Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 584

THE

HISTOEY

THE

KINGS

OE

ROME

PREFATORY

DISSERTATION AND EVIDENCE.

ON

ITS

SOURCES

THOMAS
OF
THE

HENRY
UNIVKRStTY OF

DYER,
ST. ANDREWS.

LL.D.

V-

'

OF

THB^

UNIVERSITY

LONDON BELL AND

DALDY,

YORK
garden.

STREET,

covent'

1868.

LONDON

^
:

R.

CLAY, SON,
AND

TAYLOR,
PRINTERS,

BREAD STREET HILL.

|5*

PllEPAOE.

The

design
have been

of

most

of

the

recent

historians

of

Eome

appears of its

to

to

obliterate

as

much

as

they

could

ancient

history.
hsec
esse

"

Negemus
"
"

omnia

comburamus

annales,
have been the

ficta

dicamus

such

seems

to

maxim

of

almost

every the

critic

and

historian

who

has

handled

this

subject
course

since

days
lead,
in

of

Niebuhr.

The

Germans

have

of

taken

the

this

crusade,

as

in

everything England
; at

else

connected

with

classical

literature,

and,
followed

in

least,
scholars

they
who

have

been

almost

implicitly
to assert

where

the

have

ventured

any

independence
there is

of

thought originality
to

are

few

indeed.

Yet,

after

all,
All

little

in

the

German

scepticism.
history
The
were

the

chief

tions objec-

the

early
before

Roman

urged

by

De

Beaufort,
in his

century
have,
the

Mebuhr.

Germans

following
and

track

with

characteristic

industry
cleaner.

perseverance, And

picked
done
worse

bones

of

the

quarry have

they

have

than

this.

They
to

attempted
out

to

reconstruct,
with

as

M'ell

as

to

destroy,
own,

dress

the

skeleton

figments

of

their

possessing-

generally

not

tithe

of

IV

PitEFACE.

the
are

probabilityand
intended succession
to

consistency of
We

the
are

narrative thus

which

they
with its

supplant.
Koman

threatened

of

histories, each

totally unlike

predecessor.
The
work
now

ofi'ered to the

public
it is to

is written

on

directly
of
to

opposite plan. destroy,as


and
in

The
as

object
it may
at

of be

preserve, of the

instead
ancient
to

much

possible

history ;

this

respect

least it may
nor

lay claim
is

comparative
in endeavouring relic
meanest

novelty.
to

Neither

labour

expense the

spared

rescue

from statue,
of

oblivion
a

smallest

material the

of

antiquity implement
traditions

picture,
use;
we

gem,

or

even

household

yet,
appear

in
to to

what

regards
an

the

of

ancient

times,
it

pursue the

entirely
that
an

opposite
attempt
with

course.-

Hence the
are

appeared
Koman

author the
events

to

rescue

early

annals

from
at

oblivion

which
one,

they
and,

menaced

might
succeed

all in

be
smaU

laudable

if he

should
will

only

some

part

of

his

design, he
for his

esteem Such

himself
an

abundantly

compensed re-

labour.

undertaking necessarily
The naiTative

involved

large
book

amount

of critical

discussion.
more

part
of
to

of

the

is, indeed, little

than

translation

Livy, intended
it.
As
"

only
medium

as

vehicle

for the

remarks
"

appended
Eomische
in the

for

these, Schwegler's
because it

Geschichte

has

been

selected,

embraces have
been

completest against
and the

detail

all the

objections which
because for it Sir

urged

and early history, the

evidently suggested
G. C. Lewis's work

partly supplied

materials

PREFACE.

on

the

"

Credibility
of the

of

the

Early

Eoman

History."
well those

The

observations

last-named

writer,

as

as

of

other

scholars,

have

been

occasionally
offer

examined,

where

they

appeared Schwegler's
that he

to

supplement,
and

or

to

any

divergence
it will be

from,

arguments
has
not

the

author

hopes
of

found

evaded

the

discussion

any

important
the

objections.
of

By early prefixed

way

of

introduction

dissertation

on

sources

Eoman

history,
the book

and

on

its

internal

evidence,

has

been

to

since

without

an

examination

of

these,

any

work

on

the

subject

must

necessarily

be

incomplete.

London,

October

1867.

CONTENTS.

PAC3F.

Prefatory

Dissertation

on

the

Sources

and

Evidences

OF

early

Roman

History

"

cxxxv

SEOTION

I.
"

The

early

Population

of

Italy

1
"

23

II.
"

Foundation

of

Rome

23"56

III.
"

Reign

of

Romulus

57
"

135

IV.
"

The

Interregnum

135
"

147

V.
"

Reign

of

Numa

Pompilius
,

147
"

169

VI.
"

OF
,,

TULLUS

HOSTILIUS

169
"

215

VII."
"

OF

Angus

Marcius

215"230

VIII.
"

OF
"

Tarquinius

Priscus

230"278

IX.
"

OF
"

Servius

Tullius

and

Inquiry

into

the

Regal

Constitution
.......

278
"

384

X."
,,

OF

Tarquinius

Superbus

384
"

440

";iFoii^^*'
A

DISSEETATION
OF
EARLY ROMAN

THE THE

SOURCES CREDIBILITY

HISTORY,
EVIDENCE.

AND

OF

ITS

INTERNAL

of the Hisand credibility authenticity Kings, as handed down to ns by ancient y of the Eoman divides itself into two parts, namely,its thors, naturally
;y

into inquiry

the

"

vernal and its internal evidence.


s sources

The

firstof these

concerns as

from

Avhich the

has been history

such derived,

and other written documents laws, treaties, lals, ; to which works them, public confirming y be added, as collaterally 1 buildings, and statues,
3

other monuments

of the like kind. the of probability of its

second narrative

part

of the

when

inquiryconcerns tested by a critical

examination

well with itself as with ordinary as Lsistency, experience I the general tenor of political history. It is proposedto in both these heads of inquiry "sue, in this Dissertation, order indicated. And of first, the

EXTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

?he

of speech, without gift in besides tradition,

littlevalue iparatively d. Oral


ver

change and are Y safeguards permanent records. Hence the first and in the it importantquestions which present themselves in the time 5ent inquiry at Kome letters known are. Were the kings? and, if they were, is there any reasonable md for supposing that they were employed to record the tical events of that period to these questions ? For answers
h

liable to

would be of writing, the annals of manperpetuating beingshort-lived and evanescent, w^hich the falsification; against

the art of

"

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

we

naturally turn
In

to

ancient
we

authority,and, unless
have
no

this

can

be

successfully impugned,
the

right to reject it.


first Eomans
were

opinion

of

some

writers, the
This
mere

little appears
a

better
to

than very
a

illiterate

barbarians. The

view, however,
fact of

be

unreasonable.
very

building

city
to

implies
mention

considerable art,
it

degree of civilization. implies agriculture and


and many
as we

Not

architectural
and the

trade,

laws,

requisite intelligencefor civil


Eome,
too, in
at

political
other

government.
cities in

comparison
a

with

Italy,was
to

founded
a

late
race.

period, and,
At and that
art

shall

endeavour
had of made

show, by
progress
to

Greek in

time, Greece
influence have had been been before

great

literature

; the must

which, according

the

opinion
we

of

Cicero,
that three
seems

felt in founded
the

Italy. And,
on

when

reflect

Cumae

the of

Italian

coast

perhaps opinion
says

centuries
in
"eo
ex

building
Eomulo
esse

Eome,

this

the

highest
est

degree probable.
in facti
ut

"Atque
minus
esset

hoc,"

Cicero,
dii

magis
hominibus

admirandura, dicuntur,

quod

ceteri, qui
hominum quum
autem

eruditis

saeculis

fuerunt,
facile minus ad his

fingendi proclivis annis,yam


ex

ratio,
Eomuli

imperiti
setatem

credendum sexcentis illo

impellerentur.
inculta Whence of and that Greek
we

inveteratis hominum Cicero literature

litteris atque vita


errore

doctrinis,omnique sublato, fuisse


that
at to

antique

cernimus."^ influence

evidently
had been

considered

the that

felt at Eome
him of

period

cannot

consequently imagine
were

have
art

thought
writing.
But appears

the

first Eomans

ignorant
in the
to

the

of

that from

letters
more

were

known

at

least

time

of

Numa Numa's
he
was

direct

testimony.
which
to
was

Not
so
a

mention that of

reputation

for

learning,
told that

great

thought, though wrongly,


we are

have

been

pupil
his laws

Pythagoras,
to to
^ writing.

expressly
Marcius Numa's

he

committed
caused into

laws

Ancus
out

subsequently
Commentaries

these
an

be

copied
up

from

album,

and

posted

1 2

De
"

Rep.

ii.

10, 18.
sacra

Eique (Marcio)

omnia

exscripta exsignataque

dedit.""

Liv.

i. 20.

ART

OF

WHITING.

XI

in of

public ; ^
made been

fact which also


a

not

only

shows

the

use

of
manner

the

art

writing, but
have
no

reading public.
Hostilius and If from
are

Iir like the these letters

the is said
are

treaty
to

between recited

TuUus

Albans
accounts
were

writing.^ wanting kings.


rest

true,
at
a

further in the

proofs
time

that

known mention

Eonie few

of the which

We

may,

however,
those consist and

later
on

instances,
the

not, like

just cited,
of
were

merely

testimony
survived

of

historians, but

ments docuthen

which
seen

till the Such with brazen

imperial times,
was

by eye-witnesses. by
Servius TuUius
on on a

the

treaty
and it

of

confederation in

made Greek

the

Latins, engraved
where

antique
in the

characters of Diana
^

column,

preserved
was

Temple
could

the

Aventine,
from it
an

inspected by
the Eomans made

Dionysius
not

who

draws been

argument
Also the

that

have

barbarians.
with the and
to

treaty
on an

by

Tarquinius Superbus
stretched which The
same over a

Gabines,

written

ox-hide Sancus
;

shield,
appears mentions

kept
have that the

in been

the

Temple
seen

of

likewise
author with that

by Dionysius.* by Tarquinius
but pillars, adduce the brazen may

treaty
on

made

Superbus
says
not

the he Eome

Latins had
seen

was

engraved
it.^

Lastly, we
in the

treaty
of the toline that

between

and

Carthage,executed

in the of
; who

first year the

republic, and Temple,


where of

preserved
it
was was

serarium

Capiof

copied by Polybius
so

remarks

the

language

it

ancient learned authors

as

to

be

difficult

interpretationeven
All
assume,

by
in

the

most

in such

matters.^ the of of

the

passages

ancient

relatingto
use aware

subject
the
one

either

directlyor

by implication,the
we are

art

of

writing

in the

kingly period ;
or

not

in

which who

it is denied

contested

the
bound

modern

critic, therefore,
his

attempts
"Omnia
ea

to controvert

it,is
ut
a

to establish

opinion

(sacra publica
Ibid.
use some

Numa in

instituta

erant)
"

ex

commentariis

regis pontificem in album


2 3

elata proponere
24. the

publico jubet." by
may,

Liv.

i. 32.

"Tabuliscerave."" Lib.
as

iv. 26.

The in

of

word

nesi, for sine, noted


in

Festus
as

Nesi)
observes
*
'"

appearing
(B.
iv. i. S.

document have
been

this

temple,
to this

(p. 165, Schwegler


25.

18, Anm,),
This

referable
to
"

Lib. Lib.

iv. 58.
48.

treaty is also alluded

treaty. by Horace, Epp. ii. i.


26.

Polyb. iii. 22,

h2

Xii

SOURCES

OF

EOMAN

HISTORY.

by the
do
so,

most

proofs. Schwegler has attempted irrefragable


his Thus

to

but

arguments
he says the

are ^ :
"

based We the

only
are

on

inference
same

and

bability. pro"

led to the
had

result been
manner,

namely,
when

that

history
the

of

regal period
annalist-.-in Roman

not

corded re-

by any
we

contemporary
age of

another It

consider

writing.
down
at

is

not,
the since is But the

indeed, precisely and


Komans became

credibly
to

handed with the the

what letters of

time
:

acquainted
whom pass who of

use

of

Evander

and

Hercules,
course

introduction

them

ascribed,
since the

cannot

for historical earlier knew


not

personages. than

Etruscans,

were

civilized the
art

Eomans,
about the
at

according
of
as we

to tradition

of

writing till
Demaratus,
far its also Tar-

the(30th Olympiad,
father

through
time, has
in

the
as

Bacchiad this

Tarquinius
relates
to

Priscus

; and

tradition, so

least

the

every that the

probability in
the Komans of the

favour,
were

are

warranted with

assuming
the
may

unacquainted
since the

letters before
have
as more now

epoch regarded
but

quinian dynasty.
derived from and the Rome
not

We

ground
be

for this
as

tion, assump-

Eomans,

proved,
CuniiB;
before
at
lating re-

their
Greeks
commerce

alphabet
of with

from

the and

Etruscans,

apparently

the Rome's

Campania,
The

probably
did
not

from

Campania
oldest tradition the Dianium if the time

begin
monument

Tarquinian
mentioned
to

dynasty. by

written is
on

credible of

the the

document

the

foundation

Aventine
first became

in

the time

of Servius with of

Tullius.

But,
in the

Romans of the

acquainted
it cannot
new

writing only
be
art

elder

Tarquin,
use

course

supposed
have

that

any made doubted

extensive

of whole

and

difficult It

could

been be

during the
that, under
purposes,
"

regal period.
last
as

cannot

indeed
used

the such

kings, writing was recording


"

for monumental treaties for and

the

of

public
of

alliances, dedicatory
or us

"c., inscriptions,
record.
that this

^but not

literarypurposes,
materials Besides for

historical
to

The

want

writing

forbids
brazen

suppose
or

could the

have

existed.

tablets
on

columns,
very

only

materials
were

employed

wTiting
of

in

the the

early

times

wooden
1

tablets, pieces
13.

linen,

B.

i. Sort.

ART

OF

WIUTING.

XIU

skins is

of

animals,
that such almost of

and

tablets

made and

of

the

bark

of

trees. materials

It

clear

cumbersome

inconvenient in such the way

would extensive it is called. records been in

place
use

insuperable writing
to
;

obstacles under any

of

any-

and,

circumstances,
so

hardly possible
made last in

conceive what
we

literature, properly doubt,

If, therefore,
were

cannot

annalistic
must

the

praj-Gallic times, they


and meagre, and of of of briefest

have have A and


rials mate-

the

degree jejune
the very

could facts. paper

contained real

only

abridgment
the former
to
use

literature

was

impossible general
the
;

until the

parchment
was

became first

which in the

discovered, according Great,


latter under the

Yarro,

time

of

Alexander
The before earlier

the

his

successors." had
no

first the

argument
time of than

is,that Demaratus;
the the have
art

Etruscans

alphabet
were

and,
the

as

the latter It

Etruscans could
not

civilized have

Eomans,
of

viously pre-

known
must

writing.
introduced

is also
at

insinuated

that

the

art

been

Eome

by

the

Tarquins.
The among Tacitus

authority
the
^ :
"

for

Demaratus is contained Italia Etrusci

having
in the ab

introduced

writing
passage of

Etruscans
''

following
Corinthio
:

At

in ab

Demarato,
forma

Aborigines Arcade
Latinis,
Now the quae
we

Evandro Grsecorum." the vjhole say, other

didicerunt

et

litteris

veterrimis
must ;
we

take

of
at

this
our

passage

as

containing
one-half

tradition

cannot

pleasure, that
The

of it is

tradition, and
that
we

the

half

not.

fore, tradition, therein


not

was,

the

aborigines, under
include Etruscans Demaratus
to

whom,
did

the

view

of

Tacitus,

must

the
:

Eomans,

obtain

their beside

alphabet
the
or

from

the

consequently,
introduced

it is

quite
into them

purpose
not. ;

whether

letters

Etruria into

According
and,
was

tradition, Evander
Evander
or was a

brought
real
personage

Latium still he

whether the the

or

not,

hero,

symbol,
amounts out

of
to

very this
:

high antiquity.
that letters before had the

Consequently
been known arrival

tradition time
at
^

in Latium

of

mind,
The

and

long

of Demaratus

Tarquinii.
Ann. iii. 14.

assertion, therefore,

XIV

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

that than

the

civilization
of the

of

the

Etruscans

is of
as

an

earlier
are

period

that

Konians,

is, so

far

letters

concerned,

unfounded. entirely
The

anecdote

about

Demaratus
of

sidewind
we

insinuation
see

nothing but a sort Schwegler's; since he believes,


the And

is

of
as

shall
came

further from

on,

that

Tarquins
he
"

were

Latin

family,
it

and when from

not

Etruria. that the but the the

admits

the
not

of futility their

he the

observes

Eomans
from

derived Greeks."

alphabet

Etruscans,

the in in

This, indeed,

cannot

be he

denied; speaks
in of

passage

Dionysius
ancient is sufficient
course

already cited,
characters
to

where

treaty
of in
at

Greek

preserved
And,
Romulus
we we

the

Temple
to son,

Diana,
the

prove work

it. that

as

we

hope
the
go
to

show
or

of

this

was

most

the

grandson,
It naturalized the the Romans

of

Greek,
as

need have

not

Cumse

for the

alphabet.
been That

had, indeed,
in Latium

already said, probably


the from
at

long

before

time Cumae

of Eomulus. in the with


to

got
is
a

their
mere

alphabet proof, and


Dr.

time

of

Tarquins

conjecture,

variance

tradition, utterly
prop
a

destitute

of

invented

merely
who
has

theory.
attention to ancient immemorial from the both

Mommsen,
and

devoted
at
an

great

alphabets
introduction

writing,places
into he

period

their of

Italy.
observes carry

Reasoning
^ :
"

adoption
as

abbreviations,
Etruiia
art to

We the
more

must,

regards
of the

and

Latium,
to
an

back which

commencement

of the

writing

epoch
of year of the the

closelyapproximates
dog-star period
to

first incidence

Egyptian
B.C.

within with

historical
which The the

times,

the

1322 the
art

than

the

year

77G,
in

chronology
of

Olympiads
of

began
in Rome

Greece.

high antiquity by
to
numerous

writing
of

is evinced He then

otherwise

and

plain
the

indications." the

proceeds
which
cattle
we

instance have

the

treaties,"c.

regal period, to
of

already alluded,
mode of

primitive marking

the {scriptura\

addressing the Senate


at

(Patres
the very
that
can

"c. cmiscripti),
On earliest
^

the

whole, the
is

use

of

writing
on

Rome,

from

period,
of

established
B.

the

best

evidence
Dickson's

History

Rome,

i. eli, 14, vol. i. p. 224,

Trans.

ART

OF

WRITING.

XV

reasonably
The materials he
"

be

expected
drawn absurd.
are

in

matter

of from

sucli
the the

high antiquity.
want

argument
is

by Schwegler
Even all that could be

of

writing
which

allowing
tablets

that

articles for the in be


a

enumerates

employed
mentioned could then
; not

purpose passage for

and

he cited
on,

omits from
as

the

waxen

before

Livy^
Libri

"

if linen still, Lintei for

prepared early Romans

writing
had
a

the

show,
paper

the
to

very

good
such

substitute
as

mention of be

other

substances,
skins of

wooden Nor
can

tablets,
any
use

the

bark

trees, the
as

animals, "c.

argument

drawn,
the the

is

sometimes law hand

done,^ against
the Prsetor

the

of

letters,from
a

ancient

bidding
wall The

Maximus

drive
on

nail Ides

into

righttember. Sepopen

of the

Capitoline Temple
of after the the mark from M. the Pontifex close
to

the Maximus

of every
were

annals

not

to

public inspection
nail
was a

of each show

year

; and

therefore of
sive succes-

the

convenient may infer

the
account

lapse
that he

years. nail the


was

We

Livy's

the

first

driven

by

the

Consul after

Horatius,

when of the

dedicated But

temple
was

in the
a

year

expulsion
as a

kings.
as

in fact it else. is And

superstitiousobservance
it
was

much

anything writing
the

that from
use

not

adopted
that For in

as

substitute

for

evident the

the of

fact

it existed the among

contemporaneously
B.C.

with

writing.
of created
was

year the

331,

on

discovery
Cn. and the the

of

system
was

poisoning /rom

Roman
to

matrons,
a

Quinctilius

Dictator the

in order annals memoria

drive the
ex

nail

precedent
of

taken

in

time

of

secessions

the

plebs.("Itaque quondam figendi


the the the time. of nail

annalibus ab

in repetita, fixum viii.


"

secessionibus clavi

plebis clavum
causa

dictatore
"

dictatorem The

creari

placuit." Liv.
in it

18.)
to

driving
annals of

was,

therefore, recorded
as was

writing
to

in the these

And

necessary
have up
"

refer

annals,
of

precedent sought
and would the carry fourth of

must
us

been
a

beyond
century.
however,
B.C.

the

memory Now what

man,

about

is
on

called the

secession Ovid
"

which,
in

rests

only

authority
before been the

occurred in

367, only thirty-sixyears


could Above,
not
p.

the

period

question,
to

and
^

therefore
2

have
ggg

period
ch. xvi.

alluded

by

xi.

Liddell's

Eomc,

; cf.

Livy,

viii. 3.

xvi

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

Livy
but

who, indeed, recognises no

secession
near

on

this

occasion,
The

says

only

that

the in

matter

came

to ;

one.^
even

third

secession

happened
must

the
an

year

B.C.

449

and,

allowing
is

that it is to this,and
then there have
B.C.

not

earlier one, annals


more

that

Livy
in B.C.
a

referring,
which

been

extant

331

reached
the

back
of
not

to

449,

or

than

half

century before
from
to

capture
We
do that

the
mean

city by the
to
were

Gauls.

impugn
rare

Livy's
that

inference
But

this
assert

custom,
that

letters
rare

at

period.^
to

they
did

were

implies
their And
not meant
we

that

they existed,
be
to

and

shows

that the

Livy
view,
that

not

consider nail.
were

existence
are
"

disproved by
admit if

driving

of the

ready
for works
use.

Schwegler's by
of

that

letters

used the

literarypurposes,"
of

expression is
aud

professed authors,
in the record We
to

written

circulated

for

public
have
not
are we

But,

absence

there literary history, those


"

might
would
are

still be

historical

for which it to that be

rarae

literse that
on on

"

sufficed.

wish prove

remembered ancient
of Rome works
;

we

attempting
a

the

the the

subject
contrary,

full

and

complete
as

history

regard
that
we
we

them aim
at

extremely

deficient

and

fragmentary.
are no

All

establishing
genuine,
and

is, that
that

the greater part of what

do for

possess the

is

there

good by
some

grounds
modern asserts
;
we
no

sweeping
and
"

charges
:

brought against
for

it

critics that
can

historians
names

as,

instance,
are

when

Niebuhr

the tell how

of

the the

kings
Roman

perfectly fictitious kings reigned,


or

man

how

long

as

do
says,

not
even

know of

many latter
us

there

were;"^
the
* fantasy."

when

Dr. "the

Arnold

the

part
a

of

regal period,
We records of

general picture
that, without
to

before aid
names

is

mere

believe

the

of oral and of the

tradition,
order of

there

were

enough kings, and

certifythe
the

succession
events

the

general

truth

leading
that

of

their

reigns.
of the

Before

quittingthis part
says little
or

subject,we
about

may the

observe

Sir G. C. Lewis
^

nothing
venit,"

art of

writingat

"Prope
"

secessionem
rarse

plebis res
tempora
41
.

"

Lib.

vi. 42.
Ibid.

2 '

Quia

per

ea

literaj erant.""
*

Lectures, vol.

i. p.

Hist,

of

Rome,

vol. i. p.

49.

XVlll

SOURCES

OF

KOMAN

HISTORY.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus of Tarquinius Priscus, son


Tat?

cites them
in the
Kara

for the

death
:

of Aruns,
"

following
tov

passage

eV

^ap

iviavauiifi TvWlov

avwypa(j"ah
apxi'i

rearaapaKoarbv
public annals,
them annals and drew: in of the

eviavTOV

T^9

TereXevTrjKora
means

^ where TrapeiXijcpafiev" or

by

dvaypa"j)al Dionysius
since the he from

State

: registers

distinguishes
Gellius,
and

following
writers
to

passage
as
as

or 'Xpovor^pa(f"Lai,

such

Licinius the

Macer,

others,
writers

points
aXX

them
eovKev

source

whence
rai";

such

6 fp

'jrp(OT0"i iv

irdvTe^

tovto %poi/o7/oa0tat9 r)Ko\ov6r)aav ol XolttoI, roaovrov

Kara')(^copL(ra";,
/jlovov

iv

rat?

a/)%atat9

evpcov
Tcov

dvaypacpat!;,
vTTarcbv

on

irpea^eL^;dTrecrrdXTjaav
k.

iirl

TovTcov

ek
a

^iKeXlaVy^
from

t.

\.

Pliny, in
ales the
were

his

Natural
Macrobius of

History,^quotes
alludes
these the
to

passage

the

Ann
to

Maximi. Pontifices called the


most
as

the

privilege conceded
and says that But and Maximus.*

keeping
after

annals,
Pontifex
as

they
one

Maximi

of

important
the form in

passages in

to

their
were

nature,

especially
and accessible Servius

to to
^

which
later

they
times,
is

preserved following
:

readers
"

the

from

"

Ita

autem

annales

conficiebantur

tabulam qua,

dealbatam

quot-

annis

Pontifex
et

Maximus aliorum

habuit,

in

consulum prsescriptis
memoratu notare

nominibus
consueverat

magistratuum, digna
commentaries

domi

terra militiseque,

marique gesta
in

per Ixxx
a

singulos
libros

dies.
veteres

annuos Cujus diligentise

retulerunt,
Annales the
names

eosque

Pontificibus

Maximis,
Prom

quibus
we

fiebant,
learn

Maximos of
to

appellarunt."
the the

which

that
were

consuls,
events
name

or

other each of

annual year; and

trates, magissequently, con-

prefixed
in the been

of

regal period, the prefixed.


that Events

the

reigning king
under
as

would

have
on

were

recorded

the
we

days
have
of then

which

they happened
the

; and

it further Maximus

appears,

before
events

remarked,

Pontifex

kept
these in

books

the
on

("annuos
album
an

commentaries")
And in later times

besides of

inscribing
Annul

the

for

public perusal.
was

Commentarii
1

edition
2

published
^

eighty
11.

Lib. Sat.

iv. 30. iii. c.

Lii,. yiii. 1.

j^i^,

xxxiv. i. 373.

2, sub

fin.

vEn.

ANNALES

MAXIMI.

XIX

volumes
time and of

; at what

time
And

we

know this

not, but
edition the

evidently before
obsolete

the

Cicero,

in

language

spelling were

probably
if
to

modernized. whether these annals have


were

Schwegler, however, genuine,


of
were

contests^
were,

or,

even

they
an

whether He

they
says thus

could
"

been annals

much
at
a a

service later

historian.

These

period copied, and


of

multiplied, forming
Had in the have these form of records
a nected conan

at

last made

collection with due

eighty

books. and

been

completeness,

historical excellent meagre external and of be the


sun

narrative, they
for later historians

would
; but

constituted
were a

source

they

exceedingly dry
record of of digies pro-

and

concise and

nothing,
natural

in

short, but
and

events

circumstances,

especially
such
as

extraordinary
and
moon,

appearances

eclipses
may the
were

"c. famines, pestilences,

it ]!^ay, of

questioned

whether and whether

politicalactions changes
the consist remarkable
was was

or

resolutions
constitution
or even

popular
contents

assemblies and
not

in

the

fully noted,
did which and of

prominent
of in for

exclusive other like of

wholly
it annals
a

prodigies, or
a

events,

appeared
whether these That

religious point
reason

view;

not

this

that the could

the

keeping
Maximus. but few

intrusted of such
a

to

Pontifex afford

chronicle later

kind

materials
not

to

historians
to

is evident form be from

at

first
a

sight ; Livy
in

it could

have
we

been need made


no

possible
not
use,

it

connected that

history ;
and
use,

and

therefore
or, at

surprised
no

Dionysius
of these and derived

all events, many

immediate
accounts

annals;

though
those

mediately

Livy,
been
"

especially
from the

regarding prodigies,
annals

may

have

pontificalannals. began
would from the

Kevertheless, Eome,

if these would

foundation
historians afforded of the
a a

of

they

have and

formed

for also

later have least


an

desirable certain

point d.'appui, security that


tradition
are

the

general
well

outlines But such

at

mitive priis it

historical.
as as

assumption
makes
not

incorrect.

Internal that tlTe

external

evidence do

probable

general pontifical annals


1

reach

Bucli

i. vSect.

XX

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

higher than

the

Gallic

still conflagration,
; because

less to

the

regal
nology chroso

period.
of of

Internal
the

evidence

it is
is
so

precisely the
and
a mere

regal period
and and think External that
a

which
so

confused
on

full
bination com-

contradictions,
of

rests

evidently
system
on

numbers,

subtle

of
a

combination,
series it
on

that

it is

impossible to
made.

it founded evidence the


were were

of

records
be the the of

annually
annals Gallic
the of

since
tablets

cannot

reasonably doubted
the

wooden

which in

Pontifices

inscribed, perished

conflagration. They
Maximus,
of the utensils
or

kept Eegia,
not

in and

the in

dwelling
the since

Pontifex

the

hasty
even

evacuation
the

city were
of the

assuredly

saved,
could be

sacred

Temple

of Vesta

preserved probability
author

These assumptions from only by burying them. in Cicero. raised to certainty by a passage are says the

That

(De Eep.
first

i.

16),
in

that the

from

the

eclipse of the
Maximi,
to

year

350,

recorded

Annales backwards

the
of

preceding
Ides it been
was corded. reflagration con-

eclipses were
to

calculated
Eomulus

that

the if

of

Quinctilis, when
necessary

disappeared. they
as

But,
not

compute
seems

them,
all

could

have the

It

at

events
was

if, after
to

Gallic' the

(365), an
so

attempt
as

made of could

restore

annals

far

backwards
but value such of back of
means

the

memory annals

the
not

living generation
of what
course

served;
had
were

restored authentic is

have

the

documents. When with

To

period they
affirms foundation that of that the far

carried

uncertain. annals
more, at

Cicero the

the

making
this
custom

these
no

began though

Eome,
the

improbably enough,
not

originated
which the he other that the back

that

early period, and


was a

that
so

annals back. times

with On
assumes

himself

acquainted
of it must the
at

reached later all

hand,

writer
;

imperial
events

they
to

did

and

be

accepted
restored
remains "It of the

that
went

copies

of

the

Annales But

Maximi
a

then of

in circulation these which

that

period.

fragment only
have
one

annals, preserved by Gellius, and


to us,

the

betrays
the do

tolerably recent
alone the find in

origin.
who made any
use

is almost annals
; we

antiquaries
not

historians

certain

ANNALES

MAXIMI.

XXI

traces

of tlieir direct and

use. as we

This have
so :

is

particularlythe
before
as we

case

with of the last

Livy
who
cases

Dionysius,
them he in his

said.

Even
was

antiquaries,Verrius
had when the

Flaccus,
hands

far for

know,
who

the

Gellius,
the his

in

ail other works of the

cites

'Annals' took

means

historical
out

of

annalists, evidently Maximi,


Flaccus. mention
'

not

citation

Annales Verrius does when he

from

these also the


are

annals has
no

themselves,
from

but

from
nor

Pliny
them Annales withou.t
are
'

quotation
his
sources.

them,
In

in

list of cited
"

general,
are

merely
these

citations the

which

quently fre"

referred it is not of the To have

ground
but

to

Annales the

Maximi

that

meant,

always

historical

works

annalists."

expect
been
"

that made is to of

the in

annals the

of form

the of

Pontifex
a

Maximus

should historical

"connected have
nor can

narrative

expect
the

that

they
for

should
it ;

been
we

regular
conceive in that their

history instead
a

materials historians

better

source

for later When if

than

these

records
to

annalistic contained natural his


own

form.

Schwegler proceeds
not

say

they
of from

almost,
appearances

quite, exclusively only prodigies,he


For
asserts

records

and

this passage

only

conjectures.
says that
or

Servius,

in

already
note

quoted,^
either This in

they
war

contained
set

everything ivortliy of
under the proper
as

peace has

down

days.
Servius but
"

passage that

been
was

captiously interpreted
an on

if

asserted

there those
"

entry
which

under

every

day;
in

he
"

only
it may eyes. form

means

days
was

something
says
saw

noteworthy
a

dignum

memoratu

done.

But,
Servius
at

Schwegler
them with in
never

note,
own

be To
;

asked which it is

whether
we

his

answer,

all

events

their
saw

public
them,
And if

while he did

certain
to

that
so

Schwegler
much he about
must

though
Servius

pretends
not
see

know

them. have had

them them

himself,
than
we

better the shows

information fact that that

about

moderns for the besides

possess. death of Aruns

And

Dionysius
recorded
to

cites them other


events
we

they

prodigies.
referred, as
well
as

This

passage,

which
^

have
above,
p.

before
xriii.

See

XXU

SOURCES

OP

ROMAN

HISTORY.

one

in

Livy,
the

wliich

we

proceed
those says
: :
"

to

quote, suffices
made
no

to

refute

Schwegler's assertion
use

that

historians
His

immediate
cum

of

annals. renovatum

Livy

consulibus
monumento

Ardea-

tibus
eos

fcedus illo
anno

est

idque
in

est, consules

fuisse, qui

neque

annalibus
^

priscis,neque
cannot

in libris

magistratuum
the annals because first, he
as a

inveniuntur."
of

Livy
and distinction because

be

here

referring to
historians annals
to
:

Fabius, Piso,
way of

the

other
he he

early

by
of

calls the
is them

which them

cites work

iJrisci ; secondly,
another
more names

ing appealwith indeed ceeds pro-

high authority, coupling


official

the

Libri

Magistratuum,
them

record,
work.

and

naming
to

first, as
how

the the

important
of the

Livy

explain
:

consuls been

might

have

been
at

omitted

military tribunes, he thinks, had


of the year
; and
so

appointed magistrates
date the

the
not

beginning
been
at

the
?

consuls, being suffect%


Because
were,

had

mentioned.
the

Why
of been

the in been But

appointed
of

beginning
sets have

of the

year

fact, the named,

it;

and

if two would this


;

magistrates
show that

had

chronology
on

in confusion. he

Livy's
to

vations obsersome

point further
for, in
a

is

alluding
motive consules

record official alluded could


We in which from the
not
see

literary history,a
the
names

like

that

to

for have

suppressing
existed.
this

of

the

suffecti

by
the want

example
fixed

that,
records

from
were

the

imperfect

manner

early Eoman
of
a

kept, and
an

especially
who led of

chronological era,
documents alone

historian

trusted into L.

to

these

official in

might
the

easily be
consulate

error.

Thus,

the

present
L. for the

instance,

Papirius Mugillanus
been Ardea. still unknown In
worse,

and

Sempronius
the

Atratinus of the
must
no

would

have with been

except
the
as

renewal
matters

treaty
have
to
sum

time

of

kings,
have from

there
of their

would

been another In

mark

one distinguish

year them with


a

reigns
is of
was

; their
a

at

the

end
even a

of

is all that

given.

such the

state of

of
a

things,
nail
as

knowledge
well

writing,
a

driving
not to

chronologicalmark
We may suppose
1

contrivance there
were

be

despised.

that
iv. 7.

other

points

Lib.

ANN

ALES

MAXIMI

XXlll

in

which

these wonder

annals

were

imperfect
of

and

we

need

not

therefore

that,

in

spite
which writers

them,

great

variation

and

uncertainty prevailed
The few
to

in the
on

early Eoman
the
are no

history.
Annales Maximi of their
are existence. non-

occasions

appealed
quote
in
cases

by
It
was

ancient
not ;

proof
ancient

the

custom

of them

historians
now

to

their

sources

they

refer

to

only

and

then

of doubt that

and and

fore, difficulty. Schwegler's assertion, there-

Livy they

Dionysius
not.
^

made

no

immediate

use

of
to

them,
say

is

groundless, because
did in
so a or

it is

impossible for" anybody


neither
; which

whether

Schwegler
ever
"

asserts

note

that

Livy
may under

nor

Dionysius
be
true

mentions that But which then

the

Annales
are

Maximi
not

rally lite-

is,they
we can

found

quoted
from

that from other

precise
those
source.

name.

have have

already produced
been
to

passages
no

authors

derived adduce

Schwegler
xxxiii. any this
one

proceeds
annales the in
are

several

passages

from

ii. 54, Livy (viz.

iii. 23, iv. 20, iv. 23, iv.


are

34,
and be

vii. 21, viii. 18, denies


meant.

8), in
of the but

which

mentioned,
can

that

in

them
case

pontificalannals
the
two

That
we

is

greater part
of
can

of

these
we

passages take
to

admit,
be

there

them have

in

which been

it

to

impossible
One
"

that of

Livy
these

alluding
and

the their
ea

literaryannals
successors.
re

Fabius of

Pictor,
is the

Cincius

Alimentus,
"

following:
Cossus
was

"Qui
a

si in

sit
"

error

(viz
tam

that

Cornelius annales

Tribunus

mili-

tum)
quos

quod
linteos

veteres

quodque
demum consulem Now
to

magistratuum
Macer Licinius
cum

libri,
citat

in

aede

repositos Monetse
nono

identidem

auctores, A. Cornelium
omnibus

post

anno

T.

