is

though part exquisite,


We the look
on

scene

desolate. that chokes

vegetation
thin der bor-

long canals,
Rome and
on

follow

the

line toward w^atch


towers

marked
the

by ruined medieval
other

side

the
to

more

clearlymodulated
and

coast

past Terracina

Gaeta

smoke beyond, with the Vesuvian the farthest background. The nymph and magician Circe had
on

tingeing
her of the
ple temten

another the

one

"

the

highest,
"

peaks on

altar suband the polygonal island^

104

ROMAN

CITIES

structures

show the have

reconstructions But
at

of tlie shrine
cave,
as

as

late

as

Empire.
it, is

her

local

ditions tra-

the

water's

edge, looking
that
the

seaward.
Some modern
sent to

scholars Circeii
in

insist
393
was

the

Latin

colony
and do

first one, I of

marked
not

the

founding
Both the

of

the and

city. This

believe.

Livy

Dionysius
of
an

Halicarnassus

ascribe in
510

sending

earlier
at

colony
the
same

here time

by Tarquinius Superbus colony was


that and
sent to

that the
relate

Signia.
it

They
for

also both

Coriolanus

captured
the Roman

the Volscians
were

in 488 then

expelled
from
texts

colonists, who
We may

distinct these

the natives.
:

infer two have


been

things
a

from

that there and


that onists. colTarand

city here hefore 510;


not

its inliabitants

did

mix

with
to

the

Roman that

Why

is it not

natural lived

infer the

quin's Roman
the

colonists
in the

in

citadel

oppidani
with which

city below?
and

They

thized sympa-

the Volsci
would be

opened
if
we

their gates to suppose


the

them,
Roman I would
to
an

easy been

garrison to

have

in the citadel above.


at S. Felice

attribute, then, the city walls

early date, previous


colonists of that
came

to

510, the

when

the

man Ro-

and

built

citadel

in imitation

at

Praeneste, connecting it with

ROMAN

CITIES'

105

tHe
of

city
393

by
was

the

causeway/
probably
when the

When

the

new

colony changes

sent

few

structural

occurred,

but

whole

of

the

Pontine

plain
of

came

into

Roman Circeii

possession,
received the

the

two

nies colo-

Norba

and

lion's

share,
in

as

being region,

with

Setia
and

the

only
size

Latin

colonies

this have

their increased.

and

prosperity

must

materially

am

quite
to

willing
two

to

be

considered
In of Latium.

old-fashioned
this Rome their and

in

giving

weight
certainly which

the

Roman with tliis

historians.

case

narrative

harmonizes includes

the section

treaty
in

Carthage

in

509,

IV

Rome

and

Etruria

On

entering
as

the

Etruscan and
as

borders

veil

of

mystery
seems

alluring
and the

baffling
every

as

the

Sphinx

to

descend
of

make
immense

step
of

uncertain. material

In and what

presence of

variety
be easy the
to

conjecture,
is
necessary this

it would
to

pass central Rome

beyond
pose purand

illustrate is to

of her
to

book,
to

which ancient is

elucidate
The

relations discuss that direct


Roman

Italy.
almost of the than

temptation
we

"origins"
the

irresistible;
Etruria
outward any other supremacy supremacy in have

feel
more

antiquities
upon

bearing

form
group

of

early
in

civilization
After
we

Italy.

granting
Etruscan

Latin

in
ternals. ex-

internals,

concede
cannot

We
as

split
of

hairs

in

discussion and seventh

to

whether
B.C.

the in

tombs Southern while

the and

eighth
Central

centuries
whose
are

Etruria, varied,
resent rep-

contents, similar
the in

richer
to

and
of

more

character

those

Latium,
or an

Etruscans

themselves,

Italic

C/2

9
"

I
6

-M

"^

CD

53

H
O

"-A

Plate

XIV

TOR,
LEjnOX

and

F'OUNPATIONS
CM

108

ROMAN

CITIES

slender

almost donic sarexpressive, lively, given in expression,so characteristically

bodies

and

the in

couple from plate


hand
xiii^
we

Caere
and
see

of the age many of

of the

Tarquins
On
the

in the

frescoes.

other

type

broad-faced, stolid,

heavy-lippedand placid and


bull necks but
the and

jowled people,with arrogantly expression,with


Both
bodies.

materiallyminded
thick-set is
more

types
the

cur, oc-

second
and

prevalent in
in will

age

of decadence where the

the former

places like

Caere

Greek
to the

blood

prevailed. Who
concrete

give us
the for
note

key

enigma?
the facts afford
are now

At

all events

can important things: we the historic explanation.

to

wait
we

INIeanwhile

that

at

Corneto

Vetulonia (Tarquinii), there the


as

and found
urns

Biin

sentium, for
the very
were

example,
in Alba,

have

been

earliest tombs

same as

cabin

which

found
same

well

in Rome

itself.

The
vases

Phoenician
for From there of the the

glazed Egyptianizing
nobles of Caere
are

imported
in Rome. and Xorba

found
neste

Central
is
an

Etruria

to Prae-

almost age

uninterrupted objects of
use

line

of

tombs

iron of

with

attire,of
are

ornament

and

household tombs
were

which

identical. practically

The

of the

great

men

of

the

age

of of

Romulus

filled with

similar

treasures

imported

or

native

manu-

ROMAN

CITIES

109

facture, whether
Praeneste,
tomb Caere
at
or

it is the

Bernardini and

tomb

at

the

Tomba

del Guerriero

the Isis

Vulci, the
the

ReguHni-Galassi
del Duce

tomb

at

Tomba

at Vetulonia.

Perhaps

the closest be traced and of

analogieswith
in the
case

the Roman

province can
of Etruscan Caere

of the

ties antiquiThe
is

the Fahscan
in

region.

museum

Rome,
the from

Papa

Giulio,

mainly
from whose Narce,

composed
ancient In
on

of

Faliscan
a

antiquities
We call it

Falerii

itself and
name

neighboring city
afterwards
some

is uncertain.

excavations
my
at

which

were

carried

under

for supervision
Narce
our

ican Amerwas so

museums

excavator

lucky
utmost
to

as

to

find

the

tomb

of

warrior in
some

of

the

importance, comparable
famous tombs of and It
on

ways

the

warriors

and
even one

chiefs

have than

just
any

mentioned
of them.

perhaps
is the

earher of
its

only

class yet discovered I

these of

Faliscan
"

sites.

reproduce
I believe because
worn

some

its contents,
"

especially
cause beof

the bronze

helmet

and them

breastplate, not only


to
are

be

the

finest

their

class but of
armor

they

by

the

probably just the type Roman kings and their


century
may of after have

chief

warriors
of the

in the first

dation the founbeen the

city.
of

Such

spoliaopima

Aero,

king

Caenina, which

110 Romulus Feretrius.


the

ROMAN

CITIES

is fabled The

to

have
can

offered

to

Jupiter
The

tomb of
the

hardly
most

be

later than

beginning
has the
of any

seventh

century.

helmet
crest

highestand

richlydecorated
Of
course

yet discovered.
are breastplate

both

helmet
are

and

votive
use.

offeringsand
Like
so

too

lightand
most

delicate for

many tombs

of

the

interesting pieces found


made
for especially

in

they
other

were

burial

purposes On the

in imitation

of the

things actuallyused.
less
use.

hand, the other and


were

spectacular pieces
We
on see
on

in this tomb

in actual flask
to

the

right the
the two
the

water

be

slung

by

strap;

horse's bits for the chief's chariot disks


with

(biga)
,

bronze
square

pointed

centers

and

the

small

plaques, with
we

tion, geometrical decoraon

used, originally
of the
war

imagine,
a

the harness

horses; and
on

large cup
which

with
to

figures
date the

of horses
tomb. his

its handles
we see

helps

Then

his favorite
a

drinking cups,
of

and fibulae, strigils may have been

heavy ring

large

size which of the


war

part of the attachments


untouched costume,
show how of itable this illimand

chariot. leave
arms

But

I must field of

almost and

manners

customs

and

the outward

cause, daily life,beRoman life

beyond suggesting
and
can history

much
from

be illuminated

these sources,

-t

o c 3

"-3

l-.:^

-^-i -e-t---'^--t

S
O-M-0-*m:-.":l5k^"*':-^..4=!

if "4^
4+f+TH4-Mt-

i:"j "-"f

.^

4--

o;

?"-bi

"4-

c
^^

05

"

Plate

XV

r".JK.

THE

N-E^V

YOPK

!
PUBLIC
I RARY

'

^'Ton,

Lp:^'

"--x
.".

Nn

ROMAN

CITIES

111

my

limits

are

those strictly is

of

architecture.
and from Pontine
to

In

this field there It is have

enough
Hernican

material

spare.
we

quite
found has

different in the

in character and

what

cities.
with lygonal po-

Etruria

no practically

cities walled

masonry;

the

few

examples
non-Etruscan

in Southern

Etruria,
"

"

Cosa, Populonia, Saturnia, Graviscae,


ascribed she
to
us sources.

can

be

Neither

does

give

colossal in her
was

examples
own

of

city

and

acropolis walls
in

special
the
we

straight-coursed style, though she


race city-building

est greatdo find


was

Italy.
Roman

What

is

mostly

of the time
or

when

influence This

dominant,
some

at

least

threatening.
seems

is because

sinister fate
was was

to have

overtaken
at
an

them.

Veii

wiped

out

by Rome

early lonia Popu-

date.

So
and

Falerii, somewhat
were
was

later.

Volaterrae Perusia

destroyed and
burned the

sold out young Ma-

by

Sulla.

by

the of

Augustus.
remma a so

Malaria

in

region
of the that

the

had
of

already in the time


Caere. the At Arezzo

Augustus made
Roman
not
a

desert

city
certain

substituted

Etruscan

trace

of the older

cityremains.
Caere
the

Even

Tarquinii, according
later, has

which
to

shares

with

honor,

tradition, of having fundamentally influenced


in the age of the

Rome left

Tarquins
at

and

hardl}^a

trace.

Except

Perugia, Fiesole

112 and

ROMAN

CITIES

few

other

sites there the

is hardlv

more

than

enough massing
than

left to show
we

styleof

masonry.

while Still, of

miss, in Etruria, the impressive remains,


this is
more

constructive

compensated by
the that

the artistic

qualityand
and the
"

sug-

of gestiveness of architecture

single works
we

details
in the

find

everywhere,
tomb

gates
of

of Volterra

and Castel

Perugia, the
and

fa9ades
cottas terracophagi sar-

ISTorchia and
of

d'Asso, the temple Telamon,


the

Falerii, Luna
of

the

Volterra tombs of

and

Perugia,
and

domical

and

vaulted

Veii, Cortona,
other

Vetulonia, sites; the

Chiusi, Quinto
chamber Caere All of work
that

Fiorentino of

tombs

Tarquinii (Corneto), Vulci,


Perusia,
in reconstruction
and it be fact

Volsinii (Orvieto)and (Cervetri), these


are

invaluable

early
of
we

Roman

architectural
Nor the
must

decorative

all classes.
start

forgotten
that the

with

obvious wall
not

models

for
were

the

Servian

and

all its

sories acces-

furnished
had

by
and

Latium

but
the

by
use

Etruria, which
of

already perfected
of the

square-coursedmasonry
The

arch

and

vault.

introduction
was

of this

course

masonry selves them-

into Rome

attributed

by

the

Romans

to the Etruscans.

Dionysius in Tarquinius

his Roman first


even

Antiquities says
used it. This

that

Priscus

is doubtless

fairly correct

ROMAN

CITIES

113

though
are

the

so-called

"Servian

walls"

in

Rome

not

older

than

the

fourth

century.

The At Rome

Temple

the
for

same

time

temples

were

substituted
also

in
in

altars

and

open-air shrines,
models, because

imitation

of Etruscan in

the

can Tus-

form porticoed

place of
At

the

Greek

teral peripon

scheme

was

followed. model
w^as

Satricum,

the

contrary, the
the away
same

Greek

at prevailed,

about

time. from

Still,it

impossibleto get
The
terra-cotta

Greek show

influence.

decorations
as

that archaic Greek


not

works

served

models
frieze The

to the Etruscans

only in
of the

the

gable
tails. deof

and

sculpturesbut
recent

in the

ornamental

excavations
in

temple
the

Apollo
faced

at

Thermon entablatures

Greece, where
and

umns col-

and and

gableswere

of wood

decorated
these

with

terra-cotta, have

fully

illustrated

Capua, by
the

so

originals. Perhaps strongly Hellenic, though conquered


Greek
and
,

Etruscans

held

by

them
an

until

the

fifth century Greek


were

(433 B.C.) and Caere,


after its annexation

essentially
to

city even
the
two

Etruria,

greatest centers,
reacted Rome.

one

south, the
and
can Etrus-

other

north, for this fusion


art which
on

of Greek

Pliny says
3

that in his time "at Rome

and

in

our

114

ROMAN

CITIES

municipal towns,
terra-cotta

we

still

see

many of

such

(early

figured)pediments
great age."
the
some names

derful, temples; won-

also, for their workmanship, their artistic


merit handed who and
Roman of

writers the Etruscan famous


as

have

even

down

artists of
the of

made

of

the

more

earliest of Veii

these

works,
of

such

Volcanius
to Rome statue
as

(or Turianus

Fregellae) called
to

by Tarquinius
Hercules
and
the

Priscus

make
as

the late the

of

"fictilis" mentioned
cult statue of

Martial

Jupiter for
Etruscan
to

projected
were

Capitolinetemple.
called

Other

artists make of

by Tarquinius Superbus quadriga


with the the the

umphal the tri-

statue

Jupiter to
the

crown

gable gable.
also

of

temple, and

figures
works the and
up

inside the

Of

remaining
Caere

Etruscan

the fictilesarcophagus at the British Museum,

similar their

one

from

in the

Louvre

almost

exact

counterpart recently set


in Rome, idea
we

in the Etruscan
nearest to

museum
an

will

come

the these

giving

of the the

styleof

Capitolineworks, polychromy
will

if
of

supply
which
the
a

few

liant briloriginal beautifully and Florence

painted sarcophagi in
museums

Corneto

give
found.

us

the
in

key.
some are

The
cases

Satrican

temple
colored

terra-cottas

were

brilliantly
for
parison com-

when those

There archaic

also

curious

gable sculptures

vC^^P"

Reconstruction

of

Upper
Terracotta

Corner

of

an

Etruscan

Temple

with

its

Revetment

(Durm)

Plate

XVII

ROMAN

CITIES

115 stroyed acropolisdeare

from

the

temples
the

of

the Athenian
These
was so

by
be sure, and but

Persians.

of stone, to
with
not stucco

the surface that

covered
was

polychromy
with

the

effect

far

ferent: dif-

the earliest

Delphi sculpturesthey
such found

give Greek gables and


The
be

prototypes
friezes of
as
were

for

Etrusco-Roman
at

Velletri,etc.

temple

Jupiter Capitolinuscan
normal it in the The Etruscan direction of

hardly
type:
of the

said to represent the


an

rather

elaboration

Hellenic
whose the with
same

temple. peristyle
ruins
at

ple only large tem-

have

been

found

in

Etruria

is

larger one
the

which Falerii,

has been Juno.

identified
It

famous
as

temple
date

of

has
as

the it

plan

the
not
a

Capitolinetemple,
later than in

and

certainlydoes
B.C.

the third

tury cen-

it is

valuable
The

aid

reconstituting
cellas with

the Roman dedicated of the

temple.
to
row^s

scheme

is of three
a

the

Capitoline Triad
six columns cellas with

portico
umns col-

three

of the

extending along
two

sides of
on

outer

other

each

side.
reason

There while the the

is

no

to

suppose,

however,

that
on

Etruscans

built their

main
not
use

temples
the
case

scheme, they did triple-cella


other
divinities. of smaller
was

single
even

cella for of

Also, in the

cellas triple

dimensions, it is probable

that the

norm

that described

by Vitru-

116 vius six. of four

ROMAN

CITIES

columns

in

the of

portico instead
the

of

This
at

is the

scheme which

best-preserved
so

fa9ade
the

Norchia,

gives
columns

graphically
the
cotta terra-

wide

spaced Doric
of

of

gable groups
The
to

sculpture.
those of the
wars.

proportions are
the

which

we

must

sign as-

majority
the Punic

temples
The

in

Rome

built

before

gables,the
were ally usu-

architraves, the cornices, the columns


of

wood,

with

revetment

of

terra-cotta, with

fastened

to the wood

by

nails. in

Revetments

nail holes have


at

been

found
were

quantities.Those
the

Falerii
most

and of

Alatri
the be
so

tute sufficient to reconstiof

details

temple;
Giulio.

the

can originals

studied

at the

Papa
to

Of
the for

course,

having
were

lighta weight
In fact

support,
much
the
so

columns

widely spaced, too


symmetry.

beauty temple
or

and
can
an

Etruscan
a

hardly be praisedeither
esthetic

from

tural struc-

point
came

of

view.
up of into
stone

The

first

improvement
from the with

probably
in the

Latium
columns

south

form

coated

fine stucco, in architects.


can

temples
in

built

probably
Latium

by

Greek
wave

Elements

for

this second

Greek but not


In

be

found

Southern

in Etruria.

one

thing
Etruria

hardly
has

think

that

the

debt I

of

Rome

to

been

understood,

liiean

Fragment

of

the
of

Apollo,
the

from

the

Terracotta
at

Gable Luni

Sculptures

Hellenistic

Temple

Sassoferrato the

(near),

Central

Group
of
a

of

Ariadne

at

Xaxos,

from

Terracotta

Gable

Hellenistic

Temple

Plate

XVIII

ROMAN

CITIES

117

in the matter

of decorative

detail in architecture.

Take, for instance, merely the question of capitals.


The

popular fallacy,
"

long

since Doric

doned abanwas

by scholars,
the
most

"

that order
at

the Tuscan

sole

Etruscan

is contradicted the
monuments.

by
of

the The

cursory

glance
of

hybrid forms
Roman their works

Ionic, of composite and


as we

ured fighere

such capitals, of the

find

in

rather

rococo

age

of Caracalla, have

Etruscan
is
a

prototypes.
rich

There

variety of material
friezes but aside and and

for

stituting recon-

the of the

terra-cotta

tures gable sculpthe earliest date


B.C.

temples ;

from

examples
between

from

Satricum
and
are

Capua they
centuries
at

the fourth

the second those

Recently discovered
d'Alba,
which
near

found

Citta

Sassoferrato, the ancient

Sentinum
an

I will illustrate

here, though it is
in
a

Um-

brian
seems

city. They
to

are

Hellenistic

stylewhich
all

have

prevailed throughout nearly


on

based Italy,
or

probably
reticence

models less the

from action

Alexandria
but

Asia

jMinor.

With
are

greater
the

purity and
that Mediterranean
museum.

gable sculpturesfrom
cities
at
on

northernmost

of

Etruscan
now

coast, Luna, Hellenic


some

the Florence its type

The

of exquisiteness of the

is

even

surpassed by
from

corresponding
of

fragments

head Falerii, especially; a

118

ROMAN

CITIES

Apollo, at
being
and able

the
to

Papa

Giulio, which

regret
of

not

reproduce.
in the
museums

After

gathering
these

Rome after

Florence

illuminating data, and


of the small of the
to

studying the
of Alatri
museum,

full-sized model
up in the court who
a

temple
Giulio
up the of

set

Papa
follow

those should

are

curious

study
and

take
near

trip to

the rock-cut
or

tombs

Castel-d'Asso, Bieda,
often
some
near

Viterbo,

those tomb

of Norchia

Vetralla.
in the with

The of

facades

are

here

hewn
cases

form

temple fa9ades,

filled in

gable sculptures.
House

The
From Roman is of the tomb house.
we

also Roman

get

our

best idea of the


as we

The

house
not

know

it

the

type

inaugurated
its

long

before

Cicero's

time.
we

For
must

long
of in

and

varied

previous
remains,
as urns.

development
not
so

look
form

to

Etruscan actual

much

in the

houses and the


on war

in

reproductions of
When
Plinv there in tells
were

them
us

tombs before

that

with

Pyrrhus
houses

only thatched
we

and
the
or

shingled
houses insulae
was
or

Rome,

infer
and doubt

that

(domus)
of brick.

were

of wood is
no

the blocks that when

There

Rome

first built the houses

were

nothing

but

circular

oval huts made

of hides and

polesor wattled

and

^i^l?^

"";

^^tt^;,..
"o.

^'v^oa^'^-.,
J,

yn?

"

""
u

;.l-^ffe'^^-^!^'
Plate

XIX

ROMAN

CITIES

119

thatched.
on

Their
a

simple structure pole or by


or
a

was

either supported

central

horizontal sticks
are

pole ridge-

resting on
the

forked

curved

joined to
the
was

sides.

These
or

various

types
of this

reproduced
of
urn,

either in tombs cabin the and


was

in the earliest form

urn.

In

the center
was

singleroom
a

hearth.

There

undoubtedly
earth

religious plum
of

astronomical the

to significance

this form, which

reproduction on
conservatism
tomb the

of the tern

the heavens
to

in its earliest circular form. it remained the

Owing
favorite

Roman

form
We

of monumental know with that


a

until the fall of Rome.


was

house

consecrated,
about
a

gether to-

narrow

stripof ground
as was

it,in

exactlythe
of
a

same

way

the site of is
a

temple,
fact

city and
a

of its

territory. It
the

curious

that at and

certain

time

shape both
The of earlier Vesta the

tial of this celesfrom the circular


was

terrestrial
to

templum passed
temple
and

the

square. in the

form
;

perpetuated
the The "Roma

the

later in

quadrata" probably
and this

military camp.
form
with been this ritualistic identified
to

change from
house

circular to

quadrangular
has

in the

coincided

change,
w4th the circular

change
We

Etruscans.

are

apt

call

the

hut-house
But
came

Italic, the
while into
the
use

rectangularhouse
doubtedly un-

Etruscan.

rectangular form
a"

earlyas

the seventh

120

ROMAN

CITIES

century
same

B.C.,
as

the

older

form

died

hard.

In

the

way

the Romans

of the

Empire

stillused

in

certain

antique
the
same

ceremonials

(e.g.

Arval

Brothers)
vessels

type
in the

of

primitive earthen
so

employed
adherence
and

eighth century,
led
to

their

stanch OEtruria

to

tradition

the

peoples of
the gone it had

other

provinces
long
the The for

maintain

circular form
out at

for the tomb

after

in

life. practical showed

houses

recentlyfound
that the

Satricum

first time with

passage

to the

rectangularhut began
as

tiled instead the seventh

of

thatched

roof

early as
Etruscan this
at

century.
The
most

impressive of
fact,
are

tomb
such

teriors inas

in

those
tomb

of

type,
the

the

Regulini
tomb

Galassi

Caere

with domical

its
or

pseudo-pointed arch
tholos del illustrated
at

corridor
at

and

Vetulonia,in the Tomba


These huts.
are

Duce,

Volterra.

translations Rome

into stone
can

of the wooden

Near

they

be

seen

along

the Via
us

Appia.
the of and

If

the tombs

show

interiors, the cabin


these

urns one

exhibit the exteriors

huts, with the


window the actual
streets

door, the side windows

the upper of

for

lettingout
of this

the

smoke. been

Traces

huts

type have

found

in the

of Etruscan this backward

showing Bologna (Felsina), city this


form of house
was

that

in

still

ROMAN

CITIES

121

used
common

in the

fifth century

B.C.

That

it

was

the

form primitive

of Roman hut of up

house

is shown
or

by

the

so-called
so

shrine

Romulus
to

of

Faustulus
We
must

often

renewed

imperial times. Tarquins


been the had duced intro-

believe that

under

the

later type of
into
was

quadrangularhouse
by only
the
one

Rome

Etruscans.
room,

This

house

at

first of

like the

circular

hut, though surrounded


the

by

covered
a

loggia,but
with
or

aristocracysoon
rooms

developed
around
a

residence
central

several
atrium if not them with the
as

grouped
began
In
as

court

this

early as
cases

the sixth century,


we

before.

most

must

thuik tiles

of
or

of wood,

roofed

with

shinglesor
was

flat terraces,

though
not
use

there
a

probably
revetment

in

richer

houses but the

only
of

profuse painted
into houses

decoration
as

terra-cotta

in the crude The

temples.
bricks

These

developed
with
was

of

roofed

tiles.
an

prevalentearly type
with
a

oblong
in
a

ture struc-

plain gabled
both

roof
How

ending
model
The
corners

rated decothis
a

fa9ade at
could
house be in

ends. in
museum.

decorative of

made
the

is shown Florence

such

effect

is

quite charming.
the

Pilasters

at the
;

support
way doorand

gable

and

roof

entablature

the

arched

is flanked

by
to

half -columns.

Roof

gable

projectso

as

protect a charming colonnaded

122

ROMAN

CITIES

loggia, and by
of which
a

nearly the
and

entire

long side is

pied occu-

recessed is
a

trellised window^
while

in front is framed

parapet,

the

recess

by

two

in or pilasters pillars is

antis.

The

wooden

structure
a

quiteevident
idea that

in this model.
can

There

is

passage

in the

Polybius which
the in
to

be used
even

in support
used their of

of

Etruscans connection

free-standingcolumns
houses.
house

with
this the

It is very into the


one

easy

develop

type

represented by
and Castel

gabled
the

f a9ades of Norchia

d'Asso, where

free-standingcolumns gable. One


to make to

support the overhanging

merely hesitates,perhaps mistakenly, privatehouse approximate


the material,
the
urns so

the

closely
stead inthe

the

type of the temple. Sometimes


of wood
was as
we

stone
see

by

fa9ade
The

of

le

of

of the Volumni,

from

Perugia. many-roomed
in their of
was

houses from

of the this

rich did

not

differ at first very


house

much
exterior the

single-roomed
in
a

form,
In

except
center

the
ered cov-

arrangement

roof.
to

the

opening
or

made

lightthe
an

central
or a

hall
ered cov-

atrium

and

around
both.

it

was was

open

loggia or

This

the type of atrium


on

displuviatum^which
*0r
are

is shown
panes in
of
some

some

urns

at

these

not
or

either

transparent

material

such

^a

alabaster

slabs cut

patterns to admit

light?

House

of the

eighthcentury ( circular or oval )

E. C.

House

of

the

sixth centurv

B. C.

^^^^'^^^\\-Ym\\\\^.\\!

I
Houses
of the fourth
and third

centuries

B. C.

(All from

Etruscan

CineraryUrns)

"i/w^/^A^y^y^/^/^/^/^/^y^/^^^i/"^/^A^
^.,^^J^
Decoration and Plate
XXI
"vT-

"r-

of

PrincipalRoom
centuries B. C.

in

Etruscan

House

of

the

fifth

fourth

(Tomba

del Triclinio, Corneto)

THE NEW
YOT^V

raIv
PUBLIC
I

TiLDfeN

FOUNDaTIONC

ROMAN

CITIES

123

Florence.

In both

we

can

see

how

easilycolumns
The

could

be

used
of

on

the

outside.
is

internal
in of
a

arrangement
number of

the

atrium I

reproduced
a

tombs.

shall

give

section
B.C.

Vulci
how
as

tomb

of

the

fourth

century
their

showing
so
a

the builders
to

arranged
the

heavy planks
at

finallybring

opening

the

top of

pyramid-shaped ceiling. Another w^ay is shown of Tarquini. This atrium reached in a tomb was on a vestibule-ostium, and through a passageway, the other three sides there opened out of it the other rooms of the house. There was usuallyone
on

each

side, and
how
a

sometimes
the

two.

The
rooms cross

Vulci
was

tomb
often
set

shows

ceilingof
The shows

these and

built,with
low

central rafter
slant.

beams the
case

in
an

gable

plan
some

in

of

earlier

Vulci

tomb

elaborate

schemes

of woodw^ork,
in the
room

the fan-shaped especially


on

arrangement
this and
not

the

left.
were

But

in

plan, while
how

it shows

how

the

rooms

built

they w^ere
as

connected, they
to

are,

of course, the the

grouped
they
walls is

their

outer

in peripheries
a

way
outer
rooms

would
must

have

been

in

house One

where

be reckoned

with.

of these of
can

given in platexxii.
was

The

decoration
we

the

interiors from

probably quite rich, if


of the

judge
from

that

tombs.

In

plate xxi,
we Tarquinii

the Tomba

d^l Triclinio at

124

ROMAN

CITIES

have

banqueting
to

scene

in the

progress,

and

it is
of

allowable the

infer halls

that
were

ceilingand
and

walls
with

dining

ornamented

wall
in the
B.C.

paintings of period from


The
same

this character

design by
us

the fifth to the second

centuries the

frescoes, helped

out

remains furniture
different

of the and times

objectsthemselves, give
these

the
at

furnishings of
in the way

houses and

of couches

beds, tables and


vases,

stands, chairs and stools,candelabra,


and

dishes is

drinking cups platters,


to
so

and

ewers.

There
may
as

hardly a thing left


go

conjecture. One
of

even plete com-

far
in

as

to say

that the

tallyis almost daily


use as

those
It

things
is
even

it is at way

Pompeii.
of costume

more

complete

in the

can personal adornment, the Etrusfully Graeco-Campanian jewelry being wonder-

and

exquisiteand
we can

varied.
was

For and

every

century

say

what

worn

used

by

the the

wealthy wealthy
I must
must

Etruscans Romans.
not

and

consequently by

trespass further
to

on

this field,but
of the house

return

the

development
reached
the

architecture. covered
turn

We
or

had

stage of the

atrium,

atrium

(cavaedium) displuvia^
that
was

and

testudinatum, the kind of house


e.

commonly used,

g. in the

rebuilding of
and

Rome

after the capture

by

the

Gauls

throughout

PUBLIC LK..

I.

ROMAN

CITIES

125

the

fourtli century
for

B.C.

In

this type the central


of

opening
to

the admission

light was
next

too
was

small
to

be

satisfactory and
the

the
so

step

modify
much roof

arrangement
and

that

it could

be very the

enlarged
slant

thrown
so as

entirely open,
to

being
of

reversed and

carry it in

the water
an

in instead

away

to

catch of

implu'
court.

vium
This

or

basin

in the
was

center

this inner

open

atrium
who

called it from

Tiiscanicum,
the Etruscans. in

by

the

Romans,

adopted
an

A'

section of such
I also agree

atrium
those

is show^n who

platexxiii.
that the

with
a

believe in the

Etruscans

w^ent

step farther
and used
rows

ment developto

of the atrium

of columns the form of

enlarge
small

it

on

the

ground floor, in
went
were

which cloister, there


or

bv the

name

of atrium

tetrasiylumif
at
were

only

four

columns,

one

each
more.

corner,

atrium

corinthium

if there

There

probably elapsed some


was

time

before into the

the

simple tetrastyle type


form and this

developed
us

its richer age

brings

up

to

which

is

represented by
phases they
of domestic

Pompeian
ture architecRome in from

architecture/
*0f
course,

while
us

these

Etruscan house
in

will the

allow
to

to

reconstruct

the
are

private
of
in
no

Tarquins
us
an

the of

Gracchi,
the

help
the

whatever

ing givthe

idea

higher
tenement is

houses houses

Rome;
of

especiallyof
day,
when of both land

blocks,
and bad

or

insulae, the

good
in

quality.
in Rome

There

no were

doubt made

that much

became

expensive

houses

higher

than

126
The conclusion earlv

ROMAX

CITIES

is evident, then, that houses


we

to
a

learn
tour

about

Roman

must

make

of Etruscan On close The the


as

sites in Central

Etruria.
connection of

other
is

hand

the in

is not

so

supposed
of been the cited
as
an

works
at

engineering.
with the
ever

Cloaca
has

Marta

Graviscae, for

stance, in-

for

comparison
half

Cloaca since ago. of all

^laxima its I

Etruscan

prototype,
a

discoveryby
but

Dennis
so

over

century
inmate in of my the

regret to

disturb

complacent
is
no

an

handbooks,
that

there passage

doubt
a

mind
Roman

this arched I have

is
see

work

Empire.

yet

to

singlearcade
with
vous-

surely constructed
soirs

before

Augustus
of The

the body interpenetrating


as
are

the

masonry i-ule for prebe the and

such

here
Rome
was

used. and that


to

general

Etruria, for

for Latium

in the should
curve
a

Augustan
cut
so as

age
to

the masonry

fit

on

the
was

perfect
often

of

voussoirs, of which
even
a

there

double

line. triple

There

is, however,

one

bridge
be
of

at

least, at
the
one

Bieda
Etruscan
naust not

(Blera),
cities; and
followed
us.

which
these
a

can houses

set

beside
to

that

three

six stories
Etruria
sea.

high
does

have

quite
must

different
to in

tj-pe. In
and

this

help

We such
as

go

the

South

across

cian Phoeniare even

cities
now

Motva
on,

Sicilr, where
the
Romans

excavations how
to

being

carried That

showed
were

build for

such

lofty houses.

they
seems

generally

built

poorly

and

ulative spec-

purposes,

generally

conceded.

ll\

x::

"TTmI

Late

Etruscan

House,

with

Atrium

Tuscanicum

(Dunn)

Plate

XXIII

KL^YXK
THE

PUBLIC
r:,.Ry
L

ASTOR,
LENOX
AND

TILDENFOUixD/.'jiOUa

ROMAN^ Cora

CITIES"

127
at

at

as

of

pre-Roman
to

workmanship,
century
any
B.C.

or

least,previous

the

third

It is of

large blocks
of the Roman
as

of

tufa

without

of the mixture in

materials, without
breakwater
work
am
even

the apertures which


late

piers and
Much

buttresses of
to

characterize

the do

Republic.

tempted
called
not

so,

however,

I will not

attribute Vulci
events

to the Etruscans

the

superb bridge near


It and of is at may all

Ponte later

della than arch


one

Badia.

Augustus
has
a

be

earlier. feet and

Its

main

span

sixty-two
the
and

rises its

nearly length

hundred
two

feet above

Flora, and

is almost

hundred
the

fiftyfeet.
Narni. If I
were

It is

surpassed only by
this

bridge at

to reduce

question of the
to

mental monu-

relations

of

Rome
would
to

Etruria
to

to
a

its visit
as

simplest expression it
to

be

advise

Corneto-Tarquinii and
sites most

Cervetri-Caere

the

accessible and
mounds

also best and

adapted
the
are

in
to

their

painted tombs,
a

museums

furnishing
Etruscan

continuous

picture
and be
seen so

of

best also

art.

Perugia
what
can

Volterra

important, but mostly


The of
a

at these

sites is

late

period and
at

is rather one-sided.

street

of tombs

Volsinii
of the way the

(Orvieto) is
with

the

best

remaining instance
a

the Etruscans

constructed

city

of

dead

regular

128

ROMAN

CITIES

streets

of houses

with

ditch encircling
of the

and the

parts, ram-

after the fashion


of

cityof
of
of

hving,
form

which

an

earher

example
Gaiella

circular Chiusi.

exists at the
But
not

Poggio
are

there
are

also two

cities of Etruria

which

only
two

better

but preserved architecturally


us

which

should

interest of

as

ing vividlyindividualizof Rome


to

phases They

the

relations and

Etruria.

are

Perugia

Falleri.

gia Peru-

(Perusia) is the type


after

of Etruscan been

citywhich,
allied

Roman

had superiority

proved, clearly
an

accepted
civitas

conditions

and

became
so

city,

foederata,remaining
the
rest

until

it received in
90
B.C.

with citizenship

of

Etruria

Falleri few
or

(Novi Falerii) exemplifies those


whose

cities,
revolt
to
see

in number,
continuous

inhabitants, after
were

contumacy,

obliged

their too-strong mother condemned


to

citydestroyed and
new

were

build

home.

Perugia

The

most

tragic moment
Perusia

recorded
is that of

tory in the his-

of ancient
to

its surrender
of 41
B.C.,
cause

the young

Octavian

earlyin

March

after the of Lucius between

in cityhad fought obstinately

the

Antony
the two

in that earliest of the

struggles
succession

claimants

to

Caesar's

that is called the "Perusian

War."

It is said that

130

ROMAN

CITIES

Until the usual


of

my

last visit to

Perugia
to

I had

accepted
most

view

that attributes and

Augustus
to
a

the

existing gateway
Gallus
of

restoration of the
I
nants rem-

under

the decorative Marzia.


conclusive these

features But
now

Porta

beheve

have

gathered
Roman
at

evidence

in

support of
are

the
not

opinion that
Etruscan

magnificent gateways
are

all but

remnants

of

the

pre-

Roman and
must

city. Both
in the

the

architecture

sculpture of Etruria
be

fourth

century

enriched
was

by

these

two

masterpieces.
sixth
turies, cen-

Perusia
one

in already,

the fifth and


of

of

the

league
was

twelve
the

principal
earhest;
as

Etruscan

cities. It it
was

not

among

perhaps
does the

the

latest cities

accession, facing
across

it

Umbrian

the

Tiber, and
from

holding part
the Umbrians.
it
as

of the land

recently wrested
archaic works

Though
a

of

art

point to

highly civilized
of the that

center

in the sixth the

century, the

contents

necropolisand
of from
seems

city itself show


and

its

period

terial greatest ma-

artistic the

prosperityextended
century
B.C.

the
not

fourth
to

to

second

It

have

been

affected which

by

the

incoming

tide

of its

Roman
normal The

supremacy
course.

left it free to pursue

colossal circuit of walls, in and

laid beautifully
the

tcourse-masonry,

showing splendidlyin

'7/0.
'^^

ei

CJ

rv

o
-t-J

o
o

"

i-H

(1(

Plate

XXIV

ROMAN

CITIES

131

neighborhood
the but Porta

of

both

the be

Porta of the

d'Augusto
fifth

and

]Marzia, may
the

century;

from

style of the gates, I should


than the of

hardly
nation exami-

place them
of
now

earlier

fourth.
the and

My

what
Porta

remains
Eburnea

Etruscan
Porta

gates
Sev-

called almost

San

ero,

rebuilt entirely

in the

^Middle the
same

Ages,
struc-

showed
tural

that they followed methods and


as

exactly better

the

preserved Porta
so

Augusta merely
scheme,
gates.
These

Porta

]Marzia,
here
as

they
the

need

be

mentioned and

part of
on

general
latter

I shall concentrate

the two

gates make
B.C.

us

feel that

in the

fourth

century
Etruria

Perusia, like other Umbria,


advanced
a

great

cities of

and
more

was

monumentally
than that Rome. such We

and
must

artistically
not

imagine
existed

for

moment at
any

gates could
Caesar. the

have The
of

in Rome

time

before of

perfectly plain Aquinum


at

Janus

gateway

city
ways gateI

and

the

equally plain
and

earlier

Ferentino,

Falerii

Ascoli

which

describe
Rome

elsewhere, give the type of the gates of


of the Yolscian and Latin
or
even

and of

void decities,
decorative

architectural
do

memberment
not

sculi)ture. There
the these

remain

in any

of
to

other
at

Etruscan

cities,gates comparable
Those
at

Perugia.

Volterra

and

Cosa

132

ROMAN

CITIES

are

almost

as

simple

as

the

gateways

farther

south. These
and

Perugian gates, therefore, studying in


in the
best
most

seem

unique

well worth the


not
one

detail.

I shall

begin
Porta

with
was or

condition, although it
artistic
a
"

the originally

the

Arco

d'Augusto.

It

is

massive

structure

between

by
set

two

sixtyand seventy feet in height flanked and enormous projecting square towers
an

in

angle
was

of

the

city

walls.

The feet
as

single
to the
was

archway
center

about originally

twxnty
ran,

of its tunnel the case,


the
not

vaultingwhich
There
two

so

often

straightbut diagonallyto
are

the

facade of
the
to

gate.
The

stories above and


or sponds corre-

archway.
the

first is
on

narrow

frieze

triumphal
of
a

colony
trithat

arches; it is in the
which take pilasters and

form the
are

false the

gallery in
Doric

place of
set

glyphs
and

shields

in

the

intervals is
is
a

correspond to
wider
a

the metopes.
center

Above,
of which

second

story, the

occupied nally origi-

by

single broad
open,

arcade

now

closed the
that

but

by

means
a

of w^hich feature

garrisoncould
was

defend

the

gate

"

ated perpetuAosta
to

in the Roman

imperial gates
of

from

Trier, with the substitution


for the It has

numerous

arcades

singleone.
been

quite generallyconceded

that

the

ROMAN

CITIES

133

lower
arcade of

part of the gate


was

up

to

the

spring

of

the fire

Etruscan I

and

had

survived
a

the doubt

Octavian.

placed this beyond


of the masonry mason's letters
to

by

findingat
w^ay form
a

the base of

in the passage-

number of Etruscan

marks of
a

mainly
of 1.75

in the
The

the

alphabet.

gate is
below

now^

uncovered

depth
had

meters

the

antique level,so bringing to lightthese


quarry

Etruscan from above

signs which
that it
was

been

removed

all the the

stonework w^hen is very

showed originally finished that


were

ground
It

off after
one

construction. these removed But mason's when is there of the

seldom
as

finds

marks,
above any
to
a

they
to

always

ground.
reason

assign the
the
are

upper
not.

part

gate

later

period?

I believe

Any
of
to

supposed divergencesbetween
the upper
and habit
or

masonry

lower
of the

portions
of

due

either from
the

the

easy

studying
lack in the

monuments

photographs
fact and which and that

to

recognition of
surface
to to

the difference
the lower
were

condition

coloringof
for
towers

part is due
addossed

buildings
the walls the that

centuries up of
to
a

certain upper

height,so
and

weathering
As here
for

the

lower

portions
I

necessarilydiffered.
the
a

architectural brief

features

can

give
a

only

analysis of the results of

134

ROMAN

CITIES

study
urns

of

Etruscan

monuments,
well
as

the especially the

and

as sarcophagi,

citygates
use

and

other

architectural such
as

works. these
to

The form

of

plain
rounded sur-

voussoirs

the

arcade,
on

by
of strips
two

curved

moldings
and

carved
not

separate
The

stone, is Etruscan
of

Roman.

heads

protectinggenii that project from


the arch appear
on on

the

spandrels of
of Etruscan and
are

tions representaand
cophagi sar-

gates

the the

urns

in paralleled
are

Etruscan

gate
false

of Volterra;

they also
of

not

Roman.