Quinctio

Penno,
communis before with in of

Cossum est"

habeant,
here,
as

existimatio in
a case

(iv.20).
alluded

adduced,
the

the

annales

being again coupled


before them

Magistratuum
of and
"tam

Libri, being again placed


and

the

order

precedence,

therefore,

we

may

presume, the very that and

importance,
annals of

being
or
1

further is

characterised

by
to

strong epithet
the

veteres," it
Cincius
S.

impossible
can

imagine
meant,

Fabius

have

been

8, Anm.

4.

XXIV

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

we

are

consequently
must

driven

to

one

of two

conclusions

either
or

that at

Livy

be that the

here

referringto
must

the Annales
been the

Maximi,
annals

all events
to

there
time of

have and

other other

long

antecedent

Fabius,

reputed first
take
to

literaryannalists. The following instance


still
more

ffrom

Lib.

xxviii.

8)

we

be

decisive. the

The

story
that L.

is this.

C. Valerius

Flaccus
on

having obtained
ancient Senate. But law the
was

office of Flamen
to

Dialis, insisted
of

an

right attached
not to

priesthood

entering the
that

Prcetor,
be

Licinius, ejected him, affirming

that the
become

determined

by examples
of vetustate usage the Now and

had

obsolete

through
them voluit
"
"

the
non

high antiquity
exoletis

the

annals

which

contained
stare
no

annalium
custom ;

exemplis
and memory occurred Fabius flourished that

jus
Flamen

"
"

but had

by

recent

Dialis
or

enjoyed
Fulvius

right
this in

in

the

of

their

fathers

grandfathers.
of

dispute
B.C.

in the and

consulship
the this

Q.

Flaccus

209.

Cincius,
about been have

first

literary Eoman
Licinius their
a

annalists, only
could those
not

time.

therefore since

possibly have
he

alluding to
been
at

annals,

which back
an

cites must
his
to

least

century older, going


it
on

beyond

grandfather.
quote
not
a some

Besides,

would
a

have

been

absurdity
must

literaryhistory
authentic been events

point
to

of

tional constitu-

law,

and

state-document.
either the

Licinius Annales

therefore
or as we

have all

alluding
to

Maximi, which,
source

at

the
on,

Commentarii
were

Pontificum,

shall show

further

another

documentary
by
of C. strict

of Eoman is
true

history.
that
to

It

this carry
us

example
up
to
a

cannot

be

made,

demonstration,
but it reaches

beyond
within refutation

the

Gallic

conflagration ;
years

demonstrably
all

eighty
of

it,and
Lewis's
no

is therefore, at

events,
was no

Sir

G.

opinion

that

there

recoi^ded, and
time of

consequently
But, by
"

authentic, history
^

before

the

Fabius.^
Niebuhr to
:
"

any
no

On

this to

subjectwe
that
"

may

quote the following from


was

We

have

reason

deny

history

written
6. And
no

at
:

Rome
"

previous
before

the

banishment

of

the

kings."
says p. 21.

Led.

vol, i. p.
Romans

The

sceijtlcismis contemptible
the time
of

which
Ibid.

that

the

had

history

Fabius."

"

XXvi
of
a

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

contemporary
the

document
later.

to annals

which

were

compiled
in allude

couple Among

of centuries

instances

which
to show omits

Schwegler
that he
which that it is

adduces
not

the
to

same

note^ from
Annales
from else

Dionysius
he

does
we

the

Maximi,
Lib.
can

have

already
that thing anyfrom

quoted
Lib.

iy. 30, where


be
meant.

hardly possible following

In

the

passage

i. 73

iic iraXamv rather

Xoycov
as we

iv

SeXToL"; aoD^o/Jbivajv, i"pal"i


shall
see

Dionysius
Commentarii
passage
TTLvaiio^
"

meant,

farther Maximi.

on,

the The

Pontificum i. 74
"

than

the irapa

Annales
Tot^;

in Lib. is

eVt
; but

rov

'A7%tcre{;o-t fcei/nevov
Niebuhr,
determine.
we

corrupt
we

whether,
not
"

with
to
as

should

read

apxtepevat

will
:

pretend
that

Schwegler
makes

proceeds
it
not

Internal

well

as

external annals of

dence evithe

probable
reach

the
the

genuine

pontiffs
still less

do

beyond

Gallic The and from

conflagration,and
internal evidence in
on

into

the the

regal period." alleged


confusion

is the

derived

from

contradiction
its

chronology
combination The need

of the

regal period, and


and
a

resting
of further here.

mere

of numbers,
we

subtle
to

system
examine

computation.
on,

chronology
not

shall
enter

have into subtle

and
bination -com-

therefore of numbers

the

subject
of the in the the from

The

and
to

system
found

computation
fanciful ancient annals

arise,
of

as

we

also

hope

show,
are

only
that the

views

German But

critics, and

not

authors.
of the he

though Schwegler
not

asserts

genuine
Cicero the

pontiffsdo
soon

reach

beyond
a

Gallic from

conflagration, yet (De Rep.


sun was

afterwards
that

quotes
author

passage that
an

i.

16),

in which down years

says

eclipse of
A.U.C.

noted

in the before

Annales the and

Maximi of

in the

350 the

; that

is,thirteen
And
as as an

capture
other the

city by
use

Gauls.
passage

Schwegler
argument
must

German existence it to and be


not
no

critics of be

this

against
course

still earlier

annals,

they
their is

of

consider

genuine
But

otherwise if this

reasoning genuine,
earlier the annals date

is unfounded there
can

absurd.
reason

entry
of much

why
:

entries

should had

also the

be

genuine

for, if

this have

part

of

escaped

the fire,

whole

might

been

ANN

ALES

MAXIMI.

XXVll

saved.
some

Moreover,
sort must

we

have
been

already
extant

sliown^
B.C.

that

annals

have GalJic

in

449,

or are

fifty-nine quoted by
the

years
as

before

the
a

conflagration;
for 331. this the

since

they
of
a

furnishing

precedent
in
B.C.

driving
evidence

nail

dictator

Quinctilius

Schwegler, however, ignores


of
or a

for the his

existence

annals rather
we

before should

the

conflagration,founding
say, his
"

argument,
side
on

conjecture, on
It cannot tablets be
on

the

other

mistranslation

of "that

Livy.
the
were

reasonably doubted,"
which in the of the Annals
flagration. con-

he of

observes,
the

wooden written

Pontifices

perished
the and

Gallic the

They
Maximus,
of the
"

were

kept

in

dwelling
in the
;

Pontifex

that

is, in the

Eegia,
not

hasty
even

evacuation the sacred

city were
of the them."

assuredly Temple
and the of

saved

since be

utensils

Yesta

could

preserved only by
been

burying
This

view,
most,
and I

wrong of

absurd

as

it

is,has

adopted by
as

all,

or

leading
Niebuhr in
"

German remarks Cicero subsisted


not
: ^

critics ;
"

Niebuhr,

Becker,
"

others.

Now

grant

Antonius had

says from from

that the

this

custom

"

(viz.of making
the
meant

annals)
:

beginning
that the of Eoman reached

of

Roman
to

state assert

but

it does the
not

follow in

this

Cicero

that did Those other


state

annals

possession
till may
so

historians,
thus which Annales of the

who

begin

to

write times

late,
have

far back.

of the

earlier

perished ;
of the destruction may
were

Livy

and

writers, without
as

mention specific
at

Maximi,

having happened
:

the fate

city by
them

the
at

Gauls that

and
as

certainly this
the tables it is still less be in in the

have
not

befallen

time,

perhaps
existence;

yet

transferred

into such have did

books,
books been

and should

likely that

any

transcripts of they
chief
to

besides the

may

not

preserved
reside, and
the duumvirs consider such
a

Capitol,where
he had
no

pontiff
his
I

not

where

occasion

keep
"

archives
we

like
now

of the it
as

Sibylline books.
that those
were

think

may
met

certain that

annals

really
new

with

fate,

and

they

replaced by
1

ones."
2

Above,

p.

xvi.

jii^^t. of

Rome,

vol.

i. p. 212

(Eng. Trans.).

XXVlll

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

Let

US

advert

for

a
a

moment

to

this

curious

specimen
as
"

of
"

argumentation, where
is it deduced is from
a*

conclusion of the

considered loosest may


to

certain Thus

series

conjectures.
have
have

said and

that other

the

earlier

annals
this

perished
; that
were

; that

Livy

writers

state

happened, perhaps

but this
not

'unthout

mention specijlc have

of

the
as

Annales the tables

Maximi

fate may

befallen
into them

them,

yet transferred

books,
w^ere

and

it is still less
;

likelythat
Tnay series that
met

any
not

transcripts of
have
been

in existence

besides, they
From which

preserved
the
as

in very

the

Capitol.
"

of

conjectures follow
now

conclusion satisfactory those annals

it may with

be
a

considered fate ! "


our

certain

really
is to Maximus
at
once,

such But

main
was

object
of

in

citing this
that the his
or

passage

show

that noted

Niebuhr down the

opinion
which
on an

Pontifex Annals whitened year in

the
first

events

formed album year of

and
;

in that and that

instance,
were

board the

these

boards

kept
the the time

after the

Eegia,
would
as

consequently they began


amounted
never

at

Gallic

fire, supposing Hostilius,


; too

with

reign
or

of

TuUus

have had
to

to

nearly 300,
into
a

many

cartloads
and
were

and,

they

been away, the of

copied
w^ere same

book,

cumbersome

carry To

then purpose

burnt. Becker of these remarks annals in


^ :

"If

the

tion assump-

the

existence

the

earliest of ah all

times,

and

especiallyin the
then

regal period,
almost
have the

is destitute existed

bility, probarermn

Cicero's

assertion,that
an

they

initio the

Bomanarum,
which
were

becomes and would


to

impossibility by
these

fate

must

overtaken unanimous

tables. of

They
authors,
the We The

kept, according
the

testimony
"

in

dwelling
hard

of the that

the

Pontifex of
were

Maximus,
Vesta any
at
on

that

is, in

Eegia,
cannot

by
the

Temple
there

the of

Forum. them.

suppose
was
some

copies
Eome have
even

Eegia
that

only record-ofiice

except, perhaps,
recorded if
we a

religious corporations
separate commentaries.

may

few
no

things

in

Now,

had

historical

testimony
"

to

the fact,it would


Altorth. B.

be

very

natural

that

Rbra.

i. S. 7.

ANNALES

MAXIMI.

XXIX

this Gallic

ponderous history
fire. of In It is
not

should
to

have conceived

been

destroyed
that taken in for the

in

the

be

hasty
of it

evacuation

the the
were

city
midst

any of

thought
that

was

their utensils and

servation. pre-

panic

the

sacred

Vesta's may
even

Temple
be and

saved whether

only by burying
the Twelve

them;
that

doubted
most

Tables,
were

dearly
been of
some

purchased
as a

important monument,
less that would those
were

not

abandoned have chronicle

prey.

Still and then

wooden

tables the

thought
the authors." On Maximi follows

of;

they

not,

that

city was
this

destroyed, is decisively recognised by


remark
on a

we

may

that first, of

even

had it

the

Annales
no

existed that
as a

only

quantity
have been

boards,

by

means

they Kegia
in

would

destroyed by
like that the Becker

the should but

Gauls have existed of that

since, known,
tfll

professed topographer
was

the fire

not

burnt

on

occasion,
destruction

the

Nero's is
:

reign,

when

ancient

monument

expressly
often

recorded

by

Tacitus.^

But, secondly
other German

although

Niebuhr,
accuse

Becker,
Cicero their and

Schwegler, Livy
of of the view

and
not

critics their Annales


one own

understanding
of which pause the

language, yet
Maximi have
"

tory hisof
to

the

egregious absurdity
have caused
on a

might,
and of the
manner

would
a

supposed,
"

them gross

inquire
a

little further Latin

is founded

translation mis-

common

construction.

Cicero,
passage
annorum
"

ing describ-

of the

making
"

the

Annals,

in the

already
man-

quoted, uses
dabat of all Uteris he

words,

Ees

omnes

singulorum
in and is album then

(Pontifex) efferebatque
the
an

that

is, first
or

wrote

events

down,
It the

transferred,
how such
a

posted them,
critics Two should
acts
are

into have

album. missed

singular
of
see so

great

sense
we

simple
the

passage.
que
:

as plainly signified, were

by
for of
-

enclitic

first the
were

events

noted
out

in the

book

kept by Pontifex, construing.


passage,

and

thence word this

copied plain, we
1

into
no

album,
mode

public inspection.
To in

The make

effero admits
wiU
41.

other from

cite

Livy

another
^

Ann.

XV.

Li^.

i. 32.

XXX

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

IIISToK'V.

which

it is

similarly used
in Album in Numa. and the

"

Omnia

ea,

ex

comme7itarLU in

regis jubet,"
of the

pontificem
where the

elata album

proponere
are

publico

matters

out posted {elata)

commentaries
Thus the the

of

conjectures
of of

assumptions
of wooden their record

of these

critics about
once

about the the

existence

cartloads
a

tables, and
at to

non-existence

copy

of

contents, fall
is reduced be saved

to

ground.
volume of
or

The

ponderous
more

portable
the the
sils uten-

two, much

easily to
and

than
to

Vesta's of

Temple,
asserts

which,
saved.

according
destruction
those the almost whom well-known who
worse

best

testimony

antiquity, were by
and

Becker, however,

that

their But

is

"

decisively only
he has
"

recognised"

some

writers. books
"

have
case

glanced
the
are more

into bold

Becker's

know
we

that had writer

confident
The is

said he

arrogant
adduces passage

his

assertions. of
:

chief

in in

support
Lib.
cum

his
"

view

Livy,

in

the in
erant

vi. 1

Et

quod

etiamsi

quae

Commentariis

Pontifiincensa
we

aliisque publicis privatisque pleraque


the he interiere." In

monumentis,
this He passage is also the of

urbe

examining
upon it.

will

quote Sir G. C. Lewis's


that Annales does
on

remarks

opinion

Maximi
not

perished
to

in

conflagration,
that

iliough
written
"

appear

have

thought

they

were

only
of the

wooden

tablets. the author


at
a

Livy

tells

us," says
records
an

just mentioned,^
this time
; and

"

that

most
was

early
national

perished
as

if there of
temporary con-

so

important

exception
annals, he
his

complete
of the

series
to

could

scarcely fail
Eoman Maximi
event.

mention tion, Constituwere

it.

Hence

Goettling, in
his the

History
the

expresses

opinion period
in

that

Annales
to

not
even

preserved for
that Twelve and the

antecedent his work


on

this
on

It is

conjectured by
Tables

Becker,
brazen

Eoman the this up

Antiquities,
laws of the

original
were

plates

which in
set
a

engraved
the copy
so

perished

conflagration
was as a

ruin, and
If
^

that

afterwards

tion. restora-

record

of
the

enduring

nature

the
158.

Twelve

Credibilityof

Early Koinan

History, vol. i.

p.

AXNALES

MAXIMI.

XXXI

Tables

did not

survive of

this the

calamity,

it is not have

likely tlie more


weathered
the

perishable
storm." Sir German
soon a
1

annals

pontiffs should
closer it is of

G.

C.

Lewis

is whose

generally
method series

reasoner

than

the how
a

in critics,
mere

truly

wonderful

conjecture, or
in the Sir G. C.

conjectures, becomes
from Mebuhr.

certainty,as
a

specimen already given


Lewis the here Twelve

In

similar that then did annals

manner

adopts
Tables record of

Becker's
were so

conjee-

ture

the

brazen

plates of
to

destroyed, enduring logic,we


Sir in
a a

and
nature

proceeds
not

argue,

that

if

survive,

it is not

likely that letting alone portable


were

the the

more

able perishG. book 0.


^

survived.

Where,
not
a

bad and

might
Lewis
"

ask
seems as

why
to

should think
or

book"

that

they

first entered of escape


on a as a

have

good,
?

better, chance
most

quantity
and

of

brazen
to

tablets, fixed
detached G.

probably
that, had
failed

wall,

difficult

be Sir

C. Lewis would the

thinks
not
more

the
to one,

Annales say
"

Maximi We had In think

been the been

saved, Livy contrary


lost in he

have

so.

view

probable
have

that it.

they
the

would

assuredly
is instances the The the Annales natural have have has been been of been

mentioned the

passage

question Livy
he about

enumerating

losses

by

the

fire ; and, he says

though nothing
document. And which From that mit (*' the

Commentarii

Pontificum,
a

Maximi,
inference

much

more

important
were

is, that
to

they

saved.
a

it would
must

supererogatory
to

mention

fact

notorious

every

Eoman. Becker's assertion

what

said,it
the

appears

that is

destruction

Annals
some

decisivelyrecognised
is at all events
not

Entschiedenheit
to

") by
And

authors,
else
can

applicable
of
^

Livy.
?

what
two

be from

produced
Plutarch,
is of

in
one

port supof
that

his
in

vicAv

Only

passages 112),
Sir G.

Yet

another authentic not

place (vol. i.
text
was

p.

C.

Lewis

opinion
of

at least
2

the does

preserved.
so

He

expressly
that such

say
was

; but

we

infer
:

from

his the

description
Pontifex inscribe them

the

making
*'

of them
to

his of

conception
each year

viz. that

Maximus
on a

used

commit

ail the to

events

to

vyriting,to
house
acts.
"

whitened word write

tablet, and
and

exhibit
seem

this record to two

in his

(p. 155),

where

the

inscribe

to refer

dii^tinct

XXxii

SOUUCES

OF

EOMAN

HISTORY.

which adds

is

an

appeal to
to

this very

chapter of Livy,
we on

and

therefore
for the
to

nothing
We of the

the

evidence, for

can

interpret Livy
Plutarch,
like
to

ourselves.
use

shall

only

observe

it that
seems,

by

word

vwofivrjfjLariafjbovf;,

ourselves,
Commentarii
as

have and

construed
not

Livy

as

referring only
The other passage
yap

the
runs

the
Tt?

Annales.
"P

follows

K\(oBi6^
TO

(ovrco ^EXiyKfp)(p6va)v
iiev

ttw?

iTrtjiypaTrrai
avajpa^us:
8e
vvu

jSi^Xlov) la')(ypl^eTai ra?


ToU

dp)(^aLa"i eKeiva^
k. t.

ev

KeiXTiKol"i

TrdOeai

t?}? TroXeoj?

rjcjiavLadaL' ra?
\.

^aX'r)dw"i crvyKuaOai, ovk (f)aivoiJLeva";


certain
that
as

But mentions

it

is not
so

this
some

Clodius, whom
obscure
; for

Plutarch

paragingly dis-

writer these about

(KXw^tc? rt?), is speaking


annals the would

of

the

Annales into
was

Maximi any
more

hardly
of

have

entered
Clodius

question
shall the
were were

genealogy

Numa. Pona

probaby speaking
as
we

of the further times burnt

Commentarii
on,

tificum,

which,
the

show earliest
no

contained

history of
the well

city from they


be of

; and at

which,
the

or

the

greater part of them,

doubt

capture of
restored
so

city,though
as

afterwards But of this

probably by
Sir and is G.

it could

done. this

by.' eagerly grasped


C. Lewis.
It is

.The
at

testimony
the what be

obscure

Clodius

by

critics,and
these

especially by against
the

astounding only
it
can

sceptical critics
account

will

believe, provided
Sir G.

turned

received
of Clodius
so

history.
to

C.

Lewis, who Maximi,


document

refers

the

the

Annales
a

actually thinks
as

it

possible that extending


be
"

important
over

public

these in

annals,

centuries, and
with the year

always
and of

exhibited He of

public, might
^ :

forged

impunity discovery
181
B.C.

success.

observes Numa that in

The

account

of in the

the

books

stone

chest
on

proves

indubitably
could be

documents
at

the with

most

important hope
of
cessful suc-

subjects

forged
be

that

time
to

the

deceit, and
circumstances

attributed

the

ancient

kings.
that it in held
i. p. 167.

The

attending this supposed discovery, and


Senate,
are

its treatment
was
a

by
deliberate
Numa
1

the

conclusive

evidence the
reverence

imposture.
his ordinances
Fortun.
Rom.

Considering

which

and
Dc

respecting religionwere
13.
"

by

the

Yol.

XXXIV

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

Annals. Etruscos

The

passage

runs

as

follows

"

Tunc

igiturquod

in

baruspices
fuerat,
tota

male

consultantes
liic scite factus

aniraadversum

vindiesse a

catumque

versus

cantatusque

pueris

urbe

fertur,
consultum consultori

"

'

Malum

pessimum
versu

est.'

Ea
est

liistoria in

de

liaruspicibus,ac
Maximis

de

isto

senario, scripta
et

Annalibus libro

libro, undecimo,
memoria annals

in The of

Verrii

Elacci

primo
account

Rerum the
of the

dignarum."
and the work
to

story,
Verrius

then,

had

two

sources,

riaccus. detriment

The of
a a

baruspices, who,
the doubt
statue

the

supposed
to

the

city,had
record of

directed
no

of

Codes

be
;

placed
but

in

lower

position,was
the

found kind This

in the

annals
tained con-

that

public
is have the

driest

should

have of the

verses

altogether
taken in the which

incredible. from another

part

story

Verrius modernised Another

must

source,

and

probably

verse

transfer. the

point
as

to

sceptical critics
of
an

attach

great
at

importance,
a Sim.

showing
is the is

the

non-existence

the

annals of

remote

date,

first

registration of
what the

eclipse

the

This

point

urged, after Niebuhr, by Becker, Schwegler,


We

and says
"

Sir G. C. Lewis.
^

subjoin

last-named

writer

There
a

is likewise series

another of the

argument
Annales
not

against the
from

existence
a

of

complete
upon

Maximi

remote

date,
stress.

which
as

Mebuhr

undeservedly
of
an

lays great eclipse of


cause

Ennius,
about the
so

quoted by Cicero, spoke


year 350
u.c.

the

sun

the

assigning
moon.
*

its natural

namely,
*

interposition of
much
we

the

Now,'

says

Cicero,^
from in culated cal-

there

is

science

and
to

skill in this be recorded

matter, that
in

this

day,

which

perceive
all the up
to

Ennius,

omd

the Annales

Maximi,

preceding eclipseshave
which occurred when
was

been the

backwards,
of

that of

on

Nones
was

Quinctilis
in up
to

in

the

reign

Eomulus,
he

Romulus
fabled year years
;

really slain
been taken

the
to

darkness, though
heaven.' year 404

to

have
to

Assuming
B.C.
"

the

350

u.c.

correspond
1

the

fourteen
De

before

the

Vol.

i, p. 159.

Rep.

i. 16

cf. ii. 10.

ANNALES

MAXIMI.

XXXV

capture
observe

of

the

city"it

would

follow

that

there that that

was

no

temporary conwe an

registrationof eclipses before


from of this the
sun

year

; and

very
was are an

passage

of

Cicero in the

in this

year Maximi.

eclipse
of
to

recorded

Annales the

Eclipses,moreover,
Cato such
a

particularlyspecified in
ancient the and

fragment
witness the tifical pon-

the

Censor
"

"

unimpeachable
contents

fact

as

among

prominent
without
a

of

annals
we

and, indeed,
that

any
so

specific testimony,
rare

might safely assume


as a

prodigy
one

and

so

ing alarm-

visible

eclipse, and

necessarily
be

followed

by

national

expiatory ceremonies,
record. in

would

duly

entered

in this

public
"

Unluckily, however,
defective of
as

this, as
of
our

in other

instances,

we

feel
a

sensibly the point


Ennius
year

state

information
not

respecting
passage
to

early history.
cited alludes. would what he

We and

have
we

the

entire ascertain
era,
B.C.

of

by Cicero^ According correspond


era

cannot

what year

he
u.c.

to

the

Varronian 404 In

the
we

350
not

to

the

year

; but

do his of

know

Ennius of the

followed.

another the

part
he

of

Annales,
the about
"

spoke
582."

700th
to

year the

after

building
wrote

city, though, according


the Niebuhr year thinks that the which 399

Varronian

date,

allusion occurred
B.C.

is to
on

solar the

visible eclipse, of

in the the
not

Mediterranean,
year

21st

June,
was

in

astronomical visible
at

This Cadiz

eclipse, however,
the middle of the believes of the that and

Eome,

though
before

at

eclipse
the hour

fell three Eomans when of

minutes derived

sunset.

Niebuhr Gades

information that in

from this

day

it occurred, and

visible eclipse, the

at the

extremity
to

Spain,
"

but

invisible

Italy,is

eclipse alluded
the Second Punic have
an

by

Ennius." If this would


event

had

occurred that

during
the

War,
had

it

be

conceivable

Eomans circumstances
; but

might
of that before
so

precise information
which 399
was

respecting the
visible
at

eclipse
the year Gallic about allusion

only just during


the should

Gades

in

B.C.

siege of Veii, nine


have
as

years

the much
an

invasion, they
an

known
to

and the

thought subject

eclipse in

that

place

afford

of

XXXvi
to

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

Ennius

more

than Komans
accurate

two

centuries
did
not

afterwards,
a

is

utterly
First the

incredible.
or

The any No
u.c.
occurs

obtain
of

footing in Spain,
after
sun

acquire
war.

knowledge
to
an

it,until
the

the about

Punic year it

allusion in
to

eclipseof
the year of the

350

any

of

historians,and

therefore which

seems

impossible
alludes.

fix the

eclipse to
the
taken been

Ennius
"

Thus
"

much,

however,
that

we

may

infer

from had
not

passage

in
at

Cicero,
Eome in the

namely,

the

eclipses which
of
or

place
recorded

in the

first centuries

the in

city,had
other

pontifical annals,
the such time rude of Cicero

any

and register, had been

that

before with

some

attempts
the
ancient

made,
were

processes

as

astronomers

possessed of, to
That be inferred from Eomulus
not

calculate

these

wards. unregistered eclipses backw^as

the the

computation
attempt
occurred into
to
"

not

scientific year

one

may the and the

calculate
an

the

in which

eclipse of
story
In his of this German
a

event most

wholly fabulous,
current

apparently
his

admitted
or

the

version

of

death

aj)otheosis."
matter

view

of the

Sir have of
a

G.

C.

Lewis him

blindly
in

follows
not

guides,

who

misled

partly by
a

giving
Sir G.

full and

fair account

it,and

partly,as
Latin of Cicero that

former Had
he

instance, by mistranslating
C. Lewis turned i.
to

common

sentence.

the would very

chapter
have material

which the German

quotes
critics

(De Eep.
have alludes
to

16), he
a

seen

suppressed
an

part
the of

of

it.

Cicero in is the from


to ;

there
the said
true

eclipsewhich
war,

terrified lifetime

Athenians

Peloponnesian
to

in

the

Pericles,^who
to

have

dissipated their
of the

alarm

by explaining
which
at

them

nature

phenomenon,
The in the have first year
seen,

he

had

learnt appears
or

his have that

teacher taken
at

Anaxagoras. place
as we

eclipse
of
B.C.

Athens
war,

the

B.C.

431.
to to

Rome,

in

404, according
should be have will

the be in

received reduced the

chronology according
which
^

; or, if this
a

chronology
Thus

to

principle which
later.

explained
that
at
a

sequel,some

ten

years

it appears understood

nomenon phe-

first became

commonly

Athens

It

seems

to be

the

eclipsementioned

by Thucydides, ii. 2y.

ANNALES

MAXIMI.

XXXVII

in

B.C.

431, began

to

be

known

at

Eome

some

twenty-eight

or

thirty-eightyears
Now should
as an

later. have the the


a

here have

we

very

natural

explanation why
in its true Previous

this

been

first

eclipse recorded,
Maximi. because

nature

in eclipse,
not

Annales

eclipses
not
as

could
to

have

been But the

recorded,
matter

they
now

were

known Cicero be

be

such.
"to

being
which

reduced,

says, reckoned of

science backwards Before the

and
to

skill," previous
that

eclipses
at not

could

happened
the

the have them

death been
was observed, un-

Eomulus.

this

time, eclipses could


because

predicted by
not

Eomans,
Hence

theory
have

of

understood.

they
and,

would

often
even

passed
ones

especially when
the would weather
not
was

and partial,
;

total the

wdien

cloudy
been but

when
to

observed,
its

phenomenon
nor

have

attributed would
cause.

right

cause,

called
a

by
or

its
to

right name,
some

have

been while

ascribed Cicero
an

to

cloud,

unknown
at

Thus,
of Eomulus

attributes

the

darkness
no

the

death the old

to

eclipse,Livy,^
a

following
This these tubula

doubt

annals, ascribes

it to from

storm.

view critics

is corroborated mistranslate Pontificem solis


mean,
:

by
"

the Non

passage lubet

Cato, which

scribere
annona

quod
obstiterit." G.

in

apud
words

Maximum lumini
as

est,

quotiens
aut

cara,
^

quotiens lun^e, aut


These do
not

caligo
Niebuhr

quid
Sir

and recorded

C. Lewis the

represent,
sun.

that

the

Pontifex

Maximus is
:

of eclipses
to

Their
as corn we

literal
see
was

meaning
the

"I

do

not

like

write

such
;
as

things
when

in

tablet
or

of

the
a

Pontifex
or

Maximus

dear,

luhen

darkness,
moon as or

so7nething or
The

another, intercepted the


is the remark
causes
"

light of
Cato of
veras

the

sun."

translation misto

more

unpardonable,
did
care

Gellius
or moon

proceeds
tell the
"

So the

little

to
sun

know and
et

true

of

obscuration rationes

the

(" Usque

adeo vel

parvi
scire vel let

fecit

solis

lunse

deficientium

dicere").
observe that this rude have
"

Now of
true

us

and been that Orig.

unscientific
used after the

mode their
year

noting eclipses could


nature
1

hardly
at

was

understood

Eome,
2

is,after
ap. Goll.

Lib.

i. 16.

ii. 21.

XXXVlll

SOUR(^.ES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

B.C.

403

; and

Cato, therefore, must

be

referringto
which

entries

in

the

annals

made for

previously
their Cicero the that

to

that and of the

date,

he

selected The year record years he had

apparently
mentioned
of

ignorance
as

uncouthness. first ascends Cicero quern


we

by"
in

scientific thirteen that

eclipses
the this

Annales

Maximi
;

above
seen

Gallic

capture
his
own

and,

as

says diem

entry
addition annals for

with

eyes""
"

in Maximis here another

Annalibus in proof, that from earlier Annales which


were

consignatum
to

videmus''

have from the But


us

those

already
the

cited

same

author,
passage
a

the

survived the and


reason

conflagration.
the of those
;

the
to

Cato,

assigned, carries
existence traits

up of

much

period,
it is

confirms

very

early
truth

Maximi,

by
them the

one

of

careless
no

impossible
in that when
was

to

invent the of

namely,
year

that

eclipses
for the
;

recorded
reason

before

mentioned,
was

simple
and
was

theory
the

them

not

understood occasioned
or

therefore, observed,

darkness
to
"

which

they

it

attributed

something
notion
one

another

"

unknown. We alluded Cadiz. Eomans


seen,
even

need
to

not

discuss may of

Niebuhr's
have been

that

the

eclipse
at

by

Cicero
out

partiallyvisible imagine they


that had

Ko would

critic have

Germany
an

would

the
not

recorded it to
we

eclipse which
that
to

allowing
it. But year the

be

possible
for be

they might
show of further

have
on, ten

heard the

of Eoman

if,as

shall

attempt
a

consisted

long period
at
a

only
time

months,
that We assertion the

then

eclipse must

sought
with

later

than

mentioned. have that


use

already remarked,
we

regard
historians it is
not.

to

Schwegler's
any
trace to

do the them

not

find

in

the

of say

direct

of used of

annals,

that

impossible
But
we

whether without passages

they
fear

directlyor
which
or

may

affirm,

contradiction,

that
must

there either from of the

are

numberless
been taken writers with

in the

historians

have

directly from
who Albans had
so

the taken the

annals,
them.

at

all events
account

earlier

The Tullus
1

treaty

the

in

reign

of

Hostilius,^ which
24.

gives the

Livy, i.

ANN

ALES

MAXIMI.

XXXIX

names

of been find

the

Fetialis

and

of any

the

Pater

Patratus,
In made in the

could like

hardly
manner,

have
we

derived
names

from of the

other who

source. were

the

Albans

patricians.^
regal period
the
accounts

Another and of

proof
the

is the

prodigies
of the

recorded

before

burning
which

city.^ Further,
dearness of domestic
to

pestilences,famines, droughts,
matters

provisions, and city,which


that the

other
occur

affect

the

life of the the Gallic

in the

first five books the remainder the proper

down of

conflagration,
prove

and

through
continued

the

decade,
such
more

Annales have famines

Maximi,

register of
There
are

casualties, must

extant.

pestilences
than in first Tullus any five of

and the

recorded

in half

Livy's
of them

first decade
occur

rest, and
Thus and
we

nearly
read
B.C.

in

the of with

books.

of 463
B.C.

pestilences in
;

the

reign
of

Hostilius,
which

in

in

one

accompanied
names

famine,

occurred persons riamen

in who

453,
of it

the
are

several
; as
an

distinguished
Cornelius,
the Such the Consul ticulars par-

died

recorded

Ser.

Quirinalis,
and
not

Horatius

Pulvillus,
of the

augur,

Quinctilius,
could

three have

tribunes been be
out

people.^
but

preserved
to
own

by contemporary
that
two
or an

registration.
annalists centuries that
was

It would them

monstrous

suppose heads

Eoman three age

made

of

their

afterwards. little
or no

Such

barefaced when for


a

forgeries in
moment

had
to

literature, and
cannot

consequently nothing
be Flaccus in his

be

gained by them,
not

supposed.
was or

It
was

is
not

very last

material who had lived

whether the in Annales the age

Yerrius Maximi of

the that

hands would

for, as
at

writer have

Augustus, they
for how this from

all events

survived But the


we

long enough
do
not
see

tlie purposes

of
can

authentic be

history.
with
statua

opinion Pliny
"

reconciled

following
et

passage

In-

venitur

decreta

Taracise vellet
;

Gaiae, sive Suffetise., virgin!

vestali, ut
1

poneretur

ubi

quod

adjectum

non

minus

Livy,

i. 30.
; ii.

Ibid. i. 31, 55, 56


Yet

7,

42

iii. 5, 10, 29

iv, 21, "c. that

Others
"no !
"

also

in

Dionysius.
are 3

Niebuhr

asserts before
; ii.

(Lectures, burning

vol,

mentioned

by Livy

the

of the

p, 16) city by the Gauls


;
v.

i,

prodigies
1, 2, "c.

Livy,

iii.

32': cf.

i. 31

9, 34

; iii. 6 ; iv.

21, 25, 30

13;

vii,

Xl honoris
in

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

habet,

quod
Annalium
ea

feminai

esse
:

decretam.

Meritum

ojus
verba taken

ipsisponam
the decree
for the
^

verbis

Quod quote

campum the had

Tiberinum

esset gratificuta of

populo."^
have
source.

To

ipsimma
not

would

been

absurd

Pliny

them
that

some
name

official of

Aulus

Gellius
"

also

mentions
anna-

Caia

Taratia the

appeared
Annales
to
a

in

antiquis having
reason

libus."

On

the

whole,

Maximi be
no

been

edited

and may

published, tliere
not
were

seems

good
of

why empire
;

they
and The

have

existed

till

late

period

the

they

evidently seen
Maximi of of would

by

Servius.

Annales
facts order

have

established
; the
names

the of

leading
kings
time the

historical
and of their Tullus will

the

regal period
at

the

succession,
and

all

events events

from of

Hostilius, grant
would that

the

principal
not
we

their
to

reigns.
make The

AV^e
any

they
nor

would have

have

sufficed

perfect history ;
been

any

perfect history.
because different annual led of there years

chronology
have

have to
so

been

confused,

would of
a

nothing
circumstance

distinguish the
well marked

reign,subsequently
From that but this did registration in fact this of lies of of the the

by the
has time is

consulship.
to

Schwegler
not

been

conclude

begin

till the

the the

republic ;
natural The have true

amended
the altered other

chronology
form The of fact

oidy
that
on

consequence inference
names

government.
we

the consuls

way.

the

registeredimmediately
affords
more
a

the

ment establish-

republic
still of

goud ground
ancient
; that

for it
was

inferring that nothing


under but the

was registration

the

continuation
but

practice annually
Maximi,

before

observed

kings,

rendered

more

conspicuous through its


elected

logical chrono-

definition
Besides the books the

by

the

consuls.
source

Annales

another

of

history was being


"

kept by the subordinate Vopiscus


Romuli,
alludes
the
to

called pontiffs, the Pontifices follows


:

Commentarii the

Pontificum.

regular historiographers of
excessum

city,as

Quod

post

novello

adhuc quos
ut

Romanaj scribendae

urbis

imperio,
potestas

factum, fuit,in

pontifices,penes
literas
1

historiae
dum
]j},. vi.

retulerunt,
xxxiv.
n.

interregnum,
2

post bonum
7, 1.

II. N.

xlii

SOURCES

OF

llOMAN

HISTORY.

Caimleius.

The

account traditions
we

of

Dionysius
have it be under the
name a

shows

that

they
in

tained con-

tlie Latin
a

concerning

the

descent
to

of Eomiilus
revert

subject
of

to

which work.

shall Nor
can

occasion

the

body
is

this

doubted the

that
name

Dionysius
of
of

referring to
Fortune
^

the

same

work,

at
the

rcov

lepocpavTwv ^ypa^al,as
;

recording
under the

apparition
of

dess godthere

and he

also

/3//3Xot Upai koX


whether

diroOeToi, when
w^ere

quotes them
the Libri

on

question
thelast these

consuls
him
nor

or

military tribunes.^
Lintei

In

case

Schwegler^
were

takes

to

mean

; but

neither

sacred
The
nature

secret.