The

gallery or
shields
or

frieze
rosettes

with psuedo-Ionic pilasters the intervals


on

occupying
forms

is

one

of the commonest
urns

of decoration The upper


can

can Etrus-

and

sarcophagi.
of the

gallery
seen
a on

filled with
more

defenders
one

gate

be

than
on

carved
urns.

of representation

city
Not

gate

Etruscan
covers
on

This
one

every
a

feature

of

the

gate.
as a

appears from

Roman
sources

gate except
;

tive derivaon

Etruscan works
course

every

one

occurs

Etruscan
B.C.

of the fourth Etruscan


no

to second

centuries

Of and

gates

had

no

tions inscripand
no

provided
of than

place

for

any,

better could

proof
be asked
on

the

pre-Roman

construction

the fact that when

Augustus
wished

set his seal to

the reconstructed
anew

city and
as

christen

it

after

himself

Augusta

Etruscan

Sarcophagus
similar
to

of Arco

Larthia
d'

Seiauti

(Florence)
Porta Marzia

with

details

August"

and

Etruscan

Sarcophagus
in

(Volterra)

showing City
and

Gate

with

heads

spandrels

gallery

Plate

XXV

ROMAN

CITIES

135

Perusia, his epigraphists were


letters

forced

to

cut

the
and

recording
arches
a

this fact voussoir

most

awkwardly
In and

on ineffectively

the

blocks.
age

Roman

gates
a

and

of the

Augustan

later

place for
The Arco
to

horizontal

inscription was

provided.
sponded corre-

d'Augusto
the
one

just
main
to
was

described
of
a

Porta end of

Decumana the

Roman At
the
more

colony,
"

at

street.

other

end,

corresponding
Praetoria,

the the

even

important Porta always


When upon immense
was
as

gate

that has

been in 1540

popularly
the pope

called

"Porta

Marzia."
was

younger
to to

Sangallo
him,
the the Porta

called

by

the

build
overawe

at this

point, an
he

fortress
to
a

Perugians,

obhged
he
came

tear

down

JNIarzia;but
that for three

of

family
loved what
was

of architects and

generations had
he did

copied antique monuments, perhaps unique


at

this

time,

"

took and

it down

and

reconstructed

all its in the of its


can

essential
new

artistic parts, stone wall How

by stone,
in front

fortress

only

few

yards
of

old
seen

position. by
an

it was accurately fresco shows

done
the

be

historical

Umbrian before of the the

painter, Bonfigli, which


it the
was

the in its

gate

torn

down,

standing
wall. made the

section
at at

Etruscan original the

I also found

Uffizi

drawings
he tore

by Sangallo
gate, and
an

time, before

down

almost

136

ROMAN

CITIES

contemporary
So
I

sketch

of

the

Arco

d'Augusto.

speak with
Porta many
a

this material
was more

in mind.

The than

Marzia Roman
as

highly decorated
and
memorial

triumphal
gate

arch, though
was was

in the other the

none

of the decoration
This

below

spring of

the arcade.

because perfectlylogical when such


a

in those

strenuous

days

gate

was

reallyfor
have
be been
to

defense
out

anything
defacement
at the base two

decorative

would

of

place below, subject as


at

it would

continual

times

of attack.

But, beginning
was

of the arcade, the

gate

framed
the

by

whose pilasters of
a

supported capitals

trave archi-

false

gallery.

Inside

the

spandrels
the Arco

the heads the

of the two

protecting geniiprojectfrom
same

masonry,

in the

way

as

on

d'Augusto,
block
was

while

over

the

keystone a

weathered the
an
ox

inserted
on

by cutting into
carved originally
away.

gallery
ox

above, and

it was

head,
is

long

since

worn

Now,

the

head

recognizedto
on

be the

sign manual
on

of Rome,

carved

gates

or

stamped

local

coinage,wherever
if it is here made
a

Rome

took

possession. Therefore,
to

patent addition

the

originalstructure,
dominion.

by
must

most

inartistic Roman

the gate disfigurement,

itself

antedate

The
most

gallerythus disfigured by Augustus original


"

is

in fact

unique
"

feature.

It is

ROMAN

CITIES

137

made
or

to

produce
with
a

the effect of balustrade the


four

sort

of

ringhiera
about
two

balcony
up,

running
small the and

half

way

between

large single

piers that support pilaster


Over the

trave. balcony's archipeers the


a

balustrade
of

there
of

figure
between that

in

the

center

each

five spaces them


as so

the
are

The pilasters. half hidden it


on

artist carved bv

thev
stood

the balustrade floor of the

if

they
These the

behind

the

balcony.
the

five

figuresare
What
we see are

evidentlythe guardians of
they?
the

city.
of
one

Helped by
central either

early
the him

drawings
type
stood
while

that

figure has
side and These of

Jupiter.
of the end
now

Then

on

Dioscuri, Castor
were

Pollux,

at each

their horses.

tures sculpthe few the from

should

be

classed marble

as

among

large
fourth
the

sized
or

Etruscan

sculptures of
to

third

centuries

B.C., and

judge

fairlywell preserved Jupiter,the


in its way
as

w^orkmancotta terra-

ship was
Falerii
and
urns

good

as

the

charming
of

figures
and

of

the

temple gables
From that Etruscan the Dioscuri

Luna,
mirrors

Telamon.

it is evident of their father

were

the

escorts

Jupiter,
from
as

his messengers far the that


as

and

active

agents.
the

Even

Thessa-

lonica, where
the

Dioscuri
comes as

occupy

jambs
they
were

of

early city gate,


Greeks

proof
well
as

regarded by

by

Etruscans

as

138

ROMAN

CITIES

the

guardiansof the city. Their statues stood at each end of the stairwayof the Capitoline temple shall itself. We and of other temples in Rome
find them
as

the main

decoration

of the forum

of

Assisi.
As Porta Etruscan

far

as

the
are

architectural concerned of the Arco

features
are as

of

the

Marzia
as

they

clearly
The

those

d'Augusto.
the

of peculiarpseudo-Corinthiancapitals have their analogiesin numerous

ters pilas-

Etruscan

monuments;
the
urns

for

example,
could
The

in

Perugia
other farther open has

itself

on

of the

Volumni

and

tombs

of the the

necropolis. Nothing
normal which Roman
must

be

from

type.
have

upper the arch

gallery
left
no

crowned

trace, and
sixteenth
How is shown every

had

entirelydisappeared even
related to the medieval
we

in the

century.
the gate
most
was

city

if fascinatingly

do

thing that
trate pene-

visitor to

Perugia
entrance

should
now

: experience

through the
wall

cut

in the fortress into the

below of
a

the Porta San

Marzia

stonework
He

bowels

Gallo's
of the the

fortress. medieval

rated incorpothe

quarter
of

city within

foundations

fortress, leaving its streets,


towers,

houses, alleys and


be is
a

just as they
for
one

were,

to

subterranean

storerooms

the

soldiery! It

ghost-like progress

that

makes, by torch-

c
a;

Pi

bO

^
a

t"

es

*s;
;-!
^^

c
+-"

;-(

Plate

XXVI

^"BUC

USRARY

140

ROMAN

CITIES

Porta

Marzia
ox

all I

can

find

that

is Roman
and
not

is the the
on

vanished

head

over are

the here

keystone
carved

two

that inscriptions

the

voussoirs the two the

but, with
narrow

almost

on equal incongruity,

architrave On the

bands upper

above band of

and

below

balcony.

is

Augusta
Colonia

Perusia, cut, I believe, at the time

Augustus'
is

reconstruction; on
Vibia^
three
added under

the

lower

band

Trebonianus
It

Gallus, nearly

centuries

later.

has

always
done the but and

been

posed supsame

that all this

was lettering

at the

time, in the

third

century,
is

cutting
of and

of

*'Augusta
"Colonia hand.
There

Perusia"

deeper
the

ing firmer, showthe later

its earlier date, while

shallowness different

Vibia"

shows

quitea

are

other

architectural
in the The the

features
museums

at

Perugia.
a

The of

sarcophagi
details.

give
di S. the road which It

quantity
two

"tempio
city on
structure

Manno,"
to

miles is the

outside

Florence,

only Perugian
of vaulted beautiful and of

belongs to
is
a

the

type

constructions.
travertine about

barrel

vault feet

blocks,
feet

twenty-seven

long
A

thirteen

(4.10 meters)
existence
of in three The

in diameter;

one

of the Etruscan

largest in

this age.
lines makes

long
its

tion inscripthe

antiquitycertain.
found, of which

tombs

that have

been

ROMAN

CITIES

141

richest is the

famous
later

tomb

of

the

Volumni,
of

all

belong
and been

to

the

period; those
appear
one

the

fourth
to

previous centuries
discovered.
of But

not

yet

have

of the most the the Volumni

interesting
is the way

features in

this tomb

of

which

it illustrates house of
as

type
and

of

developed
The

Roman

have
contents

pictured it.
its

scriptio de-

it, its

discovery is
ever

one

of the

most

vivid parts of Dennis'

cinating fas-

book, Cities and

Cemeteries

of Etruria,

Falerii

The

capital city
of size
to

of

the

Faliscans

was

at

Falerii, the present Civita


town
anv

Castellana, the
of
a

nearest not

north
warrant

Rome,

where

enough
to
see

remains

visit,unless
medieval

it is

the

masterpiece of

Roman

artists,
About

the four

neo-classic miles away,


in
a

porch
to the

of

its cathedral.

west,

Falerii lives

again,
the it is Its

however,
well

humbled

force-given offspring, a
walled
stumbles

preserved and strongly days of the Republic. One


with
to

city of
across
as

something
to

of

shock, accustomed
for all such is true,

one

look

the

heights
the

cities. of of
a

builders

took
one

advantage, it
of

deep

ravine,

strange
in the

burroni
surface

canic this vol-

region, gashed
until
one

and

invisible

nearly falls

into them.

142

ROMAN

CITIES

It

is not

large city,not

quite
a

mile

and

half

in circuit,yet it makes

vivid

impression,
it is

because notwithstanding its prosaicposition, the best of

preserved example
its At

of walls

ture militaryarchitecare

period.
one

The

almost

broken. un-

point,where
Porta

they descend
they remain
the of masonry, that

to the to
a

ravine

at

the

di Bove,

height of nearly sixty feet, and piercedin


the base of this the
ox mass

gate, being
seems

Yet insignificant.

head

occupiesthe
nation, domithe date of

keystone of
is and
a

the

gate, sj^mbolof

the Roman

confirmation significant of the

character
new

city.
Falerii, built in
the rebellion of
240
B.C.

It is
as a

Falerii, Novi
for

punishment
whose

old

lerii, Faa

impregnable position made


enemy.

her
was an

dangerous early

The

originalcity
race

foundation

by
with

of

non-Etruscan
dition tra-

origin,connected
calls them

the

Sabines, though
connects

"Pelasgic" and
with

their
was

worship
among

of

Juno

Argos.
in Southern

Falerii

the she her

largestcities
never
was

Etruria, and

though

thoroughly Etruscanized,
neighbor
whom best she Veii in her for
wars

helped
with

Etruscan

Rome,

against
One is that of

fought

two

centuries. these who


wars

the

known

episodes of
schoolmaster
the

of the treacherous

had

charge

of

the

sons

of

nobles

of

J
'VA'

,";e

""^'f
'

"^^^
i"-.
I

.is^^-

Falleri,

Porta

di

Bove

and

Walls

of

the

Roman

Colony

of

Falerii

Falleri,

Porta

di

Giove,

Principal

Gate

of

Falerii

Plate

xxv^ii

THE

NE^'

YORK

PUBLIC
l/'EARY

ASTOR,

LENOX

AND

TILDEN

FOUND/vTiONS

ROMAN

CITIES

143

Falerii at the time enticed


them The the into

of the the

siege by Camillus
of the Roman Camillus

and

lines

siegers. be-

generosityof
and
to

in

sending

boys

back

delivering the schoolmaster, whip


back
to

bound,
to have

for
so

them touched

the that

city,is said
tarily they volun-

the Faliscans

accepted
was

the

overlordship of
a

Rome.
a

This

in 394

B.C. seem

For
to have

century and
been in the

half after
pronately alterthis

this there Roman

cityboth
which after

and

anti-Roman its

factions
It
was soon

guided
that Rome

policy.
first

took Etruscan

the

aggressivestep

toward
that

holding
of Veii,
one

after annexing territory,

two by establishing at

nies, strong militarycolo383


on

Sutrium

(Sutri) in
in

and the

second

at

Nepet

(Nepi)

373,

both

southern

border

of the

of Falerii. territory

They played

At present their quitea part in subsequent wars. sites are hardly worth visiting. It
was

in 240 that Rome her


an

B.C.

at

the time

of the of

wars

witK
FaHs-

Pyrrhus
cans
annex

ill-advdsed revolt
an

the

gave

opportunity

to crush

the

city,
and

half her her It

tear territory,

down the

her

walls,

destroy
remove

buildings except
inhabitants
was

temples,
site
"

to

new

New
were

Falerii.

then

that the Faliscan


to

gods
so

reverentially
done in

moved

Rome,

as

was

often

conquered

cities.

Juno

Curitis, the

144

ROMAN

CITIES

patron goddess, Minerva


frons, all found
new

Capta,
have been

Janus

Quadri-

sanctuaries

in Rome.

Recently
abandoned

two

temples
The

found
was

in the
side out-

city.

larger of
I have

the two
was

the walls

in the citadel and

probably the
the

main
it
as

temple

of Juno.

already spoken of
form

approaching cityis
on

in size and the most

Capitoline
of
rounded sur-

temple. Perhaps
the

feature interesting and


on

its site,so
all sides

strong except

yet
the

so

low,

west
: on

by deep
the east

clefts

or

ravines

occupied by
on

streams

the river and del

Treja;

the north
on

the

rio the

maggiore
rio Saleto,

purgatorio;
with

the the

south

Communication
was

surrounding country
Even but the
on or acropolis

entirely by bridges.
was

citadel and bend

not

in the

walls

the

east

side
a

also reached of the river. clefts

by

bridge and
descend
one

protectedby
of these and

To

pendicula per-

by goat paths
up
at the

steps in the
a

rock

and

then in

look the

bridges is
sites.

unique

sensation

study of city
if it

Though
is
as

hardly risingabove thoroughly isolated (Orvieto), the plateau.


In

the level of the


as

plain it

whole

occupied,like Volsinii of a high rocky expanse


the

the old

then, city,
can

modern

Civita
from of

CasRome

tellana, which

be

easilyreached
passes the

by

the

trolleywhich

foot

poetic

146

ROMAN

CITIES

in

alternate

lines

of
the
to

headers
most

and extensive wall

stretchers. ruins
in in

They
a

are,

perhaps,

style

analogous
the the inside
use

the

Servian units

Rome,
fashion

before toward Just

of

small
of the

came

into

close the

Republic.
di of Bove the the sake
are

Porta

the

ruins

of

Cistercian
with
to

monastery
the

twelfth walls.
of this

century,

built

materials
for had which site is

from
the bold fell

My

first

visit

this the in The

site

was

medieval
very

ruin,
unusual

for

church

tunnel less owned than

vaults,
a

Italy,
entire who The I the

century

ago.

now

by
in

man gentleruined
to

farmer

keeps key
to

caretaker the church

the
not

monastery.
found crack and in

was

be
to

remember

applying
wooden the I door interior missed
;

my when of

camera

heavy
I
saw

the the

film

was

developed
the first

church with

for
own

time,
It is

which

seeing
incentive

my

eyes.
to

an

additional

for

visit

the

ancient

city.

-J

^'f^"Ut;;^'
-"

Narni

(near)

Augustan

and

pre-Augustan
Flaminia

Bridge

for

the

Via

Plate

xxviir

The

Umbrians

and

the

Flaminian

Way

North
east

of the

the

Sabines
was

and

of

Picenum,

and up

of

Etruscans,
seaboard
at

Umbria,
far
we

reaching
as

the and Via for


to

Adriatic

as

north shall

Ravenna

bisected,
Flaminia. the know clash earlier
to

the One

time has

visit

it, by

the

an

instinctive from the the of time under

sympathy
we

Umbrians

because

begin dog
in

them,
of
races,

they
the

are

always

the In said and

plaything
before
a

circumstances.
was,

centuries,

Rome

they
Northern

are

have

possessed
Italy, Pliny
the their the from

large
sea

part
sea,

of from

Central

to

Alps
ation, exagger-

to

Apennines.
that hundred and the the of of

remarks,

with had

misty
annexed

Etruscans cities. The

three
to
ward, west-

Ligurians
and their had other

Senonian had

Gauls

tribes

to

eastward,
north their
;

destroyed
Etruscans
west

supremacy

in them

and

the

deprived though
had

possession
to

of

the

Tiber,

they

continued Better in historic

live any

in

the other

districts Italians

they

lost.

than times

they

represent
and
over-

the

primitive
of

pre-Hellenic Italy.
Not

pre-Etruscan

population
147

148

ROMAN

CITIES

troubled dreams
or

with

idealistic heroism,

with

political

ambitions, and
to
a

preferring quiet possession struggle for liberty,


to

of their homes the Umbrians


with

became their
The
are

accustomed

mating amalgathan
to

conquerors

rather

emigrating. patienceand
fourth

splendid slow
a

moving

white its

cattle of Umbria
its

fit emblem

of the race,

industry.
advance
first rather
came

So when
at to

the Romans,

in their northward

the

close of
with

the

century,
found
race,
a

grips
and

them

they
minded Roman been

chastened
to
seems

humblethe

easily persuaded
There

acquiescein
not
to

protectorate.
any

have

organizedleague of
a

Umbrian

ties communia

wdtli army
in the
was

common

policy.
cross

When

Roman

attempting to
of the attack who Yet
at

the difficult passes Umbria


the in 210 in

Apennines
to

Northern

order

Etruscans,

Umbrian

Camertes,

commanded

became this district, had lake defeated

their allies. the Etruscans

after the Romans


the

Vadimonian

and
a

had
ber num-

entered

Central

Etruria

for the first time, alarm

of the Umbrian

cities took

at these first

signs of
intention

Roman

aggression northward
near

and

ered gathdefeat

their forces of
a

Mevania
on

with

the rumored Their

march up

Rome. and

here in 307
was

opened

Umbria,
of victory

its submission

completed by

the

Sentinum

in 295.

ROMAN

CITIES

149

The the
new

first Umbrian

commonwealth
Ocriculum This
town

to

accept

order

was

(307 B.C.), the


was

modern

Otricoli.

the
at the

gate

to

Umbria,
of the the

standing near
the Nar

the

Tiber

opening
which

valley of
Flaminia

(Nera), through
soon

Via

was

to

pass. the

The

ruins

of the Roman
are

city which
"

succeeded

Umbrian

still extensive,

good-sized amphitheater
ter thea-

meters), a (arena sixty-sevenby forty-five forum meters), Thermae, (seventy-six


basihca, interestingfor its well
Some the

and

preserved plan.

of

the

finest
were

early imperial sculptures in


found

Vatican

here, including the

famous

Jupiter

of

Otricoli, so

long thought
the

to

represent the Pheidian


Narni

type
and

of

god.

Terni up

Twelve
hill
one

miles thousand

farther feet
was

the

river Nar,

on

high (three hundred


the

and

thirty-two meters)
Southern

first

stronghold of
was

Umbria,
after

Nequinum.
the

It of

in

299,

eight years
that the Its

annexation
a

Ocriculum,

the Romans
name

sent

colony here, and changed


from the river.
It not from
a

of the

city to Narnia,

importance strategic
but

is evident. it issues
at

only deep
the

commanded
and
narrow

the river where pass


was

the

junction of
into

Flaminia

with

the

highways

northwest

150

ROMAN

CITIES

Umbria,
Corviano

to

Ameria Monte

and

Tuder,
Croce

where
meet

Monte
in most

and

Santa

picturesquefashion.
The

grandiose bridge joining


the

which
to

here the

carries

the

Flaminia,
was see

city

high hillside,
in which
a we

rebuilt

by Augustus
as was

in the form it is. It is

it,sadly curtailed

greyhound
in classic The

among times

bridges,and
for

famous
and the

even

its boldness it and

height.
and

poet

Martial
that

sings of

Byzantine Procopius,
historian
of
ever

much

traveled

courtier
was

Justinian, says that it


seen.

the loftiest he had scientific of modern

Choisv, the
of of

most

his-

torians
structure

architecture, praises the


its

ingenious
The widest in

twistingtunnel

vaults, strengthened

by
arch,
span feet the
"

numerous

ribbings. parallel thirty meters

now

fallen, measured
was

thirty-twometers
"

and

more

than

ninety
one

above three

the

river. arcades
The

At is

present only

of
two-

smaller

standing,
were

with away

thirds the

this span.

rest

swept

in The

the eighth,

eleventh

and

later centuries.
the and

originallength, including
was

retaining walls,
forty
and feet the

nearlv
and

four

hundred

(one
width

hundred

forty-fivemeters),

only
*

about
this

feet (7.96meters).^ twenty-five


are

In

neighborhood
Ponte

several
on

other
way
to

good

early

Roman

bridges: the

Sanguinario

the

Otricoli; the

bridge

152

ROMAN

CITIES

different this

construction; that the


is evident, and

exact

point where
can

begins

that
on

this work
account

hardly

be later than

Augustus,

of the arch
is

of both primitive character and voussoirs molding. The that the

masonry

and
reason

second

piers have
the absence
vents

other
of
to
ease

pre-

Augustan

teristics; charac-

breakwater

buttresses,
of

and

of

arched
We
as

the strain in times the

flood/

may,

therefore, consider
not
at

Narni
struction con-

bridge
than shows

designed,if
of the Via time the of
core

the

time

of the

Flaminia,^
Sulla.
was

at least not

later

the

The of

fallen
concrete

masonry and the

that

blocks leaded.
the

of the revetment The

fastened

by

iron
was

clamps,
due and
to

medieval
a

destruction
dam

bursting of
rush
pass defects

Roman

higher
it

up

the the
to

sudden
narrow

of above in the

pent-up
the

waters
was

through
not

bridge:
Flaminia

due

any

bridge.
the passes
was

Beyond
Interamna,
Roman

Narni
the

toward
not
a

modern but
an

Terni, which
allied years

colony

municipality,a
after the
at

erated fedof

city. Only
Narnia
battle
was

four

colony
Umbrian

founded Sentinum
in I

the had
L'Art

Romans

the
to

decisive

of

put
de which

an

end
chez
can

^Restoration ^The

Choisy,
have
were

batir

les

Romains.
as

bridges
immense

examined of
more

be

dated

early

as

the

original road
with

ture primitive quasi-cyclopeanstruc-

blocks.

ROMAN

CITIES

153

resistance, and
of

from

that

time and

forward Etruria
one

the towns
may

Umbria,
as

of

Picenum

be four
were

considered

all

belonging
the of the

to

of

the

categoriesinto
divided: Latin

which

subjectsof
ager

Rome

(1) Cities
without

romanus,

(2)
In

colonies, (3) federated


the

palities cities,(4) municiof

rights
and
we

suffrage.
were

Umbria
The

only

Narnia

Spoletum
have
seen,

colonies. ern West-

first

controlled,as
where The pass

lower the the

Umbria,
the Tiber. the
as
a

it opens
was

into
to

valley of
same

second in Central

do

yond be-

Umbria.
between the

Interamna,
tories large territing cut-

federated of these

came city,

two

colonies

though

without

off their communications. Terni is far


we can

from
see

being

as

picturesque
and it to

as

Narni, and
site the
an reason

in its low

defenseless

the

Romans of
one a

allowed

remain
It is
on

allied
a

city instead
of

militarycolony.
thirtymeters
at

at

height right

only
of

hundred

the

bank

the of

Nar,
the

the

junction of
which
went went

several
on

highways:

Flaminia,

to

Carsulae, of the

Salaria, which
and of the

up
over

to

Reate Somma

through Sabina,
pass
to

road made

the

Spoletum.
The

This

it

great commercial however,


are

center.

antique remains,
There is
not

quitefragmentary.
that

enough

left of the walls to show

they were

polyg-

154

ROMAN

CITIES

onal, like those


blocks theater The of

of

Spoletum,

but

of

large squared
The

travertine

carefully faced.
were

baths,

and

amphitheater
of the

all

quite early.
or

theater, either
age,
at

late in

Republic
of the

the

Augustan
condition

still existed

fairly complete
theater amphito

the is

Renaissance,
even now a

and

there

sufficient stretch
96.50

show
arena

that its diameter measured


most 52.18

was

meters,

and

its

meters:

its date

is later.
course,

The famous

spectacularsight is, of
Terni,
"art
"

the

falls of

one

of

the

few

grandiose
nature" in the
as

things
the of

in which
often It

has

surpassed
"

ancients

too

often

were

habit Den-

boasting.
cut
near

was

in 271 in

B.C.

that

Curius
a

tatus

here

the which
Reate

mountain
allowed

passage fall

for from into

the the the

river

Velinus,
of the

it to in

tableland

(Rieti)
a

Sabina
of

valley of

Nar

in

triple cascade
is not Reate

unsurpassed beauty.
to note

Incidentally it
the

teresting uninand from has

that

region

of

that here

part of
down

Sabina the

running
sacred

southwest

toward

city of Cures,
remains,

interesting early polygonal


to

able comparThe

those is easy,

we

have

already

studied.
but
"

country
is not

extremely picturesque
"

traveling
and ring bar-

except

by automobile,
are

Rieti

the inns itself,

impossible.

ROMAN

CITIES

155

Spoleto We
can

and

Ascoli with
town
no

go
no

to

Spoleto
Italian one's

such
are

ings. misgivture crea-

In

small and

one's

comforts

esthetic

pleasures more
ago, while and Christian

harmoniously
medieval
most art

blended. for found

INIany years early


far
a

ransacking Umbria
I had fruitful it of
a

Spoleto decidedlythe
I
was

field,but

from

ing suspect-

especialinterest
of the fact it is discoveries

as

Roman

city. As
made in this

matter

only quite recently that


have been

most

of

field. It is reached Terni the after Umbrian and Umbria. mountain main

after

quite an
the the

abrupt
that Abruzzi

rise from
connects

topping
with

ridge
the

loftier

nines, ApenCentral the the

descending into Spoleto, set


background,
side, by
on

plain

of

its hill

against
one

Umbrian
on one

always strongholds. It was


was a

of

accessible of

only
Even

narrow

neck when
was
a

land. the

in the
a

early INIiddle Ages,


Lombard side of

it was

capitalof
thorn and in

duchy, papal

it

grievous Pepin
pendence. indeV

the

Rome
out

until Lombard

Charlemagne stamped
in
241

It

was

B.C.

that

Spoleto
of the

received last

colony
of

with

Latin

rights,one

group
out

twelve

genuine Latin

colonies

sent

b^

156

ROMAN

CITIES

Rome,
and

the the

first of

which

was

Rimini

(268 B.C.)
that the

Aquileia (181 B.C.). At time, probably, the polygonal city walls of


latest older
we

Umbrian
best in

town

were

remodeled
the
tract

in the way
covered recently un-

can

study along
front of
an

the

main

approach

to

the

city.
of the

There

is here

juxtaposition interesting
the
sonry straight-coursema-

Cyclopean
which
was

and

done
town

either

then

or

after

the

sacking
the

of

the

by Sulla's troops during

civil war.^
the

For

Spoleto, like
of
as

most

Italian

cities, took

side
not

INIarius

and

suffered
as

severely,though
Praeneste. The

drasticallytreated
rise
here
to
a

w^alls and
are

most

unusual

height
must

clearlypolygonal
241
B.C.

in

their lower the


90

section.

This

polygonal portion of
In

walls
B.C.

certainly antedate
had taken

Spoleto,with
cities that

the rest of the Umbrian


not

and
in the ship citizen-

Etruscan

part

civil

war,

received

full of

rights of
a

Roman

in
at
once

placeof
came

those

Latin Sulla. the

colony.

Almost

the sack

by
of

The have

reconstruction
followed
this

city that
of

seems

to

disaster, makes
and

the

half-

century between
age
^

Sulla
art
at
Latin the

Augustus
It
the

the

golden
alof

of
A

Roman

Spoleto.
inscription in
two

is due
upper

slightlypost-SuUan
gives
the
names

part

this

wall

of

who

superintended

the

restoration

city magistrates (quatuorviri) (CIL. XI, 4809).

ROMAN

CITIES

157

most most

to entirely

the energy

and

knowledge

of

unusual

local

Cav. inspectorof antiquities,


ing Spoletum is ceaspuzzle. It is to be

Giovanni
to

Soldini, that Roman


be that
a

myth
he may scheme

and

hoped
out
a

find of

the

means

to

carry

clear

his which

will open

it up

still further, for


town

several

sections of the modern

stand ancient and


saw
we

on

artificial levels formed


in

entirely
tion preservaists human-

of

ruins
know

varying
even

states

of

that

Renaissance
now

buildings that

are

not

destroyed
the

but We

hidden.
can

already see
of of
a
our new

that

while

natural

development
the

pubHc
such

life led, at later times, to

addition and

buildings
theater
must
to

as

the

theater amphithe the that gustan Auso

supplement
around

older

one,

interest

center

of pre-Sullanand post-Sullanmonuments and period preceding the interesting rare

efflorescence, about
Httle
time tolium Juno
to the
"

which and

we

know To the

the
seem
or

age
to

of

Cgesar

Cicero.

this

belong such buildings as


of the Roman arch
to

Capi-

temple

triad, Jupiter,
attached

and

jNIinerva; the memorial


dedicated
or

Capitolium and
the end

Germanicus
at

and north

Drusus;

basilica

colonnade

the the

of the forum;

the that

great bridge at

citygate; the old theater The Capitoliumbecame

adjoinsthe

forum.

in Lombard

times the

158

ROMAN

CITIES

church

of S. Ansano,

est cathedral to have

of the

probably the earhcity. Only Soldini appears


was

and

realized
are

that in the present walls


walls of the

of the ancient

church

the incorporated

cella and of

that part of its beautiful

frieze, perhaps

is stillin place. Augustan art, perhaps earlier, in the church

Hidden

walls

were

also

some

of the
two

large Corinthian
them i7isitu.
It is quitean that

columns

of the pronaos,

of

unusual laid

treat

to visit the

tions excava-

have

bare
the

the

podium
The the

of

the wide

Capitolium
subterranean
is well

underneath
trench

church.
around

opened

tions foundadouble of the

The lightedby electricity.


one

of the temple is stepped basement most perfect pieces of early Roman

stonework

I have
are

ever

examined.
enormous
"

The
one

blocks

of travertine is
over

sometimes
meters

cornerstone

twelve

long;
of
a

the

jointsare
is ten

fine and

the

surfaces
The

worked. perfectly width for the basement with four lowing meters, alon

gable
on

columns A
most

the

front feature

and
are

two two

the

sides.

curious in

vaulted parallel of the basement,

passageways which

the front it
on
a

part

perforate
would which

line

seem
ran

as

into

with the facade. It parallel if they corresponded to a street the forum at this point and were
so

made

for traffic. If

they are unique. Perhaps they

"^^^-^

t^^''' THE

ART

FDBLI':

ASTOR,
"-

ROMAN

CITIES

159

are

explained by
a

an

interestingfeature
in the
masonry

in

the

basement,
passages the in

break

where
at
some

these

occur,
was

which

shows

that

period
the
we

basement
order
to

lengthened
it

toward

front
may-

make
more

possible to
which

add,

imagine,
of As this than there

the

stately and

spacious portico
in the very

Corinthian is
no

columns

still partlyremains. masonry later

great difference
cannot

addition the

be

dated

much

original structure.
passages
cases

Another
that is

tion explananamely
in the

of these
a

is

one

suggested by

few

other

of

sub-cella

chambers,
sacred

that
annexes

they

were

storerooms

for
like the of

objects or
and

to

the the Cav.

temple, temple

chambers

podium
in Rome. the

of

Castor is

Pollux
to
plete com-

Soldini of the

planning
the

freeing
the
core

substructure

and

to

dig hope
There and
one

into of

underneath the

cella, in
their

the

finding

favissaeand
to

contents.

is every

reason

believe, from

early texts
century

drawings,
side of the its marble
a

that

until the
was

seventeenth

cella wall decoration! of

intact practically

with At the

distance there arch.

only

meter

and

half

from

temple

rises,parallelwith
To that both
a

its and

fa9ade,a myself
once

memorial
seems

Soldini

it

probable
on

corresponding arch
was

stood

the other side, as

the

case

at

Pompeii

160

ROMAN

CITIES

and
not

in the

forum

of

Augustus
test

at

Rome;

it has
cavation ex-

yet

been but

possible to
this he arch the has

this
to

theory by
do
as soon

is anxious

as

possible. The
same

its foundations and skirts walls arcade of emerges S. Ansano.


on

on

the the Its sides

level
narrow

as

temple
that in than the the

on

present

street

piers are
so

imbedded
more

both

that

little

is visible ; but and attic

half and

buried with
on
a

as

it is, shorn

its frieze

its

piers hidden,

it is of and

extraordinary position.
and bear the
two

interest It

account

of its age of

is

plain

structure

travertine

large

blocks

above

the

single archway
and Drusus. crowned after

in honor inscriptions,

of those

idols of the Roman Above each


statues

populace, Germanicus
the inscription of these Roman sad and this when
two

attic

was

once

by

generals,when,
voiced the

their death, the

senate

popular feelings of
the erection The the arch
year

enthusiasm
statues
reason

by voting
in their dated

of

arches for
a.d.,

honor.
in about

has
23

been

Drusus him about

died,

"

Germanicus
years. until

having

ceded pre-

four

I I

never

doubted the arch

this date in

recently when
my

studied

detail for
was

volume
to

on

monumental that

arches, and
it
was

forced earlier

the that

clusion con-

much
a

and

the tells

were inscriptions

later

addition.

Pliny

ROMAN

CITIES

161

us

that

it

was

in the the custom and

time
to
use

of

Augustus
arches
as no

that

it for

first became

bases

honorary statues,
to the

there
at

can

be

objection
turned
was

theorythat
an

this arch

Spoleto was
and

into such
set
a

honorary base
arches
to

when

the fashion Drusus

bv

the

Germanicus
Rome of in the the

in

similar
on

positionat
either side

forum
of

of Augustus JNIars.

temple

In
us

fact the

primitiveforms
it to

of this arch

forbid

to attribute

date.
not
are as

Its

anything but a pre- Augustan low quasi-Corinthianpilaster capitalsfolbut cornices Etruscan

Greek
no

models, and
and above of

there

yet
A the

under

the frieze,

nor

any

of the usual

memberment

Augustan
receive
manner

arches.

orate decperfectlyplain pair of pilasters


corners

and

another

pair
the

the

archi volts of

of the
at

arcade, after

earlv

the arches before

Pompeii, Philippiand engaged


therefore columns had in the

Aix-lesbecome

Bains
so

the

universally popular
arches. We
not

designsfor Augustan
can

call this arch Roman

at
morial me-

Spoleto
of the

only

the earliest extant the


most

arch, but
a

instance interesting
a

sacred earlier

or

arch, religious
of

class which

prevalent in
under the civic and

days

Rome,

but

Empire became arches. political


We
11

overshadowed

by
the

the

should

naturallydate

building original

162

ROMAN

CITIES

of
90

the
B.C.

Capitolium
when the it

and

its arch of

in about

the

year

granting
and possible

burgess rights to
necessary
on

the have Rome

city made
its itself.

for

it to of

Capitoline temple modeled


This agrees

that

entirely with
Some
current

their

architectural
to

characteristics.

show

the

fallacy of belonging
forum,
and
to

the
an

day I expect theory that


now

the the

blocks Roman

arch

lying
the

in

almost

opposite
once

temple
part
of This ancient of the

of Antoninus the famous

Faustina,
arch Cicero upper

formed the Fabii. other

memorial

of

arch, mentioned writers, formed


forum,
victories in 121 the and of
B.C.

by
the

and

boundary
great
men

commemorated
the and Fabian restored of
were

and
It It
was

great
built in

generals.
in 85
B.C.

stood

neighborhood
blocks these that arch To

the

spot where
;

the

aboveI
can

mentioned
prove
to

found
not

but

I believe
never

blocks

only
be the

belonged
a

the

of Fabii, but

must

over

century

later.

get

some

idea

of

real appearance the best criterion

of the arch is this with


course
we

of the Fabii, I think


at

arch

Spoleto,
of

which the

is contemporary Fabian arch


to

the

restoration

arch. in Rome,

Of
if

it is
are

simpler because
the stories in the

the
as

to

believe

the

fragments
was

discovered

sixteenth
arms

century,
armor;

ated decor-

with reliefs of

and

but

the

con-

ROMAN

CITIES

163

structlve
as

lines

were

probably
construction.
be traced of

the

same,

as

well

the

methods

of

Other of
and the

buildings can
forum
a

along other sides


A end

square

Spoleto.
and

colonnade
have
not

perhaps
been

basilica at the north


Here

yet
the

excavated.
it becomes

in other

parts
game

of
to

city

quite an
as

exciting

descend, with
and substructures of the

Soldini

guide, into
structures,

the

cellars

of the modern Roman


as

locate buildings, and

sections

try

to

piece them
and

together so

to make

out

their

plan
after the

style.
most

The

interestingof
The in its

these
one

hunts

was

the two
forum blocks the

theaters. and with

older

adjoined
of

primitiveconstruction
tooling
it
was

large
the

careful

gave
not

to probability

conjecture that
age. and
streets
"

later

than

Augustan
the

It still exists in houses would and be unusual

large part
awaits

under
vation exca-

merely
more

which

expensive
to

than

difficult. in and
a

It is most of

find two size of

theaters

town

anything
is
no

like the that

Spoleto,
fied, identiond sec-

yet there
under

doubt

Soldini

has

the

large municipal building, a


its

theater, which
to date
a

styleof
from

construction

seems

not

earlier than distance than

the Antonines. the forum

It lies at and is I

considerable
to

easier

excavate

the

older

structure.

164

ROMAN

CITIES

was

mucli

interested

to

find, only

week
a

after
ing draw-

leaving Spoleto,at by
sare

the Uffizi in Florence

the

famous

renaissance
the

architect is

Baldas-

Peruzzi, in which

theater

given

as

complete, with
it must have

all its measurements, been accessible


at

showing
that time
that it

that
even was

though underground.
to be
seen

Peruzzi

says

"in

monastery

{in uno
while
to

monasterio) J^
examine
it may these be
was

It would
two

be well worth
more

theaters

carefully,because

that

here,

as

at

Pompeii,

the

larger theater
theater

of the usual the


use.

type for open-airperformances, and


one was see a

smaller We
at

covered

for winter

shall

that farther

north, in the high


led the Romans

Alps
to

Aosta, the colder climate


the
or

make

only

theater

of

the

city a

theatrum

tectum^

covered down
town to

theater.
from
to

Passing
part
of the

this theater the

in the that

upper the
went

city gate
the
to

faces

plain, in
into the the

order

study
It is

old
see

bridge, I
remains

military casern largely above by


core

what
at

of

amphitheater.
still
sure,

unique
ground.

Spoleto
is cut

in

being
to

It

up,

be

the

casern

buildings, and
all the

only
blocks

its concrete
of the

remains, because
were

facing

torn

away he

by

that

vandal

cardinal

Albornoz
on

when the

bard rebuilt the old Lom-

citadel

that hilltop

overlooks

the

Spoleto,

Arch
and

of

Germanicus

Drusus

A^onli, Early Koman


Plate
XXX

City

Gate

ROMAN

CITIES

165

city in order tHat the papal garrisonmight

more
as

thoroughly
it is the the vaults

overawe

the tunnel

populace.

even Still,

curved

vaulting, intersected
an

by

of the arcades, is

example interesting

of Roman the

construction, and
of

by

its size shows

importance
it is the
a

Spoleto

under

the

middle

Empire.
But

bridge in
unusual

front

of

the A

gate that
modern the gate
also the

produces
bridge
and main it

most

impression.
passes
near

spans
was

the here

river that that


must

in Roman have
been

times

approach
exactly
the

by
modern

road

that

is still
as

followed

in the its

highway, point.
of
the
one

it reaches

city at
a

only
in

accessible

guard

opens in

trap
of

door the
a

the

dust

esplanade
of

front

city gate
lantern,
a

and

descends, by the light of

long flight
and
see tion evocaa

steps

to

emerge

on

platform
Caesar.

ghostlikebridge over
of the age For before
a

river, an ghostlike
Julius

here is
feet

bridge of quite large size,nearly (twenty-four meters)


of w^hich is and

eighty
with the

long
arcades,

feet high (fourteen meters), nearly forty-five three


one

larger
of the

than

others, still standing in perfectpreservation,


for the

waiting merely
yator
to to
remove

magic

wand

exca-

the

concealing

lid and

give

it

back

practicaluse.

Through

it the

river

166

ROMAN

CITIES

rushes, hushed

by

the

stillness of the vaults


I stood
not
as

and it
as

lapping
a

the

steps on

which
It
was

to watch

weird

evocation.
as

marvelous
but

structure
a

the of

largerbridge at Narni,
that
and is of

only
this prere-

small

part

bridge remains
style
and

and

it is of

mixed
one

Augustan
at

earlier structure, while


one

Spoleto
In and

that many

Augustan.
modelings
]\Iulvian dimensions riaminian
here pre-

fact, considering the


of disfigurements
near

the

even

earlier smaller the

bridge
and than

Rome,
earlier

and

the

of the other other

bridges along
one
can

highways,
the

study
of the
struction, con-

better

anywhere
and

methods in

Augustan
the

Roman

engineers
wide

bridge
piers to
of

in the outlines in piers, the of arched


use

proportions of

their
vent pre-

of

slits in the

pressure

of the in

water, and
its
course

their system evolution the when

structure
more

toward

the

structural

forms

of

middle
pared com-

Empire.
with

Its the

perfect preservation
destruction
of the

majority

of

Augustan
of the

bridges,would
An

skill of

generation. campanile
am

realtyargue in favor these engineers of the previous walled into the now inscription
cathedral

of from

the this

originallycame,
It

sure,

bridge.

gives
my

the

trates magisits

who

built it and

supports

theory of

date:

ROMAN

CITIES

167

M
C
.

LVVCIVS VEIENVS
.

M C
.

F F
.

nil PONTEM CVR

VIR

I
.

FACIV

PROB

ARVNTQ

The

use as

of

the

double

V
even

in Lucius
earlier
to

would date than

dicate inI

possiblean
dared
to

would

have between

ascribe
135

the 70

bridge, anywhere
I beheve

about earliest
one as

and

B.C.

this to be

the
no

known

Roman

bridge
it with

scriptio inthis

has I
am

connected
aware.

bridge, so
Of
and
course near

far

there

are

other

Roman

buildings in
house ancient of pasian's VesBaths silica ba-

Spoleto; the charming


mother;
traces

of

the

built

by Torasius;
of
the worked

the

mysterious
with

Christian

Crocifisso

its massive
and

classic

fragments
the

into the structure, the of

then,

at at

quite a distance, poetic sources


us
a

picturesquelittle temple
the Clitumnus which

still

give

glimmering
eloquent
in

of that

feelingthat
and the

made
the

Pliny

so

describing them

temple
the
one

that
we

was,
now

perhaps,
see,

predecessor of
be dated earlier

which, notwithstanding the


cannot it,

glamour that surrounds


than It

the fourth is evident

century.
that

Spoleto

under

and

after

168

ROMAN

CITIES

Augustus
the

expanded

far

beyond

its walls, beyond that the


numerous.

bridge and
at least

the river.
are

It is here
most

early
I

Christian
must

monuments

put the visitor


the

to the ancient

cityon
to

his
the

guard against
basilica of is the
a

notion

that is
an

the

puzzle of
one

Crocifisso with

easy

solve.

Here

facade
and

terestin inextraordinarily that


were

doorways
to

windows and

held

be

early
Grisar

Christian undertakes

Constantinian
to prove

until
esque RomanI
am

Father

them

products of
sure, now,

the twelfth Soldini does The


maze

century!
not

not

that

believe is
an

them
even

earlier than

Constantine.
It is
;
a

interior

greater puzzle.

of colossal

and

other
nices cora

antique columns
and

of effective

classic Roman

friezes set at

quitea dizzy height;of


as

ground
doubt
on

plan
the

so
or

remodeled
no

to
an

leave

one

in

whether

there

was

ture antique struc-

site, or

whether

the

ancient the

spoils
dome which

were

brought, possibly, from


not

Capitoline
is the apse,
to

temple. Finally,but
over

least,there
of
we

the intersection
a

in front

the
are

has
some were

pre-Byzantine flavor, if
but critics, which of

believe

would

not

be

so

marvelous
age, Pisa

it

work

the
of the
are

Romanesque
Ancona and

which
drals. cathe-

produced
At

the domes
all events

piecesof
the best

ancient

tecture archihave

in this basilica

proof

we

ROMAN

CITIES

169

in of

Spoleto of
her

the

magnificence
another and
:

and

size of

some

imperialstructures.
is also
even

There

more

tacular spec-

mystery

in architecture Ponte delle

the

high viaductthat
connects

aqueduct
Spoleto
arcades

called

Torri

with
are

the

hill behind

it.

Of

course

the

medieval, but the piersseem


to make to
a

Roman,

though
of their

I omitted masonry

careful

enough study
of their

feel

at

all certain
two

date.
and

The

structure

is of brickwork
and

hundred

six meters
as a

long

eighty-one meters
and
as a

high.
town

Viewed

whole

type, Spoleto
an

exemplified
into
a newer

the

transformation
at
"

of

old

colony
of Sulla: the into of

interesting particularly
has

time

"

that

and

nothing

of

that

regularityof
soon

Roman

camp-city which
and will be Aosta.
an

is

so

to
our

come

being
is

exemplified
of extraordinary
Ascoli

in

study

Turin

and

From

Spoleto there
interest
to

excursion the

Asculum,
it
can

modern
in

Piceno.

Of

course

be the

visited

ordinary
on

*'bromidic"
Adriatic

fashion

by

railroad

the of

side, but I would


to

appeal to
omnibus

all lovers

beauty
from
Nursia mountain

take

the every
.

motor

which

starts

Spoleto

day
It is one in

for

Ascoli

by
is

way

of

(Norcia)

of the most Ascoli


corner

beautiful
an spoiled un-

excursions

Italy.
every

city, breathing at

medieval

170

ROMAN

CITIES

and
Roman of

renaissance ruins
at
are

art

and

life, so

that

the

few
one

hardly noticeable; and yet


Romana,
go

them

least, the Porta

is what
see,

Roman knew This


entrance

would archseologist

far to

if he

of it. double

gate

was,

it wDuld
as city,

seem,

the main the road preof its

of the Roman the Via

it spans The

where Roman

Salaria

enters.

ancient tenths

city was
by
two

bathed

for

nine

circuit
It
was

rivers,the Tronto

and

Castellano.
the
coast

the

of Picenum, capital passes, the roads One

commanded Adriatic

mountain
and Monte
to

to the

Umbria.
Vittore

of these

passes four

is between and sand thouat


a

(two thousand seventy-six meters) and Pizzo


four hundred
over
was

hundred

di Sevo

(two

and

twenty-two meters)
thousand feet. be

height of though it ally,seems


90

three the

Asculum,
as an

only city to
been the Picenum

honored
among

to

have of

leader

the of

seceding cities
B.C., when

in the

social

war

it started

the movement

of revolt of in the claim for

the united

Italians

against Rome
Roman

equal rights by murdering There citizens. is quite an struggle. We


before, Asculum
have every
reason

officials and in this time


we

epic strain
and for
some

know
was

that then
a

strong fortress, and

to
war

assign
90
B.C.

to

some

period
gate

previous to
of the Porta

the

of

the

double

Romana,

ROMAN

CITIES

171

The pre-

of simplicity

this gate is
We

warrant

for Its est the fina

Augustan example
for Rome

character. the

have

here

of what
"

call earlyInscriptions with


two

gemina, 2:)orta
one

city gate
and
one

incoming

for

openings, outgoing vehicles.


appears
to have

At been

the Porta

Carmentalls No other has pre-

of this type. the

Augustan gate,
The and
structure

except
and of

Pompeian,
gate
without
not

preserved this type,


finer. without
:

this Ascoli the voussoirs

Is much

archi volts

is interpenetration rather indicates


a

only
not

pre-

Augustan
It is of

it
or

date

later than

the third

second
blocks

centuries
of well

before

Christ.

large
tj'-pe,

cut travertine
or

of the severest

without
Not there is

molding
far
a

decoration.

from

Ascoli, toward
bit of

Acquasanta,
of the Via and

notable

retainingwall
in opus the
same

Salaria, In
blocks the

beautifully pohshed
travertine
age, and which of

jointed
of is the
crosses

of white

isodomum
age

Augustan
Castellano

superb bridge over


the

the ancient of the the

road

river, west
after

city,almost
Porta Rowas

immediately
mana.

issuing from
The
a

It Is now
20

called "Ponte
B.C.

di Cecco," and arch has


a

built about
14.50 meters

wider

span

of

and

the river bed.

This

South

and

Central and

height of 24.80 meters from but especially entire region, rich in Umbria, Is especially
bridges.

Augustan

earlier

172

ROMAN

CITIES

Assisi

If

we

now

return

to

Umbria,

it will sHow
of

us

several

interestingcommonwealths
age, thanks heroes join the quixotic

this transitional that made

to the conservatism

her loath to
war.
an

of the
a

social

It

is at

Assisi
town
as

that

we

find

picture of
an

old Umbrian It is
as

satisfied to be

ally of
palities munici-

Rome.

of representative is of the Roman


one

these

Spoletum
often that

colonies.
a

It is not of
was
a

can

extract

smile out
of humor

perusalof Baedeker,
touched
each

but

my
my

sense

time

that

eye in
to

caught
remains

the

set singleword "uninteresting,"

as parentheses,

the

only guide-book reference


forum of Assisi.

the
can

of

the ancient

They

be visited
of the
so-

underground
called
at

from

the square

in front

temple

of Minerva,

which
on a

stood originally

the head
so

of

the
pace

forum

slighteminence.
it is

It of

happens,
most

Baedeker,

that

quiteone
extant

the

interestingand
one a

earliest of
me

forums
answer

and
to

that

furnished

with
I

the best

puzzling question that


as

had

been
to

asking myself
Roman Could all sides ? I forum.

well

as

others

in

regard

the

the Roman Were there

forum

be closed to
across

access

on

gates
have

each entrance
so, but

? in

thought
of

that it must

been

asked

vain

and philologians

for archaeologists

pas-

Assisi, The

Capitolium

or

Temple

of

Minerva

Todi,
Plate
XXXII

Enclosure

of

Ancient

Forum

"'the

ne\a/

YOKK

i;:rary PUBLIC

AND LENOX

ASTOP,

Captions foulx TiLDZN

ROMAN

CITIES

173

sages

in literature Even Dr.

and

for material seemed


in

evidence
not to

of

the fact. taken this

Hiilsen into

have

question
Janus

account

his

forum
plained unex-

studies.

JNIy explanation
thin
the

of

the

hitherto

archways {ianipervii) that


Tuscus forum and

spanned
they
forum
the Via which the
same

vicus
the

vicus

Jugarius
were

as

open

into

is that

they

tended inthe

to frame

and

support gates by
The other

which

could

be

closed.

approaches:
and the

Clivus

Argentarius, the Argiletum


were

Sacra,
could

also

all

spanned by archways probably


did
serve

have

served

and

purpose.

In
were

Republican times,
so

when

games

and

shows of in

often

given
been

in the

forum
and

instead

specialstructures
it must
have but

like

circus

amphitheater,
to custom

quite

necessary

close
was,

the I

forum,

the

real

originof
of
Mau

the

believe, different.
I forum of

found
of

confirmation

my

theory
notes

in

the

Pompeii,
and age

where

the about

traces

gates;

this needed
at

testimony

of

the

Augustan
which I
now

just
the

the

found

Assisi, in

strengthening the earlier simple


age,

type of the forum

of

Republican

which

gives, on
the Roman

far

smaller may

scale, some

idea

of what been.

forum

have originally it I
must

Before

describing

speak

of

its

174'

ROMAN

CITIES

crowning
upper known for the end and

glory,
of the

the

Capitoline temple,
because since of

at

the

forum,
ever

though

well

admired

the

Renaissance

exquisite beauty
columns able in
to make

Corinthian
I
a

portico of extraordinary preservation,


at the
to

its wide

was

time
our

of my

visit of

rather

important Temple
converted

addition

knowledge
always

its

history and

vicissitudes. of Minerva into


to
a

It has and
was

been

called the

preserved
must really

by being
have
been

church.

It Juno

dedicated

Jupiter,
in

and

nerva, Mi-

like other the of


on

and capitolia,

style warrants
to

attribution, in its present form,

the

reign

Augustus,
the I

date of I and
on so

which its

strength
believe form is built backed
a

given it building inscription.^


is

commonly

What

have date.

discovered

is its pre-

Augustan
Assisi

steep

sloping hillside that


towered
and

the

temple

which againstthe hill,

above

it,behind
the
at

retaining wall,
of about

yet stood

high above
at

pavement
a

of the forum,

stretching
meters.

its foot

distance
a

four

The the

forum

had

decidedly oblong form,


f a9ade of the
reads:
sua

with

to the long side parallel


inscription is
et two

temple.
Caesii Cn.
fecerunt. every
five

^The F. Tiro

I L

XI, 5378, and

Cn.

T.

Priscus brothers
were

IIII
were

viri the
to

quinquennales
local inscribe their

pecunia
elected
on

These years.

magistrates
names

They

allowed

the
for

fa9ade

because

they

not

only

oversaw

the

building

but

paid

it.

176

ROMAN

CITIES

ful

course

masonry,

not
to

gustan intended, like the Aucovered


even

rubble marble prove slabs. the


a

wall,
There

be
was

with
at

stucco

or

this of
an

point, to
this inner

original independence

wall,
of

small

round-topped
which
was

door

with

opening
into the

1.05

meters,
which

opened originally
covered their
up

cella and

when

the

tan Augusthe
tico. por-

architects entire cella and This centimeters

added

facing

around

built the present colonnaded

Augustan
thick.

facing was
the cella of

only sixty-five
the

Here,

then,

was

early, prethe second of the


see was

Augustan temple, dating


or was

either the

from
forum
we

third

century

B.C.,

when

city

laid out

in the

form below

in which the

it,and
built
or

the

retainingwall
or

temple
of

rebuilt,
This

from

the

date

its earliest

form.

cella of a temioleof the is,I believe, the first


era

Republican
Rome.
that of

that

has

been

noted

north

of than

It is, of

course,

later considerably I have

Signia, which
will

already temple.
of terminate due
to

described. of of

This the

explain the peculiar arrangement


to

steps that lead up

the

Instead the columns

terminating, as they
pass
or

is usual, in front them and


was

between

inside the

the

pronaos

portico. throwing

This the

sibility imposthe

of

steps farther
of the forum

forward

toward

the

wall retaining

when

ROMAN

CITIES

177

Augustan
remodel

architects decided (or post-Sullan) the

to

temple according
norms,

to

their
as

more
a

sumptuous
considerable

which

involved,
of the

usual,
The

enlargement
made
the of

portico.
in in order

cramped
keep
above this

space

this

makeshift

the
to

arrangement
in front

steps

necessary,

of them
on

the small free space the axis of wall the is

for the

altar, immediately
the

temple,
scended dethe

retainingwall.
to

This

piercedat

point
to

allow forum

of

two

staircases, which
on

the

level

either side of

altar. The
seem

of porticoes
to have

most

of

the

earlier
; even

capitoHa
in the

had

only

four

columns

Augustan
But Roman here

age
at

that

of Pola

retains this number.


of the later
were

Assisi, in emulation
are

model, there
with

six columns fine stucco. travertine

which This

oriffinallvfaced

very

has

disappeared, leaving the


We, however,
in the
must

exposed.
a

descend

through
old and
as

door trap-

square,

and been

visit the

forum

by
made
as

torchlight.

It

has the

excavated
square

accessible under
without possible of the

modern

far

is

with interfering
at

the foundations times trial

houses, but
and in

different

gings, dig-

the particular

excavations

of about

1820,

have

given
which

the size and is


over

shape
times

of the
as

nal origi-

area,
12

three

large as

"i

78

ROMAN

CITIES

what the

we

can

see.

However,

what

we

do

see

is the the

central for

and the

most

section, with interesting


the base of the for

tribunal
monument

magistratesand
center

decorating the
of all I must It contained square

square.

First
was

describe

the way three

the forum

bounded.
hundred

about

thousand

eight

meters

and
east

measured,
to west

meters roughly,eighty-five meters forty-five

from

and
every

from
one

north

to south.

On

side except the


was

facing

the
a

temple, the
high
faced and and with

forum

not

only surrounded
but this wall

by
was

solid wall
a

of masonry

Doric

portico sustained

by
which This

columns may gave


a

some pilasters, seen

fragments
square the

of

still be

in effect

the
to
a

above. and

cloistered
was

square
norm

followed in forums

what of

probably
time.
an

general
center

this
was

In

the

of

each

of the three
a

sides

entrance
one

corresponding to
down the
an

city street,

the main

ing lead-

slope opposite the temple, being


local tradition, to have in city, the led to the

said, on
Janus square. Janus
was

old

arch

of the

present Vescovado
to

This

corresponded apparently
each

the

with

which

early settlement
of the forum the

in Rome

provided.
These three the Janus

gates
in

remind

one

of

passage

Livy

about

founding
B.C., and

of the Roman

colony

at

Sinuessa, in 174

ROMAN

CITIES

179 with three Janus

the

laying by
of and other

out

of

its forum

archways
in

the Roman of

magistrates. In
the and

this and

forums the

RepubHcan
halls built is
even
a

age

Livy
the that

speaks
square the

shops

around

it. inclosing
were

Here

then and
not

proof
walled

early f ora
course

inclosed

in.

Of

the other

walling-inwas
and later
cases

nearly as
there other and

ent apparwere

in

where

basilicas,theaters, market-halls
to

ings buildand the been

form of

the

facades of
gates
the may

the

forums,

habit

having
after

easily
the

have

abandoned Another of f ora Assisi there

early Empire.
between
was

difference and Rome

early forums
Umbrian

that
never

in these any that

probably were
other and other

of the
were so

atorial gladimon com-

fightsand
in from

games

Capua

Campanian
Rome.

cities and

them

borrowed

by

Another

if peculiar,

not

unique, feature
for the its

of this

forum
and the

is the wall

judgment
behind
was

seat

magistrates
their

it for
not
a

affixingof
but Roman the of

decrees!

Assisi
as a

colony,
that

enjoyed
trol, con-

autonomy
until

municipality under
B.C.

90

We

know
a

municisix

pium

was

governed by
called
marones,

body
before other lure

local

magistrates
of

it received

burgess rights along


Umbria
which

with

the the

loyal towns
of

resisted

the

civil

180

ROMAN

CITIES

war.

Instead

of

deliveringjudgment
was

in

arate septhese air

basilica,as

done

later in Rome,
seat

judges
built

sat

on

judgment
and the

in the of the
sat

open

just between
from the
to

in front

steps that
with
or

led down
backs

temple. They
on

their

temple

seats

of

marble
on

metal

the attachments
travertine

for which

still show the

the

large
the

blocks
This

forming platform
and
area.

basement
two

of

platform.
beside

has

short

wings long

the main the

body
forum

is reached

by

two

steps from

This

originalarea
stairways
for the it the

is stillpreserved with
The

its

pavement.
the two

length of
too

wall

between tribunal

immediately
They
nails is
are

behind

the

is full of holes. been

far apart to have metal letters that


were

used

by

which

fastened, and
to attach

certain tolerably

they served
of the

various

decrees, regulationsand
at

announcements

passed

the

meetings
and

magistrates.
we

In

this wall

surface

in this tribunal material the


scenes

have, I
structing recon-

believe,the only known


in
our

data

for

minds

to public relating

affairs in

pre-imperialtimes,
Assisi.
manner

in such

ancient

as municipalities

The

time
are

and

of

the

remodeling
an

of

the forum
cut

approximately given by

tion inscripwall

farther

along
in

on

this

same

upper

which

was

discovered

April

of

1907.

It

gives

ROMAN

CITIES

181

the the from

names

of and

the

five

magistrates

who

oversaw

work,
about

its archaic

characteristics

date ately Immedi-

it

the

second
is

century
a

B.C.

under

this line
I
to
am

second
aware

line w^hich whether

believe,
"

though
noted,
"

not

this it

has

been
more

belong
with

to

later

date, for
are

is cut germane This

deeply and
to

letters that
of the the

more
era.

the

beginning
states

Augustan
stuccoed

second

line
was

that

and

painted work
of opus

done

by
C,

decree

at the expense

C.

Attius alharium

Clarus.

Attius.

T.

/.

Clarus,

pictorium sua
the of the

pecunia S.
was

C.

fecit.
on

Evidently
the

when

temple

remodeled,
age, and the

approach
was

Augustan
columns

forum

itself
work
more

restored, the
and tinted

decorative

stuccoed decorative

in accordance
new

with

the

taste

of the back third for


to

era. even

But than

we

can

hark
or

an

earlier date
B.C.

the

second

centuries
at
a

for

the close

origin of
to

this forum,
a

certain

point
the
a

the

stairs

bit of

inner

wall

is visible,which

shows

that the named

present wall, erected by


in the
was inscription,

trates magisfacing
same

added purpose

to

an

earlier wall which

that

had dates

served
before

the the

and

perhaps
feature
center.

age

of Roman There
monument

supremacy. is
one

more

of
was

the

forum,

"

the

in the

It

added, appar-

"

182

ROMAN

CITIES

ently at

about
and

the time
consisted
a

of of

the
a

early Augustan
high
square canopy of the ment baseor

remodehng,

supporting

four-sided
were

marble

tetrapyleunder
Castor
their

which

statues

curi, Dios-

and

Pollux, presumably standing by statuary


as

horses.

The
corner

well their

as

the

four

double-faced and
were

piers with
the forum

architraves

covering
found
when

have

disappeared, though
was

they
But that of

excavated. entire
on

the

covering the large inscription


toward the main
entrance

face

looked Janus Pardalas

the Street

remains,

telling

that

Galeo

Tettienus and his

(a thoroughly Umbrian
Galene
statues

name)
and

wife

Tettiena
the

gave of

to the

citythis

tetra-

styleand
at

Castor

Pollux, and
money
to

the

dedicatory festival
the of

distributed the

the

decurions,

seviri and
and very

people.
with

This the and shown


garded, re-

association forum
in the how and

Castor

Pollux

capitolium is
Dioscuri,

characteristic

chapter on
the
not

Perugia
sons

I have of

already
were

Jupiter,
but

only by
and of the

the

Romans
as

by

the and of the

Umbrians

Etruscans,

the

patrons

protectors

city,

the the

body-guard guardians of
in

Jupiter-Juno-Minerva, and eapitohum. Leaving


the

forum

and

ascending,

the

direction of the old Umbrian

toward citadel,

the

184

ROMAN

CITIES

still in

perfect condition.
above the led
to water

At

this end from of for

is

wide
a

platform
which

level bottom

which

flightof steps
was

the
a

the

cistern,

encircled

by

groove

draining off
able remarktunnel

the water.

The

covering of
5.10

the hall is the


a

most

part of the vault,


rests meters
a

structure:

singlebold
6.60 meters
2.35

wide
molded

and

long,
meters

upon

heavy

cornice,
a

from The

the floor,which entire


structure

formed

continuous
of

ledge.

is of

blocks
courses.

travertine

perfectlycut
In the

and

in

regular
of

history of vaulting
this cistern for any

before

the

age take

of
a

Augustus
known

Assisi

should

prominent place
span of

it has, I believe, the vaulted than


near

widest of this

structure

period, even
Tomba di San

larger
Manno
meters.

that

of

the

famous
ures meas-

Perugia, which
A

only
is
even

four

cistern
a

near

Frasso
meters

more

colossal, with
be

vault with of and

6.80

wide.

It should

compared
cisterns Praeneste

others

of this

interesting class, the Anagni, Volterra,


others in Umbria of

Norba,

Cora,

with especially
on

built either itself,


or

the of

same

type

single vault
chambers,
other
as

in

series

parallel
works

vaulted Todi of

at

Amelia, Bevagna, Narni,

and

for it is in just such cities,


the

engineering that

science

of

construction

ROMAN

CITIES

185

was

developed
of

which

made

the

great vaulted
added
to the
seem a

structures
new

the

Empire
that The excelled

possibleand
Greeks
Umbrians
even

chapter beside
of architecture. have

of the

tory his-

in this

to particular

the

Etruscans.
on

hope
Thus

shortly to

publish something
two

this

subject.
far it is only from learn of the the
marones

Assisi
as

inscriptions magistrates
became It may Umbria
the preBut
as centrated con-

that

we

the

administering
civitates
seem

Umbrian

cities which Roman


so

foederataeunder
we

rule. little of

strange that
her cities in any and the
even

know

and Roman
a

definite way

during
age. have

the preof the

Augustan

rule

efforts

excavators

been

only
because
may not
a

on

necropoliof
known,
or

ancient

Italy
It

they
be

repay

well

in salable material.
but

commonly

it is a fact, that

hardly
been know The

single Etruscan
of the be

Umbrian
we

city has
would

thoroughly explored,
much
more

otherwise

pre-Roman

architecture.

work
and

would

expensive and
It is natural of

only
to pass

tifically scien-

valuable. historically
to Assisi.
a

To here

return
to

from

the rest of cities:

group

brian characteristic Umto

northward especially southwest


In
to

Iguvium (Todi) by
the

(Gubbio),
way of

and

Tuder

Vettona.

fact, just across

valley

186

ROMAN

CITIES

from

Assisi with

is Mevania

(Bevagna),
call itself the of been the the
an

which

putes dis-

it the

right to
It must

birthplace
Augustan

of age,

that

exquisiteelegiacpoet
have that

Propertius.
for it
was

important
clans

center

here

Umbrian

gathered in
to

the

only concerted
at
can

attempt they made


of her

oppose

Rome
one

the find

beginning
some

sion. intru-

While

traces

of Umbrian travertine cella and is

city

walls

with
of
a

Roman

repairs, the
with

basement

temple
of

Republican
brick, there
not

early columns
enough
can

stuccoed
a

hardly
we

to
as

warrant
a

if it were visit,
two

that

add

splendid side-show
churches

of
"

the most S. Sil-

imposing medieval
vestro

in Umbria
are

and their

S. jNIichele. dark

They

signed and
colossal
to

dated

and

interiors
carry
one

and
back
are

tunneland

vaulted

naves

Provence

Burgundy;
in

for

such

things

almost

unknown

Italy.
At Vettona and

(Bettona),
Assisi, there

which
are

is

near

both

Bevagna
and of

better-preserved
which
first
seem

quiteinteresting citywalls
the time
when
are

to be

Rome of

was

entering by

the

province. They
of tufa, but that

carefully jointedcourses
is shown
are

their

early date
The

the fact

quite frequentlythe

courses
are

interrupted
m.

by larger blocks.

courses

usually .58
1.70
m.

high and the longest blocks

measure

In

ROMAN

CITIES

187

the style the

work

resembles

that which of

is

placed over

polygonalwork
TODI

in the walls

Spoleto.

AND

SpELLO
on

Tuder
is not
near

(Todi),
any

encircled

all sides be

by hills,
is all the

railway but
from with

can

easilyreached
It

by automobile-bus
more

Perugia.
and

charged

local color

medievalism.
be traced, The

The

circuit of the ancient

can acropolis

built of travertine
outer

blocks in

regularcourses.
the
east

citywalls

seem

restored and
On

enlarged after
side, near
of the

the Roman

conquest.
some

the
cavea

acropolis, are
of the

fine foundations theater. about been The


200
m.

quite a large
south walls

amphitheater,on beyond
the
cient an-

side, was
and has

partly incorporatedin
of
ancient the Foro I
am
tremely ex-

the

present citywalls.
far the
most

By

interestingbit
is

architecture

is what the
east
to

popularly called
of the the

'Boario, on

edge

city.

puzzled
colossal
with niches

explain
and

stately row
a

of

surmounted other
Did Did

by
the

Doric

frieze
ments ornaas

shields,rosettes
in the

symbols and
niches

metopes.
market?
In

serve

booths

in

the

they belong
of works

to

sacred inclosure?

the dearth with


any

of prements, ele-

Augustan

architecture
a

decorative has
not

this is

god-sentgift that

been

188

ROMAN

CITIES

taken of the of the the

at its true

value, for it has all the earmarks


era.

pre-SuUan
prototypes
This

for

might, in fact, be one the decorative motifs of


It of
was

Sullan

reconstruction market
square
are

the

Praenestine
on
a

temple.
hillside.
wall and

built
a

steep

Its niches
were

set

in
a

high retaining
story,now

surmounted

by

second

almost
on

its

while perhaps with a gallery, destroyed, it was itself lower end, facing the plain, down. is another ancient
us

terraced There

cityin

Central

Um-

bria which
before
saw

brings to
of many of
a

echoes

of the

generation
which
the

Augustus and
few.

of his earliest years


of

the death

the old cities and

resurrection
now an

It is

Spello. Spello is
the walls
not to
was

town insignificant

built within

of
over

the

Umbro-Roman miles
from

three

city of Hispellum, Foligno on the road


north. Umbria
the

Assisi, which
one

is six miles further


towns

It but

of the

important

of

its

later

insignificance may
of certain features

have

proved
we

tion salva-

that

cannot

find anywhere

else.
It neither lies on
set
on

the
of
a

plainlike Foligno, nor

is

ers ridge like Assisi,but covhillside as it a low spur of the long sweeping the plain. from and eastward rolls up northward does being not This prevent its streets from

the summit

among

the most

in precipitous

Umbria.

ROMAN

CITIES

189 off
on

The

theater the
near

and

the

amphitheater
the

set

toward
the

northwest,
the

outside

city walls,
the

flats

Assisi

road, give the approximate


under

measure

of the
it
was

size city's

Empire.

At

one

time and

the metropolis of practically the honor That of the

Umbria,

had

building a temple early municipality


time of the umvirs, tri-

of the Gens

Flavia.
Roman
B.C.,

received

colony
is been

in the

in 41

extremely probable,though
established
or

it may
a

have possibly years later

renewed
was

few

by Augustus.
and

It

then

called

'Colonia
the
no

Julia

Hispellum.' Then,
gates
were

if not

before,

city walls

built.

parentl Aptheir

archaeologists have
I found and the the in them

realized

age the

or

interest.

the link between

Etruscan of

Augustan
type
we

gates:

the

totypes pro-

Augustan
as

of both

and triple
at

single city gates such


Turin, Pompeii, Fano,
the walls and
any
towers

can

study
etc.

Aosta, this,

Salona,
are

Beside

the

most

artistically
from them date

built of their

in I

Italy.
be

To

judge merely
to

stvle

should

inclined

earlier than
I found
not

the triumvirs.
no

trace

of

colony arch,
its foundations

but

should
could
be

be at all
at

surprisedif
some

uncovered hundred the main

point betw^een
road entered
the

three

and

four where

paces

outside the Porta

Consolare
town.

ancient

190

ROMAN

CITIES

On

the

other

hand the of
town

there forum

does
or

still exist

precious relic of with a fragment


We the
enter

capitolinearch
to

the

dedication the

Augustus.

the

from which

station

through
almost the

"Porta its

Consolare"

still retains

intact

f a9ade primitive

and

remains
so

cipal prin-

modern

gate.
the is

But

it has been

thoroughly
is buried its of

stripped
so

of

its marble

revetment,
the
street

and

deep by
part
be

raisingof
so

level,and
addition

upper

disfiguredby
that
a

the

medieval
must statues

masonry, evoked of

its

originalproportions
Three
set

by

restoration.

antique

different
on

periods are
It stood from wall

against its
it
to

upper

part

brackets.
ancient

at the southeast
seems

angle
have and Porta In

of the

which
of

instead projectedslightly

being recessed triplegate


and the of
towers. worst

defended, Venere,
a

as

was

the

other

by projectingpolygonal
the It best

way

this is both the

preserved of
scheme and but

gates.
The

givesus

their

general

it is shorn

of every

bit of decoration in travertine but


seen,

memberment.
blocks

construction

is in this
was

fairly regular
not

courses,

I but

found
was

that

intended

to be

entirely concealed
been
torn

by

marble

slabs holes
a

whicK
for the

have

away,

leaving the
It is not
a

attachment
'The and
two structure

visible.*
is 13 metres

merely
arcade
met.
1.70

facade

wide, with

central

of 4.4-5 met.

side arches

for foot passengers

of

only

FO^
r.ti

ROMAN

CITIES

191

but still
to

part
form

of

solid structure.
metres

Hea\y
back
must
on

side-walls the have

project nearly six


an

right
been

inside

court

which

terminated

by
the

another walls
on

corresponding triple ing. openwe can see even

On
more

of this court the outside

clearlythan
holes for
was

walls

the

ous numer-

attaching the
like is evident Porta

marble

slabs.

What
with

this court

by comparison
Praetoria of
a

the

better
we

preserved
find the
same

at
core

Aosta,
with slabs.
to show

where
course

technique
a

stone-work Aosta

and

facing of

marble

At its

enough
at

of the

facing remains

style.
fact

In

Spello
which memberment
a

itself there
we

are

two

other
the Conso-

gates

through
by

can

reconstruct

architectural

of

the

Porta

lare, aided
the "Porta
sixteenth

drawing
made

of the other
in the

triple gate,
of the

Venere"

first half

century by the famous


it when been it
was

architect,Serlio,
intact.

who
must

saw

almost
even

This

gate

have

made
towers

more

spectacularby
it, rising to
the

the
a

eleven-sided

that

flanked
above
were

considerable

height even
three arcades

galleryof
in
a

the frame
an

gate.
of

The four

inclosed

shallow
of
a

which pilasters

supported
Above
was

entablature
a

narrow

two-stepped architrave heavy


cornice.
we

and
can

plain frieze
an

with

trace

arcaded

(?) gallerywhich

con-

192

ROMAN

CITIES

nected

with

the
on

flanking towers
a

whose the

windowed
the

were galleries

level with purposes. of

gallery of
that of
saw^

gate
these

for

defensive

Serlio

considered
he

Spello gates
and

such

importance
two

published cuts
Uffizi his
The

of descriptions
on

them
in the

in his classic work

architecture. for these

drawings original
S. Ventura
and is

cuts.

Porta

remains
a

in much

better

condition

though

perfectlysimple single
the

gateway,
of
as

ter interestingfor the primitivecharacIt has


a same

its forms.

memberment
corner

the

triplegates:
an

couple
and
not

of

pilasters
But

supporting gable, and

architrave
is crowned the

frieze.

here

the entablature
a

by

an

attic but

by

gable
than
at

is the

a free-standing, type

closer to the Greek


as
w^e

Augustan gable,such
28
B.C.,

find later
is

Rimini, in
an

where

the

gable
The

incorporated in
terminal
of the the

attic, so

losing its
the Porta
is

fundamental
section

significance.
city wall
Porta between

S. Ventura

and

Consolare which

larly particustretches
the side

and perfect,

next

to it that

from

it to the the

Porta

Venere,
I have
came

all of it
seen

on

facing
ancient

plain.

not
so

in
to

Italy any giving the


me

citywalls
a

that

near

impression of
Luna,
whose

w^ork
to the

of art.

They reminded
it

of the reference

walls glistening

of ancient
to possible

marble

quarriesmade

ROMAN

CITIES

193

surround Here
at

the

city with
the unusual
ran

such

unique ramparts.
tic their artiscolor and of of both

Spello the by

builders
use

produced
low base^ the

effect

memberment. hard
as

They
stratum

of blocks

dark

peperino all
or

around

foundation,
low folat
a

the lower the

basement,

lettingit
the

natural

of irregularities

ground
edge
to
on

the

base

line, but

running

its upper

perfectlyhorizontal line from crowning and framing it with molding, formed plinth-like
long body
narrow

gate
a

gate

and

of

plainprojecting a single line of


main

blocks.

From in

this rises the the

of

the

wall, built

lighter-colored,

travertine, cut in small fine-grained yellow-gray, blocks with extremely clean-cut edges and faces in even closelyjointed and almost as courses,
smooth
as

marble.
a

At
or

distance

one

gets
at

the
an

impressionof
earlier
nor

brick later
was

tile wall.

Neither

at

perioddo
used;

I believe that
not

such

small
came

stone- work

until
in the Porta

it

again
of

into

use,

in careless the
towers

form,
of the

age

decadence.
where

At

Venere
are

the work
20

is the most
to 35 cent,

perfectthe
long by
15

stones cent.

only from
Of
*The
line be
of
an

high.
gates

course of walls

the
a

interest special
but
more

of

these
of

use

similar
of

primitive form
the fourth date

basement
B.C.

in

the

Perugia,
favor of
a

in

century
for

would walls

argument

in

pre-Augustan

the

Spello.
13

194

ROMAN

CITIES

and it

walls

centers

about the

their

date.

Looking
know

at

merely

from

historic
be

standpoint we
as

that

it ceased

to

regarded
the
It is true

necessary

to

fortify Italian reign


date
of the
"

cities after

early part
that
a

of the
cities in
"

Augustus.

few

completing

of

their walls

later
6
b.c.^

his
but

reign, Saepinum,
these favor
the
were

for

instance, in
the
23

exceptions. So,
a

presumption
B.C.

is in

of date

date of the

earlier

than

If so, then
the
to

establishment
B.C.,

of
seem
can

Roman

Colony here,
that

in 41

would
we

give

the

approximate date, though


the Umbrian

easilybelieve
fied. fortiliarities pecumost

cityhad
be

previouslybeen
and decorative The

But,

the architectural
our

must

surest

guide.
used The
the
cut
on

of striking
the

these

is the method of the


stones

in constructing voussoirs
are

arcades

gates.
and

plain, unstepped
frame

moldings that
the voussoirs curved

them, instead of being


are

themselves,
of stone the
or

made

out

of

narrow

strips
of

marble blocks.

that

follow

the outer earlier

curve

voussoir

This

is the

method

of the Etruscan

builders followed
Falerii in the fourth

in the gates of and third


turies cen-

Perugia
B.C.

and

It

was

replaced in the stepped voussoirs


Another

earliest years with ings. molda

of

Augustus by
This

the

element, therefore, would


41
B.C.

indicate

date

previousto

pre-

Augustan

ROMAN

CITIES

195

element
more

is the

basement

line, which
of

we

find

in

form primitive other and

in the walls

Perugia.

On

the

hand
the

the

stepped architrave, the plain


indicate
a

frieze

gable

Hellenistic
or

fluence in-

that smacks We may the I

of the age

of Sulla

Caesar.

conclude, then, that these Spellogates


earliest known

furnish
w^hich

triplecity gates,
the
at

of

have knowai

already
25

mentioned
Those
B.C.

principal
Aosta
cannot
are

hitherto
dated

examples.
and
was

between the for

20

and

be

earlier, as
any
25
reason

citv

then
any

built.

Nor

is there before
c.

dating

of the others
are

B.C., wMe

those

of Turin
is dated
9

apparently later
It is the

and

that

of Fano be in
so

a.d.

extremely
this about

interestingto
type
which
In of
we

able the

to

place

originof
age

gate
know

pre-Augustan
omitted

little.
one

this analvsis I have small

of the

gates
at

of

the Spello,

so-called "Porta

Urbana"
but it
are

the top of the hillside. circle of voussoirs Eut


worse

Nothing
the walls

remains
about

the

and

stroyed. deeven

there which It

is also

another

rehc

in

condition
appear. which

is of far

greater value
of the

than
an

would arch

is the

remaining pier of
part
to

stood
across

in the the

central

old
or

either city, beside Set the

entrance

the

Forum
41
a

Capitolium pier is
a

of

the
on

colony of
which
are

B.C.

into

this

slab

few

196

ROMAN

CITIES

letters of

large
of

size:" R-DIVI-I.
a

They

were

evidently part by Augustus


:

dedication divi

of the arch

to

or

Caesar

filius.

Aquino
I shall the form
now

allow
an

myself

slightlicense, in
of Umbria

of

excursion

outside

toward
A

the south.

visit to

Aquino,
part
and of

the

ancient

Aquinum,
out

in

the northern

Campania,

rounds

one's in the

conceptions of Augustan
that
we

the architecture

that ushers

age,

have

works

in Northern later.

of Umbria joinsthe monuments been studying,to the Augustan that are Italy and Dalmatia

described

Aquinum
Via Latina
It
was

stood with

at the

of junction
to

the ancient and the

the road

INIinturnae

a cityof a type similar originally and Volscian to the neighboring Latin cities to the north. It then became allied municipality an

coast.

and

in finally,

41

B.C.,

it received

colony

sent

by
on

the

triumvirs. south
as
a

Marc
at this

Antony
time, and

his way both


The

stopped here it was nent promiA

site has
are

cityand fortress. been touched. scarcely


exactly the
the

number modern
of the

of ruins

as standing in plowed fields,

Aquino
old

does

not

occupy
are

area

city. There
theater

foundations

of
a

two
num-

a temples,

and

and amphitheater

Arpiniim,City Gate

or

Jciniis

c.

41

B. C.

or

earlier

Arpinum, Colony Arch

c, flooded) (half

41 B.C.

ROMAN

CITIES

197

ber

of

tombs.
for

It would

be
was

quite well worth


considered
a

cavating, eximportant un-

Aquinum
the have Rome.

not

city in

age

of

Strabo of the

and
art

from both

its of

positionmust Campania
Quite
a

partaken

and

stretch of

in city-wall,

courses

of regular S.

travertine
Lorenzo
across

blocks, joins to so-called Porta stands, in excellent


road.
is It is
even
a

which the modern

preservation,
historic
than of

impressive plain,
"double
an

gate, but
aesthetic. Servian

its value

more
a

Delbriick

calls it would

gate

type," which
Roman agree,

imply

early date,
this inference is of
as a

preceding the
I cannot

colony. With
because the

its masonry Even the

type

common

under
of

triumvirs.
as

late of

in the

reign

Augustus
the
same

B.C.,

gates

Saepinum
At the
same

show

treatment

of voussoirs.

time

its type
a

is very for

archaic

and

interesting as giving us
the preIn both

model

ing reconstruct-

Augustan
and

gates

of Rome. is

plan

vaulting this gate


square, with

unique

for its age. and of

It is almost

heavy walls
in Rome

superstructure,the only surviving example


the Janus the
at

gates such
the

as

were

used

under

Kings and

Republic. The
less

arched

gate
which form

Ferentino, much
I have

and well-preserved,

already described, gives an


the passageway
was

earlier still

of this type, when

198

ROMAN

CITIES

uncovered.
Cosa
at

Similar Volterra
tiie

open-court gates
in

occur

at

and

Republican
almost

times.
square,

Here
was
one a

Aquino
a

gate, though
looked
at
as

not

Janus

Quadrif rons, because


It first

it had
as

but
were

passageway.

if it

structure, free-standing breaks


in the

there seemed
I

to be

no

stonework, but
corner

found

that A

the

citywall joined the


excavation
extent

of the
to

gate.

slight
the

would

be

needed

determine

and

period of
gate
It

the connection.

The
the
core

fact that the passageway of the into the


a

leadingthrough
cross-vaulting,
four
a

cityis vaulted is most

interesting.
5.1S met.

has

massive

square,

which

springs from
two

surmounted

above by plainplinths
across

which

piers heavy
the

ledge

runs

the

fa9ades,behind

voussoirs of the arch, helping to form

the square

plan for
The arches

the vault.
corner

piers furnish
support
I have it is the
aretes

narrow or

transverse

and

ridges of

the

vaulting.
because

tion enlarged upon this construcof especial importance for the

history

epoch-making the Roman originsof Byzantine on publication and medieval architecture,has brought this question
of

vaulting.