German

critics books
an :

have
as,

not

rightly apprehended
Niebuhr the

the says

of these

for

instance, when
of

that

they

were

exposition
cases
^

early
Becker

Eoman

tion constituthem

related
as

in

law all

or

when

describes
or

containing
Pontifices

that

concerned,
and
a

immediately
office;^ or when
of
cases

remotely, Schwegler
of of the the served also old tifices, Ponas

the

themselves them
as

their

characterises

collection

out

politicaland
"

sacerdotal
a

law, wdth
of

the

decisions

in

short,

collection for

precedents, which
Sir G. C. Lewis

general
them "which is

rules the

of law
same

judges.^
"The
to
as

regards
books

in

light.
makes far from the

conjecture," he
the
:

observes,'^

Niebuhr
not
'

contents
'

of
can

these

probably

truth

We of of

only by
in

conceive

them,' he says,
and

to have

been down

collections

traditions, decisions,
law

decrees,

laying
"

principles

reporting
the We Comsee

cases.' particular
That mentarii from

civil

and

religious usages
we

were mean a

noted
to

Pontificum that

do

not

deny.
for

Pliny

they
"

contained Ita enim

precept
in

taking

the

Augurium
:

Canarium

est

Commentariis

tificum Pon-

augurio

canario

agendo

dies

constituatur, priusquam

1 * ^

U^
"

vi^i. 56.
liber Rom.

Lib. ap.

xi. 62.

B.

i. S.

17, Anm.
8. sie und

1.

Vortrage
Die

Gesch.

Schwegler,
Biicher

B. i. S. 33, Anm.
denen auf sie

Pontifices
was

noch
nalierem

besondere oder

fiihrten,in

alles aufilir Amt

zeichneten, geschah."
6
"

in

entfernterera

Bezuge

Rom.

Altertli. i. S. 12. B.
i S. 33.
^

Rom.

Gesch.

"c. Credibility,

vol. i. p.

171.

l'*"U^"WUi"_

1.1

THE

COMMENTARII

PONTIFICUM.

xllll

vaginis exeant, et antequam in vaginas perveniant." Bat, though such notices may occasionally occur, Becker seems are rightin remarking that the Gommentarii while from the Libri Pontificii distinct a quoted for facts, adduced.^ work are Facts, for propositions only religious found not likely to have been are instance,like the following rules and precedents collection of legal in a mere : "(Possumus Tib. Coruncanium, quod ex Pontificum disertum) suspicari Commentariis longe plurimum ingenio valuisse videatur" vestris C. Habetis in commentariis (Cic.Brut. 14, 55) : de signo Concordiae dedicando Censorem ad ponCassium tificum .^milium Pontificem mum, Maxiei M. retulisse, collegium (Idem, Pro Dom. 53, 136). pro coUegio respondisse"
frumeiita
^
"

"

"

In

the fact,
more
^ :

very than
"

name a

commentarms

seems

to indicate

thing some-

book

of

for, as precedents,
means a

Sir G. C. Lewis

remarks
or

Commentaries Hence

memoir, memorial, note,

memorandum.
as

memoirs, such
the Greek But the

it may be applied to historical those of Julius Csesar,whose two works are And in this
sense

entitled Gommentarii.

it is

to equivalent

vTTOfjLvrjfJbaTa." strongestproof that the


historical matter them may

Gommentarii from

Pontificum the fact that

contained

be drawn

of history sources Livy names destroyedby the Gallic fire. He is explaining we might he had included almost say making a sort of apology how in to its burning by the Gauls the history of the citydown naturally only five books ; which he ascribes to the obscurity the and of to to rarity literaryattaching great antiquity, he "whether in those early documents These," observes, ages. contained in the Gommentarii Pontificum, or in other public or when the city privatemonuments, for the most part perished in Gommentariis burnt." f'Et quod etiamsi quae (literse) was erant Pontificum monumentis, privatisque aliisque publicis incensa Lib. vi. 1.) These urbe plerseque cominteriere,"
" "

first in enumerating the

"

H.
"

viii. 3, 3. den in
^

Wenigstens ist es aufFallend class ans die Commentarii nur Satzungen angefiilirt,
warden."" S.

Libris Pontificiis nur

religiose
genannt

Bezug auf Thatsachen


i. p.

12, Anm.

IS.

Yo\.

169,

note

125.

d 2

Xliv mentaries forward thus headed


This first and
to
as

SOURCES

OF

llOMAN

HISTORY.

are
one

here of

specificallynamed
the

and for

put prominentlythe

principal testimony

sources

early history,
which
we

confirming the
this branch
account most

of

Vopiscus,
two

with

of the

inquiry.
one or

suggests

reflections, and

the
down

important by
the
;
more

is, that
did been of the

the
not

history
rest
on

of

Rome

its

burning
in

the

Gauls had

oral

tradition. their
or

The

principal
Maximi
to
a

events

recorded Pontifex had

first, on

occurrence,

journal
and

Maximus,
been

the

Annales

secondly, they
historical

afterwards
the

reduced

regular

form

by
for

other

pontifices.
Before what Roman Sir

proceeding further,
G. C. Lewis "We says

we

will

turn

moment for the


were

to

respecting
have,"
he
to
a

the

materials "in

early
three the

history.
for
at

observes,^
ascertain narrative

preceding chapters, attempted


materials the formation of write We of

what of

early

Roman Cato in the


a tinuous con-

history
when Second

the

command
to

Fabius

Pictor, Cincius,
of that
or

and

they began
Punic list of

their accounts
have found
more

that there less of

period
was

AVar. annual

magistrates
to

complete
the

and

authentic, ascending

the the

commencement

consular
was

government
a

that

from official

burning
and
texts

of

the

city there
chief
"

series

of meagre ancient Twelve

annals

kept by the
of law

pontiffs;
the
with both

that laws
notes

many of of and of the

treaties Tables usages


" "

including
;

were

preserved
of books that of

together
law
"

ancient

and

rules in the and

customary
the these the

civil
some sources

religious
the of civil

recorded

pontiffsand

magistrates;
clothed stories Some and
to

documentary
dry
skeleton muscle

history, which
were

furnished
with

merely
flesh down may from it and from

of

narrative,

by

the

addition

of various tradition.

handed assistance still


or more

preceding times
been

by
from but

oral

have

derived
memoirs
;

popular
there is

songs,

family
their

nothing
to

show

make deeds

probable

that

private

families

began

record

the

of

distinguished

Vol.

i. cli. vii. p.

243.

wf^^mi^mmm^

THE

COMMENTARII

PONTIFICUM.

xlv
for the
events

members which
"

before
interested

chronicler any the commonwealth

had
as

arisen
a

whole. the first four the


"

The
a

essential characteristic of Eome veracious into


a
"

of the
so

of history
as

and of it

half centuries is
a

far

it deserves

name

and history,
was

relation narrative of it

of real events form


was

that is,

not

reduced
that such the

by contemporary
up
we

but writers,

account

drawn
as

at

later

period
In what

from

fragmentary materials
this passage the Annales
we

have

just
to

described."

examining
is said about

will

confine and

ourselves

Maximi

the Commentarii

Pontificum.
extant

It is than

higher

of the and rules usages not been "reduced

not supposed that the first of these were the burning of the city; that the Commentaries of ancient notes were priests nothing but of customary law ; that the historyhad into a narrative form by contemporary
" "

writers,"but
later and

that that

such

narrative

was

first framed

at

period
"

is,in the time


the

of Tabius materials

Cato

"

from
to

fragmentary
various

Pictor, Cincius, described, and


down

by adding
tradition,

them

stories handed

by
is

oral

Now,

we

submit with have

that this account


can

of the

matter

totally
mony. testi-

at variance

all that shown

be

gathered from
almost Annales writer

ancient

We favours
one

that

evidence

unanimously
that

the

of the preservation from


an

Maximi;
mentioned
even

only
tarch Plu-

insinuation
can more

obscure

by
to

be

produced probably refers


the

againstit ; and
to the

that

this insinuation than the

Commentarii the
were case

Annales. and than

We

have also shown

from

Dionysius that
notes

Commentaries

testimony of Livy something more


how could Canufacts of Poman

of ancient adverted how

usages, for in that


to them
as

leius have

the containing
set them

the prinas Livy have cipal Or Dionysius have them for quoted the history of the foundation of the city? There is no ground,therefore,for the assertion that the historyhad not been reduced into a narrative form by contemporary, or at all events of very earlywriters, though not for the purpose
for it ? authority

? Or history

could

down

Xlvi

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

publication. Everything
commenced
a

tends

to show

that

the Poutifices
soon

had
their
so

connected
at

historical in the rested and


a

narrative of

after

institution, and
that the been this

least which

time upon

Tullus oral

Hostilius,

only reigns
those of of

tradition of
recent

would
Numa. that called
man,

have
And

Romulus,
about it half the

partly perhaps
century
was so

period

the

description
well
as

of

by
it

Pontifices
not

may the Sir

almost memory G. C.

be of

contemporary,
but within the

since the of

was

beyond by
oral affairs

period
authentic

fixed

Lewis

and

others

limit

tradition.
down
to

Well, then,
the which

if the been

principal
in

the

burning
tradition tion foundawould from

of
of

city had
Sir for

recorded Lewis

writing, the
as

oral the

G. C.

speaks
of the that

forming

chief

the

narratives its date from

first

literary annalists
not

have
time have

taken when been

catastrophe, and
;
so

the

the

events

occurred less up up

that
two

oral

tradition

would for

responsible for
of three centuries and it be of
a

than
to

centuries, instead,

instance,
or

the
to
a

expulsion reign
down of

of

the

kings,
tilius. Hosa nected con-

four

centuries But
can

half

the

Tullus had the

believed

that

people

which
to

history
of it their
was

their

affairs in
made
?

writing
no

burning
it while of its

city,should
fresh in

have

attempt
a

to restore
so

their

minds have
same

that

nation
to

proud
into

former
or,

glories should
is about tradition the the

suffered

them

sink

oblivion,
them record

what oral

thing, should
stiU occurred

have

intrusted
to

to

alone, although they


events

continued after
were

in that

writing they
to
even

which

the
at

fire? the

and

should

do

this, although
laws of them

they
and for have

greatest
^

pains
and could

recover

their domestic
some

theii: foreign treaties,

published
laws and illustrated

general
been

use

Or

these
unless

these

treaties
some

stood fully underthe

by

narrative

forth ^setting

occasions

of

them

?
we are

Fortunately,however,
probability in support
^
"

not

reduced that

to

an

appeal

to

of

the

assumption

the
tabulae
ex

Pontifices
et

Imprimis foedera ac leges (erant aiitem ese duodecim Tegiae leges) conqtiiri, quae compararent, jusserimt : alia
in

quadam
etiam

iis edita

vulgns/'

"

Li

v.

vi. 1.

THE

COMMENTARII

PONTIFICUM.

xivii

restored
we

the

history.

The
^

passage
as

in from of the

Dionysius,
"

to

which

have

already
them
as

referred

taken descent of

the

sacred and

books,"

exhibits
occurrences

tracing the
the

Eomulus

relating
it

before
not

building
them the Eoman

city.
from

Dionysius,
of later

is true, does but took have their named of


as

quote
that from
as

or directly,

personal inspection,
times

he

says

historians

accounts

these

books.

They must,
is
as

therefore,

them their

their

sources,

which
the

dence evisatisfactory their

existence, and
liimself had

of

nature

of

contents,

if We

Dionysius
are

quoted
to

them

at

first hand. due force


were

willing, however,
books the may thus with

allow from

all

to not

the of

objection that equal


this of value circumstance that "certain

restored

memory

originals as
even

historical lent the will


a

memorials
to

; and

have that We

colour
so

the

charge
were

Clodius" and have


to

books
even

restored that
a

altogether false
Pontifices may

forged.
used the the

concede
to

the few of
on

opportunity
of

introduce

apocryphal
their this
own

stories

advantage
of the
at

Eoman it may of

glory
have Eonmlus

and

and priestcraft, that the

especiallythat though,
who
to

been

occasion
was was

story
;

descent the his had in this


same

from the the


true son, coast.

iEneas
account
or

introduced

time,
been
on

faithfullyrecorded
of
some

of

having
landed the

grandson,
we a

Greek have

the In be

But, of this

shall few

speak
of the

sequel.

spite,
sumed pre-

however,

of

interpolations of
outlines served.

sort, it may
were

that

the far
as

main
as

history
memory

faithfully
would have
not

recorded,
been been Annales funeral
Ave

so

memory
as

And

aided,

well

checked,
had

by
been

memorials recovered

which
; such

had
as

destroyed, or
Maximi,

which

the

laws, treaties,inscriptions, private memoirs, monuments,


"c.
that
we

orations, public buildings and


from
a

As
even

learn

passage

in

Livy,
the it
was

before

quoted,

foreignerswere
conclude
too

acquainted
a

with of the

history of Rome,
too

may and

that

knowledge
among

widely spread
to

deeply
any which

rooted very the

Romans alterations.

themselves The in

have
over, more-

admitted

important

share,
the

great patrician houses


1

had

history of

Lib.

i.

e.

73.

xlviii their

SOUKOES

OF

ROMAN

IllbTOltY.

country
scribes

would

have and

made thus

tlieiii

jealous

and

vigilant

critics of the

narrative,

have
far from

prevented the pontifical


the truth.
of what
was

from

deviatingvery
Livy's
The vague.

After the may fire allow

all, however,
is very of

account

lost

in

phrase
of all used. "is
an

"plerseque
half what with

interiere" the Comlicence that


or

anything mentarii, being saved,


such
terms
as
more on or

short
and
Toost

half, including
know Niebuhr

we are

observes half

Livy's
rather

statement

this

subject gives
of the
one us

only
erroneous

correct,
idea of the of

altogetherfalse,and
"

the

early history,"adding, previous


litterce
was are
rarm

When

Livy, speaking city, says,


of those in his fcr notions
own

times

to

the

burning
this

ilia in

fempora
he
which makes in

erant,

is

which and

misled

by opinions prevalent
^

age,

only partially true."


say that of "ail the

When

Niebuhr,
were

however,

Livy
the down

written

documents that is

destroyed
was on

burning

city," and
this words.

"history only
events

handed his
own

solely by tradition,"
of passages

founded

misconstruction There the that


are

Livy's
in

Livy, relating to dry


and taken the

previous
in their these

to

Gallic

conflagration,so
seem

annalistie

form

they
or,

to

have

been

directlyfrom
earliest passage:

ancient

books, Take,
urbe
a

at

all events,

through
tribimi

literaryannalists.

for

instance,

the

following

"Agitatum
fiunt ab L.

in

tribunis
;
nee

plebis ut
obtineri

militum

consular!

potestate,

crearentur

potuit. Consules legati foedus


deditio

Papirius
quum
annorum

Crassus,

Julius, pro

^quorum
Volscorum

senatu

et petissent, 03to

foedere

ostentaretur, indutias
res, super

impetraverunt. pertinaci
et

acceptam
fuit

in

Algido
in

cladem,

certamine
versa.

inter

pacis bellique
otium

auctores

jurgia Legem
ab

seditiones

Undique
unius

Eomanis.
quum
exce-

de

mulctarum

aestimatione, pergratam
consules
ex

populo,
L.

tribunis

parari

collegis proditione
Consules

pissent, ipsi praeoccupaverunt


Fidenas dictu

ferre.

Sergius dignum
Corne-

iterum, Hostus
actum

Lucretius ibus. Pennus


i

Tricipitinus. Mhil
eos

his

consul

Secuti

consules

A.

Mus. Cossus, T. Quinctius


^

iterum.
p.
v.

Veientes

in agrum

Lectiu'es, vol.

scq.

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

the

burning
warlike

of

Eome

was

in 390

B.C.,

only twenty-five
an

years

afterwards.
and

^loreover, the

Romans,
this mental
use

though
far cultivation
at

enterprising
equal
; and was, to

people, were
in refinemeht still not in

at

time

from

the

Athenians which be
seems
was

and
common

writing,
we

Athens,
Eome."
have
at

may

sure,

still

more

rarely employed
it must to be
own

at

Hence

it
after

necessarily to follow that period


that

been Rome.

long

this

history began
contains
415 knew its

written
refutation

This

argument
in
B.c.

; because

if the

Athenians

their

history for the


could
not

preceding
been
more

century
advanced

only by
than
; nay,

hearsay, they
Romans be
as

have at what

the

regards,
truth been
at

least, historical
we

knowledge
on

if there
must

any have

in
a

have

said

this

subject,they
In And

great

deal
was

behind
late

them. sudden.

fact, the rise

of in the

literature

Athens

and

though
to

polite literature
Romans,
were more

they
in the

were

measurably im-

superior by
no means

yet
of mind

that

circumstance

proves The have

that

they
them

careful of

recording
Romans the
more

events. political
seems

practicalturn given
an

here and
to

to

advantage
Athenians.
of

over

refined appear the

brilliant have formed

intellect
a

of the

The

Romans from

difterent

conception
as a

history
of writer

Greeks. and be it

They by
made

regarded
to
a

it not left
to

matter

literary
who
to

leisure

amusement,

be of

any
or

casual other

might
pursue

induced
:

love it
an

fame,
of

any

motive,

they
not

affair the
care

state, and

charged
down in

the the but

Pontifices

only
the up

with

of

noting
as
a

Annales
also of of the

Maximi

principal events
in

they happened,
connected For the the of

drawing city.
of

the

Commentarii

history
early
ages
are

The

result however

is

what

we

see.

annals and still


or

Rome,

imperfect through by
fire and and than satisfactory This and

lapse
of

the much any


to

injuries occasioned
more

other

accidents,

full Greek

those for the

Athens

of

other be

city.

respect
and

past, this
a

desire

guided by example
of them
an

precedent, is
appears
to

striking
been find

characteristic
common

the

early Romans,
other Samnite

have
we

to

with

Italian

peoples.

Thus

Ovius

Pactius,

aged

reading, in priest,

B.C.

293,

THE

COMMENTARII

PONTIFICUM.

li

from by
the

an

ancient and

linen Tusculum

hook, a formulary
had their

of

sacrifice.^ which mentions


were

Aricia,
cited
that

Prseneste,

Easti,

antiquary Cincius,^'and possessed by


for annals that
name

Dionysius
an

the

Sabines It also
seems

from the of

early period.^
Pontilicum
was a

probable
the
an

Commentarii

were common

known

Annates,
work

which the

appellation
the
at

historical
were

among

Eomans
to

; and

Commentarii all events

probably digested according


establishment
"

years,

after the

of
erat

the

Eepublic.
si
nemo

Hence

when

Quintilian
eo,

says,

Quid
?

futurum in

plus
Livium
*

effecisset

quem nihil
mean

sequebatur
in the historiis

Nihil supra

poetis supra
the

Andronicum,
he
were seems

Pontificum

Annales,"
Maximi
So the
natu
vero

to

Commentarii cited of under

; and

Annales

perhaps always
Numa,
et
"

that

precise title.
been

again,
teacher audisatis
^

when of

Cicero, speaking
says ita
:

Pythagoras having
enim hoc de existimari

Saepe

majoribus
:

vhnus id he

intelligimus vulgo publicorum


words
more

neque

annalium is

auctoritate
to

declaratum Commentarii auctoritate


seem

videmus,"

probably
the of he

referring weight hardly


a

the and the

Pontificum,
to

because
to
a

puUicorum
than have

refer
; and

work

early literaryannals
the
events

because

could

meant

Annales
as

Maximi,

which,
would

being
not

merely
from the

register of
into the

they occurred,
of

have passage

entered

education the

Numa.
also

The pears ap-

following
to

I"iomedes,
Commentarii
:
"
"

grammarian,^
Pontificum
were

show

that Annales

times some-

called tifices
to

Puhlici
;

"Annales

Publici,
had been

quos

Pon-

scribseque conficiunt
Annales Maximus. will
now

where,
would

if he have

alluding
only
the

the

Maximi,

he

named

Pontifex We

discuss the

some

objections
of any such

which

have

been
sources

urged
1 2

against
X.

existence

historical

Liv.

38. Sat. i. 12. A

Macrob, which

portion
ancient Lat.

of Latin iii.

the

Fasti

Pra^nestini

have

been

covered, disand

mention

the

traditions

respectingMezeritius
Oiat.

Acca
3 '-'

Larentia.
Lib. l)c ii. 49.

(Orelli, Inscr.
,

3S8,
4

404.)
Inst. P.
x.

2, 7.

Rep.

ii. 15.

"

480, ed. Putsch.

lii those
:

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

as

we
"

have
If
we

described.

Schwegler
sources

remarks,^
the older

after Eoman

Beaufort

inquire
at

for the
outset

of

history, we
that
no

meet

the

the
was

surprising composed might


have of

circumstance

connected centuries
for late
once

historical
of the

work

during
served
as

the
a

first five

city,which
The
the of

foundation
at
more
a

later historians.

writing

history began
the first five ship dictatorthe

ver}' than
;

period
of
on

among
want

Romans.

Livy complains during


that

the the

literature of the his

centuries
of of that

and,
year

occasion

controverted

the

432, he
had
not

expresses been

regret
'down

history
porary contemsources,

period
writer. that

handed

by

any his

Dionysius
Eome had is the

also, in
not most
a

enumerating

remarks

single ancient
ancient
as one

historian.
know

In

fact, Fabius
is

Pictor

we

of, and

expressly
We have
mere

characterised

by Livy
need and

such."
here those

explained, and
of which

not

repeat, the difference


annalistic
a

between the
state

literary history
was

records of
to

keeping
; and

among this

the

Romans that

function it is false

it follows

from

explanation
that

imagine
for
an

that

the

first

literaryhistorians
is it true

had

no

foundation of of

their absolute

narrative.
want

Nor

Livy complains only


passages
"

of literature

but {Litter aturlosigkeit), appears from of his the


two

its

comparative by
et
rarse

rarity, as
in eadem

adduced parvse
"

Schwegler
per per
ea

proof
literoo

assertion

Quod and,

tempera
the

literse

fuere," vi.
3. And

1 ;

Quia

rarse was

tempera
so

erant," vii.

if the meagre
to

literature and The

scanty,

history is proportionably
is aU
to

unsatisfactory : which
one

that the

Livy other;
the

means

say.

bears the

direct of the

ratio

for and

while
more

Livy
in ten

records

events

first four down

centuries
to

books, the

remaining
less books.
to

period
three

death
one

o-f

Drusus,
and

embracing thirty-two
With will

than

centuries,

filled

hundred

regard
the

the

dictatorshipof
from

the and

year
not

u.c.

432,

we

give

whole

passage
as

Livy,

merely
a

the
"

concluding sentence,
^

quoted by Schwegler
C.

in

note:

Buch
same

the

Compare Sir G. arfjiijients are employed.


" 2.

i.

Lewis, vol. i. ch.

iii. " 10, where

much

SOME

OBJECTIONS

EXAMINED.

Hii

"

Nec

discrepat qnin
Eomanis,

dictator

eo

anno

A.

Cornelius sit ;
an

faerit
ut esset

id

ambigitur, belline
ludis

gerendi quia
L.

causa

creatus

qui
forte

Plautius mittendis

prsetor gravi

morbo

implicitus erat, signum


eo

quadrigis daret, functusque


se

baud
:

sane nee

memorandi facile
est aut

imperii ministerio,
rem

dictatura auctori
reor,

abdiprse-

caret

rei,aut

auctorem

ferre.

Yitiatam

memoriam

funebribus familia fallente ad


se

laudibus quseque trahunt.

falsisque
rerum

imaginum
gestarum
et

dum titulis,

famam Inde

honorumque
gesta

mendacio
monumenta

certe

singulorum quisquam
certo
us

et

publica
^

rerum

confusa. quo

Nee satis Let A. be


or

sequalis temporibus
stetur." first of dictator
no

illis

scriptor extat, agreed


fact could in the did not
so

auctore

observe,
was

all,that
in that
name

writers year.

were

that
not

Cornelius

The

denied,
in the
reason

because

doubt

his
;

appeared
his

Annals,

Liber of from
"

Magistratuum
his

which, however,
That
to et say
name

assign

the is

appointment.

appeared

evident

Livy proceeding singulorum gesta


from these words

that, througli family


monumenta
rerum

ambition,

et

publica
is

confusa''
records

for the
was

it But
cause

evident

that Cornelius it the


an

public
was
"

of

period
for
sane so

existed.
a trifling

though
as

dictator, it

rendered

im-

perium
or

baud

memorandum,"
said
no more

and about

therefore
him. But

Annals,
after that his he

Commentarii,
it
seems

death,
had and among
so

to

have

been
on

asserted
account

by
of

his the

family
Samnite

been this

appointed
was

dictator in

war;

proclaimed
titles
on

his Nor

funeral after
to
or

oration, and
all
was

inserted

the

his

bust.

the

pretension
the Samsome

egregious,as
in his claimed

Cornelius

appears year

have

defeated

nites writers

dictatorship a
even

two

before; though
consuls.^
the that

this of

victory
down

for

the

Further,
that

Schwegler's period
is had

assertion been

Livy's regret
hy

history of

not

handed and

any

contemporary writer,^
a

totally unfounded,
words. For

springs

from

misconstruction
"

of

Livy's
1

when

tliat historian
^

says,
Ibid.

Nee

quisquam

Lib.
"

viii. 40. die Gescliicbte


"

38, 39.

Dass

jenes
"

Zeitraimis

von

keinem

Geschichtgleichzeitigeu

sf.lireiber

iibcrliefert

sey.

" 2.

liv

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

?equalis temporibns
his steticr," words

illis

scriptor extat,
that whom he that
not

quo

satis ecrto
were

auctore porary contem-

necessarily imply
none

there

writers, but
this
matter.

could there

trust sufficiently
was

in
no

Had that
would

he

meant

absolutely
a

writer, to
did
not

say

he

could have

trust sufficiently

writer

who

exist

been

utterly absurd.
will say of in
a

Before about least Consul his had

proceeding any
funeral

further, we
The

word them
B.C.

or was

two at

these almost Fabius

orations.
with the made and of

origin
for oration

coeval

Eepublic,
an

480 bodies

the of who the

Vibulanus Manlius the

over

the

colleague
fallen in

his war.^

own

brother These

Q. Fabius,
with
a

Etruscan

orations,

titles upon of records from the

busts, sarcophagi,"c.

must

have

constituted but

sort

dating
cause on.

from

very

early period ;
time,
let

unfortunately,
not

already
At the desire

adverted
same

to, they could


us

be

plicitly imfrom

relied their of existence

the

recognise
the of have

which

prevailed
of the

among

Romans their

perpetuating
as a

the

memory

achievements would
not

ancestors,
the
a

sure

pledge
country
it
were

that
to

they
fall

suffered
of

history of
the

their

into

oblivion

for want the 'Nov

chronicler

; for with

intimately connected prompted history


on

history
after

and

glory
funeral

of

the

great patrician families.


which and the
a

all,

perhaps, was
in these very

the

vanity

little

exaggeration
of any torians hisit. Eoman

eulogiums
of of passage from

inscriptions a
; for

source

great depravation
were

the

fully aware

it,and

their

guard against Livy,


as

This
as

is shown the

by

the
one

just quoted
Cicero
"

from
vero

well antinisi

by

following
Cseci

"

Nee

liabeo

quiorem (Catone) cujus quidem


quem

scriptaproferenda putem,
et

Appi
familise
usum,

oratio Et

de

Pyrrho

nonnullai

mortuorum extant
:

laudationes enim
et ad

delectant.
sua

hercules

h?e
ac

quidem
monumenta

ipsse

quasi

ornamenta

servabant ad memoriam
suam.

si

quis ejusdem generis occidisset,et


et

laudum

domesticarum his

ad

illustrandam historia
rerum

nobilitatem
nostrarum

Quamquam
facta

laudationibus
:

est
non

mendosior falsi

multa

enim

scriptasunt

eis,quae
genera

facta

sunt,

triumphi, plures consulatus,


^

etiam

falsa

Livy, ii. 47

; cf.

"c. ii..61,

FUNERAL

ORATIONS

AND

FAMILY

MEMOIRS.

Iv

et

ad

plebem
would

transitiones." have been

But

in

most

sucli

cases

the the

truth

elicited

by

comparing
the whole

together
the of

memorials

of different for

families,and
instance, the
Whether

with

public
the consuls tween be;

registers. Take,
dictator A.
who defeated the but the gens the

account

just given
he
or

Cornelius.

it be

was

the

Samnifes and is is
a

might
the

matter

of

dispute
and

Cornelia itself all

gentes
that

Fabia the
;

Fulvia
were was

dispute

proof
main
to

Samnites whom

beaten, which
of much

after

the

point
families of

by

not

importance, except
that into the several the minor

the
errors

mentioned.

And may
not
mere

admitting
have invalidate

this

description
this it
to

crept

early
bulk

Roman of

history,still
it, and
reduce

does
a

great
of
same

fantasy.
The of much memoirs the
some

of value liable

the
as

great
the
af

houses

must
sources

have
as

been these

historical
same

funeral memoirs gens

orations,being

to

exaggerations. These high antiquity.


possessed
the old The

occasionally
Octavia,
for

claimed
must

very have of

example,
up
to

family
we are

memoirs told into that the

reaching
it traced Roman

the

time
to

kings, since
it into
was

its

origin
became that of much

Velitrse,that

elected Senate But in

gentes by Tarquinius Prisons,


and

the

by

Servius
we

TuUius,
may

ultimately plebeian.^ family


the memoirs

general
before therefore Censorian

suppose

hardly
and

existed
not

the

establishment have thrown

Republic,
the
to

would

light upon
us^
son.

regal period.
have
were

The such

families, in particular,appear
and down

kept

records,
handed
seen some

Dionysius
from father
must

tells
to

that He

they
even

carefully having
flagration, con-

mentions
to

which
as

have

been the and M. the the

previous
census

the in

Gallic the

they
118th
two

recorded Potitus year

taken

ship consul-

of L. Valerius fell in the

Manlius

Capitolinus,which
of the

after before

expulsion burning
call
s"et.

Tarquin, city.

and

consequently
There both is
no

years in

of

force

Schwegier's concluding remark, expressly


2
3

that the

Livy
^

and
Brut.

Dionysius
IG.

Fabius
Oct.
c.

Pictor
1,
scq.

Lib.

i. 74.

Ivi
oldest historian.! the

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

No

doubt
; but
we

he

was

the first writer

of

literaryboth

history for
the had writers been

public

have
not

already
intended

shown for

from

named,

that
at

histories Eome

publication
the time of

composed
Sir O.

centuries

before

Fabius.

Although
Eoman

C.

Lewis
have had is

is

of

opinion that
or no

the

early
but

history could
of its

little
so

foundation of
a

oral tradition,yet

Schwegler
been

convinced from such

the

bility impossithat, as

having

derived
any

source,

he
to

rejectsthe preservation of
assume

public annals,
"

he

is induced
"

the

existence of the
must

of

certain

private chroniclers.
and

sides Be-

the with Roman drew

annals

he observes,^ priests," have the been time of

unconnected The

them,

there

private
Fabius
must

chronicles. Pictor

annalists from the older Gallic

from

evidently
back

chronicles, which

have

reached be

beyond
that the with of the

catastrophe.

For has

it cannot

supposed
form,
wars,

previous history,which
of the

quite

an

annalistic Veientine the

accounts

Volscian, ^quian,
and wearisome

and

their

frequently dry
handed Gallic down

details,or
and
were

history
natural

the

numerous

prodigies, epidemics,
from from that

striking
oral

"phenomena
after Most WTitten the of

epoch,

first recorded

capture

memory rest
on

and

tradition.
and Such after third

these

accounts
or

must

contemporaneous

record,

at

all events
to

nearly contemporaneous.
have
or

annalistic
the

records of

appear the

been
at

begun
all events been

not

long
the

overthrow
the

monarchy,
appear of the up

in

century of
up
at
we

and city,

to

have

originallycarried they
did

to

the

foundation

Republic.
to

That

not,
as

least have the

reach originally, before

the the

regal period, is shown, unchronological


excludes
score or

remarked,
the

by
the

character

of

history of
record.
cannot
as

kings, which
first been be
"

all
two

of possibility years of the but

annalistic

Even have may

Republic
from

recorded

contemporaneously,
from the battle others the
Bucli

memory, in the

perceived partly
as, for

dictions contra-

chronology
some

instance, the
year Fasti

of Lake in 258

Eegillus is placed by
"

in the of the
vii. 71.

255, by

partly from
Livy,
i. 44

the

confusion
;

during
^

first years
i.

; ii. 40

Dionys.

" 5.

Iviii still
* '

sotHRCBS

OF

kx^man

un"r(vitY,

'

'-

t1io

of "jm"(l\uv

litomvx

lorjivry.

fbr

history

\\oi\^

not

in pri^S(n^\A\^

nl
i "

but r(\H"ixis,
-"'*

in Ot"*rtAin fWnulio:Js
wo

rhroniolos politir:\l
m.-n

ko]M
ot'

i'i;v;iio

lluH^"ii^.'"'''"
moiv ro. ou

ohson

"

Virsi. \]\:\\ this

is

\U1S\^)^^x^rt"\i
"4iu"r hand,
VWliMis
w.
.

authority; whiUs
tho
ri^nunor.:

iho

-~:io\vn. fi"m
/,s

l4^"iiim""iiv of ihe iu
.

i^uthors. \'.

mui

0iMit;4iiu\i l-urit^^t.^

All
Ml

in pn^K^hility,

:,

"uch
see

mth^Atio
HKvtive

$"CH\rc^

beii^

in

""xisunoo.
a

it is diflicult to
to

vlMit
A

"\Mild hiiv^

iuductni if he

individual pri\^it"^
tho

keep
been

similar do
$0 mow

chTx"uioIes ev^^i
; and "l

had
a

op^xatnuity ivqxiisite
could
one.

to

"ll ev^Jits
"

sucli

chronicle the

have

little if

^ma

transcript of

o6"cial could

Thirdly,
Fabius
?

such

piiTtte dironicles
xrith

existed, how

and

Cineius

p^"prietybe

called the tirst annalists

Fourthly,
more

Ae
and

chronicles,so

frequently recording prodigies,epidemics, ph^MMMiii^


than
SKvour

slrikiii^Mttural kopl by priests


We
we

mucli of
a

of
or

of the memoirs
of

warrior
more

therefore

opinion

that

it is much

the presemtkHi "^ IpniAble to assume "t" of tite 0"mm""lMiiBMfclifettm, pw^ of Oms^
At

the

Annales Uian

Maximi,

the existence

pimie
auM

dioraBMlfls of IIm
tOM

Stella doubted that


;

the

it cannot

be

many

of the
when
we

grettt ptttiKHta Ikmms


oaMMtor
te

kept "unily memoirs

and

nitMt

a ts

iifAiB"%
for

it is mdwil

UmA
a

"milies" "uch, of Ums^ kiiduig pait some 1^ fUbit played in the aBBsdrs "tf Some* chronicle^ of the g^us Fabia % or Idsteiy,
"

wouH,

o"tuii

peiiod,"Bd
It
^ewM
m

to

oonsidimbfe

extoot, be
of Bernand OM^ Fidw of

ebistotyof Robml Aiit Aft kudf^^


"M

probable CMqectare
of such
m

pwwMMn l^taiaa

duranicle Oie lUbii fUms

doouiM^ wbidi

by
indoced

lia^
to

oflftft wslms

the nuftdcs about Sdann^'^ kgiol ufciiMlii "f ttfo bJstoiyof tibe kings, and the Tbe
twnrar

to

infareace
155.

liM.

lit.

"

17S" Aml

138

"

an^

Awl

ffitt ^.

"

isnmT*

irmr.

lost

^^adwi

wf

tk" ike

wwimgHuf^
t

Kgfl feiM^ kMeg tkmmltgr


#Ctib^ aoMKil

Item ^ ike

a^ jkmH Mfufljr

cvMMMnt

fe Oar Jmw) li^gpnli" ""4fedt Mtonli rtigtTmmeWM:mikej9M2m-^^i^m"i,ikefmu^


'BSiiMMtt
MStt JMtfMHKi

liUHj

"if tihe

efM"

JnMB.

ii!0M.

Wm9,

2i4-^01

nci^

and

fe

l"

fluf

"

alMMMd^

Hie sKide. isppMttd HuA 9af jfMSe neefdi wcie ofilfMaltefnb "Millif Kiliiwi aad "Sam" aie cwijcdtwgd to Ittre liem ii%al lAcj loKwr 0C llicir0ini lc"0"^^
li "

ii0t

:i"

folt-iate

Bol

fa^

or

tir6" tetiber

on" tins

ww

"

^Wbett
r^ed

we

conikfcy

pfine^kii
tomhKied

tiie "texgy^, wtdligBnte^ and wkaek tbe Banans "iC polief wiHi
tmo

ajrflenniic
liad noi

mfy
tliat

ihe

Tmae
to

Wm",

1ml

tdndi

lla^

liad

isduhited

In lliar imitance

PjT^^

mdaSkweiA abonfc tlidr own tii^ aiid^lnitoij. Anatianw]iidi]iddfos(tik%to]^and c""wtitaiii"al ppeeedent in Hie adiiMBirtiaitkwt gf pnliiic

coold

nol

hawe

Ixen

gold to
"^?i

an

catoUklied
an

eoone

of

niort li^ piadtiee;,

not aeenedttcdyif

aallMnl^

and

trneliaditaon temer and


socectf^

^psMsltianiafitJtiiiif; neufcetiDg sta


ire^eam;
*:pee"mg ihe

daii0Ei%
decda;
tiieir
woe

leipeditig ila gneai


aoffm liie of tiie and

moi

tiictr great ibe

piditxal foni%
inftftirtea nrand

mSatarj

regnhtaau,

t^ffooM
and
1
*

^dndi

patf"]"]eledtngi dnstasd,

wludi, in tlietr Mi^


pu """.