Rivoira's

again
that this instance

to

the
at

front, and

I venture

to

assert

gate

Aquino

is the earliest

remaining
of those

the of the cross-vault,

prototype

in the Janus

arches of the Forum

Boarium

in

ROMAN

CITIES

199'
Rome,
built three

Rome
or

and

of Saxa

Rubra later!

near

four At

centuries

some

distance which the

beyond
common

this

gate

is

ful beauti-

arch
on

people
the of

have

long
of

sisted in-

oNIarc Antony's arch, calling Antonio." It is


on near

"I'arco del S.

re

]Marc

church
a

Maria

Ottolina,

the
races
a

edge

field, and
that
runs

throuo-h its archway


a

watercourse

near-bymill.
conceal its

The the

artificial lower

dykes of
of the

the watercourse arch

half

and

dwarf

its charm. it

but nothing can obscure proportions, tine traverThough built of a fine-grained

gives an
and

impression
as

of

almost
were

as

great

delicacy
We

refinement

if it it with

of marble.

instinctively bracket
Cori

the

Hellenistic this

temples of Rome,
order the

and

Palestrina, and
the Its the
use

is strengthened impression by

of the Ionic

with

the

Corinthian. outside
to

positionacross
tion walls, its isolathat the
B.C.

ancient and its arch the

highway
form,
of
new

combine

show
on

it is the

Colony
line of is the arches.

Aquinum, colony
of

built

pomerium
If
so

in about

41

it

earliest extant

the so-called

triumphal
it
across a

It is

strange fate that


which
Its is

now

sets

watercourse, foundations.
*

graduallyundermining
of Fine Arts
in

its

keystone has sagged,^and


the local commission that
cares

this

Sig. Camillo
request,

Ricci, Director
directed

Italy, has twice,


for

at

my

the

200
most

ROMAN

CITIES

charming

and

earliest of arches is in
want

danger
sum.

of The

collapsefor the
upper order
structure

of

very

small

has

disappeared. The
is But

eral gen-

inclosingthe arch

Corinthian,with
the is I

corner

shafts
order
"

engaged
of shafts

in the masonry.

minor Ionic
am

supporting the

arcade which

only use of this order with acquainted in the field of memorial


the
to Southern

arches. Other
either these

It is,probably, due

influence.
works

pre-Augustan
use

and

early Augustan
or

the Corinthian
"

the Doric,

or

combine

two

sign of
extreme

Italic influence. slenderness


no

The

of the arch but is built laid

is

acteristic. char-

It has

core,

throughout
without
ment. ce-

of

wonderfully jointed blocks


Of
trace.

attic,cornice, architrave, frieze there


I seemed
to

is

no

recognize blocks
of the

from

these

missing parts in
and
in the
were

the walls

adjoining
church,
decorative

mill
where

neighboring medieval
built in of
numerous

there

architectural
The famous

members

antique workmanship.
architects drew of the San I this arch, and

Renaissance
and

Gallo

family admired
it still had

find that in their

time, at
a

the close of the fifteenth

century,

two-stepped
shafts, and

architrave
was
even

resting on
then
and been the

the Corinthian
for
of
this

used
arch

the watercourse!
province, to
do have
not

monuments

the know

watercourse

changed

strengthened. I

whether

anything has

done.

VI

NORTHERN
Ariminum

ITALY

We

will

now

enter at

Northern Rimini.

Italy by
In

way

of

northeast this
the In
was

Umbria
in the
of

early days
where

northern
race was

part of

Umbria,

purity
the

the

impaired by
extending
Aesis above

invaders.
from venna Ra-

large Umbrian
down
to

area

the

river

Ancona,
for
a

was

included

the

Ager

Gallicus,

occupied
Ravenna,

time

by

the

Senonian

Gauls,
Pisaurum Gallica
It
was

with

minum AriFanum portant imthe At from

(Rimini),
(Fano),
and
coast

(Pesaro),

Sena
cities.

(Sinigallia) as
reached
from Pass.

heart the

of
on

Umbria
Monte
was

across

the

Scheggia

top,

Petrara,
the famous
even as

only eight miles

Iguvium, Apenninus,
remained
race.

temple
late
as

of

Jupiter
times

which
the

imperial
the of

national
we

oracle take

of

Umbrian
the Um-

And

here pass and

will

leave the

brians of

and

northward

into

great plains

Emilia
Rome

Lombardy. passed through


Umbria
of the in
like comettury cen-

had

fashion
B.C.,

in

the

first decade
as
a

third
for

using

it

stepping-stone

the

201

202

ROMAN

CITIES

occupation of
ager in

the and the

Adriatic ager

coast

"

the especially

Picenus

Gallicus.
of of

Already

in 289,

founding
the

colony

Hatria her power of

(Atri), she
from
sea

celebrated
to
sea,

extension

and
up

that by establishing

Ariminum

further

the coast

in 268, she

tion laid the foundato the Po

for her advance the foothills of the

northward

valley,

Alps

and

the upper

Adriatic.

Ariminum
the

was

the first Roman

colony beyond
then

boundary
the

of

Italy,as
and

it

was

reckoned,

and
went

rightsgranted peculiar
its
name
were

to its inhabitants to the entire

by
of

extended
the

group It the

the twelve

latest of

Latin
to

colonies,
from and
the land In and

protected the
north, and

main

approach
both
arms

Rome

became Roman

the

refuge by
sea

starting-pointof

and
wars.

during
fact it

the

critical times like


an

of

the

Punic

was

immense it became

permanent
the
soon

camp

arsenal.

In

220

terminus after the

of the
ing-point start-

great Flaminian
for cemented We the

Way,

and

military roads
with
the

by

which

Rome

her conquest of the north.


associate in 49

Rimini
B.c.^

passing of
We

the

Rubicon
been

after the Italian


of

frontier had
are

pushed
to

north

the

cityby Sulla.
on

apt
and

hang

Caesar's readers
But of

fortunes

this

incident
but

to most

Rimini history

means

little more.

if this

cityhas

not

yet yielded

204

ROMAN

CITIES

for of

the
as

simple

reason

that
to

the

southern
schemes
was

were as

not

great importance
roads, and
that

these

the

northern

Rimini the
north

the
at

official time.
the

place" on *'jumping-ofF
So
we

that

read

in it up

the
as a

restored thank

that inscription

Senate because

put

offeringto Augustus
of the various

of his great of

improvement
it is

highways
As
a

Italy.
of architecture in the

work

simple
a

and

haps per-

lacking
type.
the

qualitiesof
in 27
B.C.

ceived clearly con-

Evidently
as a

the scheme

of

triumphal arch
it may
was

free-standingmonument,
evolved
current.

while

have
not

been

and

expressed
Rimini

elsewhere, arch, while


connected stretch of

yet
no

This
it was

we

have the

proof that
city wall,
an

originally
like
a mere

with wall

looks

with

opening decorated
similar in the
to

with of any

engaged columns, openings


other
was

very

the

lines
or

at

the

Tabularium in which Roman this

Rome

public structure plastered on


Still,with
a

Greek

design
ground. backwork
of

constructive
is
a

it proviso,

delicate and decorative


the

details,both exquisite
work and in the

in the

purely
of

medallion

heads

four

gods, probably Jupiter,Juno, ^Minerva,


In these medallions of the heads Volterra
there with
seems

and
to be

Neptune.
an

echo interesting
of

which
other

the

Etruscans

Perugia,

and

Rimini, Arch

of

Augustus

"^' ""^i

"u

:tt^^^^''l' ^''W'^^m^^'^'"^^^^^m

ii^^^""!S

Rimini,
Plate
XXXV

Biidue

of

Augustus

ROMAN

CITIES

205

cities decorated The the which


sea

the

spandrelsof
on

their

citygates. edge
of

arch

stands back it

the the

southeastern small
stream

city just
bounded
in is ancient
now

of

Aprusa
The

along

the

whole

front.

times
two
was

hugged

its northeast
distant.

side,

but

nearly
side been
a

kilometers

Only
and
ginning bethe

the southwest
must

undefended

bv nature
from but the
not

have

strongly fortified
of which
we

by
The

wall

know
over
was

little.

great

stone

bridge
had

wide

Ari-

minus, the modern

Marecchia,
he

begun by
of of the

Augustus Italy
to

until Istria and

moved

the

frontier

and

had

completed

his chain

northern passes.
to

Alpine
have

fortresses been
a

commanding
that
an

It would
as a

source now as

of weakness

Rimini
be

fortress,but

the

city

could

considered

merely
could

inland

town,

commercial
The

advantages
was

be made in
14

paramount.
a.d.

bridge
and

commenced

under

Augustus
the
center

completed
all
measure

in 20 8.75

a.d.
m.

by

Tiberius. that in

Its five arches

except
in

(10.5 m.),
that We rivers of the
are
are

and

their

low

massiveness

sounds

the

opposite aesthetic
here

note

Augustan
of Narni

bridges to
and where

lofty slenderness
in the and flatter slower
nor

Vulci.
the

country,
and the

broader
so

changes
The

of level neither of

extreme

so

violent.
it
a

later date

this

bridge

carries

with

206 decorative

ROMAN

CITIES

more

design as
on

compared
with their

to

the Augustan
below

bridges
Rimini.
and The

the

Flaminian

Way

rich niches

entablature with its

gable, the heavily corniced


a

parapet step
even

corbels, mark closely-spaced


the

beyond
is almost

scheme
as

of and

the

bridge

at

Verona,

which

low

heavy.

Not
to

the least
is the
a

interesting experience
very

in
one

visit
can

Rimini
in

convincing
the
In

way

trace

building of
of Roman and

early Renaissance
that most ways

the

imitation

design.
in
so

larly singuoriginal
Battista
basis

charming
reconstruction

many

of S. Francesco
is
so

by

Leon

Alberti, the triumphal arch


of

clearlythe
in

design as
the

to make

any

discussion

superfluous.
some

Usually
cityand
of
copy. knew of of the the

imitation

takes

place
has

other

distance

lends vagueness
here
one

to one's

tion realizaand

it.
Not

But that

both
a

model

Alberti of the

was

plagiarist.We
architects leader

him

as

one

three

greatest

early Renaissance;
scientific and revival. His

absolutelythe
in the how and
as

literarycoterie
letters show
was

tectural archi-

careful
how he

his

study
the

of

ancient their

monuments

assimilated
For with

as principles

well

their

style.
brief

rest, and

regardlessof
lover

any

connection
in
a

Roman
to

art, I will allow


counsel
every

myself
of the

aside,

poignantly

ROMAN

CITIES

207 frozen

beautiful, of the poesy


of emotional the and

of line and

motion,
to not

not hypnotic suggestiveness,

miss wonder

interior that

of

S. Francesco.
even a

We

may of the

it shocked

Pope

naissance Re-

into than
a

labeling it
the

pagan

temple rather
the

church, but

captivating witchery of
sensuous

its insouciance
wraps
maze

raises it far above and

and
in
a

Isotta of

Sigismondo
the

Malatesta

exquisitesentiment.
Rimini
are

Beyond
few Roman after
268

plains of
were

the nortH.

A
to

dates

show

how

they
busied

opened
the half with

up

occupation. During
B.C.

century

Rome

herself

founding
into

colonies

and and

market-towns,
an

steads distributinghomeinimical This


was

transforming
of
225

land done

faithful direction Then Rome the Po


221

Roman the
B.C.

province.
Po,
the
on a

in the

the

Alps

and

Dalmatia. invasion

in
to

Gallo-Celtic

led

decide

permanent
the line

occupation of
were

valley.
Istrian

In

222

Alps
was

reached;
In

in

the

coast

guarded.

218

the the of

fortress-colonies

of Placentia of Cremona
to
on

(Piacenza),on
the left bank
as

right bank
the Po
were

and

established and

act

wedges
and
to

tween betrol con-

the Insubrian the


over

Boian

Gauls

river

communications.
to

Still,it required
the

thirty years

complete
the

of pacification the Via

the

region

and

make

building of

208

ROMAN

CITIES

Aemilia

possible in
of of the

187

B.C.

Then

came

the

founding
the

Aquileia,above
Via

modern
to

Venice, and
it

building

Popiha

along

the the

Adriatic

coast;

while, on
of

the Mediterranean
and the

extermination
of the
as

the

Ligurians
to
coast
as

ing foundof

Luna Aurelia

(177 b.c.) led


along
that and

the

extension

Via
center

line.
a

Finally,
driven
passes,

of this advance,

wedge
the
B.C.

into

the

Alps,

up

to

the

foot

of

Eporedia (Ivrea) w^as


The northern
very

built in 100

progressivenessof
has

the

people
traces

of

Italy

helped
But the

to obliterate

of

this conquest and second centuries.


of the

settlement

during the
far which

third and

cence greater magnifiso

Augustan

age,

thoroughly
to
lution evo-

overshadowed

earlier evidences fact it would


was no

of culture, is well
be unreasonable

represented. In
expect
and the
can more.

There
as

such

early civic
to

in the north south. If

there had student


of the

been

in the center ferret


towns

any

cares

out

probable aspect
visit the
museum

pre-Roman
and

he the the

of
on

Bologna
the
town

study
in

government

reports

excavations

neighboring
On

Etrusco-Italic

of INIarzabotto. I

this site itself

nothing remains,
the

believe,to

be studied. We
must

imagine that
a

Augustan

tects archithe

Had almost

free Hand

in

building up

210
on rivers,

ROMAN

CITIES

the great northern


to

trade the two

thoroughfare
seas,

from

east

west, between
of the the
west

and the
to

the Po be

national

center

section river

of

vaUey, just ^here navigable.


Turin
was

great

begins

called from
and

the emperor
the
center

Augusta
of
a

Taurinorum

became
one

tory terri-

extending about
from kilometers whose
was

hundred and

and
over
a

meters kilofifty
a

north

to south west
to

hundred
arc

from

east, in
on

great
It

southern

base
the

rested

the

river Po
curve.

and
was

bounded

by

great Alpine

intersected
the and

by

the

sphere of Genua
that of Ticinum
on

(Genoa)
the

on

southwest, and by
Mediolanum then there
was

(Padua),
southeast. of the
nomic eco-

(Milan),
a

'Even

premonition
JNIilan

which rivalry

is

fiercely raging
are

in modern
out

where Italy,

Genoa

and

crowding
face

[Turin !
At the left end
of this radius,
as
we

the

of the tribe of the the territor}^ Alps, was Yagienni, reaching to the ^Maritime Alps and gusta Authe Riviera. Quite recently their capital city, Bagiennorum, has been excavated at Bene covered partly unYagienna. The Augustan plan was with some imposing fortified double flanking towers, similar to gates, with round of those a Turin, showing that it also was

fortress.

-^^"
NEW

Turin,

Porta

Palatina,

City
of

Gate

of

Augusta

Taurinorum

(age

Augustus)

Plate

XXXVI

ROMAN

CITIES

211

It is not modern
and

easy

to

remember

that of

Turin,

most

modern-looking
its

large Italian
to

cities, owes

aspect
and the
two

to

its faithfulness the


a

man Ro-

antiquity ;
in the
one

that under

present
of

streets

core

of and and cellars

town,
meters

at

level the

between

only
the
even

under the

pavement,

sewers

pavements,
of that the

house-walls, and
are so

the

city of Augustus
prove

well

preserved
In

they

just how
have

closely
been

the lines of the old Roman

streets

lowed. fol-

fact, the citykept within


was

its ancient
brick

limits and walls with

surrounded

by

its

Augustan

its colossal

gateways

until

the sudden
led to their

expansion of
destruction. had

the seventeenth Before


west

century

then, in 1536, the

French

destroyedthe
the well

gate, or

Porta
to

Marmorea,
the Roman
was

probably
city,as
far walls.
We
can

principalentrance
as

the

amphitheater which
usual
relation
to

not

beyond it, in
trace

the

the

city
tHe
;

its limits
west

in

the

heart

of

modern
on

city,in the
south
at

at the Via

del Consolato
on

the

the

Via and

S. Teresa; Piazza

the east

at

the
on

Piazza the north

Castello
at

Carignano,
The
follows
street.
was

and

the Via

Giulis.

oughfare great thorthe

of
exact
course

the of the of

Corso

Garibaldi
decinnanus

ancient
Roman

The

plan

the

colony

almost

212

ROMAN

CITIES

exactly the ''classic" norm

of camp writer

and

citygiven
He

by

the well-known

gromatic

Hyginus.
feet

describes two-thirds

the
of

ideal this

plan

as

2,400

long

and

(1,600 feet)
alarms

wide.

Any
be

greater length, he

said, endangered defensive


could
not
as

operations,as signalsand
heard. distinctly
measurement

Turin

fulfils

exactly the length


was

and

if its width

greater than
it

the

normal
was

(2,220 feet in place of 1,600 feet),


not

this

important;
in

it

was

only
of

here

that

surpassed
fluctuated
and

Aosta but
we

size.

Apparently
course

littlein the
may

city tory, imperialhisits time

the

conjecture that
was

of

greatest importance

under
surge

its of
the

founder,
Koman

Augustus,
advance

and

before

the

had

passed permanently
Susa it

northward.
cial commer-

Together with
road Provincia
In the of

guarded

the main

to Aries

(Arelate)and the rest of the Southern Gaul (Provence).


Regional Department
Monuments,
in
a

the office of the Preservation


of

for
ducal

the

Palazzo ancient

Madama,

there
every

hangs
now

plan

of

the
some
ally casu-

city to
and

which
as

and

then
are

detail is added,

bits of the old streets which

found,
without

ought
of

to
as

be

published
ologists, archae-

delay in
even,

its present form,


aware

few

are

its existence his

and

depend

on

what

Promis

gives in

superb but

ROMAN

CITIES

213

slightly antiquatedbook
a

of

1869.

It is true enable the

that the

comparatively small
Government

subsidy would
unable
to

to complete department practically

plan, but
it.

the

seems

furnish of the

My

special interest lay


gates
and in
as

in the

study
by
to
can

Roman under

the
one

place held
of the

Turin

Augustus By
from
a

keys
one

Italy.
pass of

curious

coincidence the

directly
Ancient

the

office of
at

Department
bv
narrow

JNIonuments

Turin,

subterranean

stairs and
the

passages, Palazzo of the

among

the

sub-structures
to

of

medieval
remains

JNIadama,

the

able considerof the and built


to
a

princijDal gateway
Porta

Augustan
around their castle

city, the
and

Praetoria,
dukes It
can

over

which

the mediaeval

of be

Savov
studied

palace.
six feet.
arcades

height of
two

about

It has for

four

openings,
and
going out-

large central

incoming
narrow

vehicles,flanked
for

by
the

two

passages
to

foot-passengers, corresponding
All four

the
one

walks. sideon

of

Roman of the

gates,
same

each

side of the

were city,

style and
with work. brick-

size; and

all, like

the
was

walls, faced
of the usual
a

The

plan

Augustan

type,
and

even

two

deeper than wide, with huge flanking towers. deep


the court
was

central court

How
not

in the Turin but

gates has
it
can

yet been

exactly determined,

be

214 the

ROMAN

CITIES

as

soon

as

Government
the

provides
and

the

funds

for of

completing
the

restoration

uncovering
or

so-called

Palazzo Porta

delle

Torri,

Porta

Palatina, the ancient


of Roman

Principalis Sinistra
also turned its outer

Turin, which
in the JNIiddle

was

into

fortress

Ages.
with

On

face

this colossal
towers

gateway,

its

high

sixteen-sided

and

double-arched
to remain

of the four
so

in its

is the only one gallery, almost perfectpreservation,

perfect that
of

Augustan

date
1905

was

not

until been

quite recently admitted.


in process restoration the

Since
"

it has

the and

mediaeval

battlements

removed,
the ancient

windows

galleries
below

opened
the attached

up,

level, two
the later If
rear

meters

street, laid bare, and


to

constructions the ancient be

the and

face

removed. in the the


to

foundations

walls
"

should

whollv
not

uncovered

which funds

Government
do
"

has

yet provided the

the

plan
to

of

the fortress-like
we

structure

would
to

be evident. be
at
a

ready Althe

may

conjecture it
openings
gate
towers

similar

well-preserved Augustan
also has four

gate
and
on a

Nimes,
central

whicK
court,
its

though
width

the Turin with the The

is

largerscale,for
100

exceeds

feet the

(36
the

meters).
towers

unique preservation of
to

ing flankof

helps

give

us

something
was

originalstateliness,when

it

connected

with

216

ROMAN

CITIES

lowed before

to

refer

here

to

the

theory which
which has
been

laid
gress Con-

the of

International
at

Archaeological

1905

Athens,

quite
the

commonly
tested
numerous

accepted,French
its accuracy in

having archaeologists

connection This

with

African
a

arches.
was
an

theory
it

is that the

when

Roman

colony
to

founded
arch
across

was

general custom approach,


merium.
on

build

the line
an

main
po-

the

sacred

boundary
the

or

This

arch
name

usually received
of

stating the
status, the time
of its foundation. emblem of the Roman

city,its
the in

inscription municipal

and

sometimes
It
was,

circumstances
mental monuas

fact, the
marked
it

of the

and city, It

part
the

domain.
in Rome. such

correspondedto

triumphal
We in the other

arches

shall find

colony

or

municipal arches
and
It and

Augustan
have Aosta

cities of this northern


Aosta

Alpine region,at Verona,


must certainly

Susa. Where
366

existed at Turin.
it and
was

did

it stand? outside
was

At the

placed
as

yards
Turin

city gate,
same

the

Roman

of

exactly the
we

length (2440 feet), as


arch
at

Aosta,
distance of the

may

place its
of

about

the

same

in front

the walls, probably outside the Palazzo road


near

the

gate under

Madama,
the
arms

along
Via

line of the Roman Zecca. The

present
and

della

frieze of

armor

ROMAN

CITIES

217

which
the of of

am

inclined
"

to
a

attribute

to

it,
"

now

in that that

museum,

is of
at

type quite similar

to

the the

colony arch colony


both
of

Pola,
of S.

in Istria, and

to

arch

Remy
to

in the

southern

France,
of the

which

belong

early part
date

reign of Augustus,
Turin
can so

which

is also the

of the How of

arch.
we

venture

to

date
form

the of Julia

foundation
its official

Turin

exactly?
the clue: There

The

title

gives

"Colonia is
some

Augusta
as

Taurinorum."
use

dispute
under

to

the

of the term

"Julia," whether
established

all colonies the Lex

were

so-called because
or

Julia of

by

or

in memory

of Julius bv
Caesar

Caesar. in Gaul The


were

Some

those

established

called
lished estabcalled
name

"Colonia

Julia

Paterna."^ after

colonies
were

by simply
"Pietas

the triumvirs

his death
and when

"Colonia Julla"^

Julia,"
occurs,
seem
as

the the

shortly after
if
a

assassiwith his
B.C.
new

nation, it would
memory
were

connection
soon
as

intended. the

As title

in

27 the

Octavian
colonies
two

assumed
were

"Augustus,"
and
in here

called
are

"Augusta,"
as

where

the
at

titles

combined,
and

Turin,

Capua, Beneventum,
^

Parma,

it has

been

For

example,
Pola
in

Narbo

and

Arelate.

*E.g.,

Istria:

"Colonia

Pietas

lulia

Pola."

218

ROMAN

CITIES its first

suggested tHat
and

this would its second

make

Caesar

Augustus
best

founder.^
seems

The

explanation
with ceased

to
was

me

that

the
as

couphng
soon as

of Julia

Augusta
to

dropped
on

colonies

be

founded

the
B.C.

authority of
But
are so

the Lex there

Julia, probably
reasons

in 23

historic

for of

placing
there

Turin
than The

much

earlier

in the

reign

Augustus
are.

is

commonly
the

thought?
the of
more

I believe

explanation is
scheme
of defense

interestingas
for the
bined com-

it

involves

Augustus

Italy from
and up

northern of

invasion,
northern the

and

for

the

invasion

conquest
across

Europe, by opening
We Rome
means

the roads

Alps.

have
was

seen

that, curiously enough, while


the world she
was

conquering
own

by

no

safe in her the of

peninsula.
from
was

The

entire
to

arc

of

Alpine
the

ranges

the

Riviera

the

crest

Adriatic
warlike
were

still in the

possession
great
ern north-

of

unsubdued passes

tribes, and
to

all the from

Alpine

open could

invaders

Europe,
Piedmont,
and
*

who

descend and
was

into the

plains of
Settled freecases:
so

Lombardy,
culture
another the

Venetia.

advanced
It the the
was

impossiblewhere
solution would antedated
cover

is

possible that
decree

such

that under

establishing
Julia, while
27
or

colony
actual known

27, and
or

was

Lex in

the It

sending
that
two

deductio

of

the
one,

colony
two
or

later.

is

in

several

cases

more

years

elapsed

between

the

stages.

ROMAN

CITIES

219

footers had

full sway. with Gaul of


a

Worse and

munications yet, militarycom-

Germany

were

cure inse-

except in
on

case

large force, and depended


such chieftains, Cottian
as

the

friendship of King
Julius
across

local of the

that

of

Donnus,

Alps,
made

whose sage pas-

friendshipfor
to

Caesar the Mont had

had

the

Gaul
as

Genevre restored

possible.
ditions, con-

As

soon

Augustus
the

normal
of

after

defeat become

and

death
master
an same

Marc of
to

Antony,
Roman

and

had
he

sole
to

the

world,

planned
and for

put
the

end

this
to

intolerable
create
a

condition,
in

at

time

base the

Italy
the which

the

many conquest of Gerso as

and the River

Danubian

lands,
northern he
was

to make

of

Danube

boundary of the
soon

empire, a plan
the For

to

intrust

to

generalsof
this he and

his

family,Drusus
to

and

Tiberius.

needed
it is the that
at

control

all the

Alpine
and

passes; the been

details of this scheme, still record and all

monuments

it, that I have

studying
successful

Turin it

along
after

the years

line. of far

How

finallywas,
of the

minute,
more

inglorious and
that in the famous
are

wearing strategy,
Boer
war,

difficult than

is

memorated com-

Augustan

Trophy,
at

which

the

French

finally laying bare


Turbie,
near

the This

present moment,

at La

Nice. main

towering pile, overlooking the

Roman

220

ROMAN

CITIES

causeway and

which

leads

along the Riviera


names

to

Gaul

Spain, gives the


had

of
to

forty-sixAlpine
Adriatic, whom
was

tribes, from

]Mediterranean

Augustus
B.C.,

conquered.
last

It

built

in

7-6 been

after

the

insurrection
had

had been
14

quenched.
wars

Before

this there

several
and
13

at

various

in points,principally

B.C.,

but

going
that

back

to

the

earliest

years

of

Augustus^
I

believe
was

the

general plan
28

of

Augustus,
the
to

which

carried
between

out

mainly during
and
15 B.C.,
was

teen four-

years

lish estabnection con-

separate groups
with smaller
each of

of two the

fortified cities in
main

Alpine
narrow

passes:

citv at the head


pass
on

of the Italian end of

valley that
;

led to the

the lower the the


occupy

side
this

and

larger
Not

cityopposite the
it

valley,where

opened
15

out
B.C.

into

great Itahan

plain.
and

until

did
to

Augustan
the

troops, under

Drusus,

begin
the

slopes
aside of
not

valle^^s
the
ment mo-

beyond

passes.

Setting

for the of

the

insignificant passages
in any
case,
were

]Maritime
the
same

Alps, which,
them passes
as one

strategicinterest, because
were

the

Gallic
the
to

lands
first

yond be-

already Roman,
moves
are

great
the

from those
over

west

east

along

Alpine
the

range

the Mt. them


a

Genevre

and

Mt.

Cenis.

Toward

single road

ROMAN

CITIES

221

plainalong the narrow Riparia flows valley through which the Dora At this point until it reaches the site of Susa.
ascends from the Italian
it forks
evre
:

the left road what


was

passes the

over

the

Mt.

Gen-

through
passes in
traverses

the

road
who
use

important of Republican times, while the right It was Cenis. the Mt. Pompey
most

first considered of it.

this

important

and

made

As

Susa

commanded
was

both,it was

very

strongly
litically Po-

and fortified,

called Italiae Claustrum,

anomalous, speaking,its condition was I shall call the and was expressed by what not a Colony Arch of Susa, though Susa was of colony, but the chief city of a federation
tribes who under
were

allowed
son

considerable
of
same

autonomy
Caesar's
of these of

Cottius, the
was

Donnus,
time

friend, who

at

the

king
Roman

tribes,and their governor


Rome.

on (prefect)

behalf

This

federation,

to

which
was

nicipal mu-

the

were rights whole galaxy

conceded,
of

unique

among

Alpine

ship tribes in its friendnot

for Rome, force

the

only group
the Roman

of
to

arms;

and
into

its recompense

conquered by for willingness


was

enter

scheme

this

but someof autonomy, resembling, what recognition real than, the treatment more by which the

English perpetuatedin principalities.

India

some

of the native

222

ROMAN

CITIES

The

scene

enacted, when
the oath of

at

solemn

sacrifice

these

tribes took
is

fealtyto
the

Rome
of

and the the sentative reprevancing ad-

Augustus,
Arch tribes
of

represented on
its the of the

frieze

Susa, and
formed each

enumerates inscription

that
of

confederacy.
tribes is
noted

depicted as
in the To

to have

his adhesion

official

document

bv the Roman

official.

their chiefthe

tain, Julius

Cottius, the Emperor

intrusted

building and
and the entire Cottian the

policing of
region
He
was was

the

great pass-roads,
after

named,
even

him, the
Claudius and

Alps.
in the death
as
a

given by
district

title of

King

and of

his

enlarged
Xot the

placed
Cottius' annexed

class

allied states.
Xero and
w^as

until
re-

under

region
an

province

became

integral

part
The
in

of the arch

empire.
memorial itself,
a

of

this is

treaty, and
a

this way

unique
is

monument,

charming
and

anomaly.
In

design it
its

wath exquisite,

spring

delicacythat place it opposite aesthetic


heavy
later. arch Its of

in the

front

standing rank, notwithalmost the

simplicity.It produces
Aosta,
which
is to be

effect to that of the

majestic,
described
snowy

slender single,
an

arcade, almost

white, has
solitude.

ethereal
more

brilliancy in this mountain


fortunate than the arch of

It is

ROMAN

CITIES

223

Aosta

in

preserving the
who

traces

of

its the

inscription
to

giving the
of Cottius

hst of the tribes under

jurisdiction
Rome.
pare com-

joined

in his adhesion is

This

list of with

Alpine
in the

tribes

interestingto
list of

the almost

contemporary

Alpine
of La those who

tribes

given
on

Augustan
subdued,
The arch

trophy
are

Turbie,
who

the

Riviera, where
were

the tribes
not

fought

and

those

peacefully submitted.
some

originallysupported
and fine
"

statuary, in groups

ures. single figAugustan


near

It is
statues
"

conjectured that
of

some

one

Drusus,
may

perhaps
have

found

it

and

taken

to

Turin,
a

belonged
and

to them.

There the charm

is

surprising contradiction
proportions
decorative work. The

between the

of the the
are

design and

crudity of
the frieze

figures on

hideous positively and

in their doll-like

malformation
thinks carved the of

lifelessness.

One
stone

naturally
and

similar
the

puppets

of

ivory
of

by
We

post-Carlovingian craftsmen
There
was

darkest

century.
know

is
the the

an

easy

tion. explanato do

that it
work

custom monument

all
was

the

decorative in

after
case

erected, and
Roman

this
was

the

design

of

good

architect of
or

perverted by
carver,

the

unskilled

hands
talent

some

native
across

either the best local

brought

the

Alpine

passes

from

Gaul.

224

ROMAN

CITIES

Near

the arch
"

are

two

arcades

"

one

wider
seem

than
to
me

the other,
to

of

plain masonry.
part
in of the the for

They

have

formed
a

fortifications; to be walls, because


and the

perhaps
the
one

gate

Augustan
vehicles
a

larger
for
we

entrance

smaller

was pedestrians,

peculiararrangement
but
not

which

find

at

Pompeii,

later

than with

Augustus.
its round

Another towers,

gate, quite imposing,


to the

belonged
was

mediaeval

walls.
at

Susa,
the
the reach head old the

therefore,
of the

the If

Roman
we

bulwark
pass down

valley.
a

then

highway
point
Here,
the

distance the Dora


entrance

of

forty miles
runs

we

where
at the

Riparia
of the

into

the Po.
we

great j)lain,
Cowark bulhave of

find

second

unit

in the

duet, Turin,
a

lonia

Julia
in
case

Augusta

Taurinorum,
chance up; camp, Susa and

great
should

by
or

any boxed

been

captured
from

also

base

supplies and
the
of the

military

colonized
when in

by
the the

ans, veter-

legions disbanded
made
close
a

close army
two

civil

war

reduction

necessary.

The
Susa

relations
"

between the

the

cities their

"

and

Turin

at

beginning
recently by

of the

history, were
in Turin

proved
of

very of
a

discovery
from
some

part

large inscription
of the

public

monument

Augustan
himself, the

Turin,

actuallydedicated

by

Cottius

ROMAN

CITIES

225

prefect-kingof
member This scheme
was

the his the

Cottian

Alps,

and

by
in

other an-

of but

family.
westernmost

unit and

the

of

Augustus
the and

for

defensive
The

offensive
both

operationsin

north.

next,

graphicall geoAosta

is the historically,
"

group

(Augusta Praetoria)

Ivrea

(Eporedia).

Aosta There
are

few the

more

fascinatingvalleys in
d' Aosta, game
to

Europe
second

than

Val the

the

scene

of

the

stage in
was

of

strategy which
peace
to

Augustus Italy by
to

playing
to

bring

ern North-

and

bind

it to

Transalpine lands,
works

still recorded few in

here

in architectural of Rome.

equaled expected
as

Italy north
and

Visiting this
it

valleyin midwinter
find it bleak
to

for the first time, I

forbidding,leading up
of Mt.

does

the

very

base

Blanc

and

Monte
sphere atmo-

and Rosa, but in the clear,still, I could of the

expanding

understand

the

apparent anomaly
the entire vine-

of semi-tropical vegetation its and

clad

with valley,

dflndia^ palms, its cacti,ficlii


so

rhododendrons,
that grow Val
on

many

of the

same

flowers

the Riviera.

The

d'Aosta from

stretches northwest
the
opening of the

for

some

sixty miles
15

great

Po

valley at Ivrea, on

either side of the river Dora

226

ROMAN

CITIES

Baltea.
Turin

Even does it
not

more

than the

the

Val

di Susa
a

above
tery, ar-

give
two

impression of
In

long

often very the the heart

miles

wide, leading into the


the
in the latter

of

the
the and

Alps.

days

of

Republic powerful
commanded
the
to

valleywas
turbulent

possessionof
bifurcating
Aosta
now

Salassi, a Celtic tribe


the
passes where St.
to

that from

both

of

little
the

amphitheater
the Little and

stands:
across

left

Bernard
the

pass

the

Graian

Alps,
over

right the
The

Great
Cromlech

St. Bernard
on

the

Pennine

Alps.

the

Little

St. Bernard

is the most

record spectacular racial and

of the tribe,and

proof of

their

affinities. religious
of

The either
100

Romans
of these

the

Republic had
and

no

use

for
in
at
,

passes,

merely founded,
valley, to

B.C.,

the
of

cityof Eporedia (modern Ivrea)


the

the

base

mountain

coerce

the

Salassi and
after

prevent their
driven
It

raids

on

the

great plain,
the further

they had
in 143 the

been, since the


B.C.,

war

over

gold
up

mines
into

further also
was

and

mountains.
a

the

startingthe passes

point for
Caesar. That than
case
one

pre-

Augustan

control

of

of the Graian

Alps, used, remedy

for instance,

by

Julius

I
this
was

hardly effectual, more


In any

it

was

punitive expedition attests. not sufficient for Augustus,

with

his

THE

PORTA

PKaETDHIA.

"

Oj'
\J

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

Q"

CZZL

"

AMPHITHCaTRN-M

THtATRVM

THERMAE

1897

1
yonrk

CIJ

HOR.RCA

C3

r""rrA

'

'

"

fyi^i I

n[

ni-i

r-p

.........

n-|

rojLTA

occvmana

Aosta,

ground-plan

of

Augusta

Praetoria

(c.

25-20

B.C.)

Plate

XXXVIII

228 and and

ROMAN

CITIES

powerful
so soon as

Salassi

were

inveterate
had

enemies;
cial commer-

Augustus
he

made

the
a

route

of

Susa, further

west,

part

of
25

the
B.C.,

Roman

network,

undertook,

toward

their permanent
went to

subjugation.
and

While

he himself this minor

Spain

Gaul,
to sort

he intrusted Varro

but

difficult affair resorted


to
a

Terentius
of him Cuban
to

JNIurena,

who

reconcentrado
a

policy,which population.
It seems, in

enabled

substitute

loyal

fact, a mistake

to suppose,

as
a

even

Mommsen
battle end up of

has with
the the

done, that Varro


and

fought
worked

pitched
lower

Salassi;rather, he

left the

valleyguarded,
the summit
now

his way
the
"

carefullyto
where

until he reached
he

spot
lished
mercy

Aosta

stands, where
the

estab-

his camp. and


escape

With

whole

valley at his

impossible,he
was

organized
custom

man-hunt.
t-he Keltic
a

The

Salassi,as

the open

with

tribes,lived

in small
were

in villages,

loose cantonal With

union, and
a

defenseles practically
two

loss of less than

thousand

killed of the
men,
women,

Salassi,he corralled
and

nearly 40,000
them
to

children, took
all into

Epor-

edia

and

sold

them

slavery at public
then founded

auction. On the site of his camp Varro


a

Roman

colony,Augusta

Praetoria

Salassorum;

ROMAN

CITIES

229

city modeled
camp,

on strictly

the

plan
as

of
a

nent permafortress.

and, like Turin, built


after the it with
came

It

was

named of
to

the

Emperor

and

the 3,000
who
were

veterans

Praetorian

guard

assigned
native
were

their families.
in
to

Some

of the
and

Salassi

join
of
a

the

colony

spared.
at

The upper
out

soldiers
end into

themselves
the flat
narrow

built it.

Placed where

the

valley
before

it widens
to
an

plateau
a

coming
in from and the

abrupt end,
range

the where

city faces
it

pocket
down

mountain the
passes

slopes

in

gently-curvinghemicycle,
two streams.
near

it is

protected by

Only recently an
west statement

inscriptionfound
that It is

the

gate flatlydisproves Strabo's


the
a

cepted generally acwere

Salassi

pletely com-

wiped
in 23 had Local the does that
B.C.

out.

dedication "the
its

to

tus Augus-

of the

statue

(?) by
from
mistaken
to

Salassi who

joined

colony

beginning."
in

are archaeologists

supposing
Xot

to belong inscription

the

gate.

only
of the

its vertical this is


a

shape disprovethis,but by
a

the fact

dedication iirivate

group be

inhabitants, whereas

city gates

cannot

cated dedithe
B.c.^

except publicly by the

whole

city or
23

highest authorities.
the

Therefore, before

city of Aosta, with


monuments,
must

its w^alls, gates, and

lic pub-

have

been

compractically

230

ROMAN

CITIES

pleted. Immediately
and

below in front the

it the

streams

Dora

Buthier

meet,

of the famous

umphal" "trithe

arch
'pomerium

forming
of
to

protection of
It
was
a

line
custom

the

city.
a

common

Roman whether In the A of the

take

natural

boundary, province.
west

for
case

colonial territory or city,


the

this
Dora few the

Buthier side.

guarded

the

and

the south of

the initiated know

that Aosta

is

one

best

preserved Roman
It is
a

fortified cities in
of the

world.

rectangle
maximum

length
of

of
a

2,440
Roman

feet, the

normal

length
to

camp-city, according
is about

Hyginus;
than than

its

width
norm

1,920

feet, which
but
narrower

is wider

his

(1,600 feet),
Rome and

Turin,

Its

principal gateway,
;

the Porta

Praetoria, faces
a

toward
366

in front the

of it,at Arch

distance
of

of

meters, stands
This arch
is
on

Colony

the

city.

the sacred
at that

^pomerium

line that

encircled octroi

the walls

distance, marking the


between
was

line, the

boundary
line the

country

and

The cityjurisdiction.

marked originally

by

trench

dug by

consecrating priestwith
as

his sacred

plow

and the

oxen,

soon

as

the

monies cere-

by which
new

center

and

bounds been

of the

colony were
to determine

determined

had

concluded.
ars by schol-

No

serious attempt has

yet been

made

the width

of the sacred

stripof!

ROMAN

CITIES

231

land which in

between

walls

and

outer to

'pomerium,
If I
am

within

it

was

forbidden

build.

right

placing the "triumphal" colony arches on this be possible to determine outer line,it will now point in
in
in many
cases,

this
at

at

Verona,

for instance,

Gerasa

Syria,Thamugadi
Gaul,
and

in North

Africa,

S.
"

Remy

Telmessos

in Asia-Minor

to mention

merely typicalexamples
the

ent in differ-

provincesof
The Aosta arch

Empire.
in directly
across

stands

front
the

of the

superb Augustan
Even
some

bridge
below
of

Buthier. arch is

though
two

the

originallevel
the

of

the

meters

modern

road, and
section above

though
the
next most to

it is shorn

all its upper


structure

frieze,the triglyphal
that of

as

it stands

is,
the

Orange

in southern

France,

impressiveof
is due
not

all Roman

memorial

arches.

This
to

merely
its

to its immense

bulk, but
and

the

perfectionof

simple outlines

portions, pro-

the fact that, unlike nothwithstanding It is not Orange, it is quitewithout decoration.


a

structure

with

core

of

brick

or

of but

roughly
is built
of
a

hewn

blocks

faced

with

marble,

throughout
of the banks

of

squared carefully
near

blocks

sort

pudding-stone, quarried
of the Dora.

the

city above
has the

Besides Porta

the arch

and

the

bridge,Aosta
stretch of

Praetoria, the great

encircling

232

ROMAN

CITIES

Augustan waU,
theater, of
the

with

its towers,

the

ruins

of

the
or

amphitheater, the
granary,

thermae

baths,

the

mihtary
and

scanty remains
of the Roman it is the
an

of

temples,and
series

the many

fragments
houses. Xear

drains, streets,
of

usual un-

bridges, including
covered

unique
all these
ception, ex-

Pondel,
One

with

its double

passage.

of the most

unusual

things about
were
"

constructions

is that

they
of the the

all, with the

perhaps,
at
one
one

amphitheater,
"

built all in
a

time, when

city was
We in find the

founded:

with style,

similar

materials,according to

preconceived plan.
this

something
cities

proachin apof

unity

frontier

Syria
but

and and

Africa, also built by the militaryengineers


workmen

belonging
are

to

the

legions,
and

these

other

instances

all of later date of

supplemented by subsequent growth


Here
at

tion. popula-

Aosta,
any
was

in
causes

the

quiet
and

mountain

silences, far from

for

expansion, the
before
were

city stayed
the
causes

as

it

first built

long
gotten, forwhen

that

led to

its foundation

until the latter


once

days

of the

Empire Alps.

more,

after

four

centuries, the
across

northern

hordes
What

harried is
of

Italy from
recent two

the

quite

is the

discovery of
Until

the

existence

lateral

gates.

this discovery
to

it had

been

supposed that, contrary

Aosta,

Porta

Praetoria,

and

its

Court

Plate

XXXIX

234 and the


on

ROMAN

CITIES

street

Of

only twenty feet to the new gates, only the Porta


the up
to

cardo

street.

Principalis
not

decctra

south
a

side

is

comparatively well
I
was

preserved
to

certain

height.
were

able
at
a

visit its foundations, which

found

considerable
the little

depth
museum

below in the

the

present level,nor
ancient

neighboring
were,

tower,
Turin.

because

the

keys
wanted

was

told,
Aosta,

in it

Nobody
because

them

in

seemed,
had the

the local the

inspectorof antiquities
in

quarreled with
Aostan worthies

Direzione
had

Turin, and
offered the this

who

been of
as

keys had

all declined

for fear
was

offending
strong
to
as

whose inspector,

influence

his the
a

temper

was

violent!

Hence,
to
on.

I had
to

study

inscription supposed
cast at

belong
with

this gate in

Turin, later

The that
over

walls, if restored
crowned originally
10
m.

the
were

battlements

them,
were

considerably
of
a core

high. They
faced with
an

formed

of rubble of

emplecton
defended

of small

blocks square

calcareous
on

tufa,
side.

and

by six

towers The
as

each

Porta

Praetoria

is

in

its way

as

sive impresthe
Like

the

Colony Arch, and, besides,it is unique


it preserves

in the of
rest

with which perfection

plan
the

the

Augustan
gates

militarygateways.
and the

of the

walls, it is built,not

of

ROMAN

CITIES

235

bricks
These

like
are were

Turin, but
not

of

large blocks
not

of

stone.

very

carefully finished only


still thinner marble

because with thin


ment revet-

they
stone

faced originally but with the


a

blocks
in

which

archivolt

moldings,
were as

cornices
The

and

other

architectural
are

details

cut.
at

flanking towers
but square, and

not

polygonal,
inner and

Turin,
and

project boldly both


Both

within

beyond
of the the

the walls.

outer

facades

gateway
central

remain

nearly intact, inclosing


where,
be
not

large by
the

court,
could

if

the

enemy
on

should sides

penetrate, he

attacked

all

garrison.
the

It does

produce
is two

its full
meters

effect, because
above

present

street

the old level,and

also because

the gate has


as

lost its upper


as

story and
the artistic But

its battlements,

well

most

of

facing
and

with

tural its architec-

moldings.
in its taken the the main
two
as

it still is almost force

oppressive
A
tion restora-

impression of
from based

bulk.

Promis'
on

Antichitd

di Aosta

is in

well
The

existingremains, except for reliefs which I consider improbable as decidedlyout of place in the design.
arrangement
is
of the walls

for
are

defensive
not

interesting. They heavy, being only eight feet thick


purposes six

very

at the

base and
tained, is ob-

feet

at

the
as

summit.
in

The

diminution
a

not

imperialtimes by

raking

line

236

ROMAN

CITIES

but would

by

rebates.

This
of

narrowness

of feet

the

walls

give

width

only

four used

at the

top
of

for the chemin

de ronde
we

to be

son by the garrifeet

in the defense, if

deduct
But

the two
this of
was

parapet ^nd

battlements.
out

come over-

by running
feet

at intervals

about

forty
to

heavy

buttresses wall

which
but
to

not

only
a

served

strengthen the
internal
gave
a

support
ten

continuous

wooden total width It


was

platform
reached

feet

wide, which
in the

of fourteen

feet to the chemin

de

ronde.

by stairways
towers

various

towers.

Of
one on

these
the

the

served best-precalled

is the Tour The

south

side

now

de Pailleron.
internal

arrangement

of

the

Augustan original
angular rect-

cityis made
These

quite certain by
which
the
or

the lines of been sixteen


of

under-drainage
divided sections

have

discovered.

city into
insulae
the
two

large

almost

equal
the

size

by
the

four

streets

beside

avenues: principal

decumanus

street, east-west, and

cardo

street, north-south.
The and
most

theater, not
same

far

from the
for

the Porta

Praetoria of
on

in the

region as
form,
of

amphitheater, is
its extremities

remarkable

both
curve,

sides, instead
are

comjDleting the
the The

regular

cut

abruptly by
on

rectangular lines
builders
were

of the streets

either side.

ROMAN

CITIES

237

evidentlynot
the the of
two town

allowed

to

spoil the sjonmetry

of of

by breaking
arteries.

the

continuityof
the three inner

one

main
the

Only
sets cut.
are

rows

hemicycle of
rows
are

complete, while
compares theaters of of Amemthe

the

outer

Promis of

this
In-

arrangement

with

that

dustria, of Pompeii
urium

(smaller),and
reason

in Cilicia.
at

The Aosta

for

this inartistic In the


a

arrangement

is

quite
as

evident.

purely militarycity such


was

this, where

tent ex-

determined
to

entirely by strategic reasons,


economy the of space. It
to

there is

had

be

absolute
see

interestingto
the
was

how the

architect

tried

make
There

best

of
a

adverse

circumstances.
as

also

structural

reason,

will

explain.
Of
on

the

outer

facade

about
a

quarter remains

the south

side, risingto

considerable
Its

height height
ruined
and few

in is

primitivesimplicityand
twenty-two
meters.

strength.
are

There
so

very

few

Roman that
are

theaters
as

in the west

imposing

early,for

it is contemporary

^vith the and

theaters in

of Balbus

and

]Marcellus
In fact

in Rome, it is the

point of styleis
of the the introduction and

earlier.

only

example

purely
of

Roman

fore composition be-

the Hellenic
as

trave false archidecorative the

engaged
for
the

shafts

the

framework

arcades.

Here

arcades

238 in

ROMAN

CITIES

appear

aU

their

bareness,

as

they

do

in the
ducts. aquefinest

purely
example

structural
This of

bridges, viaducts
at

and

theater
the
as

Aosta

is

reallythe
the used

traditional
must

styleof
been in the

Roman in the

engineer
gates
age and before

such

have Rome the

basilicas the time

of of

Republican
or

Tabularium

ever what-

other civil structure


of the

first embodied forms.

this union elevation

Greek
theater

and

Roman four

The

of and

shows

stories,three
structure

arched has
a

the lowest

flat-topped.Its
of the of the

mon com-

combination

late

Republic: the
and blocks

opus tresses butsame

quadratum
local
core

archivolts heavy piers, of

is of

heavy squared
the
are

the

pudding-stone as
and foundations incertum small bulk
very

colony arch; while the


tufa scales, irregular river

of

the and form

opus the the


not

is of the broken

pebbles
that

and of

carefullv
the

tooled
are

blocks
of

facing
from

calcareous
of the

tufa,
walls The

different

the structure

of

Spello,of
most

the age

of the triumvirs.

striking feature
of main and of

is, however,

the

great buttresses
w^hich from

bossed large slightly

blocks facade

divide each

bay
the

of the theater

top
to

to bottom

and give picturesqueness

vigor

the
seem

outlines

facade

which

would
one

otherwise

somewhat the

flat.

They

make Ionic

forget to

miss

superposed Doric,

and

Aosta, Theater:
r;::^"!

end

wall
B

r:;V:-;|

Aosta, Theater:
Plate
XL

plan

and

elevation

(Promis)

240

ROMAN

CITIES

The
recent

Baths

or

thermae
seem

are

of have

comparatively
been restored cular semicir-

discoveryand
of JNIarcus and of
a

to

in the time
exedrae and
traces

AureHus.
of the main

Three

part

f a9ade remain, surrounded

rectangular court
ruins

by dressing-rooms.
Of
poor

the

amphitheater the
that it is

are

in

such
for

condition

mainly interesting
as

its great

antedating, antiquity,
the the
use

it

probably
Caj)ua,

does, the Cohseum, Verona, methods,


Pola with and

amphitheaters
rest.

of

Its

constructive opus work

their the
of

of

the of

Republican
the
stone-

incei'tum, with
which this
went out

bossing
fashion

with

Claudius, shows
Also due In its

early date

quite plainly.
is unusual of the and

position purely
cases

inside the walls

to the most

military character

city.
at
a

amphitheaters were
outside
the

placed
or

short

distance

walls

city limits, by the


characteristic of

main

highway.
Perhaps
is
one

the most has


was

building of
Promis

all

that It

left most considered

its traces

ground. underas

by
and

the
more

great
taken

military warehouse,
the

it bulks
other

largely on large square


"

plan

than

all the
store-rooms

buildings
a

together.
the

The

surround
was
a

in the center

of which
"

temple,
of
a

perhaps

Augusteum,

and

the base

ROMAN

CITIES

241

large statue, probably that


smaller
to

of

Augustus.
of the The

Two

temples occupied part (?)


were

side next other

the forum

with

its colonnade.

three series

sides
of

formed

store-rooms.

perfectlyregular in a high and Situated by


a

unproductive region, and was planned to


for
was

liable be

when

its

struction con-

obliged to
from the

prepare

long sieges by invaders indispensablethat


for
a

north, it
be

Aosta

should
stored

sioned proviarms,

long period and


with

with

fodder

and

everything required by
technical
are

botH

garrison and population. The


of

ments arrange-

this great structure

especially interesting,

in
at

comparison
Ostia and inclined

with

the much

later

houses ware-

elsewhere.
to

But

am

agree

with

Durms'
were

gestion sugmore

that these suited have also


to

underground
than cistern
to

vaults

storing water
the

grain, and
for the

that

we

here
as

main

city,serving
ing surround-

substructure

the colonnades

the forum. of well-known Aosta


one

It is

impossibleto deny
those
at

larity the simiwith

these

parallelvaulted
such
as

chambers

cisterns
was

Faicchio.
center

made

by Augustus
of

the

of

of the three

small

militaryfrontier Alpine

districts,

just beyond
Emperor
idea
16 was

the borders

Italy,into whicH the


range. his
own

partitionedthe
to

His
per-

keep

the

under territory

242

ROMAN

CITIES

sonal

control,
and other

as

military districts, whereas


sections of the

Italy
under

safe

empire
This
and

were

the civil rule of the that

Senate. Graian that

lar particuPennine Cottian the age the

province was
Alps;
the first

of the

province was
the end

of

the

Alps.
of

Aosta

was

of

Italy from
in from
the

Augustus.

Pliny

says,

measuring

length of Italy,that
borders
as

it extended

Alpine
Alpine

at

Augusta
at

Praetoria,which
entrance to

he describes
two

placed
It

the of

the

passes,

those
not

the

Graian

and

the

Pennine
the way

Alps.
of

only effectuallyblocked
was
an

invasion
an

but

aggressivepoint d'appui
the

for

advance.
Turin had

As

corresponded to Susa, Eporedia,


some

across

border, in Italy itself, so Ivrea, corresponded


distant. There
are

the

modern

to

Aosta,

sixty miles
of cities.

many

interestingremains
two

the

early road
was

connecting the
on a

redia Epo-

built

hill where

the
the

river Dora

swings
the

out

into the

at great plain,

point where
Danube
it
was tablished es-

main

artery between
and

Milan the Rhine

(Mediolanum),
and

Pavia
meet
not

(Ticinum),
the east-west
an

trading route.
foundation,
B.C.,

Though
having
to

Augustan
in 100

been

its

nearness

the

Salassi

ihad time

prevented any
of the

great development until the


of

foundation

Aosta,

about

25

B.C.

O
"

til

OJ

Plate

xLi

ROMAN

CITIES

243

Aside the

from

remains

of

theater

attributed
have

to

Antonines,

its

Roman there is

antiquities
little doubt

appeared, dis-

though
would
uncover

that

vations exca-

the

earliest

military

wark bul-

of

the

extreme

north.

Aosta,

Porta

Praetoria,

restored

(Promis)

Verona

Passing
the base
were

eastward
of the

from

Aosta

and around

Ivrea and

across

Italian
nests

lakes,
of

above tribes

which
in

the

many

unsubdued

early

Augustan (Milan),
Ticinum of reach
at

times;

leaving
of the
as

behind

us

Mediolanum
the

capital

region
well
as

of
the and

Insubres,

(Pavia),
Placentia

fortress-cities

(Piacenza),
of the
next

Cremona,

we

the

023ening
Of
the
no

great
so

Alpine
little little

jDass

Verona. that it

ancient

Milan There
the

remains
more

tells

story.
than the

is

of it

Pavia,
was

hardly
out

more

edge knowlof

that Roman

laid
so

on

scheme

the
in

city-camj^,
and
to

much
that

better it whole had

illustrated
an

Aosta
arch
to

Turin,

and and

honorary
erected
the

Augustus

his

family,
issue
a.d.

commemorate

the
war

successful
of 9-7

of

Dal-

matian-Illyrian
Placentia
bulwarks and
on

Of and

Roman
earliest

Cremona,
the
Po of

great

cities

Republican
So
we

Rome,
to

there
as

is

nothing

to

be

said.

come

Verona

practically gives
us

the

only city
scheme
of
244

in
a

the

north Roman

which

still I

the

large

city;

246

ROMAN

CITIES

The dominant
the

Verona
a

of

the

Middle

Ages

strikes

so

note

with with

its S. Zeno, S. Fermo


its S.

and
castle
some

Cathedral,
tombs
of

Anastasia, its
it takes
of the

and
time

the
not

that Scaligers,

to realize

only

how

much
how

Roman ruins

period
tell the
the

still

survives, but
of
a

vividlythe
and

story

reallygreat
such
as

rich
and

city of
Tacitus
"

Augustan
us

age

Strabo

lead
one

to

infer.

The

immense

amphitheater
best

of the the

half-dozen

largest and
dei

preserved
two

"

recently excavated
Porta

theater, the
Borsari
'ponte

city
dei
merous nu-

gates called

and

Arco

Leoni, the piers of the

di

the pietra, the

sculptures and
museums,

in inscriptions

two

form

rather

imposing

if somewhat has

disconnected
been taken

total.
at

If Roman

Verona

ly hard-

its real value, it is and been

its purpose
monuments

have is

cause bepossibly historyin the lightof its phitheater misinterpreted. Its ambeen its two
on

early, yet has


;

ascribed

to

Diocletian
are

(about 290)
to

and

city gates
of his I

assigned
far

Gallienus

account
a.d.

of restoration-inscription
a

265

propose

earlier date of

for the gates, the first half of


and propose
or

the

reign
a

Augustus,

also to

suscitate re-

superb "triumphal,"
torn

colony, arch
still lies,

of

the

city,which, though
under

down,

membra^ disjecta

the arcades

of the

amphi-

ROMAN

CITIES

247]
I

theater. from other


must after

Were

this the
of

place,
and

could

revive,

drawings
monumental
have Rome

the sixteenth arches


Verona Italian of

century, several

gateways

whicK

placed
among

almost

immediately;

cities in the number

of its monuments Mommsen Verona


an

this class.
to
or

elects

follow

Pliny,
rather

in

calling

oppidum
of the

town,

than

the inscriptio

Porta

dei Borsari,

accepted by
a

Borghesi, which
early
as

proclaims Verona
of

colony
to

as me

the
are

time

Augustus.
reasons
a

It

seems

that there
to

three made

have

been

Verona believing colony by Augustus: (1)'

for

The

of inscription

Gallienus

calls it

so:

"Colonia
on

Augusta
this in

Verona";

(2) the gateway


has
the

which

stands inscription and

all the

characteristics

plan
are

style of
of
Verona

Augustan
him;

city gates,
the

which

unknown

after
as

(3)
of

increased

importance
plan
at

part

Augustus's
it
a

in northern the

Italy would
intimate
Drusus

make logically
of the

colony; and
that time calls

connection

city

w^ith

CQnfirms

this view.
as,

Pliny
the
town

other

colonies this very

oppida;

for

ample, ex-

Eporedia, in
same

region, which
as a

he in The

breath

describes

colony.
an

in the

colony was
this

alwaj^scalled

oppidum splitting

when

it
to

was use

and fortified,

I believe it is

hairs

expression of Pliny's against

248

ROMAN

CITIES

Verona's
also

claim

to be

an

Augustan
to Verona

colony.
as a

tus Taci-

correctlyrefers coming
are

colony.
the into the

Travelers
Brenner Pass

from

the

Tyrol through
emerge and For

always, as they
with the situation.

plain,impressed
esqueness of

strength

pictura

Verona's

lowIt

lying city its impregnabilityis


nestles takes almost
a

remarkable. it broadens

where
narrow

the river double the

Adige,
curve

as

out,

the city is contained


arm

in entirely

lower

of

the the

which is

surrounds

it

on

three canal
so

sides, while
of the

fourth

protectedby
cuts
across

the

"Adigetto,"
the bulk of the makes
across

which

the
an

neck,
island.

that What

the

city

is

reallyon
more

ment arrangethe

remarkable

is that

river,
is

where

the

originalsettlement
which
and

evidently stood,
served
was as

hill quite a precipitous for the


a

acropolis
with torian histo

Augustan

colony

connected

it

by

heavy
where

stone

bridge.
compares Tiber
cuts

The

Lombard

Liutprand
Rome,
the

it in this the

respect

city into

two

unequal parts, and


of the of the

speaks
the

of

the size and and The of the

ficence magnistrength
of this

marble
on

bridge
hill.

citadel

piers
and

Augustan
At Verona

bridge

still remain

in part.
east

the commercial the road


means

west

way highPass,

intersected the shortest


and

up

the of

Brenner

best

communication

ROMAN

CITIES

249

between the

the

valley of
and from the

the

Po

and

the

region of
About road had later of

Danube

southern Verona ancient the


up

Germany.
the Brenner which

sixty miles
lies been

Trent,
founded

Tridentum,
was

by

Rhaeti,

occupied
of the
to
24

by

the Cenomanni,
on

but

being
be

the first

city site
pass,

importance
seen

the

Italian
to

side

was

by Augustus proceeded
for

necessary
or

his

plans.
and for

His

troops occupied
to

it in

before

B.C.,

he
the

make of

it the

advanced
stores

point
in in
16

concentration the

troops and
of
were

aration prepand the


to

campaign
the

Drusus crossed

15

B.C.,

when of

Alps
and

and

provinces
the

Rhaetia In
name
was

Vindelicia
the

added

Empire.
the road

this way

neighboring Alps
Alps.
the Via Here the Claudia in

received
Brenner

of Tridentine

joined by
direct

Augusta,
Venetia.

coming

from

Altinum

Trent, therefore, at the top, and


bottom
similar
not

Verona
a

at the

of the
to

militaryroad,
and

formed

third

duet Does

Aosta-Ivrea

Susa-Turin.
of the

this

fact

give
became

some

indication

time that the with

w^hen in

Verona

colony?

It is knownn times

late

Republican
of colonial walls

and

Augustan
it is

granting
the

rights was
; and

coincident

building of

hardly
a

conceivable foot-

that Verona

should

have

been

on

different

250 from
a

ROMAN

CITIES

ing
came

Turin.
few years

Her

foundation
The
was

undoubtedly
name,

later. it

Colonia
B.C.

Augusta
date
may

Verona,
the

shows

after

27

The
B.c.^

of be

occupation
As for

of

Tridentum,

24

approximately that
itself.
and the

of the colonization

of

Verona

its earlier
seem

the vicissitudes,

Rhaeti

Gauls

to have

occupied the citybelonging


at
one

Acropohs. Pliny speaks of and Euganei. to the Rhaeti


to

it

as

It

seems

time The Pom-

have

been first

occupied by
came

the

Cenomanni.
B.C.,

Romans

here

in 89

under

peius Strabo, bringing with them, perhaps,Latin lished and either then or under Augustus estabrights,
themselves
where could the bulk
on on

the level site the

across

the river It

of

Augustan
of of
on

city arose.
its outlines the

not,

account

having
the the

termine deexisting pre-

by
form Drusus of
at

the

curves

river and
exact

take acropolis,

rectilinear
of

Turin
Verona

and

Aosta.

The

residence

is commemorated he and

tions by inscriptributed con-

and
to

statuary, and
the

undoubtedly beautifying of
of
a

enlarging
as

the

city. Perhaps,
there existed

in

number

other

cases,

here

side and

by side
a

municipal
colony.
Verona Its

town

civil preexisting superadded military

was

far

larger

than

Turin
seats.

or

Aosta.
to

amphitheater had

25,000

It stood

ROMAN

CITIES

251

reason,

therefore, that
outside and

its

strip of
the than the I
to
was

clear

sacred

ground
the

encircHng
be wider and

walls, called
at

would pomeriurrij, the defense the I the

Aosta,

to

make
an

surer

warning
in Verona
here

of

attack time

quicker.
to to

When

this

decided

put

the
:

test

my
were

theory in regard
built whenever that
were an

colony arches Augustan


outside
outer

that
was

they

colony
the

ed; found-

they
on

stood the

walls; that

they

placed

pomerium
the the

line, across

the main I of

highway,

outside

citygate. principal

placed myself, therefore, at Augustan


off the

principalgate
the line of

Verona,
distance road

the Porta

dei Borsari, and


on

paced
reach

beyond it
Rome,

the old Roman the


outer

toward

until I should
at

pomerium
I

line, wondering if

this

hypotheticalpoint
or

might

not

find of
a

some

trace, past
arch. and

present, of the existence


in mind that the the 366
meters

colony
Aosta,
Verona

Bearing supposing
the
600

of

greater size of

implied a correspondinglylarger pomerium strip,


I reckoned
500

distance

here

should

be

between be

and

meters. at
a

My

delightmay
of about
550

ined imagT the of


a

when,
found
a

distance

meters,
across

curious

thing.

Stretched
was

highway
Roman

(Corso Cavour)
arch marked

the

outline

in the pavement with black. Here

by white
stood until

cobble-stones

edged

252

ROMAN

CITIES

1805

what

was

called of

the

Arch

of
art.

the

Gavii, an

work exquisite I had

Augustan
Verona the where

found found

that

had

colony arch,
on

and
the

I had
outer
course,

colony arch stood,


this
was
on

Of

pomerium line. But in preparing for my


and

not

all.

book
I had knew been

Roman

Triumphal
been famous

JNIemorial
at

Arches I

listed this

destroyed arch

Verona.

that drawn had

it had and
been

for its

beauty, had by the


few be

copied by Renaissance

architects,and
French

barbarously torn
while

dow^n

soldiery
I had the posed suparch

they occupied Verona


that, barring
a

in 1805.

fragments,
reconstructed
But the

was

but

memory,

to

perhaps
when I

from
went

these
to the

Renaissance

drawings.
look my up

amphitheater to
was

supx^osed
find the its

"few many

fragments," what
of its dark of the vaulted

surpriseto
filled with I

passages

materials

arch.
had

Slowly
torn

pieced

Odyssey.
when

Hardly
French
offered

it been

down
an

in 1805 Austrian

the

left the
to pay

city and
the

archduke the the


were

half

cost

of rebuilding

arch; but

the

Veronese,
their the
rest

impoverishedby
rising
and of

terrible

for reprisals
to

1798,
to

unable
as

furnish

unable

agree
were

to

the

site, so
too

all the

disjecta membra
the

carted, none
there

to gently,

amphitheater,
unknown
to

and

thev

have

remained,

254

ROMAN

CITIES

the

legal ritual
became dedicated

in connection

with

ments public monu-

carefullyregulatedand
to the

all arches
have and

were

Emperor,

it would

been tary miliI


the Pal-

to give impossible

to

local authorities

leaders

such

prominent place on
of

arches. of

found
Gavii

some

superb drawings
the famous

the Arch

by

Renaissance Library
at Verona

architect
:

ladio in the Public

with

their
of art
to
re-

help and
like J. Luild
and

the financial

assistance would

of

lover easy
most

Pierpont JNIorgan it
restore

be

what

is

the certainly arches in

tiful beauThe

of all the director


and
some

Augustan

Italy.

in Italy, the enthusiastic antiquities Ricci, has given me indefatigable Camillo of

hope
love
of

that

it will be done. has

One been

ing of the striktheir consistent

traits of the Veronese

their
Even
were

cityand
as

respect for its ancient


the

monuments. there

earlyas

sixteenth

tury cen-

local

antiquarians who
I will
am

began

to

guard
as a

and

publish them.
I be
remnant

even

mention,

which possibility
may
a

that investigating, of the pre-

the arch

August

an

colony, and
Roman

if

so

the

earliest known

arch

in the

world. second
in interest

Hardly
of the Porta

is the

principal gate
is

Aue^ustan
del Borsari, wide twin

citv, the much-misunderstood


What
we

now

see

gate

with two

openings framed

by engaged

Verona,

Porta

dei

Borsari restored

(principal Augustan by
Gallienus

City Gate)

Plate

xLii

ROMAN

CITIES

255

columns

supporting
by
seem

architraves stories but


a

and arched

gables,and galleries.
two

surmounted
It would

two to

of

take

very
we

edge slightknowlhave that very lower

of art different arcades


are

to

see

that clearly

periods and
are

and styles, pure, the while

the

early and
debased;
latter of the

the
a

galleries
worlv
of

late

and

former

Augustus,
that this

Gallienus.
has
to
not
some

It is curious been

elementary
surface and
to
a

fact

generally
ists. specialwas

though recognized,
The
cut

known of
new

local

the

Augustan

frieze

down

surface the

irregularlyand tion inscripwalls ber Decemof

crudely made
of Verona
4

receive

restoration the
3

Gallienus,
were

stating that

built
year

between
265

April
order

and

of

the

by

of the

Emperor
evident

Gallienus.

This

statement

is
have

guilty of
been

exaggeration.
to

It would the few

quiteimpossible
walls and

surround

entire

city with
We

gates
from advent
69

in these

months.
in the
two

know,

besides,
the

Tacitus, that
of the

struggle before
centuries Verona

Vespasian,
of

earlier,in
was

A.D.,

strongly fortified
center

made Gallic
a

the army.

military
What

the did

German
was

and

Gallienus
of the

merely

work

of restoration

neglectedfortifications.
he substituted
a

At

the Porta

dei Borsari

two-storied

gallery for

the

Augustan

superstructure and,

256

ROMAN

CITIES

removing
of the

the

inscription of

Augustus,
part

tuted substi-

his own,

destroyingeven
confirmation
the

of the moldings

early frieze.
were

If
the

any

further
of
some

required of
it has been

early date

primitivegate,
and I
am

supplied by
the first time

recent

still
here

unpublished
drawing
for

excavations, from
the

which

evident

conclusions.
that

These
thin be the

excavations screen-like

have

shown

the

present
to

structure,

usually thought
and
to

merely
gate,

passageway, but

be of

the whole
a

of

was

the

forefront
court

massive

way, gateto, the

with

central

and

rear

fa9ade, more
at

artistic than, but other

quite similar
Salona.

in scheme

early Augustan
and

militarygates
Verona

Turin,

Aosta, Nimes,

not

being
but that be

purely militaryand
city of wealth
gates
these
as

utilitarian foundation,

and
as

size, it

w^as

natural

the of all
a

well

the

Colony

Arch

should
now,
we

greater artistic beautj^


various

Comparing
gatew^ays,

Augustan

find materials

varied
and

galaxy, differingnot style,but


are

only
in the

in

architectural
:

number
and

of

arcades there Of
are

here

there

two, at Aosta
and Turin

Salona

three, at Nimes

four.
Arco

another

Augustan
it

gate, the

del
later

Leoni, less remains, but

it is less marred

by

restoration,and

had originally

the

same

plan,

ROMAN

CITIES

257

which

has been
the

traced
street.

and

partly uncovered
It may
A and
most

der un-

modern

have

been

the

Porta

Principahs Sinistra. backing against it


space,
was

is that
a

pecuHar fact separatedonty by:


It bears
an

small

another

gate.
late
as

extremely interesting early Augustan


which these arches.

tion inscrip-

disproves the
There
were,

date I have

assigned to
said, other river, the
the

earlycityarches
so-called
to

and

gates:

across

Janus

arch, which, perhaps, belonged

the pre-

Augustan
that
two

city;the so-called
stood
across

Arch

of

Jupiter Ammon,
of the the

the the

tion interseccenter

thoroughfares in
called the
of the Church their

of

city;the early gate


; and that
near

Arch

lerius of Va-

S. Tommaso.
to

Parts
those

of these of the

gates, of
Arco

similar galleries,
and Porta

dei

Leoni
were

dei

Borsari, show
of this type.

that there

at least four
seen

gates
esting interof

They
museums

can

be of

in the two

little
which From
to
was
a

one antiquities,

founded

by

the

famous

JNIuratori.
it is

study of
in
to
see

these

monuments

possible
Roman

reconstruct

large part
how,
even

the
at

plan
of

of

Verona,
continues

and
to

present, the city


the Roman

follow
that

the

lines

streets, and
of At
17

it contains
art.
c.

ures unsuspected treas-

early Roman

some

time between

25

and

20

B.C.

Verona

258

ROMAN

CITIES

was

therefore
and

recolonized
as

and

rebuilt

tus by Augusin the the

served

base

of in

his

great campaigns
in connection

suppliesfor Drusus the north, beyond


Tridentum.
How

Alps,
two

with

brothers, Tiberius

and

Drusus,

cooperated
Alps, and
and

in these in

campaigns
the

Tiberius

strikingand closing
the the passes

from

northwest
up
a

beyond
of which Drusus

Drusus

pushing

through
story
us.

high
are

is Alpine valleys,
too

the details

little known
and

ta

continued
the work

its
pears apage.

construction
to

decoration, and
on

have
as

gone
we

during

the
to

Flavian
this

It

seems

if

should

attribute

century

the two the

other

magnificentworks
theater.
one

of architecture: The

amphitheaterand
well-known that

amphitheater
overcome

is

so

is almost

with
in

fashion in speaking of it. The stage-fright amphitheaterswas set by Campania before Rome

adopted it,so Capua


that
two

it is not
as even

that surprising
as

the

one

in and

is almost Puteoli

large

the

Cohsseum while

of

larger.^

But

these

Campanian
state

amphitheatersare in extremely interesting for


and
passages, interest
are

their present
the
arena

and

its substructures in and


and

they
with

cannot
at

compare Verona
^Nissen Durm

architectural

those

Pola, which
Belock d.

somewhat
as

smaller,
m.,
ment measurex

give
whereas

its

measures

147x117

but

{Archit.
of
190
X

Bomer^
m.,

669) gives
the

the

extraordinary
is

144

Colosseum

only

187

155

Verona,

Amphitheater

Verona,

Augustan

Bridge

(medieval

restorations

on

right)

Plate

xLiii

ROMAN

CITIES

259

and
Verona while

which

curiously supplement
had her
outer
row

each

other:

having
in Pola intact of

shell of

destroyed,
that

it is the while

outer

arcades
was

remains Outside

the

interior

gutted.
are

Italy the only amphitheatersthat


two

the rivals of these


are

in monumental Aries

grandeur,
gona TarraIt
anv

those in

of

Nimes and
none

and

in France, in Africa.
cases

Spain,
that in the

Thysdrus
of of these their

is

curious record
we

is there
so

of

date

construction,

that

are

left

to conjectureand entirely

dication instylistic

At which used Of

Verona
we are

we

miss

the
at

change
Rome.

of The

order

with
is

familiar

Doric

consistentlyin
the four
outer
are

all three of

stories

of

arcades. arcades of the

circuit

seventy-two
the

only
three that

standing to
walls of
a.d.
were

show

rhythm
It is

stories and when the

the outside

finish.

thought

Gallienus in

were

hurriedly
ern the norththe

constructed invasion

in 265 and of

of prevision

carried

past
was

theater, amphiwall
An

part
in the and

this outer It
was

circuit
closed Middle of

embodied

fortifications.
as a

up

by

used

fortress

in the

Ages.

earthquake
and when
came

overturned
were

part
as

the outer
stone.

arcades But

others the
we

used

building
of the the Veronese

communal
see

revival
love

Middle
for

Ages
their

the

of

260

ROMAN

CITIES

monuments

showing
that

itself in

very

remarkable,
way.

and

for

time, almost
a

unique
document

In the

the year

earliest

city statutes,
or

of

1228, the Podesta,


to

chief

magistrate,is directed

employ

certain of his

sum specified

during the
for

first the

six months

incumbency
the

repairs on

Arenae, amphitheater, reparationeel refectione


The
term term
even now.

Arena for

was

common

val Italian medie-

Roman

amphitheater
(153x122 Thysdrus,
of

and

is used

In

its dimensions
Aries and

m.)
and

it surpasses
so

Ximes,

if it is not

impressive it
story
not

is because

this loss of the in

its upper

and

because, of
intended
more

course,

inner the

arcades,

being

to

be

seen

glare
One
of of

of

sunshine,

were

roughly
and

finished.

terestin in-

feature

is the

fine condition the lines


even

terior the inseats.

arrangements,

They
and The

were

continually restored
and the Renaissance used
are
an no on

in

the

INIiddle
were

Ages
that

(e.g.1568),
of

presumably
there

public occasions.
traces

fact for

ments arrangeover

suspending
with the

immense
as

awning
would

the

interior proves

nothing,

they
with

have
outer

disappeared
circuit. of The

destruction

of

the

close

analogy
it there

the

theater amphithe
rangements ar-

Pola
we

makes

probable that
were

shall find

reproduced

ROMAN

CITIES

261

here.

As

for its age,


and the

Diocletian there toward

it to attributing decadence, against which I probability,

far from

is every
the

historic

should
and

lean pasian, Ves-

period
the

between

Claudius
so

when

bossed

masonry,

prominent
the

here, was
The

most

popular throughout Italy.


was

theater

earlier in date it is for


even more

than

theater. amphiis

Perhaps
that
reason

for interesting
of it,which
to

than

what It

remains

quite fragmentary.
section of the Roman

belonged
the foot

the

earliest

city across
rested

the

river, just

beyond
hill. the

the great

bridge at

of the citadel

Its orchestra

againstthe
the river.

hillside and
The

w^all of the

stage faced
Verona
are

early

antiquariansof
and be I believe

attributed

it to

Augustus
even

they

quite right.

I should

inclined
of

to take

is built

the

extraordinaryfact that primitive,soft tufa as a sign


date! from Its material

the

it of

possible pre- Augustan


it
more

made
it

subjectto decay
kept
the in

neglect,though
to the time

had

been

perfect repair up early in


lived
and

of
tury, cen-

Theodoric

Goth, who

the

sixth

loved

Verona

here, building a
the theater.

superb palace on
as

the hill above


a.d.

Still,

early as

895

King Berengarius allowed


down
to

the any An

inhabitants

to

tear

its foundations
to

part of the theater which

threatened

fall.

enlightened citizen,Sig. JNIonga,excavated

262

ROMAN

CITIES

here

and

discovered
but
a

not

only
the

great

deal and

of the

architecture which
the

number that

of statues theater
was

tions inscripin with of the

showed

existed

time

of

Augustus
Drusus A

and

decorated members
of the

statues

of

and

other

imperial family.
remains, with
seven

large part
rows

podium
of

of

seats.

jNIore recent

excavations, which houses, thirty-six


it
to get possible
one certainly

involved
have
a

the

tearing down
of the

since 1904, finally, view

made

clearer of the those

structure.

It is

earliest known
of

theaters,
in Rome, be of esting inter-

contemporary
and
of
to make

with
not

Marcellus
It would

Aosta, if
a

earlier.

reconstructed
of in It the

model
was

it,and

determine

how

much
work

tufa

concealed
of of

by

decorative
and

marble

incrustation
a

blocks

slabs.
statuary.

certainlyhad
than Verona

wealth

decorative

Still further
ultimate from

east

we

reach

the

military route
the northward

in

Italy, that
of the

starting
and of upper this

Aquileia at

head the

Adriatic,
member
on

leading
Save,
was

past
Julian

second
Emona
to

this fourth
across

Augustan duet,
the

the

Alps

Pannonia: communication

the great

military artery
and
so an

of

with scheme

the Danube, of

integralunit
The

in the
a

Augustan
than the

conquest.

Aquileia was

city more

equal

of Verona.

poet

ROMAN

CITIES

263

Ausonlus,

not

many of

years

before

Its the

destruction
fame among of its the
at

by

the and

hordes

Attila,
He

sings places

of

port
cities time claras

its walls. the

it ninth in

of

Empire, by
Rome cieberis

surpassed
and

Italy
"Nona ad
et

that

only

Milan.
urbes moenibus Itala

inter

Aquileia
colonia It than
181
was

Illyricos
cele-

objecta
berrima."
of
no

montes,
the six
B.C.

portu

meeting

or

starting

point

less in

military highways.
its

Though
not

founded

importance
of

was

fully
Dalpleted com-

developed
matia
and

until

the of

conquest

Istria had
35

and been when

j)art

their in
a

hinterland
and after

by
began
to

Octavian
serve as

B.c.^

it

base
no

for

movements

ward. northremains of
or

But his time

thus
come

far
to

architectural

have and
I

light
to

in

either

Aquileia

Emona,

shall
in of

turn

other

cities

still further for the

eastward abundant
traces

Istria the

and

Dahnatia work in which this Caesar

great
out

tus Augusas a

planned
sacred he in

and

carried from
out

region
even

inheritance had
worked

Julius
the
we

fore be-

complicated
have
been

scheme

northern

Italy

which

studying.

VII

ISTKIA In is

AND

DaLMATIA

these

days
with

of the and

Italia

Irredenta,
desire

when
to

Italyannex

seething

repressed

Southern
note

Tyrol

Istria, it is quite in point

to

that
so

Augustus
as

pushed

the

Italian He

border
and portant im-

forward beautified

to

include
which

Istria.
then

rebuilt
as

Aquileia,
a

occupied
as

commercial
Via
B.C.

position
had been

Venice

did
to

later.

The
132

Popillia
The
across

run

through
had
to

it in
been
so

Via

Postumia

already
it in

brought
that
for

northern
was

Italy
to

148,
the

Aquileia
the land led

equipped
of

become the

focus From

traffic

Italy

with

north.

it roads

by

various the the Julia has that of

routes,
vast

especially
regions
of of the

through
the Danube

Noricum,
as

toward well
as

east

shores

Adriatic.

The and made

citv

of

Concordia,
been
an

between and

Aquileia
its

Altinum,
out,
as

excavated

plan

early Augustan

colony.
Ever
since has her served destruction
as a

by

Attila and in

in the

452

Aquileia
of

quarry

rise have

medieval

cities

her To

ancient
see

monuments

quite disappeared.

really

monumental

266 better

ROMAN

CITIES

still,large lithographic and


of them of the
sort

engraved
rary contempo-

some plates,

that

architects sometimes
As

prefer to photographs.
days
before the
cial commer-

they

date

from

the

revival under
are

the French

and

Austrians, they

peculiarly precious.
Salona We

generallyassociate
with the the
name

the of

capitalof
that

Roman

Dalmatia

distinguished
born
a.d.

Dalmatian,

Emperor Augustus.
he
as a

Diocletian, greatest
He in
was

since politician

at
turned re-

Salona,

and here

when
to live

abdicated

305

citizen private
he of built

in the magnificent
near

castle which

villa which
town
a

by,

in

the medieval
away in

Sj)alatonow unfrequented
us

nestles.
corner

Tucked

most

of the world, it is hard Salona

for

now

to

realize that
and of fifth the

steadily grew
it
was

until in the fourth of


as

centuries
Roman but the

one

the

largest cities
as

world, half
if the
scholars any

large
have
to

Constantinople;

who

haughtily curled
the of Roman the Salona

lip at

references
think it
a

because
were

they
to

city

decadence,

study
find

its ruins
are

without

preconception,
opinion
and
age

as especially they

now

being laid bare, they


their of the

would

reason

to

revise

recognize a large nucleus

Augustan

ROMAN

CITIES

267

and

some

remains
to

even

of the earlier Greek

city,

referred

in Dio's

historyof
the

the civil

war.

Salona's

is Greek history
of

in its

beginnings and
conditions in the that Dalmatia.
coast

is characteristic

general

governed
The Greek the few

the

pre-Roman

period
crept up
on

colonists had

line

from
in
a

southeast, setthng
cases,
on

the

islands

and, Issa,

the

mainland.