T"i

e2

IX
the

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

sources

of

their

power whom

and the

greatness. high
and

The

leading
furnished

families civil
a

of the

State, in

important offices,
who

and

religious,were
of the
to

almost

hereditary,
censors,

succession

consuls, praetors,
Eoman
to

qusestors, and

pontiffs
the

people,
the

and

who

successively
Senate,
were

tributed con-

members

dignified Roman
a

less doubtthe

depositaries of
of

traditionary
far this of
or a

belief belief

respecting
was

past
and

ages

the

city.^
with the

How the

authentic,

adequately supplied
of such

place
shall the

history written
down from

temporaneously con-

events,
we

taken

the But its

mouths that

contemporaries,
a

inquire presently.
of

fixed
to

belief
time

in of

history
was

Rome,
in

from

foundation
among Roman

up
more

the

Pyrrhus,

then

existence of took the


a

the

intelligent and
and in the
one

instructed

portion
who

people,
part

particularly among
conduct who of its considers Wars." very the
^

those

prominent
be doubted of
state

public affairs,cannot
and political

by

any

social

Rome

during the Punic


here
to
an we

We

have

admission

similar

to

that Romans centuries

of

Schwegler,
as

which
time of

have

just
that

adverted.

The three

early
were
even

as

the
not

Pyrrhus,

is,nearly
their
own

B.C., Yet Lewis

"indifferent

about

early history."
Sir
are

then, and
that
to

although
noted

it is not
art

disputed by though
and
to
an

G.

C.
not

they possessed
have of constitutional
are own

the

of

writing, they

supposed
such
course even

it down.

Nay, supposed
for

they

were

lovers of

precedent
not

established recorded of

practice,they
events

have
benefit

the

of Sir G.

their C.

times
as we

the

their
that

posterity;
Fabius who from Sir and

for

Lewis,

have
whom their
men.

seen,

thinks

Cincius, the
a

first annalists

he

recognises, entirely glaring


fining con-

flourished tradition G.
C.

century later, drew


the memory of of old

narratives

and

Lewis's

character

the

Romans

is in

Here the

Sir

G.

C.

Lewis

adds

in

note,
to
a

"

This
small

system
number

of of

practically
Roman

chief

offices of the

republic

families

must

tended, by preserving politicaltraditions, and politicalinterest, to perpetuate the history of the past."
a

have

concentrating

Vol.

i. p.

83, seq.

SIR

G.

C.

lewis's

view.

Ixi

contradiction that
aware

with took its

his

estimate

of

their in

history.
it, that

He

admits
were

they
of

the

greatest
for and

interest the

they
of

importance
it from

establishment took for


not

tutional consti-

precedent,
care

yet

they

the benefit

slightest
of their

to

preserve

oblivion

the

posterity!
But is had
as

it

probable,
time of

after

the

many interest

vicissitudes
was

which

Eome
so

undergone,
the

that

this
?

first awakened in

late

Pyrrhus
fixed

Or

that

spite
"

of of

"

the
the

and intelligence Eomans


romance?

systematic
time,
it
was

principles of policy
founded that better energy materials

of

that If

these from
were

principles were
such

on

mere
stitutional con-

their
have

precedents
without
to

drawn,

they
bitter

had

been

them
seems us

; to

and be
a

the

intelligence and
but
a

attributed

them Let

nothing
few
more

irony.
In vol. i. p. of of

observe

contradictions. the historical the

119,
the the

Sir best

G.

C. Lewis

affirms
statesmen

that and
not

knowledge beginning
a

informed Punic in the of

pontiffsat
reach
"

Second And

War
next

did page Second the

much Those
were

beyond
who

century.
at

he

says Punic

lived

the

beginning acquainted
century

the

War of than

doubtless
time and

better of of the the

with

constitution

that the

immediately
age could

preceding
be. have Their been

writers of

Augustan
times

knowledge
authentic if
an

the

earlier
fused, con-

must,
even

however,
where it
was

imperfect, faint, and


on

founded

though
was

meagre made

traditions,and
to

positivelyerroneous
outline. any the but The Eoman fundamental Decemvirate

attempt
in

fill up

the

constitution

had the

not,

indeed,
of 230 War law the 300

undergone
years between 218

change
and this of the

interval Punic

Second the

(449
of

"

B.C.) ;

during
laws of law 359

period
367

Canuleian the laws law


of of portant im-

445

B.C., the Publilius the

Licinian

B.C.,

Dictator
B.C., and

Philo,

B.C., the

Ogulnian
formed

Hortensian

of

287

B.C., all

steps
That Punic their War

in the

development
the
a

of the
at

Eoman time of

constitution."
of the G. the

is, though
had

statesmen

the

Second

only
for

confused

knowledge

history of
C.

country

the

previous century, yet

Sir

Lewis,

Ixii
at

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

even

this

day,
it for

can more

go

back than

and

make
that

positive assertion
and
can

respecting
the
was

double
which of

time,
Eoman

trace

successive

measures
a

by

the
230

constitution

developed during
War agree there here
!!

period

years

beforethe Second

Punic We

with
can

Sir G. he,
no

C. Lewis's
authentic records
?

main

position,that without
what that
were

record
the laws laws

history. But
And that
were

cited

but and

to

suppose

these of of is the the


to

stood

isolated under

alone,
which

and

all

knowledge
and

circumstances

they
meant

passed
attain
was

objects
suppose

which
an

tliey

were

to

lost,

absurdity. attempted
not to

Having
we

show

by arguments,
before

some

of

which,
and in in

believe, have
sources

been the the

employed,
of

that

direct

authentic
the Annales

for

early history
Commentarii
we

Eome

existed
and

Maximi,
and

Pontificum,
now

family
some

memoirs other and

records,

will which

proceed

to

consider served
to

collateral confirm the

sources,

might
first
"

have

check

history,and
these
we

where

needful,
mention appear Libri

to

suggest
Libri have

restorations.

Among
from of the the the

may

the
to

Pontificum,
been The distinct
contents
were

Pontificii,or

Pontificales
"

which and the

Commentarii may the be

Augurales.
their and
name.

latter

inferred of

from augurs, of that facts

They
have That

registers of
the laws

college
traditions

must

contained

and

priesthood.
or

they occasionally precedents


is
"

contained shown etiam

historical

tutional constiof

by
a

the

following
fuisse

passage declarant It is

Cicero

Provocationem

regibus
both the the

pontificiilibri, significantetiam
fair inference from this passage reached have

nostri that up
to

augurales."^
Libri
time the of the

Pontificii

and

Libri

Augurales they
The
must

kings
of the

at all events,

contained of the

traditions

regal period. by
that Prom dictator
1

antiquity
obsolete for

Libri Thus

Augurales
Van-o for

is supported

their had

language.
in the

remarks,^ tempestatem.
learn
'

they

tera

terra, and
same

tem^pestutem books,

another
was

passage

we

that that

anciently
2

called
Lat.
v.

Magister
21 ; vii. 51.

Populi
^

is,

De

Rpp.

ii. 31.

u^g.

cic.

Dc

Rep. i. 40.

LIBEI

PONTIFICALES, the
was

AUGURALES,

ETC.

Ixiii
his ordinate subof been

commander

of officer

whole

army,

or

people

; while

only Magister Equitum,


These books
seem as
"
"

commander
to

the

knights, or cavalry.
called
"

also in

have

sometimes passage
:

Commentarii in
"
"

Angurum,
Commentariis habemus nefas." Libri
^

the that

following
is, of
our

Itaque
augurs

nostris

college
gurante,
We

of

scriptum
habere the

Jove

tonante

ful-

comitia

populi
that and

may

suppose

Pontificales
as

contained

the

pontificallaws
those of the

customs,
Thus
at

just
we

the

Augurales
cited

contained from them

augurs.

find

passages

relatingto
"c.
of There the

observances
were

at sacrifices,^ funerals,'"^ on

holidays,*
those

other

sacerdotal

books and the

of

this

sort, as

Salii,called
The of
were

Agonenses,^
Commentaries them. also

Commentarii

Quin-

decemvirorum.^ the foundation

of Numa
to

probably formed
Servius,
"

According
called

the

Libri haec

Pontificales numinum in

'Indigitamenta
deorum it may
et

Nomina

Indigitamentis inveniuntur,
et
"

id

est,

in

libris

pontificalibus, qui
nominum continent
were

nomina
'^

rationes

ipsorum
that the the

;
more

though
modes
=

be

suspected
the

Indigitamenta
proper prayers

particularly books
of

containing
And dei

to, and

addressing,

different
so

deities, from
Macrobius
"

indigitare
Eadem sacris

imprecari,
fovetur

incantare.^ medici

opinio

sospitalis et
; namque

in

nostrisque
ita of the tilian Even of

quoque

Virgines Vestales
The time

indigitant: Apollo Msedice, Apollo Psean."^


Salian it in Latin
was

language
of

books
no

was

so

ancient

that

in the

Quin^^

longer
of

understood

by

the
a

prieststhemselves.
student obscure them

the

time

Yarro,

^lius,
over

distinguished
to

literature, passed
; and

many considered

passages be
seven

in

interpreting them
1

Varro

Cic.
Varr. Varr.
"

De

Div.

ii. 18. Lat.


v.

2 ^ *

Ling.
ib. 98.
quae

23

Serv.

^n.

xii. 603,

Festus,
a

p. 189, opima. genere ]ibros

Sane si

ferise

quo

hominum,

vel

quibus diebus
"

fieri permissa

sint,
^

quis
R.

scire R.

desiderat,
ii.

legat." pontificales
" " "

Serv.

Georg.
Nat.
114.
c.

i. 272

of. Colum. Varr. Ad. Sat.

21, 5.
vi. 14.

Ling. Georg.
i. 17
;

Lat. i. 21.

Censor,
Paul. Inst.

De

Die
p.

17.

Diac.
Or. i.

of.

Schwegler,

S.

32.

6, 40.

bdv centuries the old.^

SOURCES

UK

ROMAN

HISTORY.

Horace
:
"

also

notes

their

obsolete

language

in

following
"

lines

Jam

saliare
mecum

Numae

carmen

qui laudat, et
vult

illud

Quod

ignorat solus
Libri of
were
a

scire videri."^

The

Libri
name

Lintei, or shows,
that

Magistratuum,
the made passage Lintei there in in the
to

contained,

as

the first ever, how-

second
name

lists

magistrates, while
of in and says the linen.

the

indicates
is of

they
from

Becker,
before

opinion,
that
:

Livy
Libri that Libri with

quoted
of

(Lib. iv. 7),


were

the

Libri

Magistratuum
the consuls

distinct year
were

because
not

Livy
mentioned

that

Magistratuum,
the Ardeates
names

though they
and then

were

mentioned

treaty
in

adds
both

that, according
in the follows distinct Libri from from and

Licinius and

Macer,
the

their

appeared by
no

Lintei this the this

treaty.
Libri
are

But

it

means were

passage Lintei. is Thus

that

the

tratuum Magishere

They by
Lib. in

used

as

convertible
which

terms,
so uses

shown

other iv.

passages he says
;

in
"

Livy
tarn

them.

20,

Quod

veteres

annales, quodque
Monetae

Tnagistratuitmlibri, quos
Licinius shows that citat the
"

linteos

in

sede

repositos
And

Macer passage of the

idenLibri Nihil inter

tidem
Lintei

auctores."

another the
names

really contained
constat

magistrates :
anno

enim

disi in libros

linteos
"

utroque
which
or

relatum

nomen magistratus prsefecti

(Lib. iv. 13).


in their

The

first
to

of

the
to

passages
A.U.C.

authority
than indeed
on

is

appealed
a

relates

310,
of

B.C.

443,

more

half it is

century

before

the that

burning
these
were

the
were

city ;
in

and

not

pretended
since the

books

destroyed
the

that
Juno

occasion,
Moneta
on

they
One

preserved
never

Temple
the

of

Capitol, which
would have

fell from himself

into

possession point
but which appear in

of
that

the

Gauls.

think

this
on

circumstance
the

Livy
cause

might

satisfied books

question by
some or

consulting the
another
than
"

themselves;
his
"

from
we

probably

idleness, of
he does
not

shall have

find done
^

more
so.

this

example

to

Ling.

Lat,

vii.

2, seq.

gpp.

ji, j^ gg^

Ixvi existence of
in

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

Numa's
monumentis

laws

"

Et

animos,
ardentes

propositis legibus
consuetudine
et
^

his,

qnas

hahemus,

cupiditate again: juris


quas
et

bellandi autem

religionum
diutiirna
:

cserimoniis pax Numse etiam

mitigavit :
mater

"

and urbi

"Ilia

huic

religionis fuit
^

qui legum
thinks Numa's
^

scriptor fuisset,
word
not

scitis extare^ after

Schwegler,
the last passage
;

Osann,
that

that laws

the could would in

fuisset
have

in

shows
we

been

written

that

must

supply,
had

Numa been off in


to

have
use.

written Tlie
so

them,
sentence
w^e

if at that is

time

writing

common

fragmentary, breaking
what it Cicero
was was an

the add.
to

middle,
But the the
we

that be

know
sure

not

going

may

quite
Numa

that

not

objection
because

possibilityof
passage and first

having
Cicero

written

his of

laws,

in

quoted
in and
a

speaks
before
to

their

positive existence,
see

because,
litercB time of

passage dodrince

cited, we
been in
a

that

Cicero

believed in the

have

already
passage,

inveteratw also and


:

Eomulus.* that Festus Numa

And

Livy,
of Numa's

before

quoted,^ says
to

delivered

his

laws laws

written
as

signed
"

Marcius. in Numae alludes


to

speaks
of Tullus

written

Itaque
Tacitus

Pompili regis legibus scriptum esse," ^ "c.


a

law

Hostilius, and
as

speaks
of in

of

Ancus

Marcius

and

Servius

Tullius

lawgivers.'''
that the laws Numa had of been this absorbed

Schwegler
in the

infers

Pontifical

books,

citing
and

support

opinion
But the It

Festus
passage
runs as :

(p. 189, Opima)


in Festus follows
"

Plutarch

(Marc. 8).
Pontificum,
secundis
:

leads

to

directlyopposite conclusion.
esse

Testimonio

libros pro

in

quibus

sit

Pro pro

primis spoliisbovem
tertiis agno

(bove)

solitaurili-

bus,
reges

publice

fieri debere

esse

etiam

compelli
talem Jovi
a :

(Pompilii regis?) legem


classe darier from law of

opimorum
Now,
when and

spoliorum
writer

Cujus auspicio
Feretrio passage

procincta opima
Pontificum,

spolia capiuntur,
a

oporteat," "c.
the Libri

cites there
same

then

adds,

is

also
1

King Pompilius (" esse


14.
2

etiam," "c.) on
Dionys.
ii.

the

De B.

Rep. ii.
i. S.

jijid. De Ann.

y.

2 ; cf. ii.

24, 63, "c.


^

3
**

25, Aiim.

7.

" ^

Rep.

10, 18.'
:

lj^.

i. 20.

P.

178, Occisum.

iii. 26

xii. 8.

LEGES

REGI^.

Ixvii

subject
two

of

Opima
were

Spolia, the
distinct.
^

necessary

inference

is that

these

documents

Schwegler
the
want

argues

that written

the

decemviral

legislation shows appeals


to

of

previous

laws,
the

and

the laws that down

mony testisisted con-

of

Dionysius that,
of the traditions the force the the

before of of

Twelve

Tables,

only
a

juristicpractice,and
had of been which written
was

only
in
to
so

little

having
sacred

law

certain the

books,
But He

knowledge language
says that of

confined is not half

patricians.
as

Dionysius
was

strong
in

this.
"

only

all law
to, was.

not

comprised
rerafyixeva
we are tending con-

writing
"

ovh'' iv
this

ypa(j)aL^ airavra
that
were a some

hiKaia
that

(x. 1)

and for

shows

All

is,
that

that there

there
was

certain

written

laws

of

the

kings, not might point


of the mentioned have

complete

body
time.

of

them,
And be

which
to

sufficed passage

for

all

subsequent
same

this

another

of the when

Dionysius
that historian

may

cited,not
to
a

by Schwegler,
and

alludes into the laws "It of of

law

kingly period having


quotes
a

been from C.

incorporated
the tvritten observes:^
a

Twelve

Tables,
On for
a

passage G.

Numa.^
easy

this

subject
in his

Sir

Lewis entered

was

pontifical scribe,
law attribute But it to

who

rule the
or a

nary consuetudiof the


a

to dignify register,

it with

name

lex

regia, and

Numa,
easy

Servius,
to

one

of

other this

kings."
sort,

it is still it is not For


to

more

make

conjecture of
but the
"

though

only against all evidence,


think that codes be of

against all
most

probability.
of all human

law,

sacred could among be


a so

institutions,could
this
as

trifled with and


us

nay,
too
"

forged
"

in

free Sir and

and G.

easy C.

manner,

that

people who,
all

Lewis

tells

himself,

held

to legal strictly

constitutional in fact
can one

precedent," is contrary
most

to

experience, and
It

of the

random

and

sible imposthe of had sub-

suppositions that
wiU,

be

imagined.
be
were

perhaps,
their Tables
to

at

all

events

allowed older

that than the

what

Eomans the
sense
1

called

Leges Eegise
; for

laws

Twelve

it

is

not

improbable they
were

that

they

enough
B. iv

discriminate

whether

prior or

i. S. 26.
ois

KoX

ovTw

yeypanraL

"

owsp

ovk

av

typaxpfu."

ii, 27.

Yq].

i. p. 526.

Ixviii that
easy

souKCES

of

koman

histouy.

sequent
it have which

to

great epoch
after the

in

their

legislation.Nor
of the Twelve
to
a more

would

been

promulgation
was

Tables,
exact

by

their

jurisprudence
that
a

reduced
the

science, to pretend

law

passed by
is it for

assemblies obvious
an

of

the

people
motive

was

regal law;
could have

neither been

very such

what

there the

making
the

attempt.
of half faith the
a

But

period
the and

which

elapsed
it

between

expulsion
about of stretch

kings
believe
to

and

decemviral

legislation is only requires


that the
no

century,
be.

therefore

great
of G.

to

that

the

Leges Eegiae were disputed conflagration.

really what
laws
Sir the

they professed
Twelve Tables observes
:

It is not the the

survived
*'

Gallic

C. Lewis

That

decemviral the

legislationwas
text

preserved
cannot

with

perfect
^

fidelityin
Where,
or

original authentic
the

be

doubted."
a

then, is
older

improbability
also
"

that

laws On

only

century

two

may
:

have would laws


^

survived? be
were
"

this

subject
to

Niebuhr doubt time that of

observes the

It

arbitrary scepticism
written

early Roman
laws of the

long by

before of
a

the lection col-

the of

Decemvirs,"
the

and,

The

high antiquity
one

kings compiled
Mere
of the

Papirius
be

seems as
a

unquestionable."^
reason

antiquity
Roman laws between that

cannot

alleged
have
are

why
for

the

laws
are

kings

should that and

perished,
ten

there

Anglo-Saxon
the about interval half in the

extant

centuries times

old,
is

and

Numa

the

historical
Further

only

period.
of the

collateral

evidence

support
treaties of

historyof

the
of

regal period
Servius the

is afforded with the the

by

already mentioned,
and A

Tullius and

Latins,

Tarquinius Superbus
Rome

with
cluded con-

Gabines,
in the

treaty
of

between

Carthage
made

first year the

the

republic.
of Cassius after

treaty
and

with in the

the
B. c.

Latins

in

consulship
years said in
to

Cominius
of

493,
may of

only
it*

seventeen

the
to

expulsion epoch.
on a

kings, speaks
column

almost
as

be extant

belong
rostra.

this

Cicero brazen
to

his the

time, engraved
It whom
' "

which
^

stood

behind

is also

alluded
the

by Livy
1

and
112. 23.

Dionysius,^the
2 -^

latter

of

gives
Hist. Lib.

sub-

Vol.

i. p.

Lect. Lib.

vol. i. p. 6.
i. 33.

vol. i. p. 211. vi. 95.

Pro

Balbo,

TREATIES"

BUILD

iJS GS"

STATUES.

I XIX

stance

of
extant

it.

Scliwegler's conclusion,^
in the time of these that nuper very it

that

it could because

not

have in

been the
rostra

historians had

Cicero,
behind meminimus

passage
"

cited, says

lately stood
aenea

the

"quod
"
"

quidem
is not
not
a

in

columna since

post
that

rostra

logical one,

its removal

from

position does
are

imply
to to

its destruction. of the

These
which

all be have

the

literary monuments
mention. the

regal period
to
us

it may

necessary sufficed
events

It appears memory
at

that

they might
and the

preserve their

of the all
a

kings they
blank,

principal
the the

of the of

reigns ;

events
mere

might
so

have
even

prevented
names

history from
the
be in

being
not

that

kings should
the

be
more

accurately
than section
"

known,

and

whole

narrative after

nothing
observes is
not

fantasy. Schwegler,
his

reciting just
view restrain of with

eighth
:

of portance im-

book,

the of the the

treaties

just mentioned,
recited of of

The

documents

to

be

lightly
;

prized
are

from

point
The

historical
an

criticism and

they
the

boundary stones, scepticism.


the commercial will he

which

unbridled

less measure-

alliance

Servius

TuUius and

with the

Latins,
of

treaty
not

Carthage, by
any these

treaty

Sp. Cassius,
But
reverse

be

doubted

discreet words

historical
when the and he tional tradicludes con-

inquirer."
goes
on

has his

hardly judgment

uttered

to

by asserting that
these

history gains nothing by


the

monuments,
far from

paragraph by saying that, so


serve

supporting
has how of
!

it,they
We far this these

rather

to

show
course

how of

little the

shall

inquire, in the
may
as come

authenticityit following work,


regard
other
to

judgment

be

well within there the

founded

with

such

documents

its scope.
were

Besides

literaryrecords,
and of

also

monuments,
were

architectural
walls and

of plastic, the

regal period.
and Servian

Such

the
Vetus and

gates
the Curia the

Palatine erected

cities,the

Capitolium,
Numa,
the
we

temples

by
"c.

Eomulus,
the In of been

Tatius,

the

Hostilia, the

Tullianum,

Cloaca the the

Maxima,
way

Circus,
may

Capitoline Temple,
the
must
19, Anm.

plastic kings
before

principally instance Capitol.


These
1

statues

which the

stood

in the

have
5.

erected

S.

Ixx

SOURCES

OP

ROMAN

HISTORY.

republican times,
when to the he finished number
a

and

most

probably by Tarquinius Superbus


;

the
and

Capitol
names

they
the

would

have and

borne would

witness

of

kings^
of the of

have
and
were,

formed three

trustworthy record, dating only


from
statue

between

two

centuries the

the of

foundation

city.
Attus in have with the

There

besides,
carved

Junius of

Brutus,

Navius,

the of
own

wooden
All

image
these
been and
were

Servius

TuUius would

Temple
their
names

Fortune, "c.
tale, and
have

monuments

told the

connected indissolubly

of

their founders

prototypes.
the

Such, then,

principal materials
have been Eome. relates
to

with

which
of

we
a

are

acquainted, period for portion of


for that

which

might

used In

by
order

writers
to

later that

the
our

early history of
dissertation

complete
its

which

to the

external how

evidence

early period, it only


treated

remains who
were

inquire
Greeks. who the

history

has

been

by

the

writers of Eome

made

it their

subject. Hieronymus,
in the gave
a

The of

first historians in the

Cardia,

Thracian

Chersonese,
to

flourished first who of the

fourth brief
or

century
survey
of
as

B.C., appears Eoman the


to

have

been his

in affairs,^

history
were

Epigoni,
His

Diadochi,

successors

of Alexander the invasion of that

called.

subject led
and it
was

him

treat
on

of

Italy by Pyrrhus,
he adverted in
to

doubtless Eome. Greek

this

occasion of

the

affairs the
next

of

Timaeus,
writer and who

Tauromenium,
the
same

Sicily, was
his few the
siderably con-

handled

subject, in only
about
a

history
middle

of

Italian remain.^ the less

Sicilian Timaeus

affairs,of
was

which born

fragments
of

probably
B.C.,

fourth than His half

century
a

and the

consequently
capture
of Grsecia become
must

century
to

after

Eome have

by
with

the

Gauls.
him
an

vicinity
in

Magna
to

afforded

excellent

opportunity
and his

acquainted
tained con-

Italian
some

affairs valuable

general,
information
a

history probably
the of

respecting
the
war

early

times with

of Eome. the
^

He

also

wrote

history of

Pyrrhus

Eomans.

Dionys.
Snidus,

i.

6, seq.*
cf,

Tt/iotos ; de rebus

Gellius, N.A.
Romani

xi.

1, "Timaeus

in

historiis

quas

oratione

Grseca

populi

composuit."

GREEK

HISTORIANS.

Ixxi

The about mentions years

great
the

historians

of Greece Neither the

proper Herodotus former

knew
nor

little

or

nothing
once

Eomans.

Thucydides
spent
Rome writers. the of

tliem, although
his life
at

historian

last

of

Thurii.

The

existence

ever, is, howHellato

sometimes

recognised by
in

early

Greek

nicus, who
recorded that ^neas

flourished in his
was

the of

fifth the

century

B.C., is

said
at

have

chronicle the

priestessesof

Juno of

Argos,

founder and
to

of Eome.^ the Arcadian


; but

Cephalon though
these

Gergithes,
seem

Demagoras
also
to

of

Samos,
alluded
exact

poet Agathyllus,
were

have

Rome

early Sigeum,
of the

writers, their
a

date

is uncertain.^ and Antiochus the


name

Damastes

of also

contemporary
foundation

of of

Hellanicus

Herodotus,
of of Rome of

spoke
and

the

Rome.^
mentioned
to

Syracuse,*
that

geographer Seylax
pompus adverted who
same was

city.*
the

Theo-

the
a

capture

of

by
the
on

Gauls.^
tioned men-

Aristotle,
the

contemporary
also the adverted

Theopompus,
to

event, and

legend
the Gallic
a

of

the of

burning

of

the

ships by
of would

Trojan
also

women

coast

Italy.'' Heraclides
which sensation said Roman Diodes
we

Pontus therefore

mentioned
to

the

strophe,^ cata-

appear

have

created of

great

in

Greece.
^

Theophrastus,
have all been the

the first

pupil
Greek

Aristotle, is
who treated and but

by

Pliny
affairs of

to at

diligently.
touched information upon

Antigonus,
the of
same

Silenus,

Peparethus,
no

subject ;
nature

have
or

accurate

the

of

their

works,

even

of who

the

period
whom

in which 204
"

they lived.
122,
any is the first extant
at

Polybius,
Greek valuable
one

flourished from

B.C.
we

historian

derive

information

all
was

respecting the early history


the Achaean
seventeen

of Rome.

Polybius
B.C.

of

hostages
years Universal

sent

into house
"

Italy in
of he treated of the but the

167,

and

he
at

resided Rome.

in

the

^milius of the

Paulus,
Second

In

his and the

''

History
it with of the
a

Punic

War,
from

prefaced burning

sketch

early Roman only part


of

history

city ;

Ixxii

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

his

work is

still extant
the
account
as

that

is of the

any

use

for the

history
show of

of

the

kings,
alluded
on,

of
w^e

Carthaginian
have

treaty already
to

to, which,
in

shall the

occasion
of the

further Eome

confirms the
are

general
arrived

accounts

progress

during
We

regal period.
now

at

Dionysius
be Eoman than The

of

Halicarnassus, who,
the
most

to

judge
of

from

bulk writers little

alone, should
on

by

far

important
the life of

all the

early
is known work. been He

history.
what date in the
to

Of

Dionysius
the

more

he of

himself his birth wide

tells in
is not

introduction

to

his has
B.C.

exactly known,
between
soon

and 54

placed
appears

rather

interval
in

78

and the

have

arrived
to

Italy
lived made in

after Eome

battle

of

Actium years
;

(B.C.31), and during


and which

have he

at

two master

and

twenty

period
the

himself

of the materials

Latin

tongue,
the the his

employed
of

himself

the collecting

for his

history,by studying
most

ancient Eomans.

annals, and
He

conversing with
in his fell in

learned

the

mentions
which

preface ^
B.C.

second
book

consulship
was

of Claudius

Nero,

7,

and He he

therefore

probably
has

published about
the
not art

this

time.

probably

subsisted
a

by teaching

of

rhetoric, which
to

professed ;
as an

calling which
of

tended It
can

enhance

his

merits

historian. work

scarcely be
after that of his

doubted

that

the

Dionysius
that

peared apdid

Livy
The

Niebuhr's ; for he
was

opinion
of it must
wars.

Livy

not

commence

history till
conclusion in his

fiftyyears
the
"

of

age, have How

gether is altobeen else ad hcec

untenable. written could


nova,

earlier

portions
of

before he have

the said

civil

Prsefatio

Festinantibus
vires
se

populi quibus jam pridem prsevalentis


" "

confiipsce
vidit
avertam
own

ciunt
ut
me

; a

or,

Ego
dum

contra

hoc

quoque

laboris per
tot

praemium petam,
annas

conspectu
of

malorum

qicce iiostra ilia


tota

cetas,
.?"

tantispercerte,
The forces
a

prisca
which
to

mente

repeto,
from

people
desire

are

still the
must

employed
eyes have

in their

destruction,
which had

the
so

avert

misfortunes
to
same

and long afflicted,


can

still continued
wars.

the afflict,

state,

refer

only

to the

civil that
an

At

the of

time, the

first book

affords evidence
1

edition

it must

Lib.

i.

c.

3.

Ixxiv

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

With

some

of

the may

German

critics
arise in

Dionysius
a

is

great
of
the the

favourite, which mind,


German
for

perhaps

from
an

congenial
four in
one.

turn

Dionysius
for
the

possessed

eminent

degree
books
to

talent

and prolixity,

devotes had

history of
cannot the
same

kings, which
that it has
"

Livy
this been

given

Schwegler
admits in

sufficiently praise
breath and

quality, though
the
source

he
some

of

egregious
He has in

faults "is

blunders.

The

history of Dionysius,"he remarks,^


its

particularly distinguishedby
with of the his

great fulness.
he found

collected the up annals aU

greatest care
and let

all that

scattered
to

predecessors.
narratives of

And
be

if, in

order he

gather
and

the
two

crumbs,

nothing

wasted,
same

sometimes

gives
relates

divergent
as a

the

occurrence,

them

two

different
treasure

events, this completeness affords,


of instructive and

nevertheless,
accounts

real

important
that
tradiction con-

"

Other

items is
can
a

in

the

panegyric
careful
in

of

the

same
no

critic are^

Dionysius
contradictions he
was

very be and

writer

; that ;

important
he
detects

found

his
of

work the
; that

that

the that

absurdities
of

Eoman his

history ; study
of

is

very

careful

chronology
he
a

sources

extensive, though

consulted

documents

only
of

ally. occasionwe
own

Lastly,
may be
sure

he

was

highly conscientious
is in

writer, and
his

that

there the

his
and
our

work the

nothing
of

invention, except
On this
we

speeches
that

pragmatic reflections. early Eoman


a

may

remark

knowledge
to

history opinion
be of the

is not
on

sufficiently complete
accuracy asserted the many of

pronounce But if the

confident absence of

the

Dionysius. by Schwegler opinion

contradictions, as
test

after

Niebuhr,
The
we

is to work will

of

it, then
contains
a

breaks

down. which
ones

Dionysius
instance will be of

contradictions, of
means

here there

few

by
to

no

unimportant
in the
to

; others

occasion
the

notice

sequel.
Numa,
and

In

ii. 76 the
in iv. 15
as

institution

pagi
In

is ascribed the

to

Servius

Tullius. tribes
as
"

ii. 12

Senate
in

is

represented
the
2

elected
is

by

the

and

curiae,yet

iii. 67 in
v.

Tarquinius Prisons
13

described

choosing them,
L

and

Consuls
ii.

Brutus

B.

S.

100.

Buch

" 14.

DIONYSIUS

OF

HALICARNASSUS.

IxXV

and said

Valerius.
to

In been
a

iv. 21 trick

tlie constitution
to
a

of Servius

Tullius

is

have is

deceive
most

the

people, while

in other

places he
40,
iv. 3 while

represented as
in
v.

"c.),and
in

75

is called
a

king (iv.34, 37, Br]/LLOTifccoTaTo"; ^ao-tXeu?. In


the Eoman
to
a

democratic

Tarquinius
iii.41 Ancus. and
we

is made
are

patricianby
that he
was

people
that rank descendant time have In In

told

elevated
as

by King
of Eomulus
come

In
a

ii.63 Eoman iii. 29 the in

Julius

is described husbandman

Ascanius,

in said

the
to

of first

; while to

in after and

the

Julii of

are

Eome is

capture
v.

Alba from

Longa.
Eome.

iv. 51 iv. 91 in the

ridense the very


must

Sabine,
is

40

revolts

last class
same

exempt
it is

from said

military service,and
that

yet

chapter
its

each

of the

193

centuries

furnish

quota

of

soldiers. lived

In he and be he

fact,though Dionysius
obtained this defect
a

twentyand

two

years Latin

in

Eome,
;

never

critical of

knowledge
his
errors

of the

language
must

to

many in

contradictions of

attributed. caUs the

Thus last

describingthe
of the the who
a

constitution the

Servius,^
could

century
those built

people, or
In

capite censi,a
term

classis

like (a-vfifMopLo)
to

rest, although that


bore
arms. on

be he
to

applied only
says that Fortuna that Patres of

another of the of

place
Tiber

Servius

temple
12,
he

the the

banks

Yirilis,^ misapprehending

genitive
Eomulean

fors

for

fortis.Again,
afterwards may

inii.

calls the

senators

Conscripti {Jlarepe^ eyypa^oc), an


to

appellation only
whether and it

given long
These

part
serve

of them.
to

instances the

raise
a

doubt

sius Dionycareful has of the dates it


was

deserves writer. appearance with those With of

character
to

of

very

accurate

regard
great
It of the

his

chronology, though
from his it is easy
out to

accuracy,

comparison
see
own

Greeks, yet
was

how head.

manufactured. took with the Eoman the

invented
as

of

his

He it

chronology
down who the

he

found

it, and
or

comparing
names

Greek, put archons,


with

Olympiads,
method
or

the

of
to

the
temporary con-

Athenian

by

this

appeared
events

be

certain

persons

in

the

Eoman

Lib. Tux^s

iv. 18.

'

^f'dvSpflav trpoa-rjyopfvor^v, iv. 27

; cf. Yarr.

L.

L. vi. 17.

/2

Ixxvi

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

liistory.
follows
:
"

That

this

was

his

method

may

be

shown

as

During
of

which scarcity and


to

prevailed
Minucius,

at
B.C.

Eome

in the envoys of

ship consulwere

Geganius
into in the
not
was

492,
a

despatched
they returned
whom Gelon did that he the the
was

Sicily
the

buy

corn,

with

supply
in

which this from that

following
name

year. of any while

Livy,

narrating sovereign says^


For Sicilian that but the the the he what

event,^ mentions
corn

Sicilian

procured,
of ?

Dionysius
^ow,
on

then

tyrant

Syracuse,
on

authority
says
reign sove-

name

Gelon

Evidently
who and in he the

none

at

all. any

Koman

annalists

mentioned

named

Dionysius;
no

conjectures

first the of torians. his-

annalist, finding
fact of the
at
corn

name

public records,
inserted Sicily,

only
name

coming
guess, and

from without

Dionysius
and

searching

Greek

But therefore It appears

Dionysius
this from
account

flourished is

eighty-five years Dionysius


annalist,
did but
not

later,

impossible.
that Eoman and the find he he of that
as

this in

passage any

the
"

name

of the from that in

Gelon

searched

Greek
a

historians,"
of

finding in them,
received
was name

supposed,
Eome the

comparison
Greece,
that

chronology

with
event

of

Gelon his other

contemporary
: a

with

question, he
like

inserted all his

synchronism, by
struction con-

therefore,

obtained and

ones,

merely

inference.
to

With I

regard
that he

his

extensive
records

study only
with the the

of

sources,

we

may had Such

remark

himself

annalists Eomans.

who

preceded him,
conversations
while the

and
are

conversations

learned

not,

perhaps,
have

best

materials

for

history,
but the has
some

annalists of
a

could

afforded But

nothing

groundwork
here done in

compilation.
an

perhaps Dionysius
it appears sometimes Gabine valuable from
to

himself his
as, for

injustice,for
that he referred Latin

passages

work

original
of his

documents,
those
1 2

instance, the
are

and

and treaties,

references
ii. 34.
vii. 1.

perhaps

the

most

parts

Lib. Lib.

According
a

to

Clinton,
earlier.

Gelon

reigned

B.c.

485

"

478;

Dionysius places him

few

years

DIONYSIUS

OF

HALICARNASSUS.

Ixxvii

work.

For his
on

since,

as

Scliwegler says,
has thus of

there

is
us

no

reason

to

impugn
evidence His arise

good faith, he
some

supplied
the

with

valuable

important points speeches


of
most

early history.
reflections
to

invented from
want
are

and

pragmatic

appear inaccurate his tion." "invenof

to

judgment, and, owing


unfortunate

his of in

knowledge,
This

specimens
make of

is

admitted

by Schwegler, who,
to
some

spite

his

previous panegyric, proceeds entirely demolish


It is said his
as

remarks
as an

which

the

character

Dionysius

historian.
in

that

he

exercised his

little critical of view of of

judgment
was

selecting
in and in
are

materials shown

; that

point

quite unhistorical, Schwegler


says

by

his

pragmatismus^ by
means

which

another

place,^ that light.


of With
"

these

arbitrary details
of them

literaryword-painting,
a

he

has
to

placed
his

all the

early history
some

false

regard
as,

speeches,
which them He

quite impossible,
mouth any and
on

for

instance, that
most

he

puts
and

into the without

Eomulus,

and

of

ridiculous had
no

individuality of
his idea of the

character. Eoman

historical

view,

constitution But of of the


course

especially is
his chief
to

founded fault be is

erroneous

assumptions.
believed the traditions Where of
an

that

he

regal period

damentally fun-

historical. all with There character the is of confidence much

Livy doubts, Dionysius eye-witness.


this latter

relates

truth

in His

part
are

of

Schwegler's
contempt;

Dionysius.
but
no

speeches
of his
to

below
as or a

they

are

nothing
pay His

specimens regard
details
want

art

professor they

of

rhetoric, and

either
are

time,

place, or

racter. chaare

historical His

still worse, sound and he

because

often

misleading.
whole
we

of

historical throws differs


a

judgment
on or

is manifest his

throughout
narrative. should any in facts
cases

his Hence

work,
when

suspicion
from

Livy
when

Cicero,
he
we

general reject his testimony


not to

; and

supplies
may
1

be

found

in the

Eoman hesitation.

authors, Yet,
of the

in most

abandon

them

without

This of

expression
a

is

but iinti'anslatable,
from authentic
"

seems

to
nor

mean even

the

supplying
head.

details from
2

narrative and 6.

not

record, is, out

from
own

tradition, but

inference B. ii. S.

construction,

that

of the

writer's

Ixxviii
such

SOURCES

op

ROiMAN

HISTORY.

being the

character
in

of the

Dionysius,
hands of between found
a

lie has the

been

most

serviceable

instrument
out

sceptical critics,
narrative and

who,

by pointing Livy
or

variations have to thus the

his

that of
of

Cicero,

convenient itself faults

method
which

attack, by attributing

history

in fact

belong only
what
has

to

the historian.

After
insert

been
estimate

said,
of

it will

perhaps
"

be have find

only fair
been fault

to

Niebuhr's
says

Dionysius.
"for
one

I
to

sured," cen-

that

writer,^

wishing
feels that The
In

with and the

Dionysius,but assuredly no
gratitude towards
greater
the
were are

respect, esteem,
more

him

which
I find

I feel. in him.

I search

the treasures
that of

former had the


more

times, it was
than

general belief
mere

whatever
his
own

Dionysius
;

Livy
of his vented inwere

fancies there is

but,

with

exception
can

speeches,
:

absolutely nothing
worked up those

that

be

called

he

only
to
use

materials It

which is true

transmitted made
more

him of also

by other
Cn.
true

authorities.
and he
not

that than

he of

GeUius
that

similar

writers

Cato,
those gave but

and

it is who

unfrequently preferred
materials AU he
to

writers
more

furnished and

abundant

others this

who

solid

substantial

information. and is love

is true,
to
an

he

is nevertheless
rank with

undervalued,
than the that

has

claims

infinitely higher
him. He did This of and drew
"
"

which

usually assigned
of

to

worked

greatest
to

his

subject,and

he

not

certainly intend only


sort to ; worst

introduce that

any

forgery."
was a
piler com-

amounts

saying
that he
"

Dionysius prolix
no

the

preferred quantity
a

to

quality,
rather

from
a

Cn.

GeUius,

very

and

credulous

writer,"
than from

second-rate
more

historian, and

^ authority,"

briefer,but
character

judicious authors, Dionysius


of the
seems
"

like

Cato.

Becker's
and and

of

more

justly drawn, grammarian


about which

affords little room


and dialectician, and

for

objection.

subtle

writing
of

earliest

times,

numerous

important
task

contradictions

existed, he
far
as

undertook
be

the

impossible
of
*

so reconciling,

it could

done,
plication com-

these

conflicting accounts, legends


what
53.

and

of

extricatingfrom
true
^

the

appeared

and

credible.
p. 38.

This

Lectures, vol.

i. p.

Niebulir, ibid.

DIONYSIUS

OF

HALICAKNA.SSUB.

Ixxix

pragmatismus,
with certain

false view a proceeding from history,good-natured,but higlilydangerous, and


a

of

legendary
an favourable unon

accompanied

vanity
of the

and
as

envy well
on

of

others, had
historical

naturally
forms.

influence
his
must

his

narrative, as
Hence

explanation always
that
use

oldest with
to not

constitutional when in his he


own

we

him

caution exist

is not time

speaking
; and
even

of

relations

continued he has

these, perhaps,

always

adequately comprehended.
in Eome,
a

Although

he

lived

twenty-two
the difficulties
a

years which

he

never

pletely com-

overcame

foreign language
we

and
to

foreign customs
some

offer to
;

stranger.
for

Hence

may he

point

gross

mistakes

as,

instance,

when

translates
or,

Templnm
of KoWlvov

Fortis

FwtnncB
Salii

by dvBpeLa"; Tvxv^ (ii. 70),cSv


to

(i^27) ;
of Dius

ing speakFidius,

the

Colline

iirl rod lepo(f"vXdKiov


or

iv
The

\6^ov (ifthe reading be correct) ; lepS Afco? nva-TLOv, 6v ^VwfJLaloL ^dyKrov


double narrative
a

KoKovaiv

(iv.58).

also

concerning
avoid
or

Cincinnatus When such that those For

(x.17
errors

and
can

24),
be

is doubtless

misapprehension.^
cannot

pointed to, we
are

the

suspicion by
to

where of the

his

accounts

unsupported,

contradicted be

other

writers, a
his

misapprehension may and his zealous great industry,


accuracy,
to

possible.
attain

rest,

desire

the

greatest

possible
such

deserve
to have

to

be often

recognised.
consulted still treated
more

He

seems,

by
that

his allusions
existed of his

them,

documents,

when

; and

this
was

would

appear which

plainly if
the did times he

part
such

work
sources

extant
were as
more

of Nor
to

when

public

abundant.

neglect

private documents,
tarii Censorum." Sir G.
^

he

appeals expressly gives


to

the

Commen-

C.
as

Lewis
an

also

depreciating character
he often
a

of of

Dionysius
the
or

historian,^though
that the writer

avails
statement

himself
of
an

authority of
to

controvert of these

Livy,
putation im-

found of

on

discrepancy
in the
to

two

authors

discrepancy
harm and

tradition.

In

fact, Dionysius
his tions, invendone
d.

has

done

more

the

early Eoman
than

history by
he has
Gesch.

mistakes,
^

pragmatismus,
see

good by

For
Rom.

other

similar B.

blunders
i. S.

Wachsmuth,
3

Aelt.

2, St. S. 47.
vol. i. p.
246,

Alterth.

49,

f.

"c. Credibility,

IxXX

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

the

few

additional
to the

sources

that

he

has

indicated, or
and

by

his

testimony
memorials.
The

existence

of ancient

documents

historical

remaining Greek
us.

writers
was
a

of

Roman

history need
older of the Roman

not

detain
of in

Diodorus, who

somewhat
account

contemporary

Dionysius, probably
the
a

gave
of

an

kings
but appears and his

earlier few

books

his

"Universal ,remain. historian


to

History;"^
Diodorus
as

of

these
to
we

excerpts
as

are

all that
an

have have

been

injudicious

Dionysius,
loss of

not, perhaps, much


of the

reason

regret the

account

regal period.
of and and

Plutarch,
"

several

whose
"

biographies, as
of the

well

as

his
to

Roman

Questions,"
Roman
A.D.

Fortune

Romans,"

relate

early
about

history
46. Since

antiquities, was
his
own

probably
^

born

by

confession Latin
source

he his

was

only history.
Greek Zeno-

imperfectly acquainted
cannot

with

the

tongue,
of

writings

be
to

regarded
this

as

an

authentic had
as

Roman

Owing
writers

defect, he
materials of
;

recourse

chiefly to
of

for

his

Diodes

Peparethus,
; and

dotus, Dionysius
to

Halicarnassus, and
of

others among

especially

Juba
in

II.

king

Mauritania,

who,
Rome.
as

other

things,
who

wrote

Greek cites
in

history

of

Plutarch,
Fabius Valerius

however,

sometimes also
wrote

Roman

authorities;

Pictor,

Greek,

Calpurnius
use

Piso,
romancer

Antias, and
Antias and

Varro.
shows

His

frequent
Niebuhr

of
can

the be

Valerius
on

how

little reliance

placed
of

his
:

judgment
"

knowledge.
with with much

remarks and

Plutarch

He
to

worked be

great carelessness,
discretion.^
who of

therefore

requires

read

Appian,
the

lived his

generation after Plutarch,


history an
if it had it
was

gave the

in

first book It

Roman
even

account

of

regal

period.

is lost, and, been


of of much

survived,

it would
a

hardly have abridgment


The the
' '

service, as

probably

mere

Dionysius.
work, besides
that of

only Greek

Polybius, treatingof
loss need occasion
us

earlyperiod
Heyne,
Vit. De

of Roman
Hist. Diod.

whose history,
in

font.
2.

Diod.
3

0pp.

i. p. Ixxvi.
vol.

f. (ed.

Bip.).

Demosth.

Lectures,

i. p. 70.

Ixxxii Greek

SOURCES

OF

EOMAN

HISTORY.

language;
hardly
be

fact

which

shows

that

uo

Latin

prose

literature
It
can

yet existed.
doubted that the
of

works the

of the first Eoman

historians

contained
as we

the substance
find it in

history of
of later
sources

the

regal
they

period much
The derive
If their

the

narratives

authors.
did

question
there
there aU

therefore
?

arises, From

what

materials is any truth


a

in the

view
of

which

we

have

adopted,
of

that
at

existed
a

collection

public annals, escaped


had there
must

which,
Gallic restored be
no

events,

considerable that

part had
was

the

while conflagration,
so

which
would

burnt

been

well

as

circumstances this

permit, They
we

will have
the

in answering difficulty from the


sources

question. they
did

drawn express

thus

provided.
that

Indeed,
so.i

have

testimony
to

tifies Livy expressly testhe diligence of Cincius in consulting ancient ments. monuannalist From that mentioning the driving of the

of

Dionysius

clavus

at

Volsinii,
to

it and

appears

that

his

researches may

were

not

confined
credit

Kome;
an

therefore, a fortiori, we
use

give

him

for

industrious Plutarch
"

of

Eoman

monuments.

The followed

assertion Diodes
for the
or

of of

that
an

Fabius
author

Pictor mentioned
is the

mostly
work of

Peparethus
of his
too

by nobody

else,

insertion
"

name

in Festus to
on or

Ursinus
course

is

absurd

demand

Scaliger attention; though it


If it in
monuments
were

is of be

eagerly seized
that any

by

the

scepticalcritics.^
first which

denied

public
were

private by
the

existence, or
then

that

they

used

annalists, literary
we
can

only

two

hypotheses remain

by

account

for the been

origin of the early Eoman


upon
a

history :

it must it must
two

either have
have
sources

founded but
course,
De

popular tradition, or
and
a

been

nothing
not, of
Vossius,
^

fiction exclude
Lat.

forgery.
other,
and

These it

do

each
i.
c.

might

be
des

asserted
Romains, 72, "c.

Hist.
No.

lib.

3 ;

Closset, Historiogr.
B.

Developpement,
As in
.

ii.; Becker, before

Rom.
:

Alterth.

i. S.
rah

39, Anni.

passage

quoted

ro"TovTov

iv fjuSvou iv

dpxaiais evpc^v dvacru^oixivuv%Ka"TT6s


3. in

ypoufnus
Tis

Cf. i. 73, iK iraKaiwv

nipToi \6ywv

Upa7s
^

SeArots

irapaXafid^v d.v4ypay\ie.
3

Rom.

See

Becker, Rom.

Alterth.

i. 39.

Becker's is in the

argument

support

of it,

from

Fabius

having

written

in Greek,

highest degree

absurd.

FABIUS, that The


to

CINCIUS,

CATO,

ETC.

Ixxxiu

the

history is partly traditional,partly feigned or forged. of these two examination hypotheses belongs properly
internal

the

evidence, and

we

therefore

postpone

it to

the

second The

part of this dissertation.


next two

Eoman A.

historians

in the Albinus.

order

of

time
were

were temporary con-

C.

Acilius

and with

Postumius

They
in the also
^vrote

Cato, and
B.C.

flourished
annalists who
a

earlier

part of
Eoman

the M.

second Porcius in

century
Cato Latin still
was

These

in Greek.
a

the

first author Yet among that


at
an

attempted
be his
to

history
literature from

prose.

what the

predilection for Greek


may all age

lingered

Eomans

inferred national

the

well-known

fact himself
at

Cato, with
advanced of his

prejudices,applied
of it. It
was so

the wrote

study
his

also

this

period
to

life that

he

Origines,
in the the

called, according
and the third Italian of books cities.

Cornelius contained

Nepos,^
an

because
of the the the

second

was

account

origin of
the Punic

The the

first book book books

comprised
contained contained

history of
First

kings
to

Eome,
the
own

fourth

"War, and
Cato's

remaining
time. The

history down
of Cato
are

industry and
writers
^

diligence
his

commended and blunt

by
and any he

ancient honest inventions did


not

strong
us

practical sense,
think
that he

character, forbid
into

to

introduced which his he

his

or writings,

adopted genuine
to
:

accounts

sincerely believe
is, of
too course,

to

be

though

historical
seems

judgment
have of the

open

criticism, and

to

adopted

readily the
cities.
some

legends respecting the


elevated
a

foundation first Eoman

Italian

The

rank of

of

the

annalists

is,in
not

degree,
by
of
; their

guarantee

their

good
to

faith.
even

They
mere

were

authors

or profession, writing for profit,

fame literary
an

motive those

rather
events
an

was

give

their

countrymen
and
not

account

in

which

their

ancestors

connexions till the

had

played
days
hands.
was

honourable

part.
that

It

was

declining
meaner

of

the L.

republic
Otacilius

historical had

writing
been
a

fell into
tutor to

Pilitus, who
who
2
'^

Pompey,

the
1

first libertinus
Cat.
3.

composed
Nepos,
Clav.

history.^
;

Vit.

loc. cit.
c.

Veil.

Pat.

i,

7,

4.

Suet.

De

Kbet.

3.

Ixxxiv Cato
we

SOURCES

OF

ROMAN

HISTORY.

was

soou

followed

by other
the

Latin

annalists, of whom
One
wrote

shall
was

mention
Lucius the L.

only
Cassius

principal.
Hemina,
who four

of
a

the

iirst

of of

these Eome

history
was

from

earliest times, in
Piso he
censor

books.
who
to

He

lowed folin

by
time
was

Calpumius
whom

Frugi,
appears in

flourished
have

the He

of

the

Gracchi,
in
B.C.

opposed.
in

consul
him

133, and

B.C.

1*20.
consul

Contemporary
B.C.

with whose All written rude

was

C.

Sempronius
hitherto

Tuditanus,
from the

129,

work
the in

also commenced
works the

earliest appear

times.
to

mentioned driest of

have in
a

been certain
was

shortest

and

manner,

and

and

ancient with

simplicity
Piso Eoman and

style.
Hemina,

Cn.
was

Gellius, who
the

contemporary
wrote
a

first who
treated with

voluminous
of the
not

history,which
as

must

have

copiously
Tatius
savours
was

regal times,
related
the any work
"

the

treaty
book.

of

Eomulus
This

till the

third

prolixity
it appear may
clude con-

more

of

author

by profession ;
in the resembled
not
seems

nor

does We

that

Gellius that

held
his and

high post
somewhat
does
"

state.

in any

style high
who

that idea

of of and

Dionysius;
the value of

what work

give
to

us

his

he

have

rationalized

modernized
a

the

early history. Valerius


a

Antias,
or

flourished rather and At


a

little later,was

writer

of him

the
a

same,

perhaps

worse,
accuses

stamp.
him time does of of

Livy
lived
not

gives

very and

bad

character,

falsehood, invention, Q.
seem

exaggeration.^
the

the

same

Claudius
to

whose Quadrigarius, embraced Also

narrative,
before

however,
the who

have

period

capture
was

Eome

by by

the Cicero

Gauls.

C. Licinius in his

Macer,

impeached
66,
and would

for extortion
a

prsetorship

in B.C. Macer

escaped by
appear from

suicide notices and

sentence

of condemnation.
to

in

Livy
the

have

diligently
he appears tion inclina-

consulted
not to to

ancient been

records

moimments,
from

though

have

altogether free
the claims ancient
a

prevailing
Eoman

modernize also of

history.
among which the he

Cicero
on

place
sketch of
31
;

annalists,
of the

account

the

short

gives

early

history

in
^

the
See

second

book

his
xxvi.

Eepublic.
49 ; xxxiii.

It is valuable

Livj', iii. 5, 8,

10, "c.

PISO, in of

ETC.

"

CICERO

"

VARllO.

IXXXV

spite
that of

of

its

briefness,
in

as a

being
the

the

only
of

extant

account

period, though
a

mutilated time

condition,

from From the

the
a

hand passage

Latin it
was some

writer

before have

Livy.
that all the the

in of it

writers taken from

concluded^
; but

stance sub-

Polybius
Cicero

inference

the of

passage the Greek

justifiesis,that
historian. Cicero that derived who all

followed
on

chronology
hand,
of his is of mation inforEoman did

Mebuhr,
the

the

other

opinion 2 history.
not

greater part
that
so

from We

Atticus,
may any
at

had
events

likewise conclude for

investigated slight
Cicero's of the

Cicero
a

make chief the

original
therefore

researches

sketch. notions

Its of

value

is, that
have of

it shows in
:

early history to
with the

agreed Livy

most

essential
are a

points
marked
arose

narrative

though

there which

few

discrepancies,and
from
are

probably mistakes,
Occasional Cicero's other works of

perhaps
to

carelessness. also
to

references

Eoman he of does the

history
not
seem

found made

in
a

; but
even

have

thorough study
number
to
on

it,or

Eoman About

constitution. this Liv. time


a

vast

of

historians

(" scriptorum endeavouring


but
names

turba,"
to most

Prsef

)
new

appears

have

arisen, each

throw

some

light
have

Eoman

history;
and the

for

the

part
a

their with

works
some

perished,
of
a

only
come

of

few,
to

fragments
Terentius

their

writings,have
of

down

us.

M. his books could have from the His

Varro,
"

contemporary
The
were

Cicero,

styled
wrote

from many

great learning
on

doctissimus

Eomanorum,"

Eoman

antiquities.
called historical

only
his

works

of his which Avhich


as

really be
been

Annales,

must

tolerably copious
that
;

for the

early history,
Tullius Second called for Initiis of the be

it appears in

Charisius^
third book

the
a

reign

of Servius

occurred Punic

and

history
valuable

War.

other

works contained De Vita

cannot

properly

historical, though

they
his

materials De

history. Such
1

were

Populi Eomani,
which refers
to

See

ScLwegler,
runs
as

B,
:

i. S.
"

94.

The enim

passage,

the

years

of
quo

Numa,
nemo
2

follows

Sequamur

potissimum Polybium nostrum,


"

fuit in

exquirendis temporibus
i, 45.

diligentior,Rep.
^

ii. 14 Lib

cf.

Becker,

i. 48.

Lectures,

i.

Ixxxvi Urbis

SOURCES

OP

ROMAN

HISTORY.

Romre,

De
; some

Eebiis
of

Urbanis, De however,
His
book

Eepublic^, De
were

Rebus

"c. Trojanis,

which,

probably onlyLingua
many

portions
of which of Roman Titus

of
a

his

Antiquitates.
part

De

LatinU,
notices

considerable

is extant, contains

antiquities. Pomponius
up
a

Atticus,
scheme
he

the

friend

of

Cicero,

appears

to

have
a

drawn

of

Roman

hisi:ory apparently
Annalis.
It

in in

tabular

form,

which

called

recorded
every

chronologicalorder
while in it.^ the He

every of also

law,

every

treaty, and
were

war,

histories
seems

distinguished families
to

interwoven
several
at

have

written that of

the
the

historyof
Gens

Roman
the

families

separately, as
Brutus
; of

Junia,

request
It

of

the

Marcelli, Fabii, iEmilii, "c.


must
sources

Materials
extant.

for may

such
be

biographies
said that

therefore
were

have

been

such
one

polluted by
of
a

and partiality

family pride
be corrective
to

; but

biography
and there expose tells of
us

leading always
that

family
be
were

would

of

another,
and

would

critics
too

enough
who

denounce Indeed in

pretensions
that

egregious.
De Romanis
same

Pliny
the for that ^lius

Messalla
wrote

Corvinus,
his book
About of and the

flourished

reign

Augustus,
purpose.^
wrote
a

Familiis

very

the
from

time, Q.

Tubero

history

Rome

its

origin,which
The of work Rome. of

is sometimes Sallust did

quoted by Livy
not touch upon of

Dionysius. early period


which inserted.
now

Cornelius
wrote
an

Nepos, epitome
Roman

the
of

friend

Cicero, Atticus,
in history,

and the

Catullus,
facts of

universal

the

early

historymust
historians,
attacked
source

have We whose
in

been
are

arrived
and. As

at

the

greatest
have is the

of the Roman been


so

authority
times.

reputation Livy
his work and from

much best

recent

chief

and of

for jected sub-

the

history of
to

Rome,
minute That

has,

course,

been

the most

searching examination
such
was an

by

the

sceptical critics.
come

ordeal
to

it should be

have

out

totally
in

unscathed the earlier

hardly
of his leave

expected.
too

Livy's materials,
scanty
1

part

subject,were
and there
a 38.

and
Corn.

unsatisfactorynot
Nep.
AtL
18.
^

to
h.

here

loop-

N.

xxxv.

2, " 8; cf. xxxiv.

TITUS

LIVIUS.

IxXXVl

hole
success

for of A

attack; and
his assailants considerable

yet
has

we

will
not

venture

to

say,
or

that

the

been their the

very

great
is

ing. astonishon

part
find that the

of of

charges
Eoman

founded
and
^

their

own

misconceptions
Thus
we
"

history enumerating
who to

stitution. con-

Schwegler
the

among

Livy's
Senate

"

blunders

he holds
throne
; that
was

Patres

assumed

the
the
firmed con-

government
the i.

when

vacated Patres
were

have

been who

(Lib. i. 17, 32)


resolutions he he
new

the

Auctores also
manner

of the

people
in

senators

(Lib.
term to

17)

that when

misunderstands considers
senators

like

the

patres,
the Both

Patres created

Minorum

Gentium

be

hundred these

by
have

Tarquinius
been

Priscus.

acts, it is said, cannot


to

cause identical, be-

Tarquin, according
the

consentient

tradition, doubled
the
Senate

patrician races
a

(the Patres), but


these

augmented
their

only by
We the into that that

third.

have

examined
of this

points
need We

in

proper

places
enter to

in

sequel
a

work,
of them.

and

not

therefore

here show
;

discussion Patres Patres


as

have

endeavoured

the the

who

became who gave the

Interregeswere
their Patres Minorum handed the

really the
were

Senate also the

auctoritas

senators,

well

as

Gentium down

created "consentient
or

by
stem

Tarquin;
tribes, and
be

that

it is not

true, nor
doubled

by

tradition," that

Tarquin

patrician races,
a

augmented Schwegler
of ancient in them time for the

the
goes

Senate
on

only by

third. that

It may when taining perhad


use

true,

as

to

complain,
uses sense

Livy, phrases

speaking
to

matters,
more

sometimes

modern

which

they
such
a

in

his

own

; but
a

the

question is, whether


have
us,

of them such may

would be

moment

puzzled
know believe

Eoman,

though
not

its effect

upon We

who

the that words


on

language only Livy


as

through dictionaries.
have
known the
true

cannot

should

meaning
the of

of

such

concilium,
is be

populus, contio,"c., and probably only


the result
our

imputation
our own

his

knowledge
It would of

ignorance.
every

impossiblewithin
1

limits

to

examine

charge

this

B. gee

i. S.

108, f.
p.

below,

139,

seq. ;

254,

seqq.

287, seq.

347,

seq.

Ixxxviii

SOURCES

of

uoman

histoky.

sort

; such

an

undertaking
; and
even

would

rather be

belong
proved
a

to

regular
he may

edition
now

of

Livy
then

if it should

that

and

have

inadvertently
view of the

used

word

improperly,
no

in still,

any

candid

matter, this forms

serious

drawback
Nor

to the

general value
enter

of his

testimony.
whether

will
of

we

into

the
was

question
that

Livy's

ception conor a

Koman For whether faitli and allowed


a

history
the purpose he

of *a

philosopher
the

statesman. to

of

the present volume


the

it suffices

inquire good
and

related with

facts

of

early history
His work is

with

also
to

discrimination.

universally
guarantees
in

be

characterized and

dour, by simplicity, can-

love

of

truth;
His

those

qualities
than
so

are

better

for the the

of his narrative fidelity

all the
far the

sophy philoas our

world.

pre-eminent
he

merit,

object is concerned, is,that


sources.

faithfullyfollowed

ancient "Er

This die

is

admitted

by
effect and

Schwegler,
treu

who und

says:

gibt

alte
To

Sage
the
on

verhaltnissmassig
same

unverfalscht in in fides his


eo

wieder."^
elaborate
erat
rerum

Lachmann
his
sources :

observes,
"

treatise
et
eos

Livy

Summa
et

auctorum

antiquorum
est, nee
rerum nova

reverentia,

ac

religio, qua
nee
causas

sequutus

mirabiliaque narrandi, ingenio


addendi studio

rationesque
"Cum
. . .

ex

suo

cupicor-

ditate, nee

prsejudicatisopinionibus partiumque
fide

rupta"
ubi

antiques sequitur, et veritatem


non

sub

mythorum
sequutus
duxit."
^

involucris

latentem

emit

sed
aut

illaesam

servavit,
suum

Dionysius
omnia

recentiorum auxit
et

exornationes

ingenium
tempera
followed

ipsis verbis
that
a

recentiora

pro-

Wachsmuth not and

admits

Livy's annalistic
that he

method,
his that

though
sources,

philosophical, is
hence accords And
to

proof
an

him G.

authority equal
is also of Fabius

to

of the that and from

old

annalists.3 framed his

Sir

C. Lewis
after

opinion^

Livy

narrative

Pictor, Cincius,

Cato, quoting
Niebuhr
"

in corroboration One may


assume

of it the that
some

following sentence Livy


of his took every

circumstance
1 "

in
105.

his

narrative

from

predecessors,

B. De

i. S.

Fontibus Gesch.

Hist. S.

T.

Livii, Pars
42.

Prior,
"*

p.

83.;
vol. i. p. 248.

"

Aeltere

37,

"c. Credibility,

XC

INTKRNAL

KVIDENCK.

bound

to

show

in

what

manner

it been

originated.
formed.
as

For

this

purpose
course,

several
on
an us

hypotheses
examination the
most
so

have the the

They
it has

rest, of
come

of of

history such
extant
on

down

to

in

works

historians, and
inference
and any

are

therefore
;

for

the

part founded
as

ture conjecpassages

supported,
authors

far that

it may
seem

be
to

possible,by
favour
these
are

in The

ancient

may

conjectures.
to

objections to
to the

the

extant that drawn


even

history,which
it
can

supposed
founded
on

be any

fatal

assumption
are

have
its

been

authentic
and

records,
sometimes in the

from

bility, alleged general improbaare

impossibility,which
events

said

to

be the

displayed
marks its

supernatural
it The
to

which
in the

it records, in confusion

contradictions

which

contains, and
extant

which from tious, fictioral of it it is


to

chronology.

history being deemed,


not

these

considerations,

be

in

great part, if

wholly,
rest
on

though
tradition, some
must
a now

some

small
are

part of it may
of from

possibly
the

critics derived

opinion
ancient

that

great bulk
others
seems
on

have

been

poems,
"

that

downright
the

forgery, and
that
causes

others
"

again

which

be

favourite

hypothesis
;

that

it is founded
on

aetiology
to
are

and

symbolization
in the

is, either
of of the

fables
names

intended that

explain the
found
some

origin and
ideas

different

early history,or
which of the

stories

invented
are

to

symbolize
to

abstract been of

early
in their

Eomans words.

supposed
will
we

have each

incapable
these
to

expressing
in

We

examine will
or

hypotheses

order, and
of

then

proceed
The ancient

investigate the
that
was

charge

improbability history

possibili im-

theory
poems immense for Dr.

the

early Roman
forward may We be and
now

is founded and
to

on

brought
favour.

by Niebuhr,i
indebted for Lord
out

enjoyed
it in

awhile

this

country
"

Arnold's
Rome."

"History,"
But

Macaulay's
of

Lays
^

of Ancient

it is

going
;

fashion,
aUuded

It did
a source

not

altogether originate
in his Animadw.

with
c.

Niebuhr
6. See

Perizonius

had

to

such
S.

Hist. his Lectures

Niebuhr's edited

Rom.

Gesch. Dr.

B.

1.

268,

S.

(4te Aufl.) and


12, 17, "c.

(Eng. transl.

by

Schmitz),

vol.

i. pp.

NIEBUHR

POETICAL

THEORY.

XCl

and

indeed,
One

as

we

shall

endeavour

to

show,

it is

altogether

untenable.^
sort

of
at

historical

songs,

according
of in

to

Niebnhr,

were as we

those leam

sung
on

banquets
authority'
"

in of

praise

distinguished men,
the in

the

Cato, quoted
auctor

following Originibus
virorum
to

sage pasdixit

from

Cicero

:
"

Gravissimus hunc

Cato,

morem

apud majores
canerent

epularum fuisse, ut deinceps,


clarorum alluded
ut

qui accubarent,
atque
"

ad
custom

tibiam

laudes Yarro carmina


et
cum
^

virtutes.''^ in

The

is also modesti

by

(Aderant)

conviviis laudes

pueri
erant

cantarent
assa

antiqua, in quibus
tibicine." be
to

majorum,
the Camenae

voce,

The the

proper

office the

of

was

supposed
Niebuhr and

to

sing

praises of
his wliich shows

ancients.*
on

But,
omitted

among
one

quotations
that in held his

this this

subject,
of
esteem.

has the in

kind

songs,

singers
another quam ad
tamen

of

them,

were

no

great
in

Cicero,
"

passage
est

of

Tusculan
esse

Questions,

says
canere

"

Quam-

in

Originibus, solitos
de clarorum
non

epulis
oratio is

convivas
:

tibicinem huic

hominum declarat

virtutibus

honorem

generi

fuisse

Catonis, in qua
in

ut probrum, objecit,

^larco But

Nobiliori, quod
these songs have
a

provinciam history
who Nor it that

poetas duxisset."^
was
was

if in

the

Eoman

embodied,
fond his in of

Cato that

could

hardly

objected to them,
book upon hint That from
remotest

subject, and
of them convey connected
not to

wrot"

does
were

account

the

they
were

any

way and sung

with

history.

they
the

lyricalsongs,
of their could have

epic rhapsodies, appears


the flute ; and in snatches
no

fact

being
been

connected songs after

history
dinner.

conveyed
refutation ch.

of

For

more

elaborate vol.
L

the 5;
and

reader

may

consult Rom.

Sir

G.

C. Lewis, Band. i.

"c. Credibility,

6,

s.

Schwegler,
"

Gesch-

Bnch
" *

i.

" 23.
19
;

Brutus,

Tusc.

Q. iv. 2.

Ap. Kon.
laudes."
tbese addition. mentions

n.
"

70,

assa

Toce.

"Camenje,

ninsse.

quod
Niebuhr

canunt

antiquorum
:

Paul.
of

Diac.

p.

43,
does

"Camense."
not state
on

When

adds

"and

among

also

kings," he
in

what sang
that

That
are
^

Ennius
no

proofs

authority he makes the kings, and that celebrated they were


*

that Lucretius
in these

It is not them songs.

Paullus.

with

honour,

banqueting

Tusc.

Q. i. 2.

!/2

xcii

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

Besides, the

narrative

of the

regal period
which

is for the
are

most

part

exceedingly prosaic. The


the that

chief

exceptions

some

parts of
materials
like the

reign might

of

Tarquinius
be

Superbus,
to
a

contain

adapted
Queen
for

poetical subject,just
and several other
a more

i-eign of
better

Mary
defined

of

Scots,

modern

sovereigns. What,
or

instance,
in
a

could

prove

striking
than the

rhapsody
to

national
from final Helena? memory

epopee

Hundred
in

Days, Bonaparte's
his his

escape his St. the


more

Elba,

his

landing
throw, over-

France,
and

march

Paris,
to

struggle and
Yet of the among with these

banishment occurred

are

facts

which

have
or, at

in the

present
them.
Cato's
men,
a

generation,
But
to

least,
of

of

elderly
not

sing the reign


was

Tarquin
to

would the
at

agree of

description,which description
songs
a

sing

virtues
once

famous from

which

unfortunately
of for their

banishes in than which

these quently fre-

great part
more

history,the
allowed

actors

are

remarkable it may be

vices that

for their had

virtues.
a

And songs

though

the
as
as

Eomans those

few of

concerning
mentioned

historical

personages, Fabius very Pictor far from


sort

in honour in

Romulus,

by
be

still sung
a

his

time,^ yet these


Niebuhr ncenicB,
not not
nor
or

would

making
historical
But the

history.
songs in

discovers

another
at

of

the

dirges,sung
been formed
we

funerals.

Romans

could would

have have
can

always singing funereal


very

dirges. They
at
a

lively entertainments
any other would

dinner-party,
the actual for the

imagine
which them. and
a

occasion, except
have
assembled their have

funeral,
of have of
to

on

people
the sacred

sure pleawould
a

hearing
be

The

pra^ficseand
affair would These rite.

pipers
been

hired,
of

whole

sort

profanation
great
the have
not at

ever naeniae,therefore,howhonour

individual
been very

in whose

they
known have

were

sung, the the

could

extensively
Niebuhr
in the
even

among

people
basis
such the when

large, and
any

consequently could
of

not

formed
he

of

popular history.
remnants

thinks

discovers
in
so,

nsenise, or
tombs of

them,

inscriptionsfound
this
to

the

Scipios. But,
to

allowing
to

be

they began

be

engraved they ceased


1

be

only

songs,

Dionys.

i. 79.

NIEBUHR

POETICAL

THEORY.

XCIU

and among

might

take

their funeral

place,

for

so

much

as

they
that

were

worth,
other contend

written

orations, busts
for of

with All could

and titles,
we

family records, as
for
no

materials

history. they

is such

that, in

the

shape
festive

songs,

have

afforded

materials. these the and

Besides thinks that

these
the

funereal

songs,
was

Niebuhr in
an a

whole

history of
The

kings

conveyed

series of epopee. the


an a

rhapsodies.^
Numa of the
was

reign of
and the of in

Eomulus

formed

of itself

celebrated

only

in short

songs. of

Tullus,
formed
even

story

Horatii,
the

destruction Eomulus

Alba,
we
"

epic whole, fragment reign


the of of

like it

poem

; nay,

have

preserved
has how
to not

Livy,^
there

in

the

lex

horrendi
a

carminis." The and

After Ancus

this, however,
the

is

unfortunately
must

gap.

slightest poetical colouring,


down
to
a us

question according

it this with which

came

therefore But the


a

remain, poetry

hypothesis,
L. terminates

mystery.
with the
at

begins again
epopee Its

Tarquinius Priscus, forming


battle of

magnificent Regillus.
deeds and the

of his of

parts

are,

the

arrival the of

Tarquin

Eome,

victories, his
criminal the

death,

supernatural history
murder of of the last

Servius,

marriage
whole the

Tullia, the

the the

righteous king,
tokens the
war

history lastly,the

Tarquin,
his battle

of

his of

fall, Lucretia,
and
a

disguise of Brutus, quite


in Eome
most

death,
of

Porsena,
These

Homeric and

Eegillus.
of

formed

poem

which that of the

depth

brilliancy
duced. pro-

fancy

far

surpassed anything
in the

afterwards

Deficient poem, it is divided of have


a

unity

perfect Grecian
with
one,

into

sections, which
; and

correspond
should this other any

the says

adventures

the the

Niebelungenlied
boldness if he
to

Niebuhr,
commit noble On

restore

poem,

he than

would this

great

error

chose

any

plan
existence

form. this
we

may and

remark,
the
; but

that

for

the

of there for

the is the

banqueting
at

songs

nseniae where epopees

before shall
?

spoken
we

of any

least

some

evidence these

find
use a

existence

of

supposed
of the

To

slang quasito

philosophical phrase
1

day, Niebuhr
3

seems

have

B.

i. S. 272, f.

Lib.

i. 26.

Xciv

INTKKNAL

EVIDENCE.

developed
passage
one

them
he

out

of

his

"

inner

consciousness."
of his

The

only
lowing fol-

which from

adduces Ennius
"

in
:
"

support

view

is the

Scripseroalii
Fauui

rem

Versibu', quos Musaruin Quom neque


Nee dicti studiosus

olim

Vatesque cauebaut scopulos quisquam superarat

erat."