Pharus,
were

Epidamnus,
these island of and

Apollonia, Delminium,
From the mother cities of had
a

among
on

colonies.

colony
and

the

Issa, the

Tragurion
founded,
miles

(modern
from
of

Traii)
them

Epetion

been few

Salona,

only
The

southeast Salona

Tragurion. Tragurion,

road the

connecting
Via is the

with

called

munita, with
oldest known
of the

its Cvmatian Dal-

clopean retainingwall,
road.
Salone
at the
can

The

acropolis
of the

Greek

still be traced; its walls, built of the


wars

perhaps
the third the Romans,
and

time
b.c,
were

close

of

century

between
then

the

Illyriansand
with that show

unprovided
added

towers,

Caesar's wooden

commentaries
towers
were war.

temporary
poses purthe
paign cam-

for

defensive in 119
B.C.

in the consul

civil

Already

Cecilius

Metellus, in conducting his


the
at

against
winter
as

Dalmatians,

had

made

his

quarters
a

Salona, showing its importance


in the vicissiStill,

center. military

268

ROMAN

CITIES

tudes native several

of

war,

Salona

fell into and

the power
to

of the

Dalmatian times in
39

forces

had

be
B.C.

captured by
in
33

by

the Romans:

in 78

Cas-

conius,

by Asinius

Pollio,

and

by

Augustus
After

himself. the battle of

Philippiin
of of

42,

Augustus
of the

had

received
and it

as Illyria part
was

his share the

West,

in the

course

campaigns
Salona
pants occu-

of his lieutenant, Pollio,to


was

subjectit that

delivered in 39
B.C.

from It

the
was

hostile Dalmatian either then


or

toward
of
a

33

that under added with


with

Augustus
the
a

raised
of

it to the

rank

colony
and

name

lulia
the

Martia side of
whole

Salona,
the

Roman

cityby

Greek,

wall

surrounding the city was


grew

and

connected
thus How
larged, en-

that of the Greek


the

acropolis.Even
small. relatively

it

afterwards additional Marcus


up

is marked

by

two

successive
under threw ened threat-

systems of
defend the

fortifications,one
the
army

Aurelius, in 176, when


to

walls

cityagainst the
fifth

of irruption

the Marcomannian and

hordes, and centuries, when


extent

another
new

in the

fourth
of

bulwarks built

exceptional strengthand
Goths

were

against the Augustan

by the Christian
almost

emperors.

Of

the

city there

are

tainly cer-

three

and relics,

probably

others

will ap-

ROMAN

CITIES

269

pear the the

during
Porta

further

excavations. and

They
the

are

(1 )
the

Caesarea

part of
the

walls; (2)
In

Amphitheater;
of
to

(3)
the
a

Aqueduct.

present muddle

city's topography,
tenable what the later

when
to

nobody
what the
was

seems

have

hypothesis as
landmarks
are

the

early and city,I


The unusual

portionof
may

ancient the

think

these

give

clue. of that

excavations

now so

in full

swing

and

interest, though
scant

estly modThe cesco Fran-

done
excavator

they receive
is the

attention.

is the

]Monsignor indefatigable

Bulic, who

guardian
and
at

of

Dalmatia's
so

interests archaeological
save

has

done

much

to

Diocletian's
and

palace

Spalato

from from

gration disintemodern in the

is still busy Salona of the


was

freeing it

accretions.

unique practically
the the

completeness city not


even,

of preservation

ancient
but of

only throughout

Middle
of

Ages,
the
wars

except for the destruction


thirteenth

the The

century, through the Renaissance.


basilicas subsisted

great
walls

Christian

by

the

side of the and

hardly injured theater,amphitheater,


of Roman times. In the

seventeenth
the final

century, however, the Venetians


demolition Turks!
of the old The hands
use

decreed
its use

cityto prevent
as

by

the

Venetians,
on

usual, laid

legious sacri-

all its

splendid buildings,for
even

in modern

structures,

in Venice

itself.

270

ROMAN

CITIES

Modern
Lanza who

excavations

were

carried

on

under

(1821-1827)
uncovered Porta

and

Carrara the

(1842-1850),
Porta the wall

parts of

theater, the

Caesarea, the
the

Andetria,
a

circuit,

amphitheater, and
In antiquities. and had been
means

small

tian part of the Chriswere


sumed re-

1874

excavations

continued

intermittently
Bulic's
energy-

and found

wdth
a

small
better been

before
Until

way. the

recently the
an

chief

results group

have of

uncovering of
monuments

imposing
of all sorts

Early Christian
to

belonging
to

the

age

when The with

Salona

had

grown openof stone with


was
a

be

metropolis.

greatest known
its multitude

air Christian

cemetery

sarcophagi and large basilica


outside
the
annexes as

inscriptions was
its center. then there the

found,

This, of
was

course,

the

citywalls;

uncovered all its

basilica episcopal
"

within

with city,

confirmation baptistry,

hall, episcopal

palace,and
But
now

hospice.
the

earlier
for

ruins
two

are seasons

claiming
the

newed re-

attention, and
center

main called

of

work

has
a

been

the

city gate
of

Porta
cleared
soon

Caesarea,
in

structure

already partly
1849,
but

Carrara's without

excavations

reinterred
east

thorough investigation.
have been of

The

face and several

part of the passage

freed, and

fragments

an

Augustan

Salona, Basilica and

Cemetery

Salona, Amphitheater

Salona, Sarcophagi

Pola, Harbor
Plate
xLiv

with

Amphitheater

THE
M

PUBLIC

TILDEN

FGUNDATf02*3

272

ROMAN

CITIES

inscribed records
work.
In

of

how

and

when

it did

this

the

new was

circuit the

place of the
farther

old Porta

Caesarea the Porta

taken, much
which
a

eastward, by

gate,

of

part still remains, called


wliich the

Andetria,
the
wall

through

principal
the

highway,
The
new

Via

Gabiniana,

entered

city. by
the sides

followed

the line of the had

Augustan
ended
of

(or Caesarean?) aqueduct, which hiding itself


of the
Porta in the

bowels
wall

of

that

part
both

Augustan primitive
henceforth the gate itself
the As

stretchingon
whose

Caesarea,
served

towers

great defensive merely as reservoirs,


a

and
to

merely

as

access spectacular

from acropolis for the

the interior of the


was

city.
both

aqueduct, which
Caesarea

connected

with

the Porta

and

the

amphitheater,
of the

its lead

names pipes bear the significant Caius Julius makers, Eucarpius and

Julius
of the

Xantus,
name

proof enough,
is

in

the

mere

use

Julius, of the Augustan


of

age

for its

original
of of
to

construction, which

superb
can

masonry
seen me

early type.
theater any
or

Not

enough
to

be for but

the offer

the

public Thermae
their age,

conjecture as
may
soon

the The

tions excava-

provide more though


of

data.

tan Augusalready
as

city,even
become

small

size,had

of

great strategicimportance

the

ROMAN

CITIES

273

center

of the network for

of

new

roads

planned by;
with the the Italian in

Augustus

connecting
and

the

seaboard

valleyof the Danube, was highways. Why


the The
to

this with of

this

specialvalue
and Venetian
seems

formative

period of
from
of

Caesar the

Augustus? lagoons

stretch of coast the borders


been
a

Montenegro
land.

always
it
or

to

have it not

debatable
as

Should
of

should
over
a

be reckoned has

part
a

Italy?

For

generation it
Italian

been

rallyingcry
from
to

for

the

Irreconcilables, the
want

partisans of

Italia

Irredenta^ who
In the JNIiddle

it wrested it who

Austria.

Ages

belonged
received

Venice,

semi-Oriental

power,

it from

the

Emperors
times, it

of
was
as

Byzantium.
for
a

Still earlier, in Roman

while, under
were

Augustus,
of

ministere adthen the peror, Em-

if it

part of Italy,and

shifted
Senate
as

from
to

the

pacificadministration

the

direct

militaryrule
of

of

the

being a
a

bulwark

and Italy,

either in ince prov-

or

near

war

center,

the becoming finally

of Soon

Illyrium.
after Rome had found
a

it necessary of the

ing dur-

the last century and


to

half this

Republic,
settlers ing the tradthe

push

her

conquests into
to

her region,
at

began

to

follow, and

congregate
the

in ports, especially

Greek

cities of

islands and
18

the coast.

The

which they protection

274

ROMAN

CITIES

requiredand
and

the

sympathy
with the

with

the Greek

settlers Rome

in their contests
more
more.

natives,involved

When
of

in 59

b.c.^ this

region became
Caesar
was

the

ince prov-

Julius Illyrium, his

made

its first

proconsul,with
Dalmatia, which Romanorum,

capitalat Salona,
became
an

in Central

then
not

oppidum
Caesar in 57-56

civium
self himand

but

yet

colony.

stayed here
54
B.C.

long enough
his the of

in
and

to

exercise

fascinatinginfluence
Salonitans
his armies

secure

the

loyaltyof
one

in his future
was

struggle,though
in Caesar
one

ated annihilFrom

marching through
and the Dio main
we

to JNIacedonia.

learn

how

Dalmatia in the

became
civil war,

of how

storm
was

centers

and

Salona

unsuccessfully besiegedby
Julius
Caesar's
a

the Roman

Pompeians.
supremacy

In

plans
the

for

this He

region held
had and
seen

distinct and direct

important place.
routes

that the

between
the and

Rome difficult

Danube
back

lay
of
the with

through
Istrian that

hinterland

Dalmatian
led

coasts,

beginning
Aquileia campaign
Caesar The
to

which

eventuallyfrom
In the

enna Vi-

(Vindobonum).
he and

which
new

planned
to

but

never

carried out
power,
routes.

against the
work

dangerous
use

Dacian these
to

probably
which

expected
was

to

be

carried

its

logicalcompletion by

ROMAN

CITIES

275

Trajan's conquest
under he
was

of

Dacia

was as
a

already
boy
had

shadowed. foreally actu-

Augustus himself
seen,

Caesar's
so

tuition, the lay of the


of the

land,
of

and

persuaded legacy
it the of
scene

importance
political
of its

this part of his that he made

Caesarean of the
us
a

ideas

his first independent attack

operations, and strongholds,in


for of had the what
seems

in
to

petty warfare
the

future

Emperor,
that him.

wiped
earlier
The

out

stigma

personal cowardice
attached
to

events military

gradual

ment abandonof
to

by Augustus,
Caesarean
the the of the
to

in his maturer

years,

the

scheme, made

it unnecessary and the

push

conquest

interior

building of
tiquities yieldingan-

roads military

their ultimate
Salona is

conclusion.

No

wonder,
as

then, that
the

early as
of the

Augustan

age

and

that

it grew

in importance. steadily

Fragments
the the
more

of dedicatory inscriptions
come

Porta

Caesarea of the

have

to

some light,

in

excavations

Carrara
years.

(1849)
It

and

many been

during

past
was

had under
and

long

known

that the gate

restored 337

the Emperor

Constantius, between
governor

350,

by

his

of Dalmatia, I should

Flavins
that

Rufinus

Sarmenwas

tius, but
a

judge

the restoration the

slightone,
What

affectingperhaps only
is far
more

upper this

section.

important than

276

ROMAN

CITIES

late
numerous

in inscription

small

letters

is the

finding of
of teristic, characthe
to
are
construct re-

fragments, mostly minute, large Augustan


characters
not

from

original dedication.
it now, and in any

shall
new

attempt

because
case

fragments
not

pearing, ap-

it would I
to
can

be

fair to

JVIonsignor Bulic,

but

safely reproduce
their

enough
character:

of

the
imp

letters

prove

Augustan
yg

[Caesar, divi, f. A~\


mo

[usto
i.

2?o] NTi
am

[^d maxi]

[^]

rib

[^]
to

[f]

I the

expecting shortlyto
is in the
west

return

Salona,

as

gate
and

entirelycleared,and
side have
more

in the the

passageway

of

Augustan
The

scriptio in-

must structure

been

recovered.

entire blocks

is in
;

carefullycut, good-sized,
are

of stone

the

moldings
excellent

simple,the Corinthian

capitals of
It is with
to

facture^ the
diffidence
for

proportions
that the I

quite imposing.
considerable
the It and
was ture ven-

claim

amphitheater
in
1850

reign

of

Augustus.
was

that
went

the in Its

excavation
some

begun,
a

the

digging
twenty

parts
axis

to

depth
m.,

of

over

feet.

major
it

is 65

its minor

47 m.,

which

makes

slightly
that
were

larger than
the
seats
were

Pompeii.

The
wood

probabilityis
:

of entirely

their ashes

found
me

by

the excavators.

Monsignor Bulic asked


the

to

consider

the styleof carefully

amphi-

ROMAN

CITIES

277 been

theater.
would
west
so

No

has inscription
clue
to

found

that
at the

give any
end of the that

its age. of

It stands the

primitive part
was

and city, for


a

is

small

it

evidentlyplanned
far certainly age of in the
to

city
than

of

quite limited
had
are

area,

smaller

Salona
as
we

become

the

Antonines,
the
area

constrained
the of
not

judge
Marcus would

from

closed in-

in

walls
an

of

Aurelius.

This

indication
if it
were

early date
for the

be inconclusive
cades, ar-

primitive style of the


the
to

their of the

heavy proportions, and


or

absence
us

toohng

boss-work
On
a

familiar
the other

after
phitheater am-

the time

of Claudius.
at Pola

hand,
of

the

is

good example
in this
a

Flavian

or

early Antonine

work and

region, perhaps
with age its developed
seem

of

Trajan's time,
forms

comparison

makes

the for of of
a

Augustan
the

exceedingly probable
Salona.
The

amphitheater of

majority
here of

critics will be exceedingly


so

I know, skeptical, loth


to

early a date,
between
the
as

and

recognize

link

solid
sented repre-

pre-Caesarean type

amphitheater,
and of

by
and dian the and

those

at

Pompeii

perhaps
at

at

Sutri,
Clauthe

open-arched Imperial type


Flavian
But
to
an

the

era,

as

shown that

Capua

and

Colosseum.
own

I think

the work

tells its

story
The

expert in architectural history.


of

development

inland

highways,

which

278
to have

ROMAN

CITIES

seems

been

discontinued
up

for idea

while after
a

Augustus
war,
was

had carried

given

the

of

Dacian

forward

again after
under
it Bato
was

the in
6-9

great
a.d.

Dalmatian
had shown

insurrection
how

dangerous
to
come

to

allow

the

native

levies time the Roman

together and
were

prepare

while

hampered in their and of observation rapid movement. powers in the future, this impossible In order to make the rising, crushed himself had Tiberius, who
armies which
the

had

threatened

then Italy itself, road

carried

early Augustan

scheme

to practically

four main completion. In this system there were centering at arteries, military or commercial,

Salona. Via

The
to

west

branch

first utilized the

old
at

Munita

Tragurion
and

and

then

touched

all the the

seaports tillit reached


network
The the

Aquileia and joined


northwest
was

Italian

route

to

Vindobonum. northward
the The Save At

second of Clissa
It
was

road
and

that

directly
over

by

way

Andetrium
Via

mountains.
eastern to

called

Gabiniana.
and the

artery passed Via Aequum


future it sent

join the
Tiluri

Pannonian
out
an

road

system.
into the

Pons

offshoot branch least of

Balkan southward
was

fastnesses, while
to

another The

turned

old

Xarona.
coast

important

the southeast

road

b}^way

Epetion.

iThe

Dalmatian

milestone

indicate inscriptions

280

ROMAN

CITIES

rangement.

Scattered
on a

about

in trenches

or

tirely en-

exposed
soil
we can

level lower multitude


devoid

than
of the of

the

ancient
stone
or

study a
w^ell

heavy

sarcophagi then beauty,


tombs
as

in use,
as
a

decoration

quantity

of

slab-covered
At
at

and
we
can

sepulchral chambers.
find in the
museum

the

same
a

time,
number
of the

Spalato
historyand
in

of
same

carved beautifully age, with


scenes

marble of Bible
to

sarcophagi
those

Christian Lateran In mosaic


screens,

symbolism,
museum

similar

the

in Rome.
numerous

both

basilicas

columns,

capitals
and sixth for of

pavements,

cornices,
the

parapets
fifth and

dating

from

fourth,

centuries, give all the necessary


the artistic

elements

constructing re-

appearance

the

interiors.
The walls
are

destroyed almost
cannot

to

the be

ground
is what

level,so that the architecture


revived

certainly

except
both urban
On
"

in

plan:

but

this

plan

makes The aisles.

buildingsso
basilica has
either side

unusual.
the usual the apse
nave

and the
"

two two

of

are

and sacristies, the prothesis

diaconicon,

which

afterward
the

were

replacedby
up the

the

side-apses.From
of three
nexes an-

left aisle opens of which

group

the center

is formed opens

lar of the circuthe

out baptistery,

of which

consigna-

ROMAN

CITIES

281 of the

torium chrism.

or

chapel
Its from is the

for

the

adrainistration
mosaic fountain of the

symbolic floor
sacred

stags

drinking

with

its inscripti this

uniquely apposite.
hall other On both is the
most

I think

that

confirmation

perfect known.
in

There
and

are

charming mosaics,
the

the
apse

apse

aisles.
up

right side, near


and

the the A

and

opening
are

into the aisle and

citystreet,
rather
narthex
usual un-

the

episcopium
on

hospice.
is
a

feature

the

front

long

in

place
The
apse

of

an

open

atrium. the mosaic


nova

in inscription with the

pavement post
Vetera

of the

expression:
eius

coepit
et

Synferius, Esychius
is populo fecit,
a

nepos

cum

clero

most

interestingbuilding record,
the the basilica in
to

proving
about

the

rebuilding of
by
the

400,

probably owing
for
two
a

creased greatly in-

demand There
are

space

population.
the ancient other the

basilicas

outside

walls;
and At
more

one

at

site called
at
a

Marusinac,

important
the and
center
was

site called

Manastirine.
to

Manastirine

basilica,dedicated
was

SS.

Doimus sacred church

Anastasius,
of in Dalmatian
center

undoubtedly
large
noted

the

Christianity. The
of
a

the

group in

of
or

mortuary
under
and which

chapels
were

of

great

antiquity
Doimus,

buried

the most with

martyrs
the

bishops,beginning

first

282

ROMAN

CITIES

bishop, supposed
There
are

to

be of the three The

here

post-apostoHcage. superposed layers of belonged


noble
to

Christian

tombs.
estate

earhest

the of
to

country
the close

of L.

Ulpius, a
the bodies

convert

of

the

first century, who

arranged
the

bury
other

in his

property

of S. Doimus

and
struction con-

early
of

Christians.

Then

began

mortuary

chapels,cellae memoriae^,
of
a

and

the
when

development

cemetery

for

tians Chrisment, testa-

the property

came,

perhaps by chapels
came

into the Clustered

ownership of

the Christian
the

church.
and
croaching en-

closely around
even
on

their interiors

the be

quent subseto

crowd

of

burials, anxious

to

close

the sacred The


church open

bodies. itself
was

basilica
and

built
and

over
was

small
to

numerous
a

graves; of the of

made

into

few

mortuary
The

while chapels,
most

it caused

the ruin

others.

ally historicin the


matron

interestingis
form of
a

that

of

S. Anastasius, the

small
we

built by basilica,

Asclepia,as martyred
under

read
many

in the acts other

of S. Anastasius,

with

Salonitan
herself

Christians,
was

Diocletian. buried
in
a

Asclepia sarcophagus
now

ably probrelief of
at

with
the

the

the

Good

Shepherd
The

in

museum

Spalato.

cemetery extends
every

dred for several hun-

yards in

direction around

the church.

ROMAN

CITIES

283 be houses

Nearly everything
is distributed
where in
are antiquities

that

cannot

seen

in situ,

the

various
most

in

Spalato,
tered shelof the

uncomfortably
An

but fourth

not

arranged.
calls the

early

text

century
barbarian

cemetery

Lcgis

sanctae

christianae
The

coemeterium.
invasions
of the of fifth century, tions the fortifica-

during which
was

everythingoutside
of this sacred
see
was

devastated, resulted

in the

destruction
The age basilica of tinian Jus-

and whose

desecration ruins
on we

spot.

built in the
site and the

the

devastated

this

explains
the
can

the

apparent disrespectfor
were

primitivetombs.
until
we

Burials

then

continued
about
630
over

here
; so

ture cap-

of the

cityin

that

low fol-

Christian Salona
comes

rites for

five centuries. its Christian


ments, monu-

rightlyby
it is noted second

because

for

its earlv converts, for its

during
Dalmatia

the first and From and

centuries, and

martyrs.

it the when

gospel spread throughout episcopal basilica


was was

the

built in the
of honor
on

fourth
the

century it
summit
a

given
old

place
these
at the

of

the

acropolis.
of

Rome

itself preserves
in the
was

unique record
S. Venanzio

earlyleaders

chapel o2
built
or

Lateran, which
their relics

transformed Salona

to
a

tain con-

brought
after
its

from

by

special

mission

in 640

capture and

desecration.

284

ROMAN

CITIES

Trieste

While
Salona and line of
new

Augustus
he after
was

was

fortifyingand
a establishing

ing enlargfore just be-

also, during the years


B.C.,

30

continuous

colonies

along
Narona,
with

the

coast

from

Ter-

geste (Trieste) to
and

near

INIontenegro,
His

surrounding
had
was

them

fortifications.

troops
and
he

only recently reconquered Dalmatia,


stillenthusiastic
to carry out

Caesar's

scheme
for the

for

making
I

this

region the starting-point


on

concerted

advance

the

valley of
of

the

Danube.
of

shall describe

what these

is left

three
now

the

most

important
the

of

colonies,

represented by
Pola, and
Ancient
of
on

modern

cities of

Trieste,

Zara.

Tergeste is now
Adriatic, seat
It

the modern

busy

port seapire em-

Trieste, main
the

outlet of the Austrian


of the Austrian is
so

Lloyd
to
we

Steamship Company.
that
trace

ern absolutely mod-

it

seems

almost

hopelessto attempt
life.
And

any

of

its Roman

yet what

do find that
so

is ancient
of

is

cause beprecious, peculiarly

much

it dates

from
It

the

time

of

the

foundation

by Augustus.
was

is

possible that
41 b.c.^ when

Tergeste

colonized

as

early as
to

the great distributions

of land the

veterans

after
came a

Philippi took
few years

place; but
What

city walls
was

later.

their date

appears

Trieste,

"Arco

di

Riccardo,"

Gate

of

Roman

Tergeste

(Early

Augustan

age)

Plate

XLV

'"^Ry

'Ns

286

ROMAN

CITIES

walls,
from and the

and the

not

free-standing arch,
state

is evident

unfinished

of

its

exposed end; bring


to

excavations base of

would

doubtless
on a

light
Its

the

citywalls
by

line with

it.

singlearcade
half -columns
of

is framed

pair of
and

Corinthian

supporting a
of the had
a

frieze

attic,both
Had
tainly cer-

which

had
one

plain,uninscribed

surfaces. it would
"

this been

principal gates
I have

have
of

dedicatory inscription a

plicate duall I

the

one

just quoted.
repay of the

For

its

it simplicity,

would
care

excavation. Central
as

recommend

it to the

ological Archaeone peror. em-

Commission
of the

in Vienna
structures

probably
the

earliest known
I

of

first

hardly
or

think

that

they appreciate its


ascribed, that
Trieste
the

early date
Graef,
aware,

historic
never

for, except by imjDortance,


been

it has

am

to the time

of

Augustus.
any
traces

Are

there

also

possiblyin
which
was

of the

Colony
further

Arch

indispensable
a

concomitant
or

of the foundation records


of the of the

of

Roman

city,
built in
to

any

city gates? When city was


it
was

the the

cathedral

converted
when

fifth centurj^ and

added old

in

subsequent centuries, the


lium,
was

site of the the Roman

Capito-

or

main

temple

of
were

Tergeste,
into

used, and its ruins


of other

built into the church.


monuments
came

Parts

ancient

'"J

Plate

XLvi

"%'f
/
T-

^oo
A

/^T
r^,
u

^")v

no

^^t;.y

ROMAN

CITIES

287

use

as

buildingmaterial
and
out

when

the bell tower of the

was

put up,
formed
In

the of
an

main

portal

church

was

monument. antique sepulchral

this

farrago, and
to discover

among

the many

fragments
was

in the

neighboring ]Museo
parts of
and
two

Lapidario, I
both

lighted de-

the main
To

tan AugusI
a

gates
attribute decoration
a

the

Colony
of
a

Arch.
narrow^

the Arch

sections
arms

frieze with relief above


same

of

and It

armor

in low

double the

architrave.

belongs to
in of arches

the

type
in

as

friezes

that

still remain

place
Pola in the
a

the S.

other

early Augustan
To

and
same

Remy
decade.
of

(Southern France), built


the
with
same

arch

may

belong
of

section

cornice

an

early form
and

egg-and-dart,
bit of slabs

dentil and
with
arms

anthemion

decoration, a
some

frieze
with

foliated and
armor

scrollwork,
and

further

frieze
I
am

fragments,
inclined to

built into the


ascribe
monument

campanile, though
latter
to to
some

the

military sepulchral
found
at

similar

that

Gardun

in

the

interior of Dalmatia.
the of other

On

hand,

to

the

gates, which
the arch,

were

always
two

simpler design than


heads,
in very

belonged
of

colossal

bold
a

of projection,

guardian

deities of the

one city,

form

ter Jupia

Ammon,
Medusa-like

witH

rams' with

horns, the
snakes

other

genius

decorating its

288

ROMAN

CITIES

cheeks. the

They
and
on

can

be

compared
in

to

the heads

on

keystones of the Augustan


other

arches

of Rimini,
to
on

Fano,
heads

city gates
memorial

Italy,and
and of

the the
at

the

Augustan gates

at Pola

recentlydiscovered
Asseria,in Dalmatia
later. but

gate

Trajan

which itself, have


never

I shall describe been the


can

These

heads
my

identified,
tenable
seen on

I believe

suggestion is
prototypes
I have

only
be

explanation.
Etruscan
at

Their

gates;
and

already described

those

Perugia
An
monument

Falerii.
also

and interesting in the

unrecognized Augustan
between (restored
50
was

Trieste

and

60

a.d.) is
the

principaltemple, which
cathedral basilica. It with

used
a

for

earliest

had

double

pronaos,

pilaster responds, which

formed which

porticoof this basilica,and primitive dations in the Middle Ages was used for the founof the campanile which projectsbeyond
the
of the

one

end

church

fa9ade.
of this of the

Hidden

within
we can

the lower, hollow

part

campanile
columns

studv

what

still remains
pure

and It
tainly cer-

of pilasters
was

early workmanship. Capitolium


Pola

the

of

the

Augustan

colony.
But
it

IS

in Pola
of

that Roman

we

find the
monuments.

most

tacular specTo
any

group

PlJBLIcllSRARY

ANB ox
LEW

^"TOR,

ATI"S*S
FOUND
'
"

Tj"

J5==

ft*

"""

*"

--lit

"i

"

Pola, Amphitheater:

section

(restored), detail

and

interior

(Durni)
Plate
XLVii

290 line and this

ROMAN

CITIES

composition.
as

It is

as

of representative
baric barlinear

type

that

of

Orange
of

is of the rather devoid of

luxuriant distinctiveness

sculptured type,
; as

that

Aosta

is of the

grand,
and
as

Puritanical, purely architectural


that where of Beneventum of is of line and the

type;
Hellenic of

type,

symmetry
are

richness

ture sculplocal

perfectlyblended.
have

Certainly
arch

no

artist could
one

designed this
Hellenic

of Pola, but

of

the

foremost

artists in Roman

employ.
The

early Augustan
neither
as
a

date

of

this arch

is not

understood;
any facts its of of the critic
are

has

it been but

recognized by
both of these for

colony arch;

certain, and

the first is vouched it


was

by

that which inscriptions, prove funds given by Salvia Postuma the


men

built out

of the

family
of

Sergii,and
of this of the
new

was

surmounted
were

by

statues

family, who

the first

trates magis-

attic

stood

the
as

colony. In the center of the of Sergius Lepidus, who statue


and

is described

aedile

militarytribune
and
on

of the
were

Twenty-ninth Legion,
those
of the

either

side Cn.

brothers

L.

Sergius

and

gius, Ser-

both aediles and


mere

duumvirs

of the
was

city. The
tribune of the

fact

that

Sergius Lepidus
is of

the

Twenty-ninth Legion
date

enough

to prove

Augustan

the

arch, because

this

legion

ROMAN

CITIES

291

was

disbanded and

about
went

30

b.c.^

after of

the

battle

of
gether tono war

Actium, longer
with From
Pola any
29
to

forever other the

out

existence,
were

with

many

legions,which
close of the

needed

after

civil

Marc

Antony.
other the
sources

the
a

date

of the
can

raisingof
fixed
as

rank

of

colony
27
b.c.^

be

at

rate
B.C.,

earlier than because

and
name

probably than
was

its official

Colonia

Pietas

Julia.

It is known

that and

all the after 27

Augustan
B.C.
were

colonies
named under
as

founded

during
while

Augusta,
the
one

the

earlier ones,

founded

Triumvirs Julia. is,

(43-30 B.C.),were
of the

named,

this the

Further, the emphasis given


foundation

to

memorial of

character the

byj

the

addition

prefix pietas, might indicate,


of the the city, earlier

for the foundation this years


was

part of
Pollio
It

period,near just after


be
42

to

Caesar's

death, perhaps the


Asinius

to 39

B.C., when

reconquering

the the

country for Augustus.

may that

in then, i.e.,

disbanding after Philippi,


here the than
veterans

Sergius brought
and became

of

the

twenty-ninth legion,rather
of
new

after the battle


the

Actium,
colonia

chief As for

magistrate of
the
ea^act

deducta.
a

date

of

the arch, it is 27
B.C., when

well-known

fact that had worked

shortlyafter
out
a

Augustus

manent per-

constitution

for the

empire, making him

292 absolute

ROMAN

CITIES

ruler, the

statecraft

of the the

new

regime
dency transcento him

requiredthe recognitionof
of the alone

divine

Emperor,

and

the dedication

of

all

public monuments,
of

especiallysuch
Roman
no

records
as

of the establishment

civic rule dedications


were

these

arches.

After

this time

of

public buildings to private individuals


law: the

permitted by
at

such

arches
at

as

those

of

the Julii

Sergii at Pola,
S.

Gavii

Verona,
at

the

Remy,

and

the

Campani

Aix-les-Bains,

are,

therefore, all earlier


the For

in date.

History
's

and
of

politicsare
of

indispensableilluminators
these
arch
reasons

archaeology.

Graef
of

tion ascripis
a

this Pola

to the age

Trajan

Even simple impossibility.


to

he proved artistically

be

wrong,

for the

exquisitescroll- decoration
as

of

the inside other


arch

is purely Augustan, pilasters feature.

is

every The

that resembles
of its

it most of

in closely the

the

styleboth
the

and pilasters that of

victories in
in Southern

spandrels,is

Cavaillon

France, which

in my
some

tan. opinionis also earlyAugusof the neo-Hellenic the arch


now

Might
of Provence For
some

not

artists of Pola? stand under-

be

for responsible which


we

reason was

cannot

this arch
on

placed not
line, but

outside

the walls,

the

pomerium

inside the main


Porta

city

gate, the triplearched, so-called

Miner-

Si

Pola,

Detail

of

Amphitheater,
for
use

showing Awning

method

of

(Dunn)

Pola,

Detail Arch

of

right

pier

of

Colony

Plate

xLviii

ROMAN

CITIES

293

yia.^ It

cannot

have

been

moved

here

from
of form

side outsome

the walls barbarian

to preserve

it,at the time


was

invasion. of the

It
court

made this

to

the

inner from

face old this

of

gateway.
we

Only
stand underaeologist," "arch-

lithographsand
arrangement,
who

prints can
for the the the

ignorant

undertook

at
was

Pola,

in 1826, and

thought
tore

early restorations Augustan citygate


It
must

medieval the its Porta

it down. of the of

have

been and

Praetoria the

original colony,
the

keystone had
the

bust

protecting
other

goddess of
dubbed

whom city,

the local

archaeologists
several

^linerva.

Fortunately,
remain:
the

primitivecity gates
arched Porta

simple,singlefrom
on

Herculea,
head
and

so-called
greaves

the

youthful, heroic
the Porta the The
more

the

stone; key-

architectural, double-arched
and
a

Gemina;
or

small

gatew^ay leading to
the

Forum,
Porta
a

Capitolium,of
that

Augustan
so

city.

Herculea

is built with it is of

nary extraordi-

diagonal archway
before

quite evident
the

the been the

road, the limits,and


determined
case,

shape
its

city had
was

construction,as
one

for instance, with

of

the gates at

Pompeii.
In
the

interesting congeriesof fragments


explanation would
be that

in-

*Another
the
were

here

at

Pola,

as

was

times some-

case,

there

was

no

pomerium

strip outside

the walls, which

built just inside

the pomerium

ditch.

294

ROMAN

CITIES

side and has


there been
are

around

the

temple
into

of
a

Augustus, whicK
Roman
museum,

transformed
several

sections of friezes that


monuments
at

belonged
like that
armor,
same

to architectural

of

acter. triumphal chararch

One
of the

series hints

another of
arms

with Sergii,

its frieze and


to
oar,

and

its vessel's prow fashion


as

pointing
naval of of has
some

in the

it does
as were

both those

and

tories, militaryvicover

such

Augustus
in of

tony. Aninto
a

Another

section

frieze, divided
each

triglyphs and
group of
arms

metopes,
or

metope
ter. charac-

armor,

Gallic

All of the The

this

accentuates

the

military position
Rome and

founders. city's

temple itself, dedicated


is still a

to

Augustus,
art.

tan splendidspecimen of Augusdouble a temple of the Originallyit was


from
monuments

type familiar
in different
two
a

of Roman

later

date,
The

colonies

of

the
a

world.

stood

side

by

side in

sacred

inclosure, with
perial im-

space

between

them, and
the

representedthe
of

equivalentof worship
viceroy
of
of Dea

Roman and

Capitolium,the
Augustus,
the

Roma,

Jupiter Optimus
how One four the

JNIaximus.
over a

Old
tury cen-

printsshow
ago.

much
of

more

remained

the

fa9ades

is still superbly

intact,with

very

high Corinthian
two

columns

supporting

gable,and

others

at the

ends,

296

ROMAN

CITIES

as

tHe

citygate facing the port, thougH


along
Roman the Dalmatian between
was

not

the

colony arch. Passing southward


we come

coast,
Fiume
called its

to

Zara, about
The

half-way

and

Salona.
At

city here
of

present the medieval unique Byzantine domical church


lader.
and its florid the find the

city,with
S. Donato

Romanesque

cathedral, rather
I
was

powers over-

Roman data
to

remains, but
reconstitute

able

to

enough Augustan

some

part

of

lader. the time of

Long
been traders. its the "imp.
LONiAE

before
a

Augustus

there of

had

here

considerable
gave

settlement
it and

Italian built of

Augustus

city rightsand
gates.
At

walls, with
main

the tow^ers
was

each

gates

the
F.

following inscription:
AVGVSTVS PARENS.
CO-

CAESAR. MVRVM

DIVI.

(et)
of

tvrres

dedit/^
a

Several
very

points
date:

in

this

indicate inscription

early

the

absence the

tribunician parens

and

consular

notations, and
of the

title of One

coloniae, "patron
was inscriptions

city."
from Venice

of these
some was

carried

away

Zara in

centuries

ago; the in

strayed to
famous the Museum
museum

1721,
is
now

bought by
collection
one

Maffei,

and

in his A

of Verona. of S. Donato,

second

is in the

in Zara

itself. and disappeared,

The

gates themselves

have

ROMAN

CITIES

297

only
forced

false arch
to

hopes
called

are

excited
of it is

by

a
a

so-called bubble I

man Roam

Arch

Bassus,
a

prick,for
the
to

medley
of

of

pieces put

together in belonging
built out honor the of

Renaissance,
entrance

the old the

inscription
and in

the

market-place Only tion, inscrip-

of funds her

left bv

jNIelia Anniana,

husband,

Sergius

Bassus. this

upper

part of the arcade, with


Roman
to

is of I
am

work.
be

glad
the

able, quite unexpectedly, to


Arch of the

resurrect

the real

Colony
who in

Augustan
me

City, with by
Prof.
were

help

of information
was

furnished when did It

Smirich,
excavated

present
who the

its
not

ruins

1884, but

realize the

significanceof
the
a

arch.
on

stood,

facing

toward

northeast,

the
near

landward
the ent presof
a

side of the
Church

city,in
of

little square

S. Simone, excavations

close to the ruins


were

temple.
so

The the

not

carried

down nine

far

as

originallevel,which plan
and

is

eight or
far

feet below
to

the present street level,but the

enough
of

show

style of
hidden had

the

arch, part of
the

which

was,

however,

under been

wall

a a

house.
few

After

drawings

made,

and
vation exca-

architectural
was

fragments removed, the


The arch
was

filled in.

the triple, with


two
gaged en-

two

central

piers being

decorated
outer

shafts, while

the two

piershad

but

298

ROMAN

CITIES

shaft single
masonry.
so

in the center The central

of

very

narrow

face

of

piers,with
to make

their two

shafts
between the

closely spaced as
them the

any

sculpture

are impossible,

almost of
was

exactly of Sergii
at

proportions of
The main
is
so

arch arch

the

Pola.

central

surmounted
case

by

gable,as
rich and

commonly
the

the

in other
was are

Augustan
both

arches, and

crowning
the of

cornice

exquisite. All
the
masonry, is

ear-marks
fine

Augustan;

very

local
close of In S. the
were use

]\Ieleda stone,

extremely careful
in the
museum

and

jointed.
Donato

The
of

pieces now
excellent
era were

are

workmanship.
of

Constantinian

the fortifications of Zara those

renovated,
of the
was

as

Salona, with
towers,
and

the

wedge-shaped typical brought


if not before.
it would
a

the arch the fications, forti-

then

into connection In be
a

with

letter to the Nation reopen


extract

suggested that
trench, make
of
done the and

to interesting

the
more

careful

survey, Since

and then

architecture.
the

this

has

been

foundations

again
work

laid bare.
at Zara.
now

This The
museum,

is not

the

only Augustan
of
a

Byzantine
was

church
on

S.

Donato,
of

the

built
and

mass

ruins, probably
Some of them

of the Forum
are

its

Capitolium.

of

Augustan

character,
as

including a

famous

to inscription

Livia

Juno, but there is nothing

ROMAN

CITIES

299

left in situ above that columns


to these

ground.

We

can

ture only conjeca

buildingsbelonged

couple

of

still standing in the to^vn sites

squares.
mains re-

Other
"

probably would
Burnum,

yieldAugustan
Andetrium,
Emona. the

Xarona, Delminium,
has been
no

CorinBut of the

ium,
there

Epitaurum,
on activity

part

Austrian

Government
one

in

uncovering their
were

ruins. ular reg-

Only

in

case,

I of

believe,at Asseria,
any

excavations of these I shall

importance begun,
chapter.
to

and

speak

in the next

Asseria

and

Trajan^s
most

Route

Dacia of the

Perhaps
recent

the

jealously guarded
the Austrian

excavations

by

Government

Commission
at

is that of the ancient


near

cityof Asseria,
part
was

Podgradje,
the

Bencovac,
of Dalmatia. the

in the central The

of

interior

city

founded
some

long
Greek rather

before

Roman

conquest
to

by

colonists, who than, like the


on

preferred
islands and

settle

inland
their where

great majority of
the of

countrymen,

the the and

coast,

they

founded

mother

colony

Issa,

its offshoots and

Epetion
More

Tragurion, Apollonia
south, Epitaurum,
to

Dyrrhachium
others.

in the

and the tified for-

several
native

exposed

attack

by

tribes,Asseria Illyrian
from
the

was

probably
in the

beginning, perhaps

third

300

ROMAN

CITIES

century
most
race

b.c.^

and

its walls

are

now

among of the

the Greek

extensive
in Dalmatia.
centers

remaining
The of

traces
one

city was

of the main in

inland the
as
an

and civilization,

also appears and

annals

of

Roman

conquest

occupation
discoveries

early storm
years ago

center.

Some
on

reports of casual
Central
to

the

site led the


at

mission ArchaeologicalComon

Vienna

decide

excavations.

The

and leading archaeologist

the

architect in

charge
young
to

(Wilberg)
native the party

were

sent

from
Zara

Vienna;
was

from archaeologist
as

attached

assistant,partlybecause
because
to the

of his local

knowledge, partly
would
nearest

the
museum

objects
of

found
the

naturally go
Dalmatian

Zara,

city.
attached

Another
to

Dalmatian
museum

now archaeologist,

the

of and

Trieste, also

took

part.
in

The

photographs
The
was

drawings
appear that
to

are

hoarded
been
was no

Vienna.

results

have

disappointing. I bungled.
any sort
a
"

told
cial offibeen

the work

somewhat

No had

report

"

report

of

pubhshed appeared
time Nation We

until in the

last year,

when

brief

synopsis
York

official Austrian called attention

some quarterly,

after I had
to this

in the Xew
over

long
at

silence
some

of

ten

years.

know

that

period under
the

the

pire Em-

Asseria

passed

from

condition

of

Pola, Temple

of

Augustus,

from

old

print (Cassas)

Pola, Temple
Plate
xLix

of

Augustus:

detail

of

gable (Wlha)

'^'^^''^
^V^
TBI

^''^^

PI3BLICI

302

ROMAN

CITIES

tween

fourteen

and

fifteen feet, and


structure
were

ments all the elefound

of the upper
at the base.

lying

The

or principal

outer

face, looking
attic with
a

toward
double

the

country,

had

double

other

one inscription: that of Trajan.

that

of the dedicator, the


are inscriptions

Both

now

at Zara.