But

the

reniy

or

subject, here
because and
was

alluded

to

cannot

be

any

of

these ancient
to some

epopees,
poem,

the word
a

scripsere can
the of

refer

only
^

written that

indeed

passage
to

in Cicero's poem of the there Fauni

Brutus
on

shows the

Ennius

referring
The

Nsevius

First

Punic

War.

whole

value

passage, existed and

fore, there-

in relation before Fauns epopees. the and time

to Niebuhr's

view,
verses

is that

long
"

of

Ennius
or

sung Now

by

Vates
were

poets,
For the those

prophets.
verses

these
as

surely
we

not

of

the

Fauns,

learn

from in

Varro,
woods

were

in

which

they
; and

delivered

their
in

oracles the the

and

solitary places
metre, in
which

they
had

were

rugged
poem

Saturnian
alluded

Naevius

composed
support
of

to.^
are

The

"annosa

volumina

vatum" in

mentioned his

by
view,*

Horace,^ though

also cited
the like admission those For of
^

by

Niebuhr that

with

these
"

were an

probably prophetical
admission
taken which is of the

books,
doubtless
what

the

Marcii is the word enim solum

correct. meant
:
"

such

view

by Cicero
from vaticinanetiam

Ennius

by the
"

vates, as
modo

appears nmlta
a

following passage
tibus ssepe

Eodem neque
olim

praedictasunt
'

verbis, sed

Versibu',

quos

Fauni

vatesque canebant.'
vates

Similiter
Ennius Marcius

Marcius

et
was

Publicius

cecinisse metrical of which

dicuntur."^

therefore
and in

alluding
of the
to not

to

the

predictions of
we

Publicius,

former

have

specimen

Livy,^and
had
seq.

any poems

historical
ever

epopees.

Moreover,
1

these

epic

existed, it is

most

Cap. 19, 75,


"

Fauni

dei

Latinorum,
in

ita

ut

Faunus

et

Fauna
est

sit ; hos

versibus,
futura
a

quos quo

vocant fando
3 s

Saturaios,
Faunos

silvestribus
"

locis

traditum

solitos

fari

dictos."

L.L.

vii. 36.
*

Epp.
De

ii.

1, 26.
i. 50, 114, seq.

B. i. S. 274, Anin. Lib.


xxv.

688.

Div.

"

12.

NIEBUHR

POETICAL

THEORY.

XCV

extraordinary
but should fain be

that that

they
not

should
a

not

only
of author. in the

have

entirely

appeared, dis-

even

hint

their

former Niebuhr

existence would
car-

found
to
some

in

any

ancient of in them his the

point

traces

"

lex of

horrendi the

minis,"
Horatius sub
carmen or

quoted
;

by
he has order

Livy
taken
to

narrative

trial
a

of

and

liberty of altering it
with his for

little,
But

silentio,in
is
a common

make

it square any

theory.
the

expression
^

legal,constitutional,
of tortured

religiousformula
Niebuhr's ad

nor

can

the

substance be

law,
into

even

with Its

libitum

emendation,
rather
more

metre.

form,

though
that of third that because the

perhaps
the book

antique,
Eoman laws We

very

much

resembles Cicero well in

specimens
of his De

of

given by might
as

Legibus.
was

contend

Livy's history
his

originally written
with like
an

in

hexameters,
as

preface quite
and any
not

opens
a

imperfect one,^
The the the the tion assump-

infer of

metrical
a

history from
is

law

this. with

such of the

history
Eoman
we

at variance

unpoetical
earlier reader

nature

mind,
need this

especiallyin longer
It
was

days
with

of
an or

Eome.

But

detain

examination
at all events

of very of

theory.
second

partially abandoned,
himself,
that and

extensively modified, by Mebuhr


his

at

the
now

beginning
authors all events

volume,

we

believe

it is

pretty universally rejected by


are

scholars.

Some
or

of best

opinion

that

the for

early
a

Eoman direct
^ :
"

history,
and
It has
a as

at

the Thus

materials C. Lewis

it, is
remarks

faced barebeen
on

forgery. already
Eoman mentioned

Sir G. that

Clodius,
the

the

author

of

work

chronology,
in the Gallic

described

early records
as

having
wards afterof

perished
honour
account to

and conflagration,

having
the view

been

replaced by registersfabricated particular persons.


of
a

with

doing
back

We

have

likewise been

cited

Cicero's

the

early eclipses having


solar

calculated

from These annals


See
"
-

certain testimonies had


the

eclipse recorded
to

in the

Annales
after
arose

Maximi.
the

lead

the

inference when
a

that,

early

been

destroyed, or
collected

demand
Lewis,

for annals
126.

authorities
operre vol.

by

Sir

G. "c.

C.

vol, i. p. 224, note

Factimisne

pretium sim,"
i. p.

"'

"c. Ci-cdihility,

165, seq.

XCVl

INTEJRNAL

EVIDENCE.

which
a

never

had
this

existed, forgeries were


kind for the

executed, by
of Rome

wliich
was

record

of

early period
This Clodius knows his

supplied."
"

Ecce
to

iterum let

Crispinus drop, though

!"

is too valuable who he


is the

witness

nobody
for is

is, and
such
a

though
writer
as

the

only voucher,
But

even

existence,
from been ?

Plutarch. Clodius

it that

evident, 'even
had
once

mony testior

of how Lewis break


were

himself,
be said
to

there

annals,
Sir
one

could
has
; but
no

they
two

to

have his

been for

destroyed
fear that the in weaker.

G. C.

strings only
show,
makes Sir from

bow,
weapon

should if there has

it

his G. the

For

annals,
to

as

C.

Lewis

another
about

place

attempted
which
Clodius and
we

passage

in Cicero then the

eclipses,
from
;

have

already examined,^
were

inference
ones

that

they
were

replaced by
the is

fabricated inference It

is absurd Cicero evident


must
once

if there did
not
one

annals, then

from is

that that

they
either

exist
or

good
other who

for of

nothing.
these that

the
;

the

witnesses annals
ones,
or

be

carded dis-

either

Clodius,

says

existed,

were

destroyed, and
inference existed and
at

replaced by forged
is But admit have
no

Cicero, who,
that
that

by
never

construction,
all.
will
we

supposed
shown

to

say before

they
the

passage We of Sir and


a

in Cicero will G.
assume,

of

such
a

interpretation.
even

however,

for

moment,

for the

sake

C. Lewis's

hypothesis, that
; at

early
could

annals

had

existed
that of

been

destroyed
arose

what

period
was

it have

been
means

demand

for who that first

them,

which been for


a

supplied by forgers?
must

forgery ?
It from is the

and

could
a

have

the

plain
very

demand that been that took

annals of
at

have
was

existed
or

day
think

line

them all ? cared their

written,
G.

why
them,
a

should

they

have
to

kept

Sir

C. Lewis,
about write

however,

appears

nobody
it into and have
not
as

anything
heads
to

till certain

persons the

Roman

historyfor
earlier and that

public ;
must

they

wanted
to

materials

for the

part, they

applied
any

the Pontifex
earlier

Maximus,
than the

personage,

having

Annales

Gallic

conflagration, very
^

obligingly supplied
seq.

them

Above,

p. xxxvii.

XCViii
the

INTERNAL

EVIDKNCK.

kings, contains

many

consuetudinary, and legal, not possibly have proceeded


mean

concerning constitutional, could topographical points,which


from that any
some

details

but

native

pen.

We

not, however,

to

deny

particulars may especially,as


whatever
in
we

have
have
or a

been

supplied by
other
Gre6k

Greek

writers, and
But

already observed, by
in any Roman
or

Timseus.

Timseus,
itself
to

writer, would
must

have been

approved

understanding,
a

have
source.

derived, immediately
that the

remotely, from
could have the

Eoman been who

Schlegel's idea
for any to Rome

Komans
to

indebted

part

of their the

history
age

needy
is will of

Greeks

flocked

about

of

Augustus,
We

altogether preposterous. proceed


it C.
to

now

examine It
to
we
a

Schwegler's view
is constructed with
extent

of

the

origin

the

early history.
as

much been
in
a

and plausibility,

has

considerable will

adopted by
translation
"
-}
"

Sir

G.

Lewis,

give

it at

length
of

The of

true

and

genuine
to

tradition
"

of the

foundation
such
a

Rome,
ever

and

its earliest
"

fortunes,
have

if indeed been
soon

tradition this

existed,

appears

lost.
secured
to

And

could

scarcely be
or

otherwise.

Being
of
at

neither

against
thus from

tion destruc-

falsification the

by being committed popular poetry,


least in song,
mute

writing, nor
the

having
a

become firm of

subject
form have

and

obtained nature in

traditional
case,

it been

must,

the

become

and

extinguished

the

course

of

generations.
of the certain

It is very the the

possible,nay
Romans
no

probable, that

in

the

time

Decemvirs

longer
city.
and

knew in

anything
this
to

respecting
did
not

origin of
It

their
was

But

ignorance they something


no more

acquiesce.
existed and

felt necessary
events
a

say

definite

respecting a period
; and

of which foundation

historical
of obscure

knowledge
remembrances

therefore, on
constructed usages, process,
an

unconnected

legends

which
from

had proper

been

preserved,a history was


monuments,
the gap of tradition.

subtly
In
are

names, to

institutions, and
this
not

wherewith conscious
to

fill up and

deceit be

designed
; on Krim.

falsification

for

stant inwa?^

imputed
=

the

contrary,
Buch

full

persuasion

See

Gesch,

i. {j 26.

SCHWEGLERS

^ETIOLOGICAL

THEOKY.

XCIX

eutei-tained had been

that

in

these

narratives and be
not

the the

real

course

of

events
structed. recon-

divined, felicitously
It is
a

originalhistory
that
a on a

of

course

to
was

understood
at

history
whole,

devised such This


as

in such is

manner

first

connected Eoman

presented
"

to

us

in

the

works of

history.
is and with

whole,

in

which

the

legend
the that of the ]ine the

-Eneas' the

settlement foundation

brought
the of

into Alba

pragmatical Longa,
of the the and
so

connexion

with of the

history of
Ancus

Alban from

kings
the is

foundation
to

Eome,
overthrow thread

story,

landing
strung
historical

younger

Tarquin,
unbroken of
a

together by
narrative,
"

of

continuous,
whole
was

this
a

systematic
of it
no

course
common

first developed

by
at

knitting

together, and
doubt,

working
and

it, and

partly also,
resolve this

by
its

literary industry
component

reflection.
"

If

we

history

into

parts, and
to

examine
and

each

with separate part by itself, it appears different that the

regard
Eoman and

its

origin
and very

genetic motives,
are

legends require
certain the

traditions different
"

of

very

growth,

explanations.
first of all it must in the be

And

recognised history

that of

mental fundaare

things
historical, and

traditional from

kings
brance, remem-

derived
a

historical
one,

memory. of the

Some

though
the the

very of the

confused Eoman
we

principal points
was

in

development

constitution
cannot

preserved
from

till the The

literary times. kingdom


and their the the of

Hence
a

withhold of

constitutional
united

traditions the

certain and

degree
the

credibility.
; the

Eomans

Sabines

three

stemof

tribes,

successive

origin ;

three of the the


; the

centuries Senate addition

knights;
reached

successive
number of of

augmentation
three

till it of
a

hundred;
minores

plebs
of the

; the
census

creation
; the

the

gentes
of the

introduction
the of the

overthrow
"

monarchy

and

tion foundaoldest

of

republic although
which in which

these
are

fundamental in all

points

constitutional
; ones,

history
the

torical probability essentially his-

details, and
are are

especially the
as

numerical the causal

with

they

related,

well the

as

connexion

they

placed by

historians, may

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

nevertlieless
over

be

invented
of

or

formed
a

by
and

construction. luxuriant of

But

this

foundation has
now

facts

rank

growth
which in bare

of invention
we

entwined
more

itself; a growth
and

legends
them

must

closely examine,
has in

lay

their
"

germs.
A

distinction
and

general
is

been

rightly drawn
memory
to

between

myth
occurrences

legend.
the

Legend
from

the

of

remarkable in the and

propagated
of
out

generation
in
or as a

generation
songs,

mouth decked without A of

people, particularly
the

national less

by

imagination, design, opposite


historical thus the

more so

but arbitrarily, wonderful. If the

any is

conscious

to

become

myth
a

exactly
is
some

of

legend.

kernel

legend

fact, only

adorned

by

the

inventions
on

added

to
some

it,and

quantitativelyexaggerated, so
is the kernel and

the

contrary
of

definite and the

idea

genetic only
the

motive

the

myth,
which and

the

actual
uses

occurrence

stuff, or
idea
"

means,

poet

in

order

to

bring the

into If
we

view

contemplation.
view
to

apply
that

this it

early
both down.

Eoman

history,it
and

cannot

be

denied
sense

contains

legends
To

myths,
some

in

the
:

strict the
a

of them deeds pass of

just
an

laid

give
a a

examples

heroic

Horatius

Codes,
; Brutus

Mucins

Sca3vola,

Claelia, may
in like

for

legends

is
a

legendary figure ;
manner

the battle
and

of Lake
manner

Regillusis depicted in
the victorious hundred On
career

legendary
of the

; ; the

Coriolanus

destruction

of
to

the the

three

Fabii the the is Lar

expedition
hand

of

Cincinnatus
of

Algidus.
TuUius
; in

other of

the

creation prois
a

Servius
a

by
which

the

palace
the idea

specimen
the in

of

myth king.

expressed monarchy
contest

that carnate in-

innermost
this

spirit of

the

Roman the with

became

Further,

of

Hercules

(that
smoke bolism sym-

is,of
and

the

heavenly god Sancus)


a

Cacus, breathing
from
an

fire,is
of

pure

myth, proceeding Again,


the national
so

ancient the

nature.

reference mind in

of which

disparate religious original


the civil

elements
warlike

of the

Roman
were

politicaland
with
two

capacity
to

remarkably
warlike

blended

veneration, founders,
of

the

disparate personificationsof
one,
a

whom

prince, regulates

SCIIWEGLERS

iETIOLOGICAL

THEORY.

CI

and those
"

military affairs
of The

of

the

State, the

other;
is
an

prince

of

peace,

religionand
greater part
under the

divine
of

worship,
Roman of
to

historical

myth.
fall pure of

the

traditions, however,
nor an

neither ideal

definition
are

legend
use

under

that

myth
have

they
:

rather,

such

expression, aitioand
occurrences

logical myths
which

that

is, they
or

relate

events

been

imagined

subtly

invented the
name

in of
a

order

to

explain genetically some


usage, The It

given fact, or
is

custom,
"c.

worship, institution, place, monument,


a as a

sanctuary,
sort

setiological myth
is
a

peculiar
the

subordinate
event
one

of

myth.

myth
true

in

so

far is

actual

in

the

narrative it differs the

of which from whence but


one

it consists

freely imagined
as

; but

the it

myth

insomuch
not
an

its
or an

motive,
ideal

and

point
is

proceeds, is
and

idea,
which

contemplation,
narration The the
most

empirically given,
referred
are

through
indeed

this

explained
childish

to

fundamental and

causes.

setio-

logical myths history


Evander,
Potitii Palladium rape of of the is rich the

the
at

oldest

for The The

part
of the the

attempts
in

historical

hypotheses.
in

early
story

Eoman

such

setiological myths.
of Hercules

settlement the of of

presence

Rome,
and

and

Pinarii, the taking possession

saving
the

by the
the

Nantii,
the

the

sow

with bride of of

the

thirty pigs, the


fable

Sabines,

beautiful of the

Talassius,

Tarpeia,

founding
the miraculous

Temple
of the Attus
as

Jupiter Stator, the


of the and Lacus other and of

traditions

respecting
the of this

origin
deed
serve

name

Curtius,
traditions will the be

of

Navius,
of the

sort, may
from this

examples
view in 'Roman of such

them,
course

explained
rich
and

point

of

following disquisition.
a

Plutarch's

Questions'

contain

instructive

collection

setiological
kind
some

myths.
"

The

etymological myth
takes seeks
event.
as

is its

subordinate of its

of

the

which ^etiological, proper for very it


name,
some

point

departure

given

and actual

to

explain
The
sort

origin by suggesting early Roman history is also


a

rich

in

myths
been the

of

this

heap

of
names.

the

fables Such the


name

which
is the of

it contains fable of

has

spun

out

of

proper

Argos,

guest

of

Evander

(whence

(Ml

INTKRNAL

KVIDKNlK.

Argiletum,
Rome
;

Sei-v. JEn. birth of

viii. Silvius

345),

and

the

Argive
in tlie the

colony
wood bad
;
man

at

the
of

Posthumus
man, to

the
;

relation
the

Evander,
of Romulus the the

the

good
; the

Cacus,
of of the the

suckling

relation

sucklings
Fossa

to the

ruminal

fig-tree ;
of head of Olus of the

reputed origin Tarquins


birth from of Servius

Cluilia ;

the extraction
of the the

Tarquinii ; the
Tullius from

discovery
a

; the

slave
; the

building
of

TuUianum

by the like-named
burnt

king

idiocy

Brutus

; Scaevola's

right hand
of
Roman

; the

conquest
be
;

of Corioli "There

by Coriolanus, "c.
is

still another
from
as

sort

tradition,

to

distinguished
such of traditions actual

the may and and of

and setiological be described which To who


as

etymological myths
thus this
comes

mythical clothings
occupy head
to
a

relations

events,

middle
for the of him eyes,

place reign
divine bums and

between the the

myth

legend. Sibyl

belongs,
Rome nine in books

example,
of

legend
younger
at

the

Tarquin,
a

offers

this

king

prophecies
three of

high price, being ridiculed


then another the nine. this three An

by
his
the

them,
to

and the

three, before
still left actual
at

lastly sells
at

king
of

price
lies the from

originallydemanded
doubtless the

for the bottom


were

occurrence

legend; Tarquin
between

the

fact
to

that

Sibylline prophecies
Cumae of this in the is

probably
second
a mean

brought

Rome the

reign

of

the

; but

clothing myth. kings


seven

fact

invention,
same

legend
of the

and

Perhaps
seven

it is the

with these

the
seven

making kings

Roman the

in

number;
facts

represent

fundamental

of

the

older

(pre-republican)history
remembrance.

of

Rome
"In

which

remained the

in historical Roman that of

general
nor

myths
as a

have

the
are

peculiar
not

and

characteristic

property,
creations

rule

they
;

unlicensed

invention,
like the

the

fancy

and

particularly,not
Greek
a

greater part
natural
that actual them.
are

of the

narratives

of the

mythology,
of certain
at

myth
aspect
bottom

from but of of

philosophy, or
they
The
are

resting on myths,
real Romulus

symbolism
that
a

nature,

historical and of
:

relationships figures mythical

events

lies

the for
;

and

Tatius,

example,

indeed

they

never

really

existed

SCirWEaLKR'S

iETIOLOGICAL

THEOTJY.

ciii

but
truth

their
:

reputed
it is the

double

rule

contains

nevertheless
of
a

historical historical
state.

mythical
united Prisons
:

expression
with it
:

real

of relationship,
contest

the

Latino-Sabine the

twofold augur

The Navius in the

of be

Tarquinius

Attus

is

to

similarly judged
in which is in
an

is
at
:

scarcely
all events,

historical the
a

manner

it is related evident

story of the
real
event

whetstone mirrored sacerdotal

fable

nevertheless of the of

is

it ; the with of

historical the the

conflict

pre-Tarquinian
the of

state

politicalideas legends
the refers and remembrances foundation each forms
to

Tarquinian
the ancient

dynasty.
Roman constitute detached fundamental
"

In

most

myths
and
;

history,
in from

historical
manner

appearances

like it

they
to

may

be

if

one

myth
its

the

general
of

representation which scarcely be


Roman necessary

genetic motive. conception


of the idea

It

can

justifythis

the

early

history,and
have the

especiallythe
been the 'vain have and This
were

myth,
of

against such
it, in
which

objections as
such the

recently brought against


and been the idle found

'levity' mythic

and

play

thoughts,' of
with mind of the

creations

cilable irreconof

moral

earnestness

practical turn
would conscious

ancient mark

Romans.

objection arbitrary and


lies. the

then

only

hit the
"

if the

myths
were are

inventions,
so

in short, they if,

wilful rather of

They

ever, are, howin

little
a

such,
in

that
a

they
Thus,

only language
can

which its
at at

people
and of when

certain

grade
for which
were

civilization the

express

thoughts
that the time

ideas.

example,
the

Latin had
was

language,
attained unable the
to

point

civilization such the

Romans

myths

invented,
conflict of
a

express

exhaustively
and
was

historical idea

between

prethe view

Tarquinian conception
in
a

Tarquinian
aided

state;

wherefore into

by symbolizing
this
scene

and

bringing
and

single significant scene


connected with it
: a

contest

the

general

events

which,
in

empirically taken,
is historically

is at all events
true.

unhistorical, but
us

its foundation
a

Let certain

figure to
stage
of of its

ourselves

people, which, having


the
want

reached under

culture,

feels

of

bringing
it has

its
a

contemplation picture
its

primitive existence, of sketching


of which

for itself

original condition,

CIV

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

no

longer

any

liistorical

knowledge,
will it be

of

tracing
of
to

the

causes

of

its present institutions sacerdotal


in
out

and
:

circumstances,
able

its

and political
want

traditions way

how

satisfythis myths
about
?

anj^ of

other its be
to
"

than

by

the

invention it expresses it is not in

of

What

present consciousness

its

origin

it will

obliged give
to

"

so

long
in

as

ripe yet intellectually


the of form of

enough

these express

expressions
the

historical

hypotheses
"

form

images, that
the various
and

is,

in

mythic language.
In what

precedes
of

we

have
the in

laid down Eoman this


manner

motives

and

modes

origin

of

legends
were

traditions.
further with whole
one

The
spun

legends which
out

arose

then

by
and

intelligent reflection,
thus

and that

connected

another;
Roman noted of the

by degrees
which the of

arose

complete
the of

of and

tradition down. Alban

Roman Silvius
as an

historians

found

The

legend
is

Posthumus,

ancestor

Silvii,may Silvius, it
wood"

serve

example
that
name

such

mythhe

spinning.
was

said, obtained
an

because

born it
was

in

evidently
inferred wood fled
"

etymological myth.
mother Lavinia of his birth
must
:

Thus have

"

further in the

his the

sojourned
therefore
death of

at

time
;

she after of
on

had the

doubtless
her husband

thither

hence

probably
for
rest not

^neas That

; thus

probably
accounts

fear

her
real

step-son
the

Ascanius.
on

all these

tradition, but

pure

invention,
the Roman that who

is manifest.

In from this

like
a

manner

reputed origin of
the of

population
it
was on

runaway that the

rabble, and
the
envoys

account

ground
to

Romulus,

proposed
with from the

connuhium

neighbouring peoples,were
were

repulsed
Sabines.
the he later

contemptuous

words,
tive narra-

certainlyonly
of the rape

inferred the in which from

purely mythical
The
years

of

reputed
of his

despotism reign, and


are

exercised the but

by

Romulus with drawn

body-guard
inferences
was

surrounded

himself,
of his

nothing

the
in its

legend

dismemberment
to

(which
them
"

also

mythical
act.

origin) in
that

order

explain by
trait of the but

that

enigmatical
course

It is of

understood
cannot

every

single
be

traditionaryhistory

any

longer

elucidated;

CVl

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

oral tradition, it is
a

commonly
a

allowed,
deal
more,

may when

be

relied

on

for
with

century,
full and of memory

and

even

good

connected

and
a

supported by
authentic
the last of

usages,
account

laws, monuments,

"c.
to

Especially
have
come

might
whose still the is

be

supposed
Yet of

down the
at

Tarquin,
men

history must living. reign


to

have all the

been

in

many after
one

kings,
is of

all events

Numa,
which

of

the the

last
most

Tarquin
traces

precisely the
falsehood and

said

bear

poetical invention.
indeed

Schwegler points of
and refused
to

acknowledges
may be of

that

certain
as

fundamental historical
not to ;

the

regal period
a

considered

especially

certain

degree
state

credibility is Among
the Romans of centuries of the such and

be

constitutional

traditions. of

historical

things he
the

classes the united

Sabines,

three

original tribes,the
of allows in which facts the the
census,

three
the

knights,the
In
not to

introduction

fall of

kings, "c.

short, he
manner

main
are

facts

the
to

history,but
have
their But
come

the
;

they
and
same

related method

pass

though
rest
on

the

the

of

accomplishment
round of these

precisely the
the them
not
mean

testimony.
itself
a

facts,

it is and and

asserted, had falsehoods,


he

entwined

rank he

growth

inventions
to

origin of
into
to

which
and

proceeds
the
Eoman

discuss

divides
we

legends
assert

myths.

Now

do

that

history is
of
some

altogether free
actual
are

from

fiction.
a are

If

the

exaggeration
no

occurrence

constitutes in

legend, then
in the in

doubt

legends
of
most to

to

be

found The

it,as

they
of
nor we a

early history
from the
an

nations. mouth
were

progress

story
do
we

passing

mouth

is free

proverbial ;
from
we a

contend almost

that say

Eomans

natural,
contend

might

inevitable,
do

failing. All
not

for

is that the

these

exaggerations
of whether

invalidate
On

the the

main

outlines, hand,
come we

grand features,

the
it
;

history.
contains

other that of

altogetherdoubt
invented with the
are

myths
narratives

under

Schwegler's definition merely


to

namely,
some

occurrences

typify
to to

abstract

idea. that of

We such

agree

objectors alluded

by Schwegler,
the

inventions The

entirely foreign
proposed
in

Roman

turn

mind.

example

the

I
THE JP.TIOLOGICAL THEORY. CVll

story of
The

Attus

Navius of
a

is in the

highest degree improbable.

symbolical story of that nature would and imply, a far higher degree of intellectual refinement subtletythan the capacityto understand, and, consequently, to express for if it could not be expressed it could not be
"

invention

understood

"

the difference

between
to

two
us

forms

of

government.

Indeed, a political myth

Schwegler
among
true

is

obliged to
and
at

appears confess that

that

an altogether absurdity. it can be found only

the

Eomans,
fact

even

with of
"

them
it. If

there it be

is

some

historical with

the

bottom

panied accom-

incidents preternatural ^as, for instance, the which cuttingof the whetstone by Attus Navius give it a admits of an mythic colouring; this circumstance easy this We shall discuss when explanation. point presently, which have been brought to consider the objections we come the ground of the supernatural events on againstthe history which it contains. or Every supernaturalappearance, posed supis c onnected with not a necessarily myth. appearance, in the fire, Thus, for instance,the story of the phallus seen to which attributed the generation of Servius was Tullius, have been the result of fancy, or superstition, or many may far-fetched and other causes. It is an extremely improbable order to invented in that it was supposition, express the idea incarnate in that the spirit of the Eoman monarchy became of all the Eoman Servius ; perhaps, kings,the one least fitted to be a type of the monarchy. Schwegler admits that the greater part of the traditional the definition be brought under cannot history of Eome of legend ; and he has therefore either of pure myth or even in what he calls the setiological discovered for them an origin myth is a story subtly invented in myth. The setiological for the existence of certain usages, worships, order to account will not deny that ";c. Now we institutions,monuments, in the early of this kind to be found inventions are some in that portion of it which is and especially Eoman history, it is to this period of the city ; and priorto the foundation that the instances cited by Schwegler chiefly belong. It was ancients the to magnify their common a practiceamong
"

in

Cviii

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

origin and

their

primoeval history.
humana

"

Datur

hsec

venia

anti-

quitati, ut, miscendo

divinis, primordia
in his Preface. of the But
we

urbium do
are

augustiorafaciat," says
believe
be that any

Livy

not to

cetiological myths
the foundation
We of may been

this

description
at

found the

after

city, or

all

events

after

reign of

Numa.
cannot

further

remark

that

the
For

myth setiological
if usages,
must

have
come

altogether
to

baseless.

worships, "c. had formerly they


of may of existed.

down

be

explained, they
that

have

It is true,

however,

in the
;

narrative thus
a

have

been

altered
may and

and

exaggerated
been

and
to

settlement

Arcadians
to

liave
so

attributed

Evander,
that of

Argives
the
most

Hercules,

forth.

Perhaps
the

plausible part
a

of

Schwegler's theory
kind proper of

is

etymological myth,
invented the
to

subordinate

tetio-

logicalmyth,
This

explain the origin of


been
a

names.

part

of

theory
But for

has

very

extensively adopted by
-If be carried and

Sir G. C. Lewis. the deal the

it is

purely arbitrary conjecture.


may
a

principle is good
further historical
was

anything, it
has
it be

great
into of the of
name

than

the

author If
to

carried

it,
that of

quite

times.

asserted the
name

the

conquest
the

CorioH

invented

explain
his Junius's the
same

Coriolanus,
name

story
of

of

Mucins

burning
of
on

left hand

to to

explain

Scsevola, the

account

idiocy grounds
to

explain the
may affirm

Brutus, "c., conquest Africanus,

then

we

that

the
of of

of Africa the In
ever

was

imagined
of M.

explain Scipio'sname
to

wisdom fact be

Porcius

explain
to
nor

the

name no

Cato, "c.
can

the named

theory
after
can

amounts
a

this,

that
some

person

place,
be
more names.

after natural The

peculiarity; whereas
common

nothing imposition
surnames

and

than of
our

the

of

such
no

greater
as

part

English
James

have

other

origin ;
be said

John

Carpenter,
Kufus, story
names

Butcher,
"c.

William So
was

Colchester, William
it

John
a

Lackland,

also

might
to

that

the

of

Danish

settlement

invented

account

for the

of St.

Olave's, St. Clement. Danes, "c.

Further, Schwegler
handed with any

neglects
that

to
are

observe
not

that

tradition

has

down

many

things

necessarily connected
and

proper

name,

usage,

institution,"c.,

the

origin

I
of Thus the

THE

ETIOLOGICAL

THEORY.

CIX

which
the

cannot

be

explained by
of the the

any

myth. setiological
are

religious system
census,

Eonians, the Cloaca Maxima,


not

circus, the

Capitolinetemple, "c.

connected with the names of Numa, of Servius necessarily Tullius, of the Tarquins, nor can they be referred to those sovereignsby the invention of an aetiological myth. There

must,

therefore, have with, and

been

substantive

tradition,unconnected

Occasions will names. independent of,mere in the sequel of this work for further present themselves examining this setiological theory as, for example, in its to the story of the Horatii and Curiatii^ and we application the subjecthere. need not, therefore, pursue the which have been causes Having thus considered wt. will next assignedfor the existence of the Roman history, the arguments which have been proceed to examine brought forward against its authenticity from its alleged general improbability. of these arguments is based on the supernatural One rences occurwhich it relates. after Schwegler, examining the of Eoman history,observes : ^ By the preceding sources it has been think shown what the we sufficiently exposition is with regard to the testimony of the earliest Eoman case that if this historyhas been recentlyclaimed as history ; and
" "

"

'attested,'^ a very
at

confused
a

idea

of historical What
once

'attestation' it

lies

the

bottom
over

of such
over

notion. it was

does

signifyto By the logy mythoalso


at

assert

and

again that
Eomans

handed historically believed it ?

down, and
same

that the

themselves claim

maxim,
as

anybody might
that
was

the whole

Grecian

since history,

also handed Eomulus Latinus

down, and
was were
^
'

one

time of

believed.

By

this maxim

son

Mars, and

Picus, Faunus, and


Even the and

the actually once really At that time


as

kings
Faunus
as

of Laurentum.

reigned over
'

Dionysius says man a aborigines,


even are

of action

well of
as

great wisdom

later authors If
^

give
to

the
at

years
once

the three
1 3 ^

Laurentine

kings.^

we

admit

Below, p. 190, seqq.


The Lib.

Buch

i. " 19.
and

author
i. 3L

seems

to be

to alluding
^

the History of Gerlach

Bachofen.

Eusebius, Hieron3niius, Syiicellus.

ex

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

historical
we are

all that
sutler of the

the

Roman
to

historians
be the
more

relate in
the

good faith;if
of knowledge

to

ourselves
Romans

led

in

representationof
standard
to

the

deeds and

by
and

Roman

belief ; it is much
even

consistent
as

accept,
and

with

Theod.
than
to

Ryck,
draw
so

Janus

Hercules between drawn

historical

persons,
the

the

boundary

line

the in line

mythical
the
must

historical defences somewhere


events

arbitrarilyas else;
it must the the be

it is

most be

recent

of the

history. This
for

boundary
drawn the

drawn

where
*

the

supernatural
child'
Where of

cease:

miraculous,
surest

dearest

popular belief,is
miracles On
cease,

criterion

of

invention.

there be

history begins."
remarked
ceases,

this the lower

it may

that then

if the it must draws

line is to be
be It Punic the

drawn
a

where deal

supernatural
than where the it
was

placed
is War Romans
some

great
is historical.

Schwegler
of the

it.

commonly
that
divine in
cow,

allowed

that

narrntive
a

Second
among

Yet
Hannibal
was

general

belief

conducted records
as a

over

the

Alps
that
a

by

being.^
year
B.C.

Livy
169
"

many torch in

prodigies
the showers of

occurred

the
a

heavens,
stones

speaking
and and few

weeping
Such down before
to

statue

of

Apollo,
times.

blood, "c.2

prodigies continued
tbe

to be

publicly recorded
It is related

expiated
months
at

imperial
murder of

that, a
was

the in with of

Julius tomb

Csesar,
of

there its

discovered
a

Capua,
tablet bones

the
a

reputed
Greek should Julius would

Capys,

founder,
that

brazen the that of


a

inscription,purporting
be would be This of The disinterred be killed it would

when

Capys
of and of the of

happen
hands amidst

descendant

by

the

his

relatives,
calamities
rested
on

presently avenged
was no

great
It and
secrated con-

Italy.
Caesar.^

mere

vulgar report.
the friend had

testimony passing
seen

Cornelius
horses

Balbus,
which

biographer
on

Caesar
from from

the

Rubicon,
his death
arms

and
to

released abstain which


to

further food and in his in he

service, were
to

before The

weep
as

abundantly.
Pontifex the

of
were

Mars,
heard

were

house

Maximus,

clatter

the

and night,
1

folding doors
"

of the

chamber
^

in which
Suet.

slept

Polyb.

iii. 48.

Lib.

xliii. 13.

Cses. 81.

W-'
ARGUMENT
FROM THE SUPERNATURAL.

A opened of themselves. refuge in Pompey's curia There


were

wren was

with
torn to

laurel branch

seeking
birds.

pieces by other
"c.^ sacrifices,

also the of

omens

of his wife's
own

sayer's dream, of the soothWe

warning, might
the
even

his

abortive

go down and these the

to the

reign of Constantine, and instance


of celestial warriors
are seen as

labarum JSTow

hosts

in

the

sky.
recorded

portents

quite
such

as

wonderful

those

lifted as regalperiod, Navius the cap of Tarquin the Elder, the story of Attus and the whetstone, the miraculous generation of Servius Tullius, and Pollux at Lake the apparition of Castor "c. ; Eegillus, of rejectingthe fact of yet nobody thinks on that account Hannibal's of the Alps, or of Caesar's assassination, or passage of Constantine's conversion to Christianity. The boundaiy line between history and myth cannot,
"

in the

the

eagle which

therefore, be
related mixed

drawn

where

miraculous

events

cease

to

be

It may intellectual and


at

plain from these instances that they may be the most genuine and incontestable history. up with be allowed, indeed, that as a people becomes more
and such rational,
events

; for it is

become

fewer

and

fewer,

altogether. But this fact for Schwegler's view, but against it. History not militates, the point of view of the historian, which from is written
varies sits
course

last,perhaps, almost

vanish

in

different
to

ages.

When
a

German

rationalist

now

down omits
not

recompose all miraculous

that, is
to

half

so

credible

supplant. In like manner, invented, according to the


other be
sure

history of early Eome, he of tales ; but the history, for all that it is trying the old one as if the earlyhistoryhad been
notion of Sir of the half G. C. Lewis and may
we republic, so

in the latter centuries critics, that The


we

should

not

have

found is
a

many

miracles

in it.

occurrence

of them
was

proof
such down

of its

genuineness :
rently cur-

they
or

show

that

it

written it
was

when

things were

believed

; that

noted

contemporaneously,

nearly so, by
instead of
sure

fore, events, therepontiffs. Such miraculous being the surest criterion of invention," are the
"

criterion
1

of the

absence

of invention
Dion

; that

is,in the

Suet. Cses. 81, and

Cass. xliv. 18.

CXll

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

writers these
them In
not

of

the

history. reject the


; but

But

we

are

not

bound Romans

ta

believe
believed them. did

stories,like Theod.
; nor to

Ryck,
of

because because the


not

the

history they
did

they
ages, that

believed like

fact,the educated
believe remainder them
of

Romans

later
on

Livy,

account
on

reject
this

the

the

history. Schwegler's argument


the

subject is altogether beside


never

Tlie Grecian purj^ose.*


like for the
ns

logy mythohistory,
that
or

pretended to
It is
son
was

be

composed,
necessary but him

Roman to

from

records.

not

believe

Romulus
a

the
of

of

Mars,

only
to

tliat the
so.