Below
were

the

attics the

projectingcornice
four

and

frieze

supported by
the

free-standing
two

columns

forming
shafts

"order," while
the To the

smaller and
ported suping rest-

engaged

framed

opening
free

its archivolts.
on a

columns

high
On

common

base of the
two

corresponded

wall-

on pilasters

each the

piers which
of the free

they

framed.
the Of

other
are

side
not

arch, facing
but

city,the

columns

engaged.
the usual
colossal
to

sculpture there
work in very

is
and

no

trace two

beyond

decorative heads the


two
a

remarkable

high relief, usually attributed a bull-protoma and keystones one


"

the

other
and
a

head
nascent

of

youthful deitywith
of

rams'

horns

beard; emblems
in many

the

citywhich
city
Trieste.
lieve, be-

find their counterpart

other

Roman with

gates,
The

as

I have

shown

in connection

restoration
at the

places them, erroneously, I


the arch.

springs of
is of

But is the

what
use

architecturally, unique interest,


on

of free-standingcolumns
There
has been

the

main
as

fa9ade.

quite a discussion

to

ROMAN

CITIES

303

when

they
shade

were

introduced

to

replace
form,

the of

gaged en-

shafts, producing greater effects


and the and
new

Hght

relations

of

through
had the

overhanging
so-called
but

attics
of
an

which Drusus

they supported.
in of Rome

The

Arch
are

them,
most

they

addition them in the for

Caracalla;

popular
is, of
and

use

of

the

dent general stu-

course,

arches

of But

Septimus
hitherto

Severus
no

Constantine has been found and may For


a

in Rome.

example
has

earlier than his arch have it been


was

Hadrian,
at

Trajan's successor;
which after

even

Athens,

them,

not

built until

his death. introduced

while
on

thought strength
in of it is

that his
now

Trajan
arch
known
at

them,
in North
was

the

Timgad
that

Africa, but
not
or

this arch

built

Trajan's
Pius.
gaged ena

time, but in that of Hadrian


At Beneventum the arch it
was

Antoninus

of

Trajan
in

still has
114.

shafts, and
year

built
at

But

earlier,in 113, here


"

Asseria, the imperial


a

architect of the

he

cannot

have

been

native, but

one

military or perhaps
"

government
to
a

official architects
a

attached

legion,and
this
cast

pupil
this

of At

Apollodorus,
least, until
down the from its

introduced

innovation.

further

discoveries

arch of

pinnacle it

is the

banner-arch

columns, free-standing
of

the earliest
was

remaining
the

model

this

new

type which

to become

304

ROMAN

CITIES

most

popular
Danube

of

all classes

of

memorial

arches.
over

As the

Apollodorus
and

built
was

the

famous

bridge
with

associated
he may have

Trajan's
the I have

Dacian
Asseria

campaigns,
arch. the At the

designed

same

time
the

I believe

discovered

source

of

Asseria

design,the
in Rome

triumphal arch destroyedoriginal


in honor 107 A.D., of
as a

built

Trajan
the

few

years

before, in about
of Dacia,

memorial

of the

Conquest
Dacian

justbefore
The
yery

buildingof
it has

the Forum

of

Trajan.
show
columns

coins

which

portray this

arch

plainly that
a

free-standing
Its is

supporting
and the

broken
of

architrave. this

designer
have the

inventor

type

likelyto

been, therefore, Apollodorus of Damascus,


famous
as

architect
use

and

engineer of Trajan.

Still,

this

of

coin

slightlyuncertain
gate
may be

picturesmay be considered a of proof, the Asseria form


as

regarded
of the
was,
new

the earliest monumental

embodiment the innovation

design.
of

How

important
shade,
and
an

all

designerswill understand.
light and
more

By giving greater play


overhang
breaks
in
to

the

main

entablature

heavy
ment ele-

its

it continuity,

introduced

and valuable picturesquenessthat was could be extended to other designs. It is only to Syrian of several debts that Rome owes one of architecture.

."""*""'""

Spalato,

Plan

of

Palace

of

Diocletian

as

restored

by

Adam

Plate

.IBRA.RT

AND ox
"I

mdations

ROMAN

CITIES

305

But

this gate is
well

for historical interesting


as

and It

military,as
bears
on

architectural, reasons.
in his second

questionwhether, Dacian principal w^ar, Trajan


the

and

reached

the Danube been


a

by
so

way

of Dalmatia.

This

theory has
have

scorned

bv

several of those

who

made
wars,

long and careful study of Trajan's Dacian Cichorius and by authorities such as wangler,
while and land for his army and We
102
A.D.

FurtBut
to
sea sons rea-

that

hesitated
discuss
can

to

support

it.
as

I cannot

here

the theories
some

routes, I

indicate

of the

supposing
to

that

Trajan actuallycarried
through central
in 101 but matia Dal-

the

Danube

its hinterland. that


not

know^
was

Trajan's first
one

war

and
at

of

conquest,
the

aimed
the

making
a

of

Dacia

and

the land

across

ube, Dan-

client state
a

under

of Rome, of

sort

of

general suzerainty Transvaal, instead of a center


the river. But when after

hostile raids
some

across

Trajan,
had cebalus

time

Dacia and

had
104

submitted,
that De-

convinced and

himself
Dacia
were

in 103
not

honest

in their professions

of peace

and

were on

secretly preparing for


a w^ar

he determined hostility,

of

conquest,
across

and

on

river.

border carrying the Roman He completed, meanwhile, the Danube,

the

the

nent permapre-

bridge across
20

which

even

306

ROMAN

CITIES

viouslyhad
network
and of

been

in

temporary
certain

use,

perfected the
inces provA
war.

militaryroads in
needed
to his route

the Danubian

founded
was

mihtary
for
which

colonies. the first

larger
The

army

than

help
on

as

one

gets from

the reliefs started

the column Rome.

is The

only partial.Trajan
first rendezvous
was

from

at the main

port

on

the upper memorial


of

Adriatic, Ancona,
arch

where

beautiful

still testifies to

Trajan's enlargement
view of

its harbor,

probably in
was

this very
till a

need, though the work


decade
to

not

completed
the bulk army

later. carried the the

As

only a part
Italy
"

of

needed
formed
west

be of

from

the ther fur-

being
north

legions stationed
of arduous. the
war on

and

"

problem
not

taking them
In the

across

the

Adriatic

was
scenes

sculpturedhistoric
we near see

of

umn the col-

the

scene

of embarkation
as

at the

port,
in the
ple tem-

the the

arch whole

which,

at

present, adjoins the


of

quay:

topography
But

the

scene

relief fits into that of Ancona,


on

including the
are

the

heights.
wild

where takes

the
on

troops
vessels

bound?
as

One
as

theory
in

them with

far

the

Bosphorus.
Petersen

I agree

Professor

Bulic

and

with

thinking that Trajan


straight
the
across

carried

the

troops
was

almost
not

to

Salona, which

only

nearest

large

port, but the central starting point for the main

sCd-

Pubblica

Marina.

OST

WEST

NORD

Spalato,

plan

of

modern

town

in

connection

with

Diocletian's

Palace

Plate

I.I

ROMAN

CITIES

307

network with Middle the

of

Dalmatian

roads and

connecting botK
the

garrison camps
Danube,
For which confirmation
to

valley of
to

the

Trajan
of
some

wished
this

reach
it

directly.
would
on

theory,
of

be

natural

look

for

record

pairs re-

the Dalmatian of he
was

roads by Trajan military


We know how handed fore-

in

view

this march. in this the

how particular; Danube


a

he had the the

the
Iron first

great
Gates Dacian
on

road

along
and

through
year before

constructed
war,

in 100, how

he set

Apollodorus
in the

at work

the

great bridge over

the Danube
we see

in 101.

So

it is without and

that surprise,

C. I. L.

in the Dalmatian

Bollettino
from of this the

of Bulic, the inscribed that prove

milestones

region
roads,
one

Trajan's
near

restoration itself at

of them
the

Salona

Trau,

relating to
and

Via

munita

along the
the Dacian

coast.

Trajan's stay
with ways: the

in Dalmatia

its connection in various

campaign

is shown

by buildingsand
at

engineering works
the whole did not in

like

aqueduct
and

Zara, by the monuments


scattered of
men
over

diers of solince, prov-

veterans

includingthose
to

who

belong
but the
to

the corps took

regularly stationed
in this

Dalmatia,

who

part
and

campaign.

Picking up
his way rendezvous

Pannonian the

Moesian

legions on

northeast; and

appointing a

for

308 the
come

ROMAN

CITIES

Germanic from
on

legions and
the west,

the

rest

that

were

to

time

this side of the

Trajan probably spent some the Danube before crossing ;


at Adam-Klissi

though
in the of
war

triumphal monument
rather in the of

Dobrudscha

indicates

the

location

some

big battle
any

days

before

the Dacian

than

event

this time. the


or
more

Whether
northern
more

in

starting from
route

Salona
and

he took

via Burnum

Asseria I valley,

the

ern southventure

route,
to

by
not

the Drin

would
of

not

suggest without
does the

further

study

the

region;

but

memorial

arch-gate at Asseria,
after, suggest that
In any
case,

though Trajan
there favor
route

erected
may

several

years

have

passed this way?


circumstantial
that
as

is cumulative
of the

evidence selected and


some

in

theory

Trajan
the

through
of he

Dalmatia

shortest

est saf-

way that

reaching his
been
and

field of

operations and

had

preparing

for this

by putting

the

highways

ports in repair.
and

Spalato The show lowest

Diocletian
the

point
Roman

on

Dalmatian is
a

coast

to

important
the ancient
a

ruins

Spalato, which
Salona.
was

is also The

landing-placefor
conditions
are

visit to

reversed.
a

Salona

then

great city;Spalato

late

imperialpalace
Now

built three miles away,

beyond

its suburbs.

Plate

Lii

ROMAN

CITIES

809

we

stop

at

hotel in

Spalato and prince of

drive in
if
we can

hack have

to

the ruins of

Salona, fortunate
the

the

guidance of
embodied

Dalmatian is

ologists, archaeAs

Mgr. Bulie, whose


Salona of the

home
and

Spalato.

Augustus
is almost

the

beginnings
and

Empire,

Diocletian Spalato typifies like


a

its

twilight. It
a

night-blooming
unused
to

cereus,

splendid,lurid flower,
but

the

lightof day
One
is

superb

in tone
to

and

outline.

fairly tempted
the first

say

that of

Spalato
late Roman

is

the best remaining embodiment ideals.


In

place it
and
to

is

thoroughly
races

mopolitan, cos-

representing many
both
as

and

turies cen-

heir
out

progenitor,with
and and the

one

hand

stretched

Rome its

other
it

to
bodies em-

the Middle
the

Ages.
of

In

plan
It

system
so

militarism

and

centralization

acteristic charthe in its well


as

Diocletian.

accentuates

Oriental double in its

idea of the

of separation

the

sexes as

parallel apartments, styleillustrates


in the
the

and

in this

Eastward

tendency
was

of

the emperors
to

of the third

century which
of

soon

culminate

founding

Constantinople.
have been in those

The fact built

artists who
more

built

Spalato may

thoroughly Oriental, than


left their

who

Constantinople.
emperors

Earlier Roman

palaces
cared

on

the

Palatine.

Diocletian

little for

310 Rome
in
a

ROMAN

CITIES

and had
land
and
"

never

lived there. in the

Born
zone

at Salona

always
West,
"

debatable
and

between

East

part Roman
seems

tine, part ByzanColossus


of

Diocletian
with
one

like
in each

the
of

Rhodes,

foot

these

opposing
Oriental

spheres. By
and

temperament

thoroughly

therefore

by experience a military despotic;


education
an

precisian; by
in
a

worker indefatigable he became the


most

way

quite un-Oriental,
the

and logical,
emperors.

ultimate
success

centralizer, among
was

the
to

His

partly
absolute

due

the

hypnotism
He chose
never

exercised showed
it of

by
more

fearlessness. when
a

clearlythan
own

he time and his

to

abdicate

his

free

will at

long previously planned, amid

perfectpeace,
of
men

leaving the empire


own

in the
came

hands
to

of

choice.
In

He

then

Spalato.

approaching Spalato
one can

after

rounding
its few of
are

the

island of Bua

hardly feel eliminating


a

mosphere originalat-

without

modern the
cient an-

buildingsthat disfigurethe
site.

left side

The

natural
as

surroundings
a

superb,
and shore the
to

with

Mount

Mossor

background
to

rocky
frame with

foothills

reaching almost
bulk

the

the

enormous

of Diocletian's the

palace,
water's

its southern

fa9ade crowning
the

edge.
This is both

palace and

the

tomb

of

the

Plate

mi

"ROMAN
"

CITIES

311

last

really great
for about

emperor.

As

we

skirt its waterfront


we

six hundred
is
no

feet

gradually
what
w^e

understand
are

that there medieval

parallelto
the

seeing: a

city of nearly twenty


walls

thousand
an

people built largelyinside


and

of
a

planned imperialfortified villa-palace,


camp

like

mihtary
and We

yet

monument

of

luxury
hotel

magnificence.
can

leave

our

baggage

at

modern
a

recently opened, mirabile phian, and


details into
a

dictu, by

Philadel-

avoiding the
native which of

distractions

of medieval

and
monument
sense

costumes,
will

project ourselves
give
the
us

more

resting ar-

imperial despotism than


ruins In of

the the still

scattered Caesars follow architect the

and in the

bald

palaces
w^e

of

Rome.

doing
made

this

can

restoration
more

by
a

the

English
ago,

Adam of

than

century

with

help
the

the modern

plan.
level is
so

As

usual, the ancient


modern
area

low beconsiderably
it is onlv in the

street,
about

that

excavated

the and

mausoleum
can

that be

the

originalproportions
The
sea,
so

effects

judged.
the

land

slopes gradually upward


f a9ade is

from

that the shoreward

considerably
the square,

the

highest. rectangular plan, in place


from
the of

The

is borrowed

typicalpermanent

Roman

312

ROMAN

CITIES

camp,

as

it had

been

borrowed
age

in the
as

fortified
and

cities of the
Turin. scheme main
From of

Augustan
the camp

such

Aosta

is also

copiedthe general
four
"

the

sections

plan, with its division into avenues by two intersecting


flanked defense four
corners

the

decumanus
"

and (east-west)

carcZz^^ (north-south)

each

ending in a gateway The octagonal towers.


by
square
towers towers at the

by
is

jecting propleted com-

and

by
the

smaller
The

between

them

and
we

the

gates.
enter

by which to correspondedreally palace,


Porta

Aurea,

will

the "Porta
on

De-

cumana"

of the camp,

though
a

it is

the north. its

It somewhat

resembles
statues

triumphal arch, with


and busts. At the
same

niches to contain
time it embodies

design in
niches in which
that many
we

dieval strikingpremonitions of methe arcades surrounding these


can see

in

embryo
well

the arcades of of
some so

formed Lombard

the

main and

outside
Tuscan No
as

ornament
as

Byzantine
is said that
were

churches.

other

Roman

ment monu-

of the West

foreshadows

this scheme!

It

the

imperialsculpturesin
the hordes
were

the niches

destroyedby
The

of the fifth century.


water

other

gates

plainer;the

gate

("Porta Aenea"), was the "Porta Argentea"


but the "Porta

necessarily insignificant, the east is destroyed on


on

Ferrea"

the west

is well preserved.

'o
en

""

o o

Q
O

c/:

'eg

"4-1

c/i

Plate

Liv

TTTK

TiTEw

ro^r
.

ROMAN

CITIES

313

Aside

from

these

two

gates there

are

four
the

principal architectural
walls
:

masterpieces inside
and "JS'sculapius,"
room.

the arcaded the

court, the mausoleum


of

of Diocletian, the

temple
the

vestibule The
was

of

throne

northern
up

half of the
to

palace,facing inland,
and file of the

given

the

rank and
to

large
same

imperial household
way
common as

stores, in the
was

this part of

the camp the

assigned to
half of the

the the

soldiery. In
the administrative the staff, the
In
:

southern

camp and for

"praetorium" stood,

headquarters
the

buildings,and
imperial guard
and and

quarters
select
ried car-

other
was

troops.
out

the

palace plan
of the be and

this scheme

the

vestibule end

imperial throne
where
it the the

room

stand

at the

avenue

"prae-

torium"

would

beyond
on

dining and
guests.
the

halls reception for the

flanked
emperor

either side and

by the apartments
reached

his suite and hall


one

Through
long

the

large

central
or

covered the

gallery
sea,

looking "cryptoporticus"over-

which

extended

along

the

entire

southern The
ten east
area

fa9ade.
inclosed with and

by the walls is

trifle under feet

acres,

sides about

measuring
700
are on

570 from

from
to

to

west

feet 70

north

south. the
sea

Though
line and

the walls
50

feet land

high along
side, they

feet

the

314

ROMAN

CITIES

hardly show
the wall
as

their

height.
it the

The

sea

has

now

drawn with-

itself but
below of
a

more originally

than

lapped
it
an

long gallery,giving palace


on

effect

magnified Venetian
A boats could
enter

the in the

Grand

Canal. and

large Watergate

opened

the center lower The

into directly

part
in

of the

palace.
closed,but there is no
culty diffi-

galleryis now
eliminate
the

reconstructingits originalappearance
walls

if

we

that and

fill up

the

more

than
was

intercolumniations fifty
no

arcades.
was

There

monotony.
arcades among

The

design
the

diversified architrave
and

by
and

three
are

which the of

broke

long
The one's

characteristic
the

unclassic old

Oriental which

features

palace.

print
of
so

is here I do

reproduced helps
not

tion. imaginawork

know
on

of

any
a

similar

ancient

architecture

such

large scale
and

and

well

preserved.
other
with f a9ades,

The

their towers

plain

walls, were
and

purely military, except


other decorations
on

for the statuary


Porta

of

the

Aurea,

the main After

entrance

the land the "Porta northern

side. Aurea"
section
a

enteringby
the
street

we

pass
the of
tral cen-

through
central

entire

along
trace

without but
as

seeing hardly
soon scene as
we

Roman
cross

work,

reach

the

street, the

changes abruptly,as

THE
JVP-

"ft

ROMAN

CITIES

315

we

come

to

the

arcaded
were

court.

In both

the

original
columns.

design
On of of the

the arcades
a

open

on

sides,there

being only

low

parapet

between

the

right one

caught
and

glimpse
the

of the

temple
center

"Aesculapius" standing
its little square, the concentric
was
on

isolated in the

left, in another

square, in front volume

mausoleum.
the these

Immediately
throne four
room.

the

facade of
on

could

be written
not

cause works, beare

they are

only

so

well-preservedbut
interest.

so historically pregnant

with

It is true, the court

has

suffered
in

by eclipse
seventh
But

the
or

buildings which, beginning eighthcentury,


remain
text-book
a

the

have

closed noted
use

its arcades.

they

classic and
;

example
columns.

cited in every

the earliest

ing of lines of free-standFor is the first

arcades
time Here the
we

resting on

old

straight architrave
source

discarded.

find the of the

and

type of the arcaded


built basilicas, of which had

interiors
soon

early

Christian
some

after

under

Constantine,
had

architraves
on

while others side of the

these One that from

lines of arcades could the


some
as we

either

nave.

therefore
came

not

unreasonably
Christian
of

conclude

arcade

into

churches

Oriental shall see,

school
the

architecture, because,
the

palace was
JVIinor.

work

of

men

from

Syria

or

Asia

316

ROMAN

CITIES

This of the

appears

very
room.

clearlyin the little facade


The
base of
a

throne

the

gable

in

classic architecture
and
to

is formed
But here the

by

nice straightcor-

entablature.
occupy

the arch

is introduced

nearly
and

entire

space.

This

broken
in
we

gable
it in

space

is characteristic
eastern

of

temples
if

Syria,Cilicia
find in
a

Asia

INIinor,and

few
or

scattered

instances

in the that find


cletian's Dionexed an-

West,
imitate

Spain
remains

Italy it
of
the

is in late works
to interesting

Oriental models.

It is

it in the

palace

built

for
now

colleagueMaximian
to the church

in Milan,

of S. Lorenzo.

Sixteen
their
an

large
chitrave ar-

columns

of

its

fa9ade remain,
in the

long
the

broken

middle

by

arch. of the

The

design is
lato the

almost

identical with
and
was

that

Spaof trave archi-

water-front,
same

perhaps
same we

work

architects. three

This

broken have

appeared
the

times,
it is
a

seen,

in
our

cryptoporticos ; so
thus from

characteristic
not to

of

palace,which change
court

illustrates architrave

only

the

plete com-

arcade

in

the had

but

the earlier transitional


at

stage which
centuries

been 'East.
The of

practisedfor temple

least

two

in the

on

the

right is

the
the

imperialplace chapel in
the

worship, corresponding to

medieval

palace fortress,and

to the

papal chapel

Spalato,Fa9ade

of

Vestibule

of

Throne-room

Spalato,Detail

of

Court

(Wlha)

Si^alato(near), Aqueduct
Plate
Lvi

THk
pfEW
YORF

L^BrIrt
PUBLIC

ROMAN

CITIES

317

at

the Lateran

and

Vatican.
any

It has

perhaps
rough

the

best
so
we

preserved
can

cella of

temple
size and
The

in existence, finish is of

overlook loss and of

its small

and

the

its

portico.
throws of the

basement

quitehigh
scale.
over

rather

the

buildingout
effective

The

decoration the

doorway
so

is almost
as

rich, but
exclude any

proportions are
effect. it

to

"barocco"

The of

tradition

which
seems

makes
to

of

temple
not

Esculapius
than
on

be

baseless

and The

earlier

the the

thirteenth corbels for


a

century. the
a

thunderbolts
to
me

and

eagles seem
temple
his of because

good
This
was

reasons

it calling

Jupiter. Jupiter
was

is

quite
the
was

inference, logical

tian's Dioclein

patron:
same

epithet

"Jovius"

w^ay

as

that

of his

colleague]\Iaximian
death the

"Herculeus."
was

After

Diocletian's

ace pal-

called Jovense.

The
covers

photograph
the cella shows

of
a

the

tunnel-vault

w^hich of rich its main

perfect example
than

coffered

better preserved vaulting,


a

rivals in

few

of the

triumphal arches.
the gem It of
w^as

Finally,we
mausoleum of the emperor there the
can

reach

the
a

palace,the
strange idea house, but
from in
a

of Diocletian.
to be buried
no

in his he

own

be

doubt

that

planned it
rested here

beginning,and

that his

body

porphyry sarcophagus placed,probably, under

318 the center

ROMAN

CITIES

of the dome. remember

casual visitor is hardly-

likelyto
of families

that this is the in existence. and


a

only
The

well

served pre-

imperial tomb Augustus


is
now

leum mauso-

his

successors

and

their the

formless which and

mound.
held the

Of

mausoleum remains

of

Hadrian

imperial

of the second

early part
and buried

of the third

century,

only

the The

mutilated
emperors

transformed
not

shell remains. memorials


even worse.

in family fared

but in We

have special sepulchers pass


to the to

must

times

ately immedi-

following Diocletian

find

single quasithese the


near

imperialtombs
tomb of

in any

of preservation; of but

Helena,
lost

mother

Constantine,

Rome,

has

everything
those of her Romulus

part

of

its bare Conbeen

brickwork, and
stantia
and of

granddaughter
have

Augustulus
Diocletian

transformed.
This

mausoleum
in

of

stands

eminent preture struc-

preserving not
monument

only

its entire

but any Also heir and

all practically

of its decoration. of
any

Hardly
so

ancient
as
a

class is valuable. of

intact. It is the

type

it is

extremely

of

the

early circular
and the

tombs

Asia
the

INIinor

Etruria

progenitorof
internal and

Christian
with in fanthe

baptistery.The structure shaped interdependent


masonry, is

of its dome, arches

perhaps unique,

much

discussed

ROMAN

CITIES

319

by

architects.

The

entire central

design,with
dome and and
a

its

teral perip-

portico, its
order with

its interior

free-standing shafts
be taken
as

figured imperial

frieze, may
tomb. The
on

of typical

late

thorough
for A
so

restoration years

which has had

has been

ried car-

many

tages. its disadvandetails


to
as

large portion
thrown because
away

of
or

the

internal

has
museum

been

transferred

the jured in-

they

were

regarded

too

to be retained

in the structure. of
a

The

ness white-

of any the

the

material

the
way

new

parts prevents

delusion; and, in

the
can

workmanship
be of better

of
seen

capitalsand
museum.

other

details
as
a

in the
not
care

But,
see

matter

fact, we
were

do tended in-

to

them

in this way.

They

for effective of the dome for


at
a

display in

the semi-darkness

considerable

height, and
Close

were

admirable cruel We and

their purpose.

study
at the

is

injustice.
cannot

leave without
of the and

glance

origin
his colleague the
so

history

palace.
a

Diocletian
as

became

emperor

in 284

year

later took he the

Maximian, West,

to

whom

assigned
East,
and

keeping
the

for

himself for

a establishing precedent

partition. Better
established Galerius

to

hold the

empire

in control, he

in 293 and

famous

tetrarchy,by making

320

ROMAN

CITIES

Constantius Roman His


world

Chlorus into

Caesars four

and

dividing the
sections.

administrative

of reorganization his

the basis of

ministra adprovincial

and perfectingof paternalism, central

his

superb organization of
The
supreme Caesars
to

authorityare
men
never

commonplaces. questioned
his
two

other

three

direction.

He

was

trainingthe
Diocletian twentieth

the succession.
to

had

long planned

retire

on

the

anniversaryof
He announced
a

his accession, at the age He

of 58.
it off

his decision.
to

then
to

put
plete com-

for his

year

allow The

JNIaximian solemn

twenty
then

years.

abdication

took It
to

place on
was

May

1, 305. withdrew
was

that Diocletian

to Salona

live in the

palace
the he

which

being
the
name

built in

small thos.

bay
Here

near

under city,

Aspalauntil cluding in-

lived and

"grew cabbages"
for
a

his death
a

in 313, except

few

journeys

long stay
with He
was

at

Sirmium
at

in 306,

perhaps
the

in connection

work
a

the
at

quarriesfor
Sirmium
to power

palace.
when he

had

meeting
to return

in 307
to

begged
believe

quell
in
fore be-

disorders. increasing
We
course

must

that for

the
a

palace had
number
not
as

been

of construction

of years

305,

even

though it was
been

then

completed.
293

Probably

it had

begun

earlyas

when

Spalato,

Interior

of

Mausoleum

(Wlha)

Plate

Lvin

Spalato,

Dome

of

Mausoleum

of

Diocletian

(Wlha)

Plate

Lix

ROMAN

CITIES

321

the two
himself

Caesars
and

were

selected
The

as

successors

for

INIaximian.
That
a

emperor
was

had

other

large palaces.
extensive, like

at Xicomedia

the most
were

superb

camp.

Others

at

Aquileia and
The
to may

in the east.
are

architects
at

unknown.
and

From in

similarity Syria, we

work

Palmyra

elsewhere

of

conjecturethat they belonged to the school Antioch, though the schools of Asia Minor,
as

such
two

Nicomedia,

need been

not

be

excluded.

The

provinceshad
The

for centuries

in the closest

artistic relation.

emperor's by
of the and his

last years,

as

we

know^

^ere

embittered
Constantine

struggles between
Licinius, and,
own
was

Maxentius, last, by the


wife. the After ment governin which official it
was

at

tragic fate
his death into the

mother turned cloth

and

the
a

palace

by

factory for
In

weaving
under

personnel was
Jovetise, It

entirelyfemale,
memory
was

inspection.
called

of

the

emperor

threatened in the fifth

and

damaged
and
was

by
seems no

barbarian
to have

hordes been

century
all it

abandoned.

After

fortress. Meanwhile

Salona,
When

though threatened,
the final disaster of Salona

had
came

not

been

captured.
625

between

and

639

the survivors

fled been

to the islands and

the East, where

they had

^21

322

ROMAN

CITIES

preceded by
foreseen the
it.

most

of of the

the

well-to-do, who

had

One

ing patricians, though, bear-

homely
the

name

of

John,
walls

established of the

self him-

within
soon as

the abandoned
storm

palace as gathered
church the

had of the

passed,
its

and

around
was same soon

him

many

fugitives. A
church of

organized
desolate of the and

and

bishop received

as privileges

the ancient

Salona. the land,


The

But, how
a

impoverishedwas
and confident survivors of

shadow

sleek poor

past!
for
the the

pictureof
the ruins
to

these of the

burrowing typicalof
the

among

church

Salona is

relics
mon com-

put

in their of

new

church

ruin

the ancient

culture.

The

mausoleum
became
room

became

cathedral, the
citizens

temple
found

the

baptistery. The
and

easily

inside the
courts

walls,turning the
streets

ways passage-

and It
was

into before
as

squares.

long
As late and
a

its
tenth

magnificence was
century,
the

faced. de-

the

famous

emperor

writer, Constantine

Porphyrogeneconnoisseur of art, of

tos, himself familiar

great
the the

lover

and

with

gorgeous Orient

monuments

stantinopl Conpassed sur-

and
even

declares
of

*'that it

in its ruin

all powers

description."
of inspiration of

In
the

course

of time, thanks
monument

to the

ancient
of

and

the

pride

being

the seat

religious supremacy,

Spalato became

ROMAN

CITIES

323

power

in the

modest
a

early Middle

Ages.

Its Its of

school

of art ruled

great part

of Dalmatia.

crowning glory is the reallysuperb campanile


the

mausoleum-cathedral,

and

hardly

less extraordinary, the very the

though
carved

less

conspicuous, is
than

richly
rare

pulpit.
are

Earlier the

either and
doors

of their kind artist Andrea

carved dated

by

native
was

Guvina,
the author
carved

in 1214.

He

probably also
openwork
are

of the

extremely
choir

tal Orien-

wooden

stalls,which

unequaled

in the West.

Nothing
tradition

is

more

convincing of
way in which

the the

strengthof
campanile
the choir of the past.
at

than

the

reproduces the antique designs, and


stalls continue
The the Oriental has been influence
or

palace

ignored

sneered

by
of

puristswho
in

show

their narrow-minded the


not

prejudice "bogey"
square is who with

settingup

in this connection the

decadence

because
canons

style does

certain

of of

perfection.
aesthetic

This

easilylaid
admires
;

by

any

person

sense

compositionand
can
as

the

play

of

lightand shade
can

who

see

how

monumental

effects of very

be

produced,
In could

they are
matter
more

here,
of

out

small

materials.

the be and here

pure

construction better

nothing
than
can

originalor

planned

the dome best

colonnade.
not

we Historically

study

only the type

of

funerary chapel and

324

ROMAN

CITIES

the

origin

of

the

basilical decorative
in

interior,

but

also
in flat

that

peculiar
or

style openwork
of

of

sculpture
which
Italian

lief re-

marble

forms

the

basis

Byzantine
the

and

early
work

design,

pecially es-

geometric
Dalmatia,

which
and

prevailed nearly
the
In

throughout
whole of

Istria
under the

Italy palace

even

Lombards.

fact

the

is

one

of

the

indispensable

marks landRoman

of

history
art.

the

latest

produced

by

imperial

Spalato,

Tunnel

Vault

of

Temple

(Wlha)

Plate

Lxi

FOUxsDy.Tie"NS
TILDEN

INDEX

Aar,

valley
171

of
Via

the,

227 wall

Aletrium,
ancient

57;
name

temples
of,
Greek

at,

xvii;

Acquasanta,
near,

Salarian

40;

legend
40

of,
of

40;

of

type,

Aero, Actium, Adam,

King

Caenina, of,
on

109 291

Alexandria, from,
117

architectural

models

battle

253,

Robert,
265;
311

Dalmatian of
in

Algidus,
Allason,
ruins,

Mount, Thomas,
265

8,
on

68

ruins, Rome,

restoration

Dalmatian

Adam-Klissi,
at,
308 at

Trajan's
Verona,
207-208

ment monu-

Alps,
232;

the,

6,

147,

202,

207,

210,

Hannibal the

crossing
210, 242;
of

the,
220;
the

Adige,
Aemilia,

the,
Via,

248

209;
the tribes

Maritime,
222,

Cottian,
226,

Aequi,
7, 8,

mountainous

of,

Graian, 226,
242;

242;
the

the

Pennine,
used

16,

17,

41

passes

by
245,

the, 9, 11, Aequians, 278 Via, Aequum, Aesculapius, temple


315,
317

61

Caesar, 262; of,


313,
the

236;

Julian
249

Tridentine,
at,
in
xv

Alsium, Altinum,

works

Aesis,

river

of,

201

264;

Venetia, of,
76

249

Aix-les-Bains,
arch
292

arches

at,
at,

161

Amaseno,
;

valley
Ponte,
vaulted
15

of

the

Campani
41,
39
n,

253,

Amato, Amelia,

cisterns

at,

184

Alatri, 87,
43,

38,

40, 118;

61,

65, at,

Amemurium, Ameria,
American
109 town

theater

of,
150 at

237

116,
44
;

discoveries

of,

acropolis
Bertilienus

at, 45

ings build-

museums,

Narce,

of

Varus

in, 47,

47; 48; Alba, xvi, 14;


Alba Alba Alban

Roman

aqueduct
at,
48

at,

Amiternum,
near,

Cyclopean
78
n

wall

temples
12, 117;

tombs
a

of,

xiv,

Anagni,
of, 42;
54-59
;

38, at,

43,

44,

54-60;

tures struc-

108; Fucens,

Gabii

colony
68

of,

xviii; original citadel


of

destruction

of,

description religious
revolt aid
sent to 184

ancient,

temples
11

at, xvii

impression
Rome Rome

Longa,
Hills,
80

of,

56;

against
at,

4,

15,

17,

26,

61,

of, 5^7;

56;

by,

67,
Alban

cisterns advance

Mount,
Leon of

5, 8, 12, 16, 38

Anagnia,
against,
Anastasia,
Verona,

of

Pyrrhus
60

Alberti,

Battista,
S. Francesco

struction recon-

57;

walls

of,

by,
built re-

S.,
246

church

of

at

206

Albornoz,

Lombard

citadel

Anastasius,
to, 281;

basilica S'., tomb of Acts

dedicated
bv
282 As-

by,
Alcantara,

164

built

viaduct

of,

14 325

clepia, 282;

of,

326

INDEX

Ancona,
arch

201; cathedral
of

of, 168;

Apollonia, Greek
299

colony of, 267,

Trsyan
Porta,

at, 306

Andetria,
270

272; uncovered,

Appia,
67-68

Via, Terracina,
on

70, 74, 85, 120; at 97, 98; course of,

Andetrium,
Anio

278;

Augustan

mains re-

at, 299

Appian,
neste,
160

capture

of

Prae-

river, 4, 5, 17, 27 of, 158, S., church Ansano, town of, xv, 5 Antemnae,
Anti-Roman

54

confederacy, city of, 9;


69

42
tropolis, me-

Appian Way, see Via Aprusa, small stream Aqua Bollicante, 13

Appia
of,
205

Antium,

became

Aquileia, 245,
278;
of

Latin

274, 253, 262, 264, colony of, 156;

uted attribthe, theater to, 243; Salona during of, 277, 289 age Antoninus, temple of Faustina and, 162

Antonines,

founding of, 208; destruction tian's by Attila, 263, 264; Diocle-

palace
St.

at, 321

Antoninus Antoninus army,

Pius, 55, 99, 303 vian Primus, leading Fla245

44 Thomas, Aquinas, and arches 196-200; Aquino, Janus of, xviii; gate at, gates

197-198;
at, 199

Marc

Antony's

arch

Antony, Antony,

Lucius, 128 Marc, days of, xviii; at Aquinum, 196; arch of at of, 219; Aquino, 199; death civil war w^ith, 291 ; victory
of

Janus 196-200; Aquinum, xv, of, 131, 197-198; gateway Marc Antony at, 196; Colony Arch

of,
96

199

Archaeological
Italy,
Ardea, town Arelate, town Arezzo,
town

Commission

of

Augustus

over,

294

called Anxur, Terracina, 74 shrine of FerAnxur-Terracina, onia


near, 71

of, 68, 69 of, 212 of. 111

Aosta,

209, 212, 225-243, 244, 249, 312; arches and gates of, xviii, 189, 195, the 222-223, 256, 271, 290; Praetoria Alps at, 164; Porta at, 191, 215, 232; Val d', 225,
227;
Arch lines of communication controlled

90,

132,

169,

Argiletum,
173

arches

spanning the,
connected

Argos,

Juno

worship

with, 142 Aricia, city of, 10, 11, 15;


center

ligious re-

at, 92

by,
at, 236

of, 230,
at, 239,

227; Colony de 234; Tour


;

201-209; Ariminum, colony of of Flaminian 202; terminus Way, 202; the Ariminus near,
205

Pailleron

covered

ater the-

239;
form

Baths

262; Durra on, of, 240; rectilinear


ses fortres-

Ariminus, bridge over Aries, town of, 212;


at, 47
n

the,

205

aqueduct

of,

250

Apennines, 11, 16, 147; extending from,


Abruzzi,
155 7

Arpiniim,

town

of, 49, 63 of, 107

8;

the

town Arretium, Volscian Artena,

city of, 51,


98

Apennine tablelands, Apollo, temple of at Thermon,


113;
118

52, 61
Artorius

Primus, 282;

head

of

from

Falerii,

Asclepia, martyred
282

under

cletian, Dio-

sarcophagus of,
170;

Apollodorus, 303 built by, 304,

; famous

bridge

307

Ascoli,

XV,

169,

gates of,

328

INDEX

Bernard,

Great

St.,

pass
233

of,

Byzantine 296, 298,

architecture,
312,
324 101 inscriptions,

198,

226-227 of, ; opening Little St., 233; pass Bernard, of, 226-227 Bernardini tomb, at Praeneste"

Byzantine
Byzantium,
273

100;

emperors

of,

28, 109
Bertilienus

Varus,

regarding, 47;
47

inscription buildings of,

Caenina,
109

town

of, 5; king of,

Bettona,

walls

at, 186
vaulted cisterns

Bevagna,
at, 184

186;

Bieda,
tombs

structures

at,

xviii;

Caere, 4. 7, 41, 107 n, 108; tombs at, xv; of, xiv; works Regulini-Galassi tomb at, 109, 120; a desert. 111; tombs at, 112; Etruscan Greek and art in,
113; from,

of, 118; ancient


tombs tombs

bridge
108

sarcophagus
114

at

Louvre

at, Bisentium, Bizentium, Blanc,

126

at,
225

Caesar,

of, xvi la,


on

Mount,
M. de

Blanchere, Blera,
Boer

ancient

80 agriculture, ancient

xviii, 128, 131, 157, 165, 195, 217-219, 263, 273; colonies hostile 217-219, 253; under, tribes in time of, 218; consul of of, Illyrium, 274; death
291

bridge
9

at,

126

war,

strategy of, cited, 219


of
208 135

Caesara,
276

Porta,

of, Bola, town Bollettino, Dalmatian,


307

270, 272;

Salona, of, inscriptions

in

269
275-

Bulic,

Calamone,
museum

bridge
the

Bologna,

of, VIII,

Camertes,

over the, 151 148 Umbrian,

Bonfigli, Umbrian Boniface, Pope


insult

painter,
19,
247

Camillus,
53-54

capture

of

Veil

by,

20;

to, 56
on

Borghesi,
Borgo,

Verona,

Campagna, Campania,
of, 56; cities of,

story of the, 25 dei, 246, 247, 250, Borsari, Porta


254-256,
257

10, 17, 67 48, 75, 78, 98; border subjugation of, 67;
253

Campanile,
at

Bova,

Porta

di,

Falerii, 142,

Cannae,

battle

145-146

Bovillae,
Brenner British

town

Pass, Museum, at, 114

of, 67 248, 249


fictile

Capena, Capena, Porta, xv Capitoline Temple,


98;
at

the, 101 of, 31 town of, 4


at

Terracina, 115;
at

agus sarcoph-

Rome,
144

114,

Falerii,

Brunelleschi,
Brutus,
56

fa9ade
310

of, 239

Capitolium Temple, at Cora, at Spoleto, 157, 161-162;


Rome, 162,
294

97;
of

Bua, island of, Bulic, Monsignor 269, 270, 276; route, 306; home lato, 309

Francesco,
on

Capitulum,
Capua,
31, Etruscans,
details

town

of,
of

43 to

Trajan's
of
at

defection

bal, Hanni-

Spa-

by conquered 65; architectural 113;


in, 179; theaters

Burgundy,
Burnum,
near,

43, 186 299;

Trajan's
of
Dora

route

at, 117; games ampitheater at, 240; at, 277 303;


age
over

308

Buthier,
tea

meeting

Bal-

Caracalla,
Cardano,

and

the, 230;
231

Augustan

bridge

of, 117 the, 151

bridge across,

Cardo,

the, at' Tergeste, 285

INDEX

329

Carignana, Piazza,

at

Turin,
171

211

Cistercian

monks,

43; monastery

Carmentalis, Porta, xv, Carrara, excavations at, 270, 275 Carsulae, town of, 153 Carthage, Rome's treaty with, 5, 105; Rome's struggle with,
42

of,

146

Casamari, Casconius,
268

monastery
Salona

of, 43

Cisterna, town of, 70 Citadel, the, importance of, 52; openings in, 52-53 Cittadella, Monte della, 102 Civita Castellana, 65, 141, 144 of at Clarus, C. Attius, work
Claudia

captured by,
ruins, 265

Cassas,
Castellani

on

Dalmatian

collection, 28 Castellano, the, 170;


over,

bridge

Assisi, 181 Augusta, Via, 249 Claudian 15 Aqueduct, 261 ; Claudius, 240, Appius, Via Appia built by, 67; tion posiof time Cottius
277

171

under,

222;

Castello, Piazza, at Turin, 211 Castiglione, the, 14 Pollux and Castor, temple of at of statue at 97; Cora,

of,

Clissa, town Clitumnus,


sources

of, 278 the, temples of,


167

at

Perugia, 137;
and
at

temple
159;

of

lux Polstatue

Clivus

Rome,

Argentarius, spanning the, 173


Maxima,
of

archway
126;
126 at

of Pollux at Assisi, 182 ana walls Castrimoenium, at, 59 279 Catacombs, the, Cavillon, arch of in France, 292 Cecco, Ponte di, 171 Cenis, Mount, 220, 221 Cenomanni, the, Trent pied occu-

Cloaca

76,

covery dis-

Cloaca

of

by Dennis, the Marta,

Gra-

viscae, 126 Clusium, town of, 41, 107 n Coliseum, the, xix, 289 ; in Rome,
240

by,
Central
cities cities

249,

250

Collatia, town
date
of
of

of, 5, 67
12

Italy,
of, 59;
59-60

early

masonry at,
112

of,

Cervetri, tombs Cesnola, the, 30

Charlemagne,
Chiusi, tombs

155

at, 112;

the

Pognear

gate, Via Colonnaro, del, 25 Colosseum, the, 277 Colossus of Diocletian Rhodes, 310 to, compared Compani, the, arch of at Aixles-Bains, 253