Romans,

great part

them,
some

believed of

be

If later authors is
an

have

accepted
their

these
and

fables,
not

that

argument
great
ledge knowat

against
many

judgment,
was
an

against the
We
Roman need

early history.
a

Dionysius, who things


and

injudicious historian, believed


led
"

that
to

Livy rejected.
be

not, therefore,
of

suffer ourselves

by

the

standard

belief,"and time,
need

follow
we

Theodare

Ryck
the

; but

neither,
set

the the

same

be

led

by

standard

up

by

modern

rationalistic
on

and critics, of
a

reject everything
tales.

criminately indis-

account

few

wonderful

in enumerating several of these supernatural events the early history, :i ";N"obody at Schwegler proceeds to remark to be historical present any longer believes these traditions facts have from
;

After

yet

many
to

still entertain
too

the

childish

notion
to

that

we

only
the

reject these
narrative
so

manifest is

fables, and

strip off
and actual natural super-

mythic They
husk,

what the

evidently exaggerated genuine


wonderful and and of the the

impossible, and

find

in
not

remainder that and


;

history.
not

reflect

is the
"

very but

soul, life,
the is the kernel

genetic motive
and that

myth
old

the the

when
mortuum

this is of
an

stripped
the

away

remainder and

merely the
furthest

caput
have

poetic legend,
fact.

possible from
we

historical
a

And,
which
as

in is

general, what everywhere

right
in

to

regard
manifest

tive narra-

interwoven aU

with
those

tions, inven-

perfectly historical
is
not

points

where

the

invention

palpable, which
a
1

contain
must

nothing absolutely
account

impossible?

Such

narrative
B. i. Buch

rather, on

of

its

i. " 21, S. 61.

CXIV

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

whicli achieve

they

are

connected VII/s
of
a

her

commission
at

from
her
to

heaven

to to to

Charles

coronation

Eheims,
believed d'Arc

revelation confined
as

tliat monarch his and in


own

secret

which
of

he

be is

breast.
as

The

story

Jeanne

romantic

incredible
like
manner

anything
its enthusiasm

in the

early Roman
are

history ; and
doubtless the

supernatural details
or

product either of
Another
is derived from this

craft.

argument
the

against

the

authenticityof
which remarks it is
:
^
"

the

histoiy
to
tain. con-

contradictions

alleged
A further

On of the
the which minor

head

Schwegler
of the of

proof
is

little

authenticity
contradiction in

earliest
accounts:

history of
a

Rome

striking

the

contradiction
not

displays itself
details,but
whole

numberless
often of is in

points period
in

; and

only

in

also

important
a

facts

; and

thus

places the
A
cannot

history history
pass for in

that
so

doubtful

light.
the

period whose possibly


!

anomalous

and for

contradietoiy
instance,
Romulus's the founder

historical. traditions

Take,

astounding jumble
descent of Rome and How
can

the

concerning
make

these the

traditions, which
son,

sometimes
sometimes the

sometimes him
as

the
born
to

grandson,
five hundred

of

.^neas,
years

represent
birth of of

later,claim
?

slightestpretension
the Servius the

historical and

bility crediately medi-

Concerning
his

Tullius,
four
two

concerning
traditions
are

attaining

throne,

different
that
are

preserved, of
best

which

precisely the
Roman from

relativelythe
that
an

attested, the Annals, chasm,


are

national

tradition each We
;

and

of

the

Tuscan

separated
cannot

other

by
will

immeasurable instance

that

be of
:

filled up. tradition may

cannot

here be

all these of the in their

contradictions proper of low

they

spoken
that
a

places
the

we

only

remark has

here

fragment proof
how

Dionysius
that with the

recently
and

found

afforded of

new

variation second
a

uncertainty
of

tradition

reaches and

since

dictatorship
no

Cincinnatus
be the

all connected of any

it is

fable, can
What
common

longer
in this

subject
it is found

well-founded

doubt. the

excites point chiefly

suspicion against
to

tradition

is,that

be
1

in contradiction
B. i. Buch

with

the documents,

i. " 16.

I
where
the the any of alliance with the tradition
case more

ARGUMENT

FllOM

CONTRADICTIONS.

CXV

these of the

have younger

chanced

to

he

preserved. Neither
the

Tarquin with
with
can

Gabines,
the

nor

first commercial

treaty

Carthage, nor
be

treaty
that

of

confederacy of Sp. Cassius,


traditional

brought
we

into

accordance this in

history;
shown had remind that
to
come

and be

may

suspect
in other

might
here
to

be

falsified

points

documents

down reader

to us."

Let purpose

us

again

the every

that of be

it is far from the

our

maintain

incident

early Eoman
to

historical. history is strictly


a

It would

absurd

claim

for

narrative and

coming
in
so

down

from

comparatively rude
a

and

illiterate historical

times,
of
we

fragmentary
be the last two there

form,
for three

the

same

authority which
contend main
to

may

accorded,
or

instance, to
centuries.

the

history
All that

England during
for outlines prove the the

is that of the
names

is evidence

enough

to

establish of the order and of

the

narrative of the

after the
seven

foundation

city ;

kings, their reigns ;


modern

succession, and
to vindicate

principal events fantasy,or


has done is in
to

of their
some

thus

the

history from
mere

being, as
his

writers treated the

have
as

called Dr.

it,a

justifyits being
recent

Mommsen the

work, where
and

individualityof
many of the

kings
of the

completely ignored ;
are

though
are

events

history
in
a

accepted,yet they
often

interpretedand
and

reconstructed
any

manner

entirelynew,
been in

quite unjustified by
all,these
as

sound

critical

principles.
have
to

But, after
much
proper the the

alleged
w^e

contradictions endeavour instances

very the

exaggerated,
with places, of the

shall

show

regard to- those


present
work.

which of them

fall within arise from but the

compass

Many

absurdity and history


with

if those Eoman

ignorance of Dionysius and Plutarch ; writers, from their inadequate acquaintance with
and

constitution, as
T^in

well

as

their

imperfect
which
are

knowledge
at

of the

tongue,
of Latin

made

statements

variance of

those

authors, this
We then
are

forms
not
a

no

just
to

ground
the the

charge against the history.


of

will

deny that
colour of

carelessness
same

Livy

may

now"

and

lend and

charge ; importance.

but

such

instances

rare

minor

CXVl

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

regard to the instances of paragraph just translated, we may the whole at once historybefore
With
It of
was

contradiction
remark that

allegedin
we

the

abandon
the

the from
up

foundation
some

of

city.
to

invented, though
in order

perhaps
to

obscure
Eoman

vestiges
in the in the
a

tradition,
Hence

carry
of

the

lineage
to

/Eneas. birth proper

the
4

difference
as
we

some

five

centuries

of Eomiilus

who,

shall the
son, coast

endeavour
or

show
of many of

place,^was
had

probably
on

grandson,
a

Greek
years Servius
we

who
before

landed

the

Italian of in Eome, which proper the of

not

great
birth the
next

the
and

foundation the mode in the

Of he

the

Tullius,
shall

obtained The

throne,
instance

also

speak
the

place.
present
the

of

contradiction, regarding
falls

second the

dictatorshipof Cincinnatus,
work.
can

beyond
of critical

limits

But be

that

the any
we

fragment
sound

Dionysius lately discovered principles, to


All prove it proves is that
so

said, on
a

account
one or

fable,

altogether deny.
related the
matter

two

annalists that
even

and differently,

improbably
of it. will be

Dionysius
The in their
to

himself

rejected their
adduced

version

other

instances

by Schwegler
in

examined endeavour

proper that

places;
the with
a

where

particularwe
with

shall

show

commercial the

treaty

Carthage,
But

so

far from its be be

being inconsistent
main evident
to

traditional
manner.

history, confirms
it will would this

features that

in
to

most

remarkable
further of the here

enter

into

subject

anticipate the scope


One of the chief its

following book.
brought against the early Eoman
On this

arguments
on

history is founded
remarks
'^
"

chronology. kings
It all
are

subject Schwegler reigned


gether altoremarked It
;

The
or

seven

related been

to have

240 that

244

years.

has

frequently
and

this number
an

contradicts

experience
for the
to the
^

probability.
each

gives on
whilst
in five in

average

thirty-four years
from the year 805

reign of
year therefore the

king
that

Venice,

1311,

is
a

centuries, forty doges reigned

each of

having
have been

reign

of 12

years, Eoman
sec.

or

about

third The
seq.

part

average

of the

reigns of
^

the

kings.
"

examples

which

See Buch

below,

ii. p. 23, seq. ;

28,

xviii. " 20, S. 806.

Nicbuhr,

Rom.

Gcscli. i. 391, Anni.

912.

ARGUMENT

FROM

CHRONOLOGY.

CXVll

adduced purpose, throne not


as

to

justifythe
as

traditional Eoman it in

chronology kings
did
not ; and

are

not

to

the

inasmuch

the

succeed

to the

by birth,but boys
be
or

obtained but

by

election age of

consequently
Besides,
two

youths,
death,
years.

the the the

manhood.

it must died about in and


a

remarked

that, of
and The that

whole

seven

kings, only
his also

natural fifteen

last survived

overthrow stands
;

traditional with

chronology
the

irreconcilable if

contradiction
Priscus

remaining

tradition

Tarquinius
Tullius

actuallyreigned thirty-eight years,


the younger

Servius

and forty-four,
as we

Tarquin twentya

five,

there

arises,
and the
a

have

already shown,^ gives


relation the for
to

chain of

of 240

absurdities years, stands which in

impossibilities. Lastly, the


older tradition mathematical

number

the
the

regal period,
number of the

such which

120,

the
and

period
the

elapses between catastrophe, as


views birds in of fate. connexion

expulsion
to

kings
the

Gallic
one

justly

excite both

suspicion ;

especially if
twelve "Under all be

with

numbers

Eomulean these determined.

circumstances But it is that

the
the

age

of

Eome the

cannot

at

origin of

city
been

is to

be

dated inferred the


"

higher
from

than the

placed by tradition, has buildings, and


each

rightly

Tarquinian
of

especiallyfrom
of

Cloaca The
In See p. Buch

Maxima.^ traditional
i.

years

king's reign
d' Introduzzione
Eom,

are

course

" 20.
che
de
serve

Scipio MafFei, Diplomatica


60
;

all' Arte
i. p. 52
;

Critica, Mebiihr,

1727,
Vortr. he

Levesque,
Gesch.

Hist. i. 128. to

crit.

la

Eep.
for

1807,
cites p. 60 the of

iiber Eom. not

When
his

Schwegler
work,
at is

authority of Maffei,
the
at aH

could

have
is

referred

edition

of

1727,
the
we

which

reference
After

copied from
meant,
opera at p.

Levesque,
for

there

nothing
di Eoma

relatingto
which
in

subject.
suppose

long hunting
one

it
251

we
"

found

the

following

passage,
fatte

is the

T^e Cloache

tempo
di per

di

Tarquinio
T
una

Frisco,
recano

descritta

da

Plinio

(xxxvi. 15)

per

massima

tutte certo

altre, e di cui
Cittk

ancora

maraviglia i pochi avanzi, non


anni

mostrano tosto We
on resa

cominciata
corso
an

cencinquant'
numeroso

avanti,
e

ma

piu

gia grande
have

in

lungo
but the

d'eta, per
dixit i^ose of of

popolo
have wrong

per

richezza."

nothing
The the
tainly cer-

here that

Maffei, copied by
could
a

Levesque, founded nothing


of the but

the false view

builders
rests

Eome

been idea

barbarians.
art

assumption
ancient
a

altogetheron
And it
was

constructive
the

among
is

peoples.
noble which

let
was

it be

remembered of
no

that, though

Cloaca

sewer, it

originally
to

great length, extending only

to

the

Forum,

intended

drain.

CXVIU

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

invented.

On them thus

what
cannot

principle the Pontifices


now

proceeded
We
at

in the
can

fixing only
of

of

be

entirelydiscovered.
Numa's that
^

see

far, that

they placed
suiculuni." that

death Tullus

the

end
at

the first
end

physical saiculuni, and


first civil may of

of

Hostilius

the

of the
we

On average

this

remark,

it is of

no

use

to

give
age that

us

the the of

reigns
their

fortyVenetian
is also young
were men

doges, unless given.


Numa AVe know when

their

at

time the

of Roman

accession

most
to

kings
was

they began
to have

reign.
born

Romulus
on

only eighteen.
Rome
was

is said
; and

been

the

day

that

founded
and
common as

therefore,as
was an

Romulus

reigned thirty-eight years,


of
a

there

interregrum
been of
"

year,

he

would, by the
he year
was

computation, have
But in the
ten

thirty-ninewhen
at

elected. of

time

Romulus,
an

all events, the

consisted is
never

only
made

months the

ance, allow-

by
it suffices the

the of

w^ay,

which

by

critics, though
about his
puted re-

itself to throw

out

all the

fine calculations
one

speculum. age, Numa

Deducting, therefore,
would

sixth
at

from his

have

been

-two thirty

accession,
Tullus avita
a

and

there

is
was

nothing improbable
a
"

in

his
cetas

long reign. viresque, turn grandson


which of his of

Hostilius quoque

young

man

"

tum
"

gloria,animum
of

stimulabat
There is

^
"

the

temporary concan

Romulus.
age the of of

nothing by
time and appear may
even

we

determine
as

the the

Ancus

at

the

election the

; but

he

was

grandson
him,
their the

of

Numa,

as, from to

active

duties
a

required
man

Romans
we

have that
was,

preferred
he he
was

young very well

for

king,
in

conclude if he years middle


room

not

far have

advanced

life ; but

may

very

reigned the twenty-four


probably
throne
; but

assigned
age for
a

to him.

Tarquinius
ascended

may

have there birth


was man

reached is of still

when

he of

the

reign

thirty-seven years.
when
he

The

Servius

Tullius and

is narrated therefore

the
must

reign
have

of

Tarquin
a

well when

advanced,
he

been

young

seized

the

throne.

See

more

in Niebuhr,
p.

Rom.

Gesch.

i.

253, Yortr.

iiber of 110

Rbra.

Gesch. and

i. 84

and

Schwegler,
died
i. 22.
a

557.

Thesseculum of Rome
110

civile consisted

years,

Tullus

Hostilius Liv.

in the year

38

-}-1 -f- 39 -f-32).

ARGUMENT

FROM

CHRONOLOGY.

CXIX

Tarquin
The
were

the there

Proud is
no

reigned only twenty-five


occasion of
to

years,
at his

and

quently conse-

compute

his age

accession.

principle
among the assertion than

election, therefore, if youth


which determined
more

and

strength
contrary

elements of

it, was,
to son,

to

the

Schwegler,
succession.

favourable A

length

of

reign
to

hereditary
under
more

father,
can an

and

son, grand-

even

favourable than age the


a

circumstances,
at

hardly expect equal


average, But the below be

reign

century, which,
accession
at

would

fix

the of

of Eoman

thirty-three.
violent

greater part
that also when The examined about the age

kings
met at
an

acceded
a

considerably
death,

; and

if most that

of them it
was

it must of

remembered

advanced

period

and life,

they

had

long
the

filled the

the

throne. of the

objections to
under the

chronology
of those

Tarquins
The the

will

be

reigns
that

sovereigns.
between their

tion objecof and the

mathematical and

proportion
between but

period

kings' reigns
of
a

expulsion
a

destruction would call

the

city is nothing
"

what

popular
all, the
240

writer tion durayears,

German

cobweb."
to

For,

first of

commonly
but after when
seven

assigned
the four former years
we

the number from

regal period
is obtained the strike

is not

244

; and

by striking off,
Numa.
events

Polybius,
this years is from

reign
off
at

of

Again,
six
or

done,
the

must

all

reign

of

Eomulus,
238
or

which 234

would and The

reduce

the

kingly period
the of
^

either

to

years,

again
"

destroy

supposed
years
as

mathematical the twelve

proportion.
vultures about

ing connect-

these
as

with

is another the

web," cob-

well

Niebuhr's

hypothesis
to

chronology
of the this

having
decemvirs

been

invented

according
and

the

reckoning
On

Quin-

of the

physical
Roman Roman

civil

sseculum.

subject
augury,

'

There
the

was

an

old

prophecy,
State it from what of of

derived

from

the

Romulean
See Bell.

ahout De "c. of 360

duration
c.

of the

for twelve

centuries. De

Censorinus,
Get.
v.

Die

Kat.

17

(who

took
see

Varro)
connexion

Claudian,
there the is

265,

But the

it is difficult to
and the

between
or

the

expulsion
ratio the

kings
from
"

capture
the twelve of

the Rome

city by
to its

Gauls,
"

what
if
we

years

the

foundation to

capture

even

admit
be

that

calculation

bears

vultures.

For

though
minds.

360

may

divided
of such

by twelve, leaving a quotient


a

thirty
to

without

remainder, the meaning

quotient is

not

at all obvious

untranscendental

CXX

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

Schwegler remarks
form
a

"

That of

the

reigns
shown

of

the first two


from

kings
later wliicli of of of
we

peculiar order
in
a

things, separated
the

the

history,is
makes

certain

manner

by tradition,
with the

the

first saeculum

of

city expire
festival
to

the

death

Numa. tlie the

For
was

the

first secular

after the

expulsion
this

kings

celebrated, according
in
A,u.c.

Commentaries

Quindecemvirs,
the

298

; and

if from

point

calculate
of
was

saeculum
siecidum
to

of

110

years in who

backwards, the beginning


78, and
this very year the of Tlie is followed

the

second

falls

A.u.c.

according
after
death

Polybius,
the
Numa
same

by Cicero,
the
year

first year Numa's


old

Numa's
was

death.
last year
was

Consequently
of born the
on

first sseculum. the

tradition has of with

that

day

of

Home's
to
a

foundation doctrine ended

the

meaning.^
rituals,the
of all those

For,

according
of the

the

the him

Etruscan

first saeculum born


on

city
its

who,
the

day

of

foundation, attained
as

this

tradition between

appears two

Hence Numa's greatest age. death, to intimate, forms the line of cation demar-

epochs.
of of

And,
Eome

indeed, with

his the
on

death

the

purely mythical epoch


time, the dawn hand,
other the the first two husband of

expires,
:

and

torical half-histhe other


the'
a

begins history,
"

while,
son

kings
of the
a

the

one
"

the

of

god,
to

goddess
than this

evidently belong ordinary


would one." lead
us

different The suppose

period
last that the
as

world of

the

sentence

paragraph
looked
as
a

to

Quindecemviri

upon

the

early Koman
critic ;
and
as
on a

history with
that that

sceptical an
the
on

eye

modern
as

German

they
account

set

down fixed

first two close

kings

mythical,
the

the

of the

second
was

king's reign only


are

chronological epoch.
for

That, however,
for the

not

reason

choosing that epoch ; abundantly supplied with


was

German for

critics their

always
:

reasons

theories

there
also

another, which,
to at

by

very

singular coincidence,
"

pointed
Plutarch Rome
was

the

same

period, namely
to

that born We
on

Numa,
the will

who,

by
to

least, is said

have

been his

day
not

when

founded, then

closed

life.

stop

B.

i. S.

557.

piut.

Num.

3 ; Dion

Cass.

Fr. 6, 5.

CXXii the

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

reigu

of

Augustus
on

the

celebration

took

place

at

much

shorter We the after account

intervals.
may

remark
historians

the

above the

that

Valerius

Antias in the

and

other
the

placed
of the

first celebration which agrees


were

year the

expulsion
in Valerius

kings,
that

with

Maximus/
Publicola

they
Dis

first

publicly
The
a

instituted
games,

by Valerius
the

in his of

first and

consulship.

with
in

sacrifices at the

altar

Proserpine, at
or
an

place
had named

Campus
been
out

Martins

called

Tarentum,

Terentum,
individual

indeed

previously celebrated
of

by
from
at

Valerius,
for the

gratitude to,
of
some

and

by direction
a

of, the

gods,
disease this and
as we

recovery of

his
warm

children

pestilential
spot
:

by drinking
a

springs by
in
to

that with

but
;

was

private matter, totally unconnected


of the first games the

the state
was,

the

celebration

Consul
The 298.

Valerius

have
their about

said, the

public
or

one. A.u.c.

Quindecemvirs
Yet

placed
dreams and of

origin still lower, carrying


them this
a

Niebuhr
the the

them

up

the

origin of
of who

city,
age

thus Eome.

making
With in the

festival

commemorative is

view,

Niebuhr,^

followed

by
the

Schwegler following
saeculares
a

passage of

already cited, mistranslates


*'

sentence

Censorinus
Romam
esse,

Primes conditam

enim annis Antias M.

ludos ccxlv. ait ; ut

exactis Publicola

regibus, post
institutes annis

Valerie

Valerius

xv-virorum

Commentarii Coss.
"

cclxxxxviii.
"

Valerie, Sp.
festival

Verginio
the

by rendering
the

the

firstsecular
the

after
"

expulsion of
"

kings
was

was

celebrated" after

"c. instead

of,

the
the

first secular

festival
first

instituted of

expulsion
that
; the

of

kings
had

the

method

translation the

assuming
such

there

been

celebrations

during
one,

regal period
any in

second,

which
And

is the this

only

correct

excluding

assumption.
of
a
"

mistranslation of Censorinus

is made

contradiction further
on,

direct Cum

statement

only
at

page

viz.

608

and

as

Hemina

lived
arose

this time, he
some

ought

to

have

known.

But

tlie
era.

discrepancy probably
*

from

difference

in fixing the

foundation

Lib, B.

it.

c.

iv.
:

s.
"

6. Das erste

i. S. 253 298

Sacularfest
u.s.
v\

nach

Verbannung

der

Konige

sey

in Jahr

gefeyert worden,"

ARGUMENT

FROM

CHRONOLOGY.

CXXlll

ab

urbis

primordio
nemo

ad

reges

exactos,
So
on

annos

ccxliv.,(ludos),
attack
on

factos Eoman
common

esse,

sit aicctor." is like founded

that
the
!

this

the
of
a

chronology
Latin fact the with the book

mistranslation

Censorinus

In

festival the age of

had, properly speaking,


of Eome. And this Censorinus
aeras

no was

immediate
most

connexion

tinctly disafter
:

opinion
the

himself,
celebration

who

says,

recording
*'

different

of

before
annos, centum

given
ut

Hiuc

animadvertere

licet, neque
statum esse,

post
neque

centum

hi

referrentur

ludi,
etiamsi

post

decem.
non

Quorum
tamen

alterutrum

retro

fuisset

observatum,
his ludis

id

satis

argumenti

esset, quo

quis

scecula

discerni ad reges

constanter

affirmet, praesertim cum


annos

ah urbis
esse,
nemo

primordio,
sit
auctor.

exactos,

ccxliv.

factos
scecula dici

Quod
si

tempus

proculdubio

naturali

majus

est

saeculo.

Quod
nominis

quis credit,ludis fiant hominis


from the and aid very after of

scecularibus

discerni,sola
face of this

origineinductus; sciat,sseculares
semel and

potuisse,quod plerumque opinion,


it, that
fanciful years that which contains their

setate." Yet
same

it is in the

chapter Schwegler,
it
was

Niebuhr,

him which

have

derived
to cut

theory
from the the

! in

necessary of the

off four
to
assume

the Tuscan

received notion

chronology
of the there

kings, and
saeculum
was

physical
is not the

adopted by

Eomans,
It is

of which

the

evidence. slightest

plain,therefore, that
in any it contains weakest
were

early Eoman
and
"

chronology
as

was

not

manufactured That

such

capricious manner
errors

that
"

here
it

assumed.

serious the

defects,
must
a

that

the in short, is,


; and

point in only
to

history,
that been

be acknowledged of the very

it

be

wished

portion
in of
not

superfluous ingenuity happy attempts


had been be
to

which the

has

expended
method

explain
of is the
; and

supposed
in

its invention, there

employed
some

rather

investigatingwhether
with task the difficult which claim

might
of the

not

way This

reconcilingit
very
we

probability
we

history.
to

here the

propose

ourselves candid
has before

must

therefore the

for

attempt the
1

consideration
touched slightly of Rome."

of
upon

reader.^

The
"

writer

the subject in the introduction

to his

History

of the

City

^2

CXXIV

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

The
"which

idea the

of
sun

coniplete
the

astroiiomical
same

year,

at

tlie

end

of
as

is found
at

in the

position in the heavens


so

he

occupied
to

beginning,
a

is

familiar any
vast
.

to

us

that notion of

it is vailed. pre-

difficult

conceive

period
reflect
to

at
on

which the

other
amount

But

when

we

science any that

and

observation
to

required
we

determine
not

this

year
to

with find

approach
among deviations natural

accuracy, and

shall

be

surprised
nations The

rude

imperfectly
this standard of

civilized

the

grossest
of
us

from

prevailed.
time that

period
upon
moon

the

day

is

measure

is forced of of the time in

voluntari in-

Next the most and time

to

this, the
of

revolutions
the

afford hence

striking indication
months become is concerned.
so

lapse
units duration

; and

days
where

necessary But the

all calculations cal astronomisouthern is not months annual


so

of the

year

is not

easilyascertained, and
the
as

especiallyin
the
seasons

latitudes, where

difference in
more

between northern

strongly perhaps by
a a

marked have

ones.

Ten sun's

may
course

been
;
or

first

assigned
the

for

the

rude

guess

because
"

scanty
on

decimal
ten

arithmetic
"

of

half-civilized

people
to,
or

counting

the

fingers
and

rendered
;
or

them

unequal
may have
a

indisposed for, a longer


satisfied with
accuracy in
"

calculation

they

been

such

measure,

utterly
had the
no
sun

of regardless
means

scientific
"

which, indeed, they


a

of
same

attaining
month

although
had
we

few

revolutions

of would

the

which And year

been know become usages

midsummer the force

have When

become such when


an

midwinter.

of habit. among civil and would


a

imperfect
contracts
come

had

habitual both it ; of it

people
been year, been

and
to

all the

religious

life had

be

regulated by
a more

have

difficult to
even

change
means

it for for

accurate

and
a

scientific
one

if hand. Hence

the

calculating
learn

such

had

at

we

are

not

surprisedto
of various

that had

among
been the

the nations
in
use,

of
even

antiquity
among

years the

duration Thus
to have

and the

Italian Albans

people.
are as we

Terentines,
different

Lavinians,
and

and

the

said

had
was

years

;^

Laurentum,

which,
1

shall
Die Nat.

show,
c.

probably

the

Censorin.

De

20.

NEW

CHRONOLOGICAL

THEOEY.

CXXV

mother from that the

city of
March

the
to

Eomans,

had

year
we

of ten learn who of

months,
from
was

ing extend-

December,
sacrificed
on

since
to

Macrobins
with them It

Laurentines
to

Juno,

equivalent
was

Luna,

all

the

kalends the
as

those

months.^ of

almost the

generally agreed
year

among well

authors

antiquity
at

that

Eoman of

also,

as

the

Laurentine,
authors

first sented disand his

consisted from

only
whose

ten

months. appear
to
was

The have

only
been

who Macer

this view

Licinius

Fenestella,^
"Emendatio
numerous

opinion

followed it is far
;
as

by Scaliger, in outweighed
Junius says that the

Temporum."
and better

But authorities

by

more

Gracchanus,
year of

Fulvius, Varro, Suetonius,


twelve months and of
was

Livy (who
whom says
:
"

introduced

by Numa),

Ovid,

Aulus

Gellius,
On

Macrobius,
the

others, with
the year Ovid

Censorinus

agreed.

subject
"

Nee

totidem Ille minor

veteres, quot

nunc,

habuere
annus

kalendas,
erat.

geminis

mensibus victas sed


*

'

Nondum

tradiderat

victoribus male forte


*

artes genus.
"

Grsecia, facundum,
* *

Ergo animi
Mensibus Annus Hie erat
numerus

indociles

et adhuc lustra qimm


tunc

ratione

carentes,

egerunt
decimum magno

minora Tjuna in

decern.

repleverat orbem,
fuit

honore

Seu

quia

tot

digitiper

quos

numerare

solemus," "c. of
ten

The The year Eoman time


are

question is.
lines
was

How would

long
seem

this
to

year

months the

lasted

of
not

Ovid

imply
had be
a

that been late

astronomical the The

introduced
; but

till Greece appears


to

conquered by
a

arms

that

too

period.
and

of said

the

Decemvirs made
some

might
that time.

be

probable epoch,
of ten

they
;

to have
are

regulation respecting intercalation


the The in year
same

but have show Eome

there lasted that


; one

indications their of

months
seem

must to at

beyond
two
a

indications
at

sorts

years

were

use

the
"

same

time

moon-year, is attributed

consisting of by
a

855

days
to

the

tion introduc-

of which

some

writers

Numa,

by others
huic Dese

"Sed

et

omnibus

kalendis,
"

mense

Martio

ad

Decembrera,

kalendarum
2

die supplicant."
De Die Nat.

Sat. 20.

i. 15.

Censorin.

c.

CXXvi
to

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

Tarquinius
of

Priscus

or

Servius

TuUius
of

"

and

the Romulean
year,

year

304
the

days.
confined

The

knowledge
the the

the

former

and,
to

indeed,
have
were

regulation of
to

calendar How

altogether, seems ignorant the


of the year

been
of

priests.
into

laity
the

the

lapse

of

time

and

revolutions the

appears

from

the circumstance
or
a

that, far
created
a

republican times,
the purpose, of

consuls,

dictator
to

expressly for
into the

were

accustomed
the
to

drive

nail

wall

Minerva's

cell in in order
sort
on

Capitoline temple, on
mark the upon of

the Ides of every


and

September,
to
serve as
a

lapse
the

of

time,

perhaps monopoly by
new

of
the it

check

priests.
also

The shown the

of

knowledge
and fixed of

part
was

the

priestsis
to

the
moon

circumstance

that the the the

they
who and of year,

who

proclaimed
After

Ides,
Dies

and Fasti

retained

themselves the time

the

knowledge

Nefasti.
the

of Servius
or

Tullius

bration cele-

lustrum the

every
two

fifth year, into

every kind
a

sixth
of of

lean Romu;

brought
the time be for
a

years

some was

harmony
confusion

but,
down

as

is well
to

known,
of

the

calendar Caesar.

heap

Julius

It cannot

imagined
civil

that

the Romulean
after

year of

ceased

to

be
or

observed,
indeed
inveterate
most

purposes, while connected

the

time

Romulus,
were

for

long
and

afterwards. with
acts
so

There

certain
of the have has which for the the
rate

customs

it of

relating
root.

to

some

habitual

important
to

life,which
a

must

required a long period pointed out,


widows
a

take

firm
was

As

Niebuhr

year

of ten

months

the
was

period during
also the
term
on

mourned of

their husbands

;^ it

payment
of

portions bequeathed by will, for


and for of these Romulus.

credit

sale of

yearly profits,for loans,


Some of

calculating hardly
have in Macrobius

the

interest. in the still

things would
A year the did passage of
ten

been

known

reign
that
as

illustrates That author


at

more

strikingly the
in March
masters

months.
waited
on

relates^
supper, in order

matrons

their slaves
of

their

in

the

Saturnalia accorded them


were

December,
at

that
of
at
of

the the the Rome,

honour year end

thus

to to

them be

the
;

beginning
for

might
of

incline

obedient

which,
1

it, they

rewarded
^

by
i. 12.

the

Hist,

vol. i. p. 342.

gat.

I
A NEW CHRONOLOGICAL THEORY.
CXXVll

Saturnalia.
at

But the

there time

could

have

been The

few,
fact

if any, of the

slaves

Eome

in

of Eomulus.

asylum

is

with the existence at variance of totally slave-population. That the year originally began with March of several
:

any

considerable

names

of

the

months

as

by the Quintilis, Sextilis, tember, Sepis shown

"c. month "c.


:

for

Quintilis,afterwards
;

Julius, was

the

fifth

from

March and
"

afterwards Sextilis,

Augustus, the sixth,

added to the end of the February were year. Thus Ad Varro hos : qui additi, prior a principe Deo Januarius appellatus ; posteriorab diis inferis Februarius." Cicero 2 also calls February the last month of the year : and the same fact is apparent from its being made the intercalary month natural to add the extra days at the end of ; for it was
^

January

the year. show Livy which that,down advanced to a very the lustrum curred reperiod of the republic, not every fifth but every sixth year, or consulship and ; the two the of twelve that,consequently, priestly years, year the civil one months and of ten months, must during that
are

There

several

passages

in

time lean

have

co-existed.

There

are

distinct traces

of the Eomu-

That year having existed down to b.c. 293. the consulship of L. Papirius Cursor and S. Carvilius was Maximus, and in it the lustrum was performed by the censors, civil year P. Cornelius Arvina and been

C.

Marcius in

Eutilus.^ the sixth

But

the

Sempronius Sophus and P. Sulpicius Savenio, in B.C. 299, according to the ordinary chronology. Therefore the lustrum, which a periodof five astronomical was is the same six consulships, thing, or, what years, contained The consulships six civil years of ten months. follows : are as Tor299 "B.C. Psetinus, T. Manlius (lustrum),M. Fulvius Cn. Fulvius Scipio, quatus ; B.C. 298, L. Cornelius ; B.C. 297, Q. Fabius, P. Decius ; B.C. 296, L. Volumnius, Ap. Claudius ; and Decius B.C. 295, Fabius again ; B.C. 294, L. Postumius L. Papirius Megellus,M. Atilius Eegulus ; B.C. 293 (lustrum),
P.
1

preceding lustrum had that of M. consulship, quatus,*bythe censors,

celebrated Psetinus

previous
Tor-

Fulvius

and

T. Manlius

L. L. vi. 34.

'

De

Le.ff. ii. 54.

Ljy^

x.

47.

Ibid.

c.

9.

CXXviii

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

Cursor,
lustrum taken So Fulvius

S. in

Carvilius
the

Maximus.

The

Fasti
our

place this last


statement

preceding consulship, but


to

is

from

Livy.

also, according
PiBtinus
and Maximus and

Livy,
in

six

consulships before
or

that

of

Manlius

Torquatus,
the Bubulcus
was

in the year
were

consulship
B.C.

of

Arvina

Tremulus,
and the

reputed

305,
^

M.

Valerius it is not

C. Junius lustrum Its

censors

but

said is
no

that
sure

celebrated.

The
some

lustrum,
reason
or

however, other,
of Eome
was

test.

celebration, for Thus,


was

frequently
294, though

omitted.
census

for

instance,

in the
was

year
not

the

taken,

tlie lustrum

celebrated, from
taken
was

because religiousscruples, of the consuls

the This

Capitol had
census,

been which

and
not

one

killed.^
year

completed
in due And

till the

following
to

by

the

celebration tenth

of the

lustrum,

is said

by Livy
than first

have

been should

only the
have

;^

though

order
from the

more

twenty lustrum,

been

brated. cele-

the

celebrated in had

by

Servius

Tullius,
a

and

last, celebrated
six centuries
an

by Vespasian
and
a

A.U.C.

827,

period
and

of about

half, there

been

only

seventy-five lustra,* giving eight


that times of nine
were

average But

inter\^al it may
"

of be

between assumed

years

between

them. every^

censors

appointed

five years

or,
"

in the
as

early
duties

of

the

republic, in
as

every

sixth

consulate

the
not

their

such office,

fixingthe taxes, "c., could


B.C.

well

be

postponed.
In another P.

the

period
pair
in of the

between

305

and

299,

we

find,indeed, Q.
Fabius and and Semnot
"

censors

recorded of

by Livy
but these

; viz.

Decius,

consulship
in
B.C.

Sulpicius

Saverrio created

pronius Sophus, taking


to

303 for

:^
an

were

for

the

census,

but of
some

extraordinary occasion,
tribes,in
order the
to to

the
end the

creation, namely,
forensic
tumults. of the

new

put

an

At

this
was

period, by
limited Maximus
; and

Lex

Emilia,

duration
The would
1

censorship
of have Valerius

eighteen
Junius
these
^

months.

censorship
therefore
ix. 43.
De 46.

and unless

Bubulcus
censors

expired
2

extra
24.

Liv.

Id. iii. 22. 18


:

j^id.

Censoiin. Liv.
ix.

Die

Natal,

c.

Handb. cf. Ideler,

der

Chronologie, ii. 79,

f.

cxxx

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

is remarkable consuls
at

that

L.
set

Papirius Cursor, who


up
not

was

one

of

the
seen

in

B.C.

293,

the been
not

first sundial constructed show

that

had

been

Rome.^

As

it had

for the

latitude

of
can

Rome,

and
be

therefore
as a

did
sort

the

time which

it correctly,

only

regarded
The

of

monument,
from

might
to

priately approsolar

commemorate
year. of
seems

the in which

change
it the
was

tl\e civil

the

place
or

erected, before
introducer of the also C.

the

Temple
year,

Quirinus,
to

Romulus,
without
a

civil be

be

not

significance.
years which he had

It may scribe

bered remem-

that, only

few

before, the

Flavins, by

publishing
had thus had robbed

the the

calendar

obtained, surreptitiously
of

priests of
them
a

their

secret

the

Fasti,

and

had have

deprived
in

of

any of

interest

which

they might
Roman may, of

opposing Livy
on a

change
not

style.
the

That founded also be

did

adopt

ordinary
of

chronology,
we

comparison by
other
no even

with

that

Greece,
First

think,
we

shown that he

circumstances. notice of the


as

all

may

remark and

takes and

Olympiads,
a

like for

Polybius
the

Dionysius,
Roman
occur

Cicero,

means

fixing
Roman
a

early
which

chronology.
at
an

Again, in
between show
to one,

the

few

synchronisms
and

early period
appear
common

Greek
that
can

history,his
lower
on

statements

he be

adopted
part

much

era

than

the

which

explained only
from this the
we

the

supposition
before
a A.U.C.

that

he
or

deducted
B.C.

one-sixth To received

years

459

293.

illustrate

subjoin
one

comparative
in this the

table

of

the
The

chronology
contains

and the

reduced

proportion.
second
the

first column
:
"

usual

chronology,
Rome founded Accession

reduced

B.C.

753 716
646 610 582 562 531 494

of Nunia
....

TuUus
Anens

Hostilius
.