Colline

gio

Gaiella
152

of,
n;
on

128

Compitum
of Diana
town

Anagninum,
at, 56

shrine

Choisy,

bridge

150 Narni, Cicero, 56, 162;

Comum,
192

days of, xviii,


wars, 6 305

Consolare, Porta, Consolato,


Via

of, 245 at Assisi, 189, del, at


227

16, 118, 157

Cichorius,

on

Dacian

Turin,

211

Ciminian mountain, Circe, rock of, 71; fabled island 74; citadel of, 102; the 103-104

legend of,
of,

Constance, Lake, tomb Constantia,


Constantine
Basilica

of, xix;
in

318

102;

Porphyrogenetos,
of,
xv,

magician,

emperor,

101;
mother

arch

of

Rome,

303;

Circeii, city

of, 6, 17, 74, 80, 89, 100, 101-105; mount of, 71, 73, 74; promontory of, 102; capture of by Romans, 103; colony sent to, 104;

Christian

basilicas

of, 318;
on

era

under, 315; of, 168,


leum, mauso-

298;

Diocletian's

322

Constantinople, 266;

building

330

INDEX

of, 309; monuments of, 323 the Constantius, 275; emperor, Diocletian, position of under
320,
321

Dalmatian-IUyrian war, 244 Damascus, Apollodorus of,


Dante, Danube, 274;
56

304

Cora, 9, 70, 75, 76, 77, 78, 83, mains 86, 127; stronghold of, 8; rearchitectural of, 80; features of, 96-97; temple of Castor and Pollux at, 97; at, 97; Capitolium temple
cisterns

the, 219, 242, 262, 264, 307; valley of, 273,


over,

bridge
Decebalus,
Decumana,

304,
at

305,

307

hostilities

135;
on

of, 305 Aosta, 233


tecture, archi-

Delbriick,

Hellenistic

at,

184

Cori,

temples

at,

xvii,
remains

199;
at,

structures

at, xviii

Porta on 24; 197 Lorenzo, Greek Delminium, colony remains 267; Augustan
299

S.

of,
at,

Corinium,
299

Augustan

Delphi, oracle of,


of, Dennis,
88 115
on

19 ;

sculptures
Cosa,
of

architecture, 199, 200, 239, 276, 285, 286 Coriolanus, capture of Circeii

Corinthian

walls

of

etc.,
and
141

n;

by,

104

Maxima tombs

discovery by, 126;


of
Curius,
tribal of
at

Cloaca

Cities

Corneto, Corso,

sarcophagi
the

at, xvi, 108, 112; in museum in, 114

Cemetries

Etruria

of,

Dentatus,

154; to, Nemi, Norba,


shrine

23 modern, Corso at Garibaldi, Turin, 211 at, xv Cortona, 107 n; works 150 Corviano, Monte, Cosa, 90, 103, 111; gates of, 63, 87, 131-132, 198; Dennis on, 88
n

Diana,
shrine

shrine Lake

92; temple of at of at 92; shrine national Latin 92;


92

56; 68, 91, of,

Compitum,

Dio, 267;

his
on

history

of

civil war,

of Donnus, Cottius, Julius, son title of 221; given "King," 222-223; prefect-king of Cottian Alps, 225; confederated tribes under, 227 Cremona, fortress-colony of, 207-244 of Idean Zeus Crete, cave in, 30 basilica of the, 167, Crocifisso, 168

274 Dalmatia, Baths 246, of, Diocletian, 261; Tomb of, xix, 319-320, XV, xix ;

322-324;

palace

of

at

Spalato,

312-324; martyrs 269, 309, 308and, under, 282; Spalato tetrarchy under, 324; famous 319; meeting of at Sirmium, 320; palaces of, 320-321; and wife mother of, 321

Cromlech, the, 226 walls Cumae, at, 59 sacred Cures, city of, 154 in, 30 Cyprus, discoveries Dacia, Trajan's conquest of, 275, 304-308; Trajan's route
to,
299

Dionigi, Signora, 36 Dionysius, xvii, 61, 104; Roman Antiquities, 112


Dioscuri,

in

of at the, statues at of Perugia, 137; statues Assisi, 182 the, Adam-Klissi Dobrudscha,

in, 308

Dalmatia,

196,
of,

207,
263,

conquest
and,
roads

209, 299; 284; Istria


to, 265;

Dodona, Doimus,

oracle

at,

19

S'., basilica of,


of of

dedicated
282 at at

263-266; route in, 274, 275,


of
route

spread Trajan's

gospel through,

278-279; in, 283;


305

burial to, 281; Donato, S., church

296, 298;
296.
298

museum

lader, Zara,

INDEX

331

Donnus, 219;

King
Caesar's
son

of

Cottian

Alps,
221;
federated con-

Etruscan

art,
113

fusion

of

Greek

Cottius,
Dora

friend, of, 221;


under,

and,
Etruscan

tribes

227

117,
Etruscan Etruscan

153;

cities, 4, 86, 95, 111, principal of, 107 n

Baltea,
242

the, 2-25-226, 230, the,


of
course

league,
museum,

231,
Dora

in

Rome,
tended ex-

221;
Doric

Riparia, junction

of,
224

with

Po,

48, 109, 114 Etruscans, 9,


of

17,
over

architecture, 48, 58, 117, 178, 187, 200; at Norchia, 116; at Perugia, 132; at Todi, 187;
at

dominion

41, 42; of, 6;

periority su-

Rome,

7;
7-9;

struggles
luxurious

with

Aosta,

239

life

Rome, of the,

27-28,
of

157, 247, Drusus, 262; death arch erected to, 157, of, 160; of many Ger161, 303; conquest
entrusted

124; 57;
course

temples of, 48;


two

walls

t}T3es
masonrj^

of,
of

107-108;
in

Rome,

possible
of,
Duce,
109 250

statue

to, 219-223; of, 223; campaigns

112; Capua captured by, 113; houses of, of, 118-128; tombs
119-121

of, 227, 249; residence


Tomba

del,
Aosta,

at

Vetulonia,
241 299

Eucarpius, Julius, pipes, 272 Euganei, Pliny on,

name

on

lead

250

Durm,

on

239,

Euphrates, valley of, 70


Fabii,
the

Dyrrhachium,
Eburnea,
Ecetra,
scians

colony of,
131

memorial

arch

of,

Porta, 52;
battle
51 30

xvi, 162 Volat, 241 Faicchio, cisterns Falerii, 4, 7, 116, 128, 131, 141of, xiv; temples 147; tombs of, 48; at, xvii; decorations waUs at, 59; antiquities of, 109, 117, 137; temple of Juno tecture at, 115, 144; military archidi Porta of, 142;
Bova

between

and,
art,

Eg^-ptian
Emilia,
Emona, at, 299

plains of, 201 262; Augustan


style of

remains

Empulum,
60

masonry

at,

Epetion,
267,
267 299

278;

Greek

city of,

at, 142; 143;


see

surrender

of

to

Rome,
Greek

gates

of, 194, 288

Epidamnus,
Epitaurum,

colony Augustan building

of,
mains re-

Faleri, 141;

Falerii

Faliscans, 299;

the, capital city of,


of
to

surrender

Rome,

at, 299 Eporedia, 242, 247;

of^

143; revolt of, 143 Fano, gates at, 189, 195,


288

201,

208;
assi

situation

of, 226;
tombs
on, xiv

Sal-

sold

at, 228 13, in,


cella

Esquiline, 69;
Etruria,
circuits

27,
xv;

50,

78;

wall

North,

48;

town of, 201 Fanum, Faustina, temple of Antoninus and, 162 shrine huts of, xvi, Faustulus, 121

temple

in, 65;

ties antiqui-

in Central, of, 107; tombs 108, 318; Rome and, 106-146; temples in, 113 Etruscan architecture, 24, 69, 113, 115, 117, 118-128, 161; of, 119 rectangular form

Felice,
102,

S., modern
104

village of,

of, 120 Felsina, town Fetentines, the, 51 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, Ferentino, structures at. 49-54, 131;

332

INDEX

xviii; Porta Sanguinaria at, 43, 49; acropolis of, 49; gate walls below of, 50, 63; Janus

Gard,
Gardun,

Pont

du, viaduct

of,

14

sepulchral
219, 220, 223;
in

monument

at, 287

gate at,
Ferentinum,
scians

196-197

Gaul,
52,
battle

plans

of

49,
51

57;
of

VolVol-

at, 49;
with

Augustus Augustus
Gauls, 219; Insubrian,
in

regard to, 227;


228

in,

scians

Senonian,

Fermo,
246

S., church

of

at Verona,

207;
250 of

147, 201; Boian, 207; 254;

Verona,
arch

Fernique, M., 26, 27 Feronia, shrine of, 71, 73


Ficana,
Ficoroni
town

Gavii,
family

the, 252,

of, 253
36 at

of, cista, 33

Gell, cited,
Gemina, Genevre, 219, Genoa, Genua,
220

Porta,

Pola,

293 across,

city of, 15; capture Romans of, 54 by Flora, the, 127 and Fiume, Zara, 295-299 and the Flaminia, Via, 202; Umbrians, 147-201; Augustan

Fidenae,

Monte,

passage
210

city of,
town

of, 210

bridges
Florence,
118,
Manno

on,
museum

206

at, 114,

117,
S.

121,
town

123;

tempio
140

di

near,

of, 160; 157; to, 157, 161 theaters in, 239 Germany, 145 at Falerii, Porta di, Giovi, 211 Giulis, Via, at Turin,
death arch erected villa of, 13 Gordians, architecture, 43 bmlt against, Goths, bulwarks

in Gerasa, Germanicus,

Syria,

231

Foligno,
Formio,
Foro

of, 188
203

the,

Gothic
268

Boario, the, at Todi, 187 Fortune, temple of at Palestrina, 100 tombs Forum, in, xiv 198 at Rome, Forum Boarium, Fossa Quiritium, xv of, 43 Fossanova, monastery 206 S., Francesco, 184 Frasso, colossal cistern near, Fregellae, city of, 15; Turianus
of,
114

Gracchi,
Graef,
on on

the, 42,

48,
292

125

gate
at town

in

Trieste,

286;

Pola, of. 111 Graviscae, of, 13; oracles Greece, influences


arch

in, 19; Greek

temple

in, 20 69, 113, 116,


built

architecture,

117, 161, 185, 192; cities in style of, 35-37, 113 Greek 33; 113; art,
fusion
center

Fronto,
lius

letters

of

Marcus

Aure-

115;
of of

to,

54 town
on

Praeneste, with, Etruscan


in in

Frosinone,
305

of, 39
Dacian
wars,

Caere,
custom

113

Furtwangler,

Greeks,

41,

300;

of

colonization
town

of, 82
Journal 168

Gabii,

of, 5;

colony of,
at,
15

Gregorovius,
Grisar,

of, 83-84

Juno 14; temple of Gabiniani, Via, 272, 278

Father,
town

Gubbio,
Guerriero,
cletian, Dio109

Gaeta, 103; gulf of, 100 Galerius, positionof under 320,


321

of, 185 Tomba del, at Vulci,

Guvina,

Andrea,
323

carving

of

at

Spalato, Gallienus, restoration-inscription of, 255 of, 246; constructions villa of, 13; tomb Hadrian, scriptions Trebonianus, 129; inGallus, 311 of, 129, 140

of,

INDEX

333

Kalicarnassus,
104

Dionysius of, 82,


31;

Isis

tomb,
town
;

at

Isotta,

Vulci, 109 of, 207

Hannibal,

crossing
of, 202
318

the

Issa, 299
299

Greek Pola

colony of, 267,


in, 217;
and
quest con-

Alps,
Hatria, Helena,
in 24

209

founding
tomb

Istria, 205;
263-266;
Italian

Hellenistic

of, 57, 80; architecture, on, Latium, 24; Delbriick art, introduced
26

of, 263;
route

Dalmatia,
81

Dept. Italicus, Silvicus,


communities
division

of

to, 265 Fine Arts,


56

Hellenistic

into

Italy,

temple of, 97; 114 Rome, Hernican cities, 42, 52, 56, 57, for necro60, 61, 111; search of charm ancient, poli of, 27; of, 93 38-40; religiouscenter Hernican league, 5, 8, 10, 42; cities of, 38 Hernicans, 9, 10, 17, 49, 77;
of
in

Latium, Herculea, Hercules,

6; racial
at

in Central, of, 5; most

Porta,

Pola,

293

magnificent
commerce

temple
between

in,

11;

statue

Southern

ruins on Central, 32; ological Archaeof, 35-37; peninsula Commission of, 96; and

Augustan
destruction

architecture of
most ancient

in, 98;
cities walls

of,
and

129;

artistic

raids

against, 8;

ancient

cities

mans, Roof, 38-40; junction with cult of 42; Anagni, 42; of, 58 tribe of, 38 Hernici, city of, Hispellum, Umbrian 188

gates in, 189; people of Northern, 208; military route in, 262 Ivrea, 225, 242, 249; building of, 226 of, 208; situation Jackson, book Janus, gates
at

of,
of,

265

50;
a,

arch

of

Assisi,

178;
with
197-198

settlements

Hittites,

style

of

architecture

provided
in

178;
statue

gate
moved re-

of, 36 Horace,
Hulsen,

cited, 73 Dr., 173


the Roman
30

Janus

Aquinum, Quadrifrons,
from

Hyginus,
212;
ladean
on

gromatic

writer,

John,
Jove,
Julia

leader
statue

camp-city, 230

Falerii, 144 at Salona, 322 of at Falerii,


viscus,
of at 173 264

145

Jugarius,
Zeus, lader, town of, 296, 297

the

Concordia, Julii, the. Arch


253

city of,
S.

Remy,

Iguvium, 185; temple of Jupiter at, 201 Apenninus frontier of, 295; tribes lUyria,
of,
299
wars

Juno,
at

temple
Norba,
of
at

of, 15; temple of


90-91, 92, 93; Falerii, 115,
at ple tem-

144; 142,
as,

267 Rome, Illyrians, 273; of, Illyrium, province Caesar consul Julius of, 274 theaters Industria, of, 237 the, Insubres, the, region of 244

with

worship
145;
298

of

Falerii,
to

inscription

Li via removed

Juno
from

Juno

Curitis, statue Falerii, 144 Lucina, temple


99;
old

of,

54 of in at

Interamna,
modern Ionic

city of,

153;

the

Jupiter, 97,
Saturn

legend
of of

Terni, 152 architecture, 117, 134, 199,


239

and,
114;

72;
of

statue

Rome,

statue

200,

Perugia, 137;

Is^re, the

Upper,

227

Optimus

Otricoli, 149; Maximus, 294; tem-

334

INDEX

pie
317;

of

at

Diocletian's
of Arch

palace,
317

Lepidus, Aemilius,
by, Lepini, Monti,
Levant,
Norba
85 68

besiege

of

patron
Amnion,
of
at

Diocletian,
287

Jupiter
head

of, 257;
of
at

Trieste,
99,
101

Jupiter Jupiter

Anxur,

temple

Terracina,

Capitolinus, temple of,


110

xvii, 115 Jupiter Feretrius,


Justinian,
historian

the, 100 Licinius, struggles of, 321 extermination Ligurians, 147; of, 208 theater of in Lillebonne, 239 France,

of, 150; age

Liutprand,
248

Lombard

historian,
as

of,

283

Livia,
Kircherian Ficoroni
museum,

inscription to

Juno,

28,
33

34;

298

cista

of,

Livy, 49, 51, 56, 57, 61;


29 indirect

gives
of, 51;

Kircheriano,

plaque of,

version,
Volscian
of

xiv;
Veil,

texts

xvii; Labicana, Via, 13, 17, 57 of, 9 Labici, town the, 73 Lacedemonians, battle Lake of, 12, 13 Regillus, Rodolfo, at Norba, 96 Lanciani, Lanuvians, against, 8 ravages 4, 11, 55, 68 Lanuvium, excavations under, 270 Lanza, Laodicea, aqueduct at, 47 n
on

on

wars,

Lapidary
Larnaca,
Lateran

Museum,
discoveries
museum,

285,
in

287

53; on Artena, 51, 61; on colony sent to Circeii, 104; on colony at Sinuessa, 178-179 Lombardy, plains of, 201, 218 of, 69 Longula, town Porta Lorenzo, S., 197 church of, 316 Lorenzo, S., Louvre, collections of antiquities from at, 34; sarcophagus

capture

destruction

of

in, 30

Caere

Rome,

280,

Lucino,
Luna,
the

at, 114 gates in, 63

283,

317

temples
northernmost

at,

xvii, 137;
Etruscan

Latina,
at

Via,

17,

57;

Aquinum

Latin

junction of, 196 league, 3, 4, 5, 10, 12;


of, 30, 67; of, 92 17, 64, 72, 77; of, 7
center
ligious re-

dissolution

city, 117; founding of, 208 laws of, 73 Lycurgus, severe 47 at, Lyons, aqueduct
Macchie
near

Satricum,
army of

70

Latins,
Latin Latin

federacy con-

Macedonia,
274

Caesar

in,
sub-

strongholds, 8
towns,
for

Madama,
88 n,

5, 68,

131;
27 cuits cir-

Btructures

Palazzo, of,
216

212; 213;

gate

search

necropoli of,
wall Praeneste's
extent

under,
Madonna

Latium,

7, 26, 67, 78; in, in,


XV;

tion posiof, in,


17;

Maffei,
286

Aquila, 24 inscription bought


dell'

by,

16;

style temple
name

of

masonry cella in, 65;

60;
of

Maggiore,
Mamertine

Porta, Prison,

13, 88, 89, 91


xv

origin

of, 72; southern

frontier

Manastirine, Manno, Mantua, Marcellus, 237,


Marcia

basilica

at, 281
140

of, 74
La

Turbie,
219,
223

Augustan city of,


town

trophy
68

at,

S., temple of, town of, 245


theater of

in

Rome,

Laurentum, Lavinium, Leoni, Arco

262

of, 11, 68

dei, 246, 256-257

Aqueduct, xviii Marcomanni, onslaught of,

271

336

INDEX

acropolis of,
date of

94; disputed founding of, 95


of architecture

Persians,
115

temples destroyed by,


122, at, at, 127,
xv;

Norchia,

details

lerugia, 40,
187;
193

128-141,
arch walls of

in, 112, 116, 122; tombs 264; conquest Noricum, Norma, 84;
modern

of,

118

works

of, 227

village of, 83,


of, 83
169

"Sindaco"
town

Nursia,

of,

of, of, 194; gates n, architecture of, 112; gates at, 31; inscriptions at, 129, 140;

Augustus

24;

195;

statue

of

Castor

and

Pollux Tomba tions decora-

Octavian,
Istria and

burning
133;
Dalmatia

of

Perusia
of

at,
di

137,
San

182;
Manno;

famous

by, 128-129, Olympia,


oracle

conquest

gate
288 Porta of

by,

263

at, 204-205,

at, 19
arch

Perusia, of, 231,

107;

Orange,
290

memorial

in, 59; burning 111, 129; tombs

Augusta tus, by Augusat, 112;


128-

town of, 149 Oriculum, of the, 13; influences Orient, 322, 316, architecture of, 315, 323

capture
129

of

by Octavian,
128

Perusian

War,

Peruzzi, Baldassare,
found
in

drawing

of

Ornaments,

tombs,

29;

in

Florence,
town
on

164

oriental, 29 Orvieto, 144; tombs


Ostia,
149

Pesaro, at, 112, 127 at, 241


n;

of, 201

Petersen, Petrara, Pharus,

Trajan's
researches
201

route, 306

4;

warehouses
150

Petit-Radel,

of,

36

Otricoli, 149,

Jupiter of,

Monte, Greek

colony of,

267

Padua,
Paielli, Palatina,

city of,
Porta,

210

Mo'nte,47
at

Philip Augustus, 89 Philip le Bel, King, 56 at, 161; battle Philippi, arches
Turin,
214

Palatine,

on, the, 309; tombs xiv; walls around, xv Palestrina, temples at, xvii, at, 12; ancient 199; tombs cardinal of, 22; 16; of, city

of, 268, 284, 291 Phoenician cities, 126


Phoenicians,
life

27,

41;

luxurious

of, 27, 28; workmanship


tress for-

of, 29, 30, 108; Piacenza, colony of, 207, 244


Piacenza, 207,
244 town cities

fortress

colony

of,
153;

interpretation
37 100 n;

of of

ruins fortune
254

of, at,

temple

Picenum,

seceding
of,
Piedmont,
and

of, 147, of, 170;


218

tal capi-

Palladia, drawings
Pannonia,
Pannonian
town

by,

170

of, 262

plains of,
castle

legion, Trajan
the,
of
xv,

Pietro, Pisa,

the, 308 Pantheon,

S., 63; cathedral


201

of, 17 of, 168

20

Pisaurum, 69,
118

Papa
116;
model

Giulio head of

Musuem,

109,

Pisco

Montana, and

98

Apollo temple at,


art

at, 118; of, 265; at,

Piscus,
Pitti Pizzio

Circe,

74 of

palace, facade
di

the, 239 of,

Parenzo,

medieval
Christian

Sevo,

pass

of, 170

early
279

basilica

Placentia, 207, 244 Pliny, 167; 114;


on

fortress-colony
on

Pavia,

town

of, 242, 244 of,


155

temple

ruins,

Pepin, town Pergammon,

Roman

aqueduct

at, 47

on

Etruscans,

118; houses, 147; on arches.

INDEX
works

337
at,
as

160-161;
Po

on

Verona,

247,

250

xv;
a

structures

river, vahey of, 6, 202, 207, 210, 225, 244, 249; junction
of Dora

xviii; 11; 30; 16,


11 ; and

fortress, 8,
of Latin
of Fortune

Temple
the

at, 10, at,

Riparia with,
Asseria

224

league, 12,
in

Podgradje,
Poggio

at, 299

Gaiella, the, 128 Pola, 177, 284, 288-295; temples at, of, xviii; amphitheater
phitheaters at, 217; amarches of, 240, 277; at, 287, 288, 292, 298 Politorium, town of, 5, 67

Latium, position 17; description of, 18;


of Fortune

shrine

at, 24;

18-21,

34;
of

forums Phoenicians
of

of,
Etruscans

relations

xix;

colony

arch

with, 27; relations with, 27; luxurious life in, 27, 28; levy on by Rome, 31; part of in
Punic
wars,

Pollio, Asinius, 291 ; Salona bv, 268 Pollusca, town of, 69 Pollux, temple of Castor at Cora, 97; statue

tured cap-

31 ;

love

for

art

of, 32; and,


of at art

toilet found

and

other

plements im-

in, 32; Greek

of,

Perugia, 137;
and,
of at

temple
at

of

tor Casstatue

Rome,

Castor
on

and,

159; Assisi, 182

in, 33; cosmopolitanism capture of by Sulla, of, 85; 54, 129; destruction tomb terns Bernardini at, 109; cis41 ;

Polybius,
122

Etruscan

columns, of, 8;

at, 184 Praenestina, 13, 17, 57 Praenestine hills, 16, 38


Praenestine

Pometia,

stronghold
9

temple,

motifs

of

burning of, Pompeii, 124,

the,

188

walls 159, 161; at, 59; roads of, 99; forum of, 173; gates at, 189, 293;

Porta, 135, 213, 215; Praetoria, at Aosta, 191, 234, 236, 239;
at

Pola,

293

peculiar

gate

at, 224; theaters covered theater 277; at, 239 Pompey, days of, xviii; road
over

arrangement of, 237, 276,

Principalis Sinistra,
Turin, Privernum,
of 214

Porta,

at

76, 78, 80;


72

capture
of

Mount

Cenis

used

bv,

by Volscians, Procopius, historian


150

tinian, Jus-

221

Pontine

8, 11, 69, 70, 72, 87, 88, 90, 93, 105; cities of, 67-80, 111; decay of cities cities of of, 75; inhabitants

plain, 7,

Proculis,

Laelius, and
301

Trajan's

gate,
Promis,
tichifd

book
di

of Aosta

1869, 213, Anof, 235, 237


186

of,

78;

customs

of

tants inhabi-

Propertius,
Provence,
292

the
town

elegiac poet,
of,
186,

of, 79

212,

Via, building of, 208; Popillia,


at

Aquileia,
town of

264

Punic

wars,
war,

31, 202
42

Populonia,
Porciano,

of,

by

struction 111; dePyrrhic Sulla, 111 Pvrrhus, concessions

his 42,

struggle
118;
57

with

Monte,
Rome's

56

Porsenna,
to, 7

"Rome, 18, of against

advance

Rome,

Postuma,

Salvia,
290

of
at

Sergii
Aquileia,

family,
Postumia,
264

Via,

Quadi, onslaught of, 271 at head Fiume Bav, Quarnero of, 295 works at, Fiorentino, Quinto
at, 112 tombs on Quirinal,
XV

Praeneste, 57, 61, 103, 104, 108, of, xiv, 11, 30; 156; tombs
92

tombs

the, xiv

338
Ragusa,
Rainaldi,
Ravenna, 203,
2T9

INDEX

medieval
town

art

of, 265
20

drawings by,

of, 100, 147, 201,


Salaria

by, 52, 61; capture denae by, 54; gate Segni by, 66; custom

of built
of

Fiat

onization col-

at, 153; of, 154 Regillus,Lake, battle of, 12, 13 Regulini-Galassi tomb, 28; at Caere, 109, 120 297; Renaissance, the, 154, 84 settled Norma before, Dalmatian ruins, on Revett,

Reate,

Via

tableland

of of, 82; capture Circeii of 103; by, types houses armor of, 109, 110; earliest of, 118-128; bridge ing inscription of, 166-167; comof to Verona, 250; wars between lUyrians and, 267; Salona

captured

by,

268

265

Rhaetia, 233, Rhaeti,


249

245;

conquest of, 227,

founded by, the, Trent 250 249; in Verona, Rhine, the, 227, 242 the, 227 Rhone, di, at Tergeste, Riccardo, Arco
285

mirrored in her colonies, Rome, xiii, xiv, XV, xvi, xvii, xviii, xix, 33, 39, 106-146; Livy's vision of, xiv; earthen part ramfounders of, of, XV; ings buildcabin-urns of, xvi; viii; of, xix, 115, 116, 240; cosmopolitan, 3 ; boundaries,

4; not

in

Latin

league, 5;
and

der un-

Tarquins, 5, 92;
199
n,

the

Ricci, Sig. Camillo,


Richard Coeur tableland de

254

Etruscans,

7, 8,

Lion,

89

capture city
118;

by

Rieti, of, 154 Rimini, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, arches at, xviii, 192; 207; Latin colony of, 156; passing Rubicon associated of with, heads in medallion 202-203; arch at, 204; Flaminian Way of, 288 below, 206; arches Riviera, the, 210, 218, 220, 223 chitecture, arRivoira, publication of on
198

of,

154;

struggle of
levy

10; her Gauls, 9; 18, with, Pyrrhus


9,
the Praeneste
quired re-

of

by,
Praenestines,

31;
31 ;

saved Praeneste

by

tions gives counterpart of condiin, 33; struggle with Carthage of, 42; Etruscan Museum in, 48; struggle of with Janus of

Hernicians,

gates

at,

49, 50-51;

50;
volt re-

Roma,
Roman

Dea,

294

Antiquities, Dionysius
architecture,
160-187

in, 112
Roman

115,

116,

118-128,

Romana, Romans,

Ascoli, 170 structions of, xvii; conhouses of, XV, 98; of, xvi, of, xvi; architecture xvii, 89, 90, 111-112; shrines ligious Reof of, xvii; Calendar Feasts of, 25; rights of citizenshipconferred, 41 Porta,
at

Anagni against, 56; aid sent by Anagni to, 57; wail Servian at, 59; garrison at of Norba, 62; coming of most alto, 68; Antium penates rival the of, 69; colony Setia to sent sion by, 72; expul72; of from, Tarquins
railroad 83;
roads
route to to

forum

Terracina Norba
at

from,

from,

colonists

of

Norba,

83; 90, 92;


with of

of,

99;
105 n;

treaty
relations

Carthage,
to

ancient
museum

Italy, 107;
in,
out out

can Etrus-

109,

junction with aqueducts of,


battle between

Hernicans, 47,
47
n,

42 48

Veii Falerii
Etruscan

wiped wiped
in,

by, by.
in,

114; 111; 111; 112;


mu-

Volscians of

and Artena

masonry

61;

destruction

temples

113,

199;

INDEX

339

seums

gates
manual

of, 119; at, 118; tombs of, 131, 197; sign


of, 136; 142; to, 143;
wars

St.

Petersburg,
266-284,

collections
34

of

antiquities at,
Salona,

of

Veil

with,
Falerii Faliscans brian forum

surrender revolt

of
of

against, 143;
submission
of of

Um148

to,

296, 298, 308cletian 309; gates at, 189, 256; Dioassociated with, 266; road Dalmatian 267; near, lulia 268, 321; of, captures
Martia,

Augustus
Mars

temple
social
war

at, 160 161 at,


ta Porfirst

against, 170; Carmentalis at, 171;


cella north

by by

268; Venetians,

destruction

of

270; 274; 276; 278,

besieged
theater amphitering cen-

Pompeians,
at, at,

roads

temple
idea

of,

176;

306-307; at, at, 279;


279-

179;

of games intrusian

borrowed of

by,
Um-

Episcopal
Christian

church basilicas

186; brians, gates of, 197;


Hatria

pre-

against Augustan of founding


tribes
of

283;

Christian
of

palace

center, 283; Diocletian at, 320; of*

by, 202; 218; around,


colonies

hostile

planting
219-229, in,
to

at, 322 John, leader Samnites, possible league 5;

by, 218-220,
of,
theaters

225-229;
305-

confederacy
town

conquests
306;
Tabularium

Samnium,

of, 42 of, 64
135

237;

the

Sangallo,
San

the

younger,

at, 238;

Coliseum

Gallo,

family of, 200;


138

tress for-

in, 240; 248;


arch of

compared
museum

Verona, in, 280;


San

of,
Manno,

Lateran

Sanguinario,
Perugia,
Santa S.

Ponte,
Tomba

150

Drusus Caesars

palace
Romulus,
huts Romulus 318

of

in, 303; in, 311


shrine

di,
150

near

184

viii, 108, 110;

Croce,
287;
in

Monte,
arch

of,

121

Remy,
253,
of Julii

colony

Augustulus,

tomb

of,

Gaul,

of, 217, 231; arch

225 Rosa, Monte, Rubicon, the, 203; 202 107 Rusellae, walls of, 88 Rutuli, Ardea n;
n

at, 292 Saracinesca, Porta,

passing of,
Dennis
on

Sarmentius,
governor of

Flavius

62^ 63 Rufinus,
275 117

Dalmatia,

of

the,
64,

68

town of, 65, 70, 120; temples Satricum, ing at, xvii, 113, 114, 117; burn-

Sassoferrato,

of,

9;

shrine

of

Mater site

Sabina,
153,

town 154

of,

68,

142,

Matuta

at, 69; 99;


old

unhealthy

of,
Saturn,

80

Sabines, 9, 17, 64, 147; incurtween be(Sions of, 8; boundary Vestini and, 79 n Sacco, valley of the, 7, 16, 38,
72

legend of,

73

travertine Saturnia, 111; at, 60; origin of name 278 Save, the, 26"2, Saxa near Rubra, Rome,

used

of,
199

72

Sacra, the,

Via,
173

archway
completion
gates of,

spanning
of

Scaligers,
246

castle

and

tombs

of,

Saepinum,
of, 194;

walls

197

Scheggia Pass, 201 50, 63, Segni, 39 n,

64;

scription de-

Saguntum,

defense of, 85 Salaria, Via, 153 Salassi, the, 226, 242; subjugation of, 228, 229

of, 60-66; acropolis of, 61, 64; early history of, modern town 61 ; the of, 61Roman 64; temple at, 65;

340

INDEX

Capitoline
buUt

triad

in, 65;
at,
66

gate

Sirmium,
at, 320

Diocletian's

meeting
arch at

by Segovia, viaduct

Romans

of,

14

Sejanus, legend of,


Sena

favorite 73 201

villa

of, 73;

Smirich, lader, Soldini,


158,

Prof.,
297

on

Cav.
168

Giovanni,
22 153

157,

Gallica,

163,

Sentium,
Roman

ancient

city of, 117;


152

Sole, Porta
Somma,

victory at, 148, of the, at Sergii, arch


253, Pola,
ninth

del, of, pass


Mount,

Pola,
of

Soracte,

4, 61, 145

289,

294

Spain,
of
of

220;
266,
of

Augustus
308, at,

in, 228
cletian Diogress Con-

Sergius,

head

colony
the

Spalato,

324;

253;

Twenty-

palace
at, 279;

269;

Legion,
Bassus,
of, 290;
297

253

Christian

ology Archae-

Sergius
honor

inscription in
280;
statue of
at
a

sarcophagi
at,

at,

museum

280;

cophagus sar-

Sergius
Pola,
and

Lepidus,

brothers

of,

290;

Asclepia at, 282; religiouscenter, 322-323; a


of

of

the

Twentj^-ninth Legion,

center

art, 323

290, 291 Serlio, drawing of Porta Venere bv, 191 town Sermoneta, of, 94 Servian walls, 50, 51, 59, 69,
112, 113,
Servius Artena Servius

Sparta,

Lacedemonian's

tion emigragates
and,
walls at,

from, 73 Spello, 40, 90; arches and of, xviii; 191-192; Todi 187-196; pre- Augustan
at, 193
n; Porta

Urbana

146,
52

151

Romanus,

betrayal
xv

of

by,

Tullius,

195; wall of, 238 structures Spoleto, xvi; at, and xviii; Ascoli, 155-171;
received

Setia, 75, 76, 78, 80, 83, 86, 96, 105; shrine of Saturn at, 72; of capture by Volscians, 72 Severo, Porta San, 131 Severus, arch of, Septimus,
303

rights

of

Roman

156; triad citizenship, temple at, 157; Capitoline temple at,


161-162

Spoletum, colony of, 153;


Salaria

Via

at, 153

Strabo,
Pizzio

di, 170 Shrine of the Latins, 19-21, 34; modern of, 22appearance 26; Egyptian art in, 24 Sicily,Motya in, 126 n Siena, gates of, 139 Sigismondo Malatesta, 217

Sevo,

Pompeius,
250
on

on

Verona, ruins,

245,

Stuart,
265

Dalmatian

Suessa

Pometia, Suetonius, on

9, 70
renovation

of

highwavs,
Sulla,
16;
destruction

203

14', 21,

26,
of

86,

169,

195;

Signia, town
as
a

of, 49, 57, 60, 61, 64, 98, 104, 176; works at, xv;

Palestrina

by,

restoration of
of

of,

fortress, 8,
88

10

Norba Praeneste between

trayal 23; beto, 54; ture cap-

Signina, Porta,
Silvestro, S., Assisi, 186

by,
Marius forum

54;

church

of

at

struggle
85, 129,
of

and,
modeled re-

Simone, S., church of, 297 of 83 "Sindaco," Norma, town of, 201 Sinigallia, Roman Sinuessa, colony
178

156; under,
of

97;

tion destruc-

Populonia

by.

111;

destruction at,
111

Volaterra

by,
at.

Susa,

212, 242, 249; arches

INDEX

341

216; site of, 221,- Arch di, 226, 227 222; Val theaters Sutri, see Sutrium;
277

of, of,

Thermon,
113

temple
town

of

Apollo
of,
137

at,

Thessalonica,
Tiber

river, 4, 6, 11, 17, 27, 35,

Sutrium,

Syrian

at, 143 304, architecture,

colony

321 in

147, 149, 248 Tiberius, 73, 99; 130,

bridge
of

pleted comquest con-

by, 205;
Tabularium,
Rome, 204,
on

plan

xvii,
238

24,

151; 245,

intrusted road

to, 219;
278

pleted com-

scheme,
of, 11,
10

Tacitus,
248,
255

Verona,
tomb
n;
a

246,
123

Tibur,
Tiburtme

town

16;

as

fortress,
a

8, 210,

Tarquini,

of tombs
trace

the,

hills, 12
242, 244 of, 70
278

Tarquinii, 107 112; hardly


111;
Tomba

left

at, 108, of,


123 114

Ticinuui,

Tigris, valley
Tiluri, Pons,

del

Triclinlo, 112,

Tarquinius
Tarquinius
sent sent to to art

Priscus,

Timgad,
Tiryns,
Tivoli, Todi,

Trajan's
town

arch

at, 303
78

Superbus,
Segni by, 61; by, 104;
114

colony colony
works

of, 40,

63,

town

of, 16; temples at,


structures cisterns

Circeii

xvii, 11, 97 185;


vaulted

of

under,
xvi, 108,
power

Tarquins,
74, 92,
Home's

xvii, 14, 111,


72

44,
125

65,
n;
pulsion ex-

at, xviii; at, 184; and


Foro
Boario

121,

Spello, 187-196;
at,
187

under,

5;

of,

Tolerus,
name

72;

the

Sacco's
of

cient an-

Tarsatica, colony of, 295 town of, 209 Taurasia, Taurini, the, 209 Telamon, temples at, xvii, 137 Tellene, town of, 5, 67 231 in Asia Minor, Telmessos,

Tommaso, Verona, Toraccio, Torasius,


Tor de

of, 38 S., church


257

at

mausoleum baths

of,
167 13

13

of,

Schiavi,
Palazzo

Temple
all

of

Fortune,

\isited
34

by
211

Torri,
214

delle,
delle,

at

Turin,
viaduct-

18-21, Latium, Teresa, Via S., at Turin,

Torri,

Ponte

Tergeste,

town

of,

284;

gustan Au-

aqueduct
Tragurion,
267, 303, 304; 99;
299

inscription at, 285 Xarni, of, 155; and Terni, town falls of, 154 149-154; Tjrracina, 6, 71, 73, 74, 75, 77,
80, 86, 97-101, 103; Anxur, 74; under Tarquins, railroad Via 83; 74; to,
called

called, 169 278; Greek


arches forum
at

city of,
of, xix, of, xix,
Terracina,
Dacia
at

Trajan,

292; 308;
works

306,

of

conquest

of Pola
of to

by,
time

Appia
location

at, 97-98; of, 98; at,

temple

98;

at, 99; repairs of 99; liking of Tiberius


99

important Capitoline Augusteum Trajan at,


for, Africa, 261;

304-308; 275, of, 277; gate

at

Asseria,

288;

route

of

memorial

301-302;

gate Arch

299; Dacia, Asseria, at to


of
at

Benetect archi-

303; ventum, of, 304 Trau,


modern milestone

famous

Thamugadi,
231

in the

North

city
at, 307

of,

267;

Theodoric,
of,

Goth,
at

ace pal272

Treja
Trent,
the

99

river, 144 town of,

founded

by

Thermae,

the,

Salona,

Rhaeti,

249

342

INDEX

Trerus,

the

Sacco's

ancient

of, 38; valley of, 57 name 249, occupation of, Tridentum,


250

Trier,
215

132;

Porta

Nigra

at,
ony Col-

Trieste, 284-288,
Arch toleum 300

295, 302;
Museum

Vatican, the, 28; sculptures in, 149; chapel at, 317 Veii, city of, 15, 17, 86, 107 n, of, xiv; works at, 143; tombs Roman attack 52; XV; upon, tombs architecture at, 112; of, 114; at, 112; Volcanius
wars

at, 286-287;

Capiof,

of

with

Rome,

142

at, 288;

Trigemina, Porta,
Triumvirs,
291

xv

colonies

under

the,

of, 150, 185, 187 Tullus Hostilius, King, 57 Turianus, of Fragellae, 114 Turin, 189, 209, 229, 233, 249, foundation date of, 312; 17-18; gates at, 195, 256; and Susa, 209-225; the Direzione in, 234; gates at, 271 Turks, the 269 Tusculans, raids against, 8 11, 68; as a fortress, Tusculum, at, 8, 10; style of masonry
town 60

Tronto, Tudor,

the

170

cut of, passage Velinus, for, 154 Velitrae, 8, 9, 61, 68, 75, 76, 82 Venanzio, S'.,chapel of, 283 Venere, Porta, at Assisi, 190, 192; drawing of by Serlio,

river

191

Venetia, plains of, 218 ern, Venice, 273, 289, 296; the mod208; commercial position of, 264 Porta S., at Assisi, Ventura,
192

Veroli, Verona,

of, 38, 41, 39 n and arches 244-263; gates of, xviii, 216, 231, 271; amphitheaters of, 240; alpine at, 246; at, 244; churches pass
town
a colony of strength and

Tuscus,

the

viscus, 173
at, 59

Augustus, 247; picturesqueness

Tyndaris, walls Tyrol, the, 248;


Uffizi
museum,

Southern,

263

drawings

of

river of, 248; Adige near, 248; 248; compared to Rome, founding of, 249-250; Pliny 250; coming of Romans on,

Sangallo at, 135; in Florence, Serlio at, 164; drawings of


192

Colony Arch at, 251254, 256; drawings in library


to, 250; at, 254;
earliest Roman arch of Vespasian in, 254; advent of Gavii arch at, 292; to, 255; of, 296 museum of, 57 Verulae, town in Assisi, 178 Vescovada square,

Ulpius, L.,
282

tombs

on

estate

of,
xv;

Umbria,
monuments

6; wall circuits of, 186-196

in,

plain, 35, 40 Umbrians, 78; possible league


of, 5;
and
147-201

Umbrian

Vespasian,

261;

house

of

er moth-

the

Flaminian

Way,
Urbana,
Vadimonian

of, 167; struggle Vitellius and, 245; advent


in

between

of

Porta,

at

Spello,

195

Verona,

255

Valerius, Valvisciolo,
Cistercian Varro

Arch

lake, 148 of, 257 of, 95;


96

temple of, Vestini, boundary


Vesta,
79
n

xvi Sabines
118

and,

monastery

Vetralla,
Vettona,

tombs
walls

abbey of,
Murena,

near, at, 186

Terentius,
228

against the Salassi, Varrius Flaccus, 25

tombs of, xiv, xvi, Vetulonia, Tomba works at, xv; 108, 112; 120 del Duce at, 109,