673
640 616

Marcius Priscus

Tarquinius
Servius

TuUius

578
634 510

Tarquinius Superbus Expulsion


Rome of the

kings
the

474 374
293

captured by
of

Gauls
.
.

390 293

End

Livy's

first decade

Pliny,

H.

N.

vii. 60.

NEW

CHKONOLOGICAL

THEORY.

CXXXl

We

will compare says that the

with

this table
came

few

reputed synchronisms. Italy in


there the the in the
ment commencesame

Cicero year of of

Pythagoras
Proud,
His of
;
B.C.

into he
was

fourth time

Tarquin
Brutus.i

and

that in

Junius

arrival

Italy,and
he

of the

reign
the 62d in

Tarquinius, occurred, according


532,
which in
to which

says, in the

Olympiad, began
with
to

computation Tarquin
with Now Cato's this
era,

reign
came

agrees
B.C.

and

Pythagoras
all the

into

Italy
of his

529.

accords
to

accounts

life. Samos he

Thus,
in the is

according
to

Aris-

toxenus,^ Pythagoras quitted


at

reign of Polycrates,
have
B.C.

the

age in he

of
B.C.

forty ; which,
570,
would therefore year. This who

as

supposed
in well the arrived with from
must

been

born and the

have have account

been very also in

year in

530;
in

might

Italy
logy chrono532

following
of

tallies Samos

the
B.C.

Polycrates,
and in the the date

reigned

to

B.C.

522;
island

consequently
second of
to

Pythagoras
of

have The
not
was

quitted
variations affect born the in and

that

year

his

reign.
do he

respecting question.
B.C.

Pythagoras'
some

birth

According
605
; which

authorities
are

608

or

dates

adopted by Bentley
of
B.C.

Larcher,

while make

DodweU him birth the

prefers that
contemporaiy
latter he of the

570.

But

all testimonies Of
one,

with the have and

Polycrates.
more

the
as

dates

of

his
to

the

seems

probable

according
old
at

other

would

been

ninety-six years
when he with

the
to

expulsion
have
!

Tarquin,

ninety-eight
to
a war

is said in
B.C.

urged

Crotoniates

Sybaris,
there in Tar-

510

These is
no

variations, how^ever,
difference But while of

are

of

no

consequence, date the of his year of

as

opinion

about

the

arrival of

Italy.
TuUius. died in

Cicero

places
to

it in it

fourth the

quinius Superbus,
Now,
B.C.

Livy^ assigns
the five have be

to

reign

Servius Servius arrival. of table

according
or

ordinary chronology,
before
a

534,

years

Pythagoras'
different

Livy

must

therefore
; and
15

adopted
seen

mode

computation
1

it will
; Tusc.

that
cf. A.

by
Gell.

the
N". A.

reduced
xvii. 41.

De

Eep. ii.

i. 16, iv. 1
c.

Porphyr.
See

Vit.

Pyth.
Fasti

9.
^

Clinton,

Helleu.

Lib.

i. 18,

CXXXii the
529

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

year of
a
"

B.C.

would

have adds

been that

the

second

year
arrived

of

the

reign
than
annos

Servius. hundred

Livy
years

Pythagoras
"
"

more

after

Numa the

centum

amplius
Numa Eome. have
would of

post
could

that
his
to

is, of

course,

after he

time

when

have

been

pupil, before
the

became

king
it

But,
been

according
187
years, absurd. been the 144 reduced

ordinary chronology,
term from the
a

would

for

which
even

such death

an

expression
Numa be
so

be have

And

of
to

it would

years,

too

long

period

described.
117 years

By
from mode

computation
to
B.C.

it would

have

been

Numa's of

accession

529, which

agrees

with

Livy's

speaking.
Take another the instance. in the Phocaeans in the after

Livy^ places reign


were

the

first invasion

of

Italy by
time
as we

Gauls the shown few

of

Tarquinius Priscus, at the founding


Massalia.

when have
a

Now,
was

body
B.C.

of 546.

the

work,^

Massalia
to

foimded
common

years

But, according
died
in
B.C.

the We

chronology, Tarquin
to

the

Elder

578.

must, therefore,resort
his

the from

reduced
B.C.

chronology, which
to

shows
tion founda-

reign
of it. Could

to

have

lasted would

562

531

; and

the

Massalia

then

have

occurred

about

the middle

of

any

undoubted

synchronisms
and

be
in

shown
which

between
the assumed

the

early
Roman

Eoman

history
it,there
far of
as we

the
with of

Greek,
the

received
to correspond

chronology tallied
with
;

Olympiads
be
an

would
are

course
none

end
are

to to

the
be

tion ques-

but,

so

aware,

such

found.
is
or

The

marking

the

Olympiads

in

Polybius
that the

and

Dionysius
year, then

obtained

empirically, by assuming
consisted in of twelve

Eoman and

consulate, always
the
two

months,
:

placing
in
a

chronologies
to

co-ordination
before

thus

Dionysius,
of

passage make and


out

which
a

we

have

adverted,^ endeavours
the

to

synchronism
in
B.C.

between

consulship
were

Geganius
into But
mere

Minucius

492, when
and the this

envoys

despatched
at

Sicily to buy
we

corn,

reign
The

of Gelon

Syracuse.
is
a

have

shown of
V.

that that

pretended synchronism
year
B.C.
'

invention
^

author.
^

492
See

would,
above,

in

the

Lib.

34.

See

p.

33, seq.

p. Ixxvi.

RECAPITULATION.

CXXXlll

reduced
when
was

chronology,
the

be

B.C.

459,

and
was

thus

fall in

the

period reign
some

chief

man

in
;

Sicily
it is have

Ducetius,

whose that
name

in the of
not

B.C.

466-440

and may

not

improbable
his
events at

of

Eoman

annalists of

confounded But all

with
error

that
was

Dionysius

Syracuse.
nor can

the

adopted by Livy, early Eoman


of the thus

Dionysius'
of
ten

amendment

of

it be But the

accepted.
if the year
was one

months,
to
a

then

duration
one

regal period making


of it

would 203

have years,

be

reduced often And

by
thus be

sixth,
in the of

only
to

period

equalled
one

reigns
tritest

seven

consecutive the

sovereigns.

the

objections
the
art

early history would


to

removed.
To

recapitulate.
"

As

of

writing
earliest best from

appears

have is
no

been
reason

practised at
to

Eome

in the

very of the almost

times,

there

doubt

the had

testimony
been

ancient the

writers foundation with that

that of love

public
the of
to

records

kept
such
a

city ; especially as precedent,


be
a as

practice

accords

well

as

of the

national Eomans. may of

glory, which
And have their of
rest

is admitted
a

characteristic

of

although perished
existence shows oral

siderable con-

part
Gallic the

of

these

records the fact

in

the
to

conflagration, yet
of the ihat fourth

down that
:

middle

century
did
not

Eome
on

its it

history during catastrophe


"

period
been all events
as

tradition after from To

might, therefore,
or

have

easily
its had

reconstructed facts the


"

that

at

leading escaped
and

memory, suppose

aided that

by
it
was

such
not

documents
so

fire.

reconstructed character and


as

preserved
Eomans,
the
as

is not shown

only by

at

variance

with

the

of

the

the

preceding
themselves,
remained evidence and
we

records,
but
to

painted by
the the fact that

sceptical
must

critics

also

with

enough
and
to

have
the laws

substantiate possess had been


we

leading events,
taken
recover

with what

of

the

pains

treaties Further
:

destroyed.
the

if

deny
then for

preservation
remains
no

of

any

public
method

or

private records,
which The
we can

there

probable
of and the

by

account

the

existence

early history.
the

first

literaryannals

of

Fabius, Cato,

rest, could

CXXXIV

INTERNAL

EVIDENCE.

not

have

been

founded

on

oral

tradition, which
down That still
more

would
of

have

been
often

totallyincompetent
of of the
most
or

to hand nature.

such

mass
were

details,
duct proTlie

prosaic
invention

they

the

forgery

is

improbable.
were
"

high

character

of
men

these
of their

early writers, who


distinction
;

not

needy

but litterateurs,

the

minor

differences
blance resem-

sometimes
of

found them
from
on

in

narratives, yet the


that

general they
them
not

the

whole, showing
of

drew and from but of

pendently indethe the have torical his-

sources

recognised authority;
been upon

check

that of their tnith.

must

always
from methods

have

jealousy
insured

the

great patrician houses, could


any The which of have the been

accounts

flagrantperversions
history
and
are

invented
not

in

order

to

account of all

for the

existence but also

only
probable, im-

destitute
Niebuhr's

evidence,
of
a

inadequate
is

improbable.
himself. and

theory
and in

poetical origin
abandoned is also for
a

unauthenticated,
the

great part

by
mere

author

The

hypothesis setiological
to

invention,
far

altogether inadequate
of the

account
no

the
can

greater portion
into
an

history,

which

ingenuity

torture

aetiological origin.
To conclude
: on

the

objections which ground


to

have internal its

been

urged against
are

the

history

the

of

its

improbability
from
porary contem-

altogether
accounts

insufficient The

invalidate drawn

origin
the

record. which in much

argument
is

from

supernatural
accounts
are

it contains

futile,since similar

found

later, and
in

unquestionably authentic,
the

history.
been times

Their
of

greater frequency
in the

early period confirms, instead showing


it to have

invalidatingjjjbs authenticity,as superstitiousand


Its of it records. of
own

written which result of


our

comparatively
of their the

illiterate
are

alleged contradictions
materials,
well and much
as

chieflythe
and
want

the

paucity

partial destruction,
of

ignorance, as
of

ignorance
;

judgment
nature to

Dionysius
have been the

Plutarch

but,

after and

all,these
are

contradictions
a

exaggerated,
historical the
our

not

of
:

obliterate
adduced the

general against only


of

picture. Lastly ignorance,

the
are

arguments
also often

history from
own

chronology
or are

result

RECAPITULATION.

CXXXV

founded

on

the
of of the

mistranslations,
the

misapprehensions,
critics
themselves.

and
But

sical whim-

fancies this is

sceptical history
to

though
yet
nor

part
not

is invalidate that

undoubtedly
the whole

the

weakest, narrative,
we

it

of

nature

to

leave

us

without

hopes
in

by
it

careful

investigation

may

ultimately

succeed

clearing

up.

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

One the

thing

seems

tolerably certain
held this
to

"

that
to
a

the
race

great bulk
allied
to

of
the

early
he

Italian

population belonged
race

Greek.
once,

Niebuhr

have

been both

Pelasgians, who
of Greece of their
are

thought, occupied
were

the

peninsulas by
the

and

Italy,till they
tribes, and
;

overwhelmed them

incursions of

other
ence existwhelmed over-

left behind
as a

only partial-traces
features
a

just by

the

physical
above has of
name

of

country
is

deluge, except

few
But

which hill-tops, this

here
now

and
ploded. ex-

there

lift themselves

it.

theory
regard
of
to

Schwegler
Dr.
once

refuted latest the

it with historians

Italy/ and
does
not

Mommsen,
mention

one

the of

Kome,

the

Pelasgians.
we

The
"

last-named for Niebuhr's

writer, to
star

whom

thus that

advert
of

^ar

lence excelis

is the

and setting, last


new

Mommsen of Teutonic-

in

the

ascendant,

with

version

Eoman first

history" peopled by by

is
a

nevertheless Greek
the he
race,

of and

opinion
that At

that

Italy
entered of

was

they
at

the

peniQSula
civilization
an

crossing

Alps.
in the

the

period
that
of

their
of

immigration

they had,
which is
on

thinks, arrived

stage

implied
certain

practice
in

agriculture;
Greek

opinion formed languages.


ceases

analogies
stage
the
were

the
an

and

Latin

But,

generally speaking,
Its next
are

agricultural large and


upon
a

people

to

wander.
if these

is to
sea,

found
to enter

and opulent cities, commercial

near

life.
seems

As

the much

Greeks
more

pre-eminently
whatever

time mari-

people, it
elements
and the
out

likelythat Italy were


entered
traces

Hellenic

may the

be

discovered

in

introduced

by
were

sea,

that

population which
; of

by

the have

Alps
been

of

Celtic
in the The

stock Italian

whose

language by
modern

pointed peopled

dialects
of

inquirers. Italy Alps,


on
or was

balance

probability
who
measure

whether

entirelyby immigrants by
sea, must

crossed

the

partly making
to
sea

also of

in

great
the
as

depend
were

the
of

antiquity

navigation.
voyages
attested at

That least

Greeks
the

capable
of

long
is

early as
of his

time

the

siege of Troy,
that after the

by the
and

account

Ulysses having sailed


over

city
its

from

Ithaca,

of
*

long wanderings
Geschichte, Buch

Romische

iii. " 4.

EARLY

POPULATION

OF

ITALY.

fall.
mere

It is

nothing

to

the
We

purpose do
not to

to

object
cite them

that
as on

these

are

poeticallegends.
we

here be

historical
rences. occura

facts,though
We who

believe
to

them

founded
to

real that

allude
a

them

here centuries

merely
before

show the

poet
era,

lived

great
voyages the

many
to

Christian

believed
that
must
era.

such On

be

possible
Dr.
to

twelve

centuries
^

before

other

hand.

Mommsen the

argues Hellenes its An for any been


name.

that

Italy
to

have

been he

totallyunknown
does
not
once

in

Homer's But

time,
prove the

because this

mention
not. not

point, a negative
towards if
we

suffices called to

expedition
mention

of of

Greeks

the allow appears

east

Italy ; while,
of the
more

Homer
to

have

the

author the

Odyssey,
distant

he

have he

been

acquainted
of under mentioned under

with the
name

still

which Sicily, The Siculi


are

speaks
times

of Thrinakia.2
same

several

in the
name,

poem;^
may allude Such The

and
to
a

Strabo the

is of

opinion* that,
inhabited all events

this

he

people
were

who
at

the

extremities

of in

Italy.
Greece.

people
name

entirely unknown
"

of
to

Epirus, which
the islands that have
a

the signifies which lie off

mainland,"
in

in contradistinction the with Iliad.


^

it,appears
coast

But

to

suppose
not

seafaringpeople,acquainted
known the of

Epirus, should
is

also

Italy,

which
Dr.

only

about

forty miles "opinion on

distant, is
this

utterly incredible.
is

Mommsen's and

subject
the

comprehens altogether inconfutes tenth songs of

self-contradictory. In
mouth. the had At time
no

fact, he
the Homeric

himself

out

of his

own

beginning

of his

chapter
were

he

teUs

us

that, at
Greeks

when certain heard But

composed,

the

knowledge
of
at

Italy
when the have

and from

Sicily, though
some

they might
was

have

their the he

existence

storm-tossed

mariner.

time

Hesiod's
whole

Theogony
make

composed,
not

they knew,

says, may

Italian
to

coast, and
settlements theories
a

long afterwards
it. the

they

begun
The

upon

different embrace Mommsen Gesch,


B.

respecting
of
not
no

period when
than date he five

Homer

flourished and
1 3

period
tells
us

fewer what
^

centuries,
We

Dr.
Rom.

selects.

i.

Kap.

2. "c.
-*

Odyss.
c

xii. 127.
"

Odyss.xx.

38a;

xxiv.

211,

Lib.

i.

1, " 10.

ii. 635.

b2

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

will, however,
which
war,
or

assume

that

he

takes
a

the

earliest,according
the

to"^

Homer

flourished
the There

within

century after
of

Trojan
the
a

towards
era.

end

of the
a

eleventh
difference

century before
more

Christian

is also
of

than here him

century in the
we

computations
ninth the
even

Hesiod's

date ; but

also in the

win

take of

the

highest calculation, which


century
Italian
B.C.

places
on

middle
own

the

Now,
must

Dr.

Mommsen's
been this in he

showing,
to, but
For

coast

not

only have long


us,

known

colonized
as

by
he
;

the

Greeks

before founded

period.
Olympiad
further
was B.C.

Sybaris was,
or

rightly tells
in the
same

xiv. 2,
us,

B.C.

723
all

and

paragraph
which the
a

tells

also

in

probability correctly,that
before

Cumse be of

founded

three
or

centuries
two

Sybaris ;^
years about

would
time

1023,
at

nearly
very

hundred

before

Hesiod,
of the

the

least, and
date of the

within

half who

century
said
to not

very been

highest ignorant
Cumsean the

assigned to Homer,
existence
were,

is

have

of
as

Italy !
Dr.

It matters Mommsen

whether

the

Greeks

says, it

merchants,
is

and that

Sybarite Greeks
Greeks had
to

agriculturists ; though
sailed

probable
"When

the

to, and

traded

with,

Italy,long
maritime

before

they began

settle there.
the

it is and
era

considered commercial the

that

Phoenicians
many centuries
to

were

great
the
a

nation
war,

before

reputed
clever have famous and who of

of

Trojan
them

it is difficult like the

believe should

that

and

enterprising people
from the who

Greeks

not

acquired

art of

navigation long
in the
to

before

that

siege. Herodotus,
may the therefore be

lived

fifth

century B.C.,
a we a

supposed
ancient this there

have

been than

better
can

judge
Cretans

capabilitiesof
to

navigation
tells
us ^

possibly pretend
"

be

at

day,
are

that

crew

of tlements set-

in whose
"

island their
coast
Jahr

traces

of

Phoenician

were,
on

on

return

from

Sicily,driven
Eoman

by

stress

of
^

weather
"Kyme

the

of

lapygia, the
ist der

Calabria, and
'*Die
. .

dreihmidert
01.

alter 23

als

Sybaris"
s.

Griindung
that,
of

von

Sybaris fallt
the

14, 2, oder
text
"

Stadt,"
altered
a

89.
here

We

perceive
tradition and
^

in

English

translation, the
we

is much is the

; and, instead

the
a

first

sentence,

find

only, elapsed
"

There

further

credible at
2

that
the main

considerable Hellenic

interval

between

settlement

Cumae yji

emigration,"

Vol.

i. p.

140.

i^[\y

^70

MAEITIME

COLONIZATION

OF

ITALY.

there

established
of

themselves.
Crete
;

This

happened
the of had

in

the

reign

of

Minos, king
the

that
no

is, in
means

mythical period returning


cast to

before
own

Trojan
; thus

war.

Having becoming,
exhibits

their
town

country, they built, where

fortune says

them,

the

of

Hyria
instead
or

Herodotus,
this

lapygian Messapians
be
a an

of

Cretans.
at least

Whether the
as

story
of

historical ancient Grreek

fact and gation, navi-

not, it

opinion
to

very of

very

inquisitive historian
and of Greek

the
on

antiquity
the Italian in this

settlements

coast.

The

lapygians, or Messapians, peninsula,


or

settled

most south-easternconsiders

"heel,"

of

Italy,Dr.
for that in down
swarms

Mommsen

to have

been

the

primitive inhabitants, or reputed autochthons,


main had
reason

of the be that

country

; the

opinion appearing
the

to
as

though they

come

over

Alps, they had, extremity


new can

usually happened,
land The
a

been

thrust

to

this of

of

the

by only

constantly succeeding
remains

immigrants.
be traced
are

by
a

which Greek Greek

their

ethnology
but

few

inscriptionsin analogy
will be.
to

character, and

bearing apparently they


of Dr. have
never

some

the

language;
to the

been
never

deciphered and, according


The
"

opinion
Greek

Mommsen,

names

of certain

divinities, apreiJie^i,

aTTpoBcra Ba/uLarpLa,
show,
we

-that

is,Artemis, Demeter,
the authors
race

Aphrodite^
of who the shall

"

think have

indubitably, that
been
were

tions inscriptell

must
us or

of the

an

Hellenic

; but

whether

they

or original,

autochthonic Cretans Hellenic


?

inhabitants,
mentioned

immigrant

Greeks,
a

such very

as

the

by
the
as

Herodotus,

speaking

primitive
with

dialect, corrupted
so

perhaps by Messapians
a were

intercourse

barbarians the

that

universally regarded by
accidental
maritime visits and such

later

Greeks

barbarous Besides

people.
the and it settlements
as

of

the

more

southern
we

Greeks,
that very

that

just

alluded also

to,
have

think

highly probable
colonized and
no

southern

Italy may
Greece.

been from that

partly Epirus
we

at

early period by immigrants


of
or even

the

western

coasts

It

is

true any

have

historical Greeks
Die

record,
and

tradition, of
at

early contact
1

between
Mommsen,

Italiots

this
p. 84.

point

and,

Untcritalische

Dialekte,

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

considering the
the
same

state

of

our

knowledge
surprising if
tribes
a

respecting the earlywe

historyof Italy,it
names

would

be

had.

But in two

when
tries, coun-

of

places
at

and

are

found

there that

is room,
one

all
was we

events, for

very

strong
the other. both

tion presumpIt
can
a a

of

them that
or

peopled
should
a

from

hardly
race

be

accidental

find^in

countries

called

Chaones,

Chones,
And the

town

called Pandosia, and


names

river
a

called Acheron.
between

if these
two

afford

evidence
to

of

connexion it could
sea.

lands,

it is difficult

believe
than

that the At

have

been

established

in any

other

way

by

the
there

same was

time
not

we

are

willing to
much The
sea

allow

that

in

ancient
Greece

times
and
race,

probably
to

intercourse

between
were a

Italy across
not

the

Adriatic.
the

Epirots
;

pastoral length
did

much which

addicted

though,
be
a

with

the if

of
not
come

coast

they possessed, it
venture

would
even

strange

they

sometimes within of

upon

it,and

fishing-boatmight
considered the

sight making
in

of

Italy. The
in

seafaring Greeks, however, days


of
were

capable
voyages,

what the

those

long
of
on

dwelt
on

Peloponnesus,
coasts

in

islands
and
no

the the

Archipelago,
shores of Asia

the

eastern

Greece,
to
see

Minor.
the of

Hence

it is easy

that

Greek
on

navigators,with
the
western coast

exception, perhaps, Peloponnesus,


On of and for
a

of

those

dwelling

especially the Italy,have


a

thians, Corin-

would,
to

in

steering westward
such

anything
from any Ma-

do

with

the

Adriatic.

course,

vessel

pai-tof Greece

eastward have
to

Cape
to

Tsenarum

(now
of of

Cape
and

tapan),
thus

would itself

doable

that
the

promontory,
south

would

find

considerably
the her

Cape

Pachynus
Under Ionian coasts is
more

(Cape
these Sea for

Passaro),

southernmost
course

point
would reach
be

Sicily.
the

circumstances,

across

Sicily; whence

she would

the western
what

of

Italy either by circumnavigating that island, or probable, by passing through the


this the
was

Straits

of

Messina.

That from
or

the

usual of

course

of Greek Italian

navigation, is evident Leaving question, there


of is not

situation and

their

colonies.

lapygia,
a

Messapia,
Greek

Venice
on

out

of the

single
;

colony

the

eastern

coast

Italy,except

Ancona

VOYAGES

OF

THE

GEEEKS.

and
as on

this
the the

we

know

was

settled
before the

by refugees from
Christian of
era.

Sicilyas
In

late

fourth southern
numerous,

century
and while

Sicily,and
colonies
to

western

coasts

the Greek Italy,


was

were

the the

Adriatic

but of

little known nation.

and

less

explored by
alone,
out not

greater part
the

that

The

Corinthians

from

their

geographical position,their gulf


entrance

opening
have
eastern

far

from to
even

of
a

that

sea,

seem
on

to

visited shores
cause we

it,and
; but

have

planted
appear
to

few have

colonies

its from

they
Now,
the of

abstained,
the

what
coast

cannot

explain, from
if such

colonizing
was

Italian of other

of

the

Adriatic.

the

usual
or,

course

Greek

navigation during
when
seems

historical

times,
were

in

words,
there

the
to
an

colonies
no

Magna

Graecia
not

founded,
have the
so

be

reason

why

it should

also that

been

pursued
had voyage

at

earlier

period, provided always


sailors this
to to

Greeks

become
; and
we

sufficientlyskilful
that

make

long
remote

they

had

attained endeavoured
source

skill show.

in very

antiquity might
the

have
been

already
another which Eome
seem city,
we

Here, then,
and

have

of of

Italian Greek of

population,
settlements

many

legends
of that

have before
to

in the which We
are

neighbourhood actually built


also of southern

that

the
a

people
source.
we

point
the

to such

opinion

that

several

of the

races

which

hear

of

in

and Italy,

Sicily,as

"c., -"Enotrii, Siculi,Itali,


been introduced with

bably pro-

Pelasgic tribes,might
We shall
content
some
so

have

by

sea.

ourselves, however,

indicating
at

the

possibilitythat might length


present
may be have how work in that been

portion
introduced

of

the

early
the

Italian

population
any the of

without As

discussing
main

Italy
is to the
we

was

peopled.
at of

object
truth

endeavour

ascertaining what
Eome,
into the it will still upon
we

there be
pected ex-

early history
should
enter

hardly
more

obscure

question
more we

of

Italian

ethnography, a subject
more

which,
feel there
to

the nounce pro-

investigate it,the
any

incompetent
If, as
the all is

decided
to

opinion.
establish
which
at

supposed,
of the there
to

is not
turies cen-

evidence of
some

enough
Eome,
how

history
events

first few

of

profess
a

to

be

records,

should

it be

possible

give

satisfactory

8
account
a

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

of

long antecedent
those of ? This

period, of which
the
most

there
and

are

only

few

traditions, and
nature

divergent
has

dictory contra-

circumstance, however,

not

deterred

writers who from

of

Teutonic-Roman
reconstruct the
most

history
it

of

the

Niehuhr of
"

school,

profess to
proposing
vaguest

by

process

divination," ^
course,
on

confident
"

theories,built,of
we come

the

inductions.
Sir

When Come

to
"

examine
on

the the

evidence," observes etlmological theories


are

George
the
at

wall of

Lewis,

which

of

majority
their
an

antiquarian
and indeed

treatises almost is too

founded,

our

wonder
is

wide,
No

unlimited

divergences, conjecture is
the
an

at

end.
no

probability
too

faint, no
to to

too

bold,

ethnology is
in search

uncertain

resist

credulity of^ian antiquarian ethnological hypothesis.


nations,
one

of evidence
men,

support

Gods
another wand
; nor,
are

become

kings become
sites
are

nation
a

becomes of the minutes

nation,

oppo-

interchanged
Centuries
account

at

stroke
as

of the historical

magician.
itself of much In method the

are

to him

indeed,
in

is space

when

national
or

affinities

question."^
modern
us

absence of

of all records

traditions, the great


may

comparative philology
ancient in

aindoubtedly
It has

teach

something respecting
with
some

ethnography.
the

been

used

success

the discriminating

dififerent
Italian in the

races

which,

during
but their

the

historical
not
as

period, inhabited
made For much this little all the
"

peninsula,
is

it has

yet

progress purpose
or

demonstrating
method
so

immediate

origin.
that

comprehensive
now,
we

it teaches

nothing specific.
peoples
is of ancient called

It is

believe, decided
the

that
were

Italy,
Indoof
roots

including
European
which may

Etruscans,
that

of

what

the

family :
be within its
as

is,they spoke languages


up
to

the

traced

the

Sanscrit.

This

description
now so

contains

comprehensive
the

boundaries
the

tongues
the

widely
Erse,
the

different

Greek,
more.

Latin,
As
these

Teutonic,

the

Gaelic, and

several
all
to

nations, however
fewer
or

diverse

their which fact


^

dialects,had

some

words,
in
common,

greater
to

in

number,
how this

belonged

them

it is easy the

see

complicates, instead
of

of

removing,

difficulty

Hist,

Rome,

vol. i. p.

152.

Credibilityof

Early

Roman

History,

vol. i. \i. 270.

10

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

of and

certain with

classes of Greek their

and

Latin

words

with

one

another,
trace be the

progress
to
some

of

parent Sanscrit, he has those peoples. This method


lead
with to the
not
a

attempted
may, few and
on

to

indeed,

liable From their the

objections, and long


intercourse almost

fallacies.
because

their

Greeks,

literature Komans
words found

was no

entirely modelled adopted,


is at
a

the

Grecian,
many be
as
was

doubt their

late
could

period,
not

Greek

into

language, which
a

originally
we a

there.
to

There show

great probability, too,


on,

shall

endeavour

further would in

that

Eome for
a

itself

Greek
of in the any for

settlement, which
Greek

account

great many
Hence
of those

words
of

found the

the

Latin dialects it
seems

language.
with
to

comparison
and the

Italian

Greece be

ethnological purposes, comparison


dialects.
results

Latin,
made

us,

should and the

omitted,
Umbrothese
to

between

Greek
for

the
moment

Sabellian

Waiving, however,
of the process

objections,the
that when had

alluded
from

to

appear

be

the

Graeco-Italians
at

separated
more

the parent stock

they
words not

arrived

nothing
possess

than

pastoral life,since the


with the Sanscrit do towards tion. civiliza-

which go further Mommsen

they
than

in

common

this stage in the


next

progress after this to he

supposes

that

separation,and
dwell

while

the

Graeco-Italians
at

still continued of

together,
the

they arrived
also
to

the

stage
wliich for

agriculture,as
had in
to

infers from

agricultural words
common some

they

common.

They
domestic
here

have

words

things relating
of kind of Dr. of the

and life, also the both

elementary
of of the
more

principles
domestic

religion, but
;
as

religion worship
to

for
was

instance
known

Vesta,
and

the

goddess
Here

hearth,

Greeks

Italians.

Mommsen the

stops short, for


and Latin will

further
not

than

this

comparison
that
an

Greek

carry It is

him.

obvious, however,
may tend Greeks
in
an

though

the

preceding
no

tigation invesrace

to

show

original community point


The
are

of

between
into

the

and

Italians, it affords
of

ever insight whatmuch Latin


more

what,
"

historical

view, is
and most

important
for civil

their and

political life.
affairs

Greek
for the

terms

military

part

quite

I
GREEK AND CELTIC ELEMENTS OF LATIN.

11

different resemblance has

; and

what
to
some we

is

the singular,
and words
a

Latin

bear

very

striking
Newman referred

the

Gaelic of these
extract

Welsh. in the that


we

Professor work the


"

collected from

before
most

to/

which

few

have find

striking
arma,

resemblance.
arm

In

military

terms

Latin,

G.
;

gladius,G. claidheamh, galia


; caterva, W.

W.

cleddyr; telum, G.
;

tailm

galea, E.
G. lorica, W.

catorva

G. sagitta, W.
mur

saighead ;
;

luireach

; baltens, G. halt ; murus,

vallum,

gwal, G. fal
corona,

and

halle ;
coron

spuill;
affairs we

G. W.
"

preeda, W. praidh, spolia,G. In civil gloria,G. gloir; "c.


W. carchar
;

have

Latin,rex, G.
; career,
as

righ; populus,W. poU,G.2)ohuU ;


ordo,
W. urdh
;

senatus, G.
and

seanadh
more.

several
upon

Now

it is natural
names

that for

victors

should

impose
and for

the

conquered their
we

military affairs
infer
that

civil

government,
tribes in his had

might
subdued

hence

the

originalItalian
Dr. other
were

been

by Celtic invaders.
of that

Prichard,
modern
a

"Physical History
maintained this

Mankind,"
the

and

writers, have
race,

Umbrians

Celtic

and

opinion
to

is in
same ^ an

some

degree

ported sup-

by by
not
some

an

obscure later

tradition Eoman

the
;

effect mentioned

of the

writers into the

opinion, however,
dialect have
it from

which

researches philological
to

the

Umbrian

tended the

confirm. nations

On

other these

hand,
words

might
the

be

said

that

Celtic

derived

Eomans

during their long struggle with and that people. This, however, does not in which the Eomans came by them
of
war

partialsubjugation by
account ;

for the besides


are

manner

and,

the terms
others
to
names

and

politicsbefore
mere

aUuded

to, there
are

many

relating to
Latin and

natural
not

objects which
to the

common
as

the for

Celtic,and
abstain

Greek,
*

such

the

earth,sea, mountain, wind, storm, d"c.


But
we

from wiU

pursuing
content

any

further with

these

general

observations, and
most

ourselves

generally received results of modern regard to the ancient populations of Italy.


1

recordingthe inquiry with

Eegal Eome,
Solinus, ii.
"

ch. 4.
11

The ad

letters G. W.
^n, xii, 753 ; p.

E, stand

for Gaelic, Welsh, Erse.


2.

3
*

; Serv.

Isidore,Orig. ix.
20, seqq.

See the list in Newman's

Eegal Eome,

12 There of whom
for the

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

can

be
or

no

doubt
is

that, leaving aside known,


the

the

Ligurians,
was was

little most

nothing

the

Italian

peninsula
Kome another

founded,
their

time when part occupied, at by three races, distinguished from one


;
a

by

language

namely,
dialect.
we

the of

lapygians, or
tribes

Messapians, the

Etruscans, and

collection

called .Umbro-Sabellian,

speaking
Of the
or

cognate

the

lapygians
be

have

already spoken.
of the The

Eespecting language
decide

origin and nothing


be it
was oan

ethnological affinities
established.
but

Etruscans, little
of their of

remains
is known any

cannot that

interpreted;
Etruscans

enough
from

it to

entirely different family.^


be As

other

Italian

dialect,
to

yet that

the

nevertheless
no

probably belonged
clue
to

the the

Indo-European
Etruscans is
so

the

origin
so

of

can

derived
that the of

from

their
us

language,
in
an

also

tion tradiof
certainty. un-

various
One of

it leaves
most

equal
received

state

commonly
who of

accounts

is,
to

or

rather

was,

that

Herodotus,^
the pressure

represents them famine,


one

have then

emigrated, under
called

from of the

Lydia,
sons

Mseonia, into
of

Italy. Tursenus,
the
to

of
; he

Atys, king
conducted
and

Maeonia,
the

was

leader

of

this

expedition

half
at

nation

Smyrna,
been of

where

they embarked,
or

landed
This

last in the
seems

country of the Ombrici,


almost

Umbrians.

account

to have

universallyreceived
appears his
to

among be the

the

Eonians. ancient

Dionysius
author could who
not

Halicarnassus it ; but

only

disputed
have from been that absurd.

argument
because

that his

the time

Etruscans

Lydians, people
^

in

they entirely differed


and which fifteen
must

in

language,
that other each

customs,
two

is eminently religion, have been

It

assumes

nations
or

separated
both

from

twelve that

centuries,* and
extreme
customs

had

undergone
have In

during
retained

long period
their

vicissitudes, should
and

unaltered

their

language.

fact, the

1 '

Mommsen,
Aut. The Rom.

Rom,
i. 30.

Gescli.

B. i. " 81.

Lib.

i.

c.

94.

emigration
centuries

mentioned the

by Herodotus
era,
as

must

have

taken

place more
was

than

twelve
to

before

Christian

the

dynasty

of Atys

previou

that

of the

Heraclidae.

ORIGIN

OF

THE

ETRUSCANS.

V3
but
two

originalemigrants
MjBonians;
and have has fact that of

were

not,

properly speaking, Lydians,


Herodotus is considers

although
been shown their from

these
to
as

peoples
as

to

identical, there
other

good
that

reason

believe,
well
as

Niebuhr
the and

ancient

authors,

from
races,

change
endured

of name,
were

they

were

distinct

the

Maeonians

conquered by the Lydians. ^


revolutions,
and among
;
so

Subsequently, Lydia
was as

many

which

subjugation by
Strabo tells

the

Persians,

by

the

Greeks
had in
at

that,
time
same

us,^

the Yet

Lydian
!
^

language
who The

his

entirely disappeared.
time
as

Dionysius,

lived

the

Strabo, is
turn

still

seeking it

Lydians

in

Italy must

in their the

have
on

endured
which

equal vicissitudes. Dionysius


dissimilar
seems

Nevertheless,

argument
than
on

to

lay

even

more

stress

the

dissimilarityof their language


their

to

that
to

of be

the

Lydians, namely, by
common as

customs,

appears

contradicted A
custom

the

researches
to

of modern

"* inquirers.

the

Etruscans that chance

with the

the

Lydians
could

is

so

singular,as well
well have
to

abominable,
work of
a

coincidence custom,

not

been

the

of

; the

namely,
the

alluded sake
of

by Plautus,^
them modern

prostitutingtheir daughters for dowry.


and

procuring

Several
have also

writers,
the

among
of

them
the

Dr.
account

Mommsen, given by impossible


sea.

disputed
on so

probability
that

Herodotus,
to

the
numerous

ground
a

it would
so

have
across

been

convey

people

far

the

This

however, difficulty,
nor

occurred

neither

to

Herodotus
he

himself,

to

his
not
were

critic

Dionysius, who, though


this

disputes the story,


These
ancient

does writers their

employ
better

argument

against it.
with the

acquainted
are.

early navigation than


Greeks
could

modern

critics

In

fact,if
on

people

1 2

Hist, Lib. He See in

of Rome, xiii. ch.

vol.
iv.

i. p.
p.

32 631.
:

Lect.

Anc.

Hist.

vol.

i. p, 87.

17,

3 *

uses

the

present
of

tense

oiS^

yip tKelvois SfiSyAaxraroi flaiv,loc. cit.


; who

Mr. especially the customs

Dennis's the

Etniria, vol. i.
with

points
their

out

many

ties similariin

Etruscans

those

of

reputed forefathers

Asia
5

Minor.
"

Non

enim

hie
dotem

est

ubi

ex

Tuscp
"

modo

Tute
Cf.

tibi

indigne

quseras

corpore."

Cistell. ii. 3, 20.

Herod,

i. 93,

14 the have
coasts

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

of

Magna
had
at

Grsecia
in

and

Sicily, why
some

might
? have

not

this
vided prothat

been

performed
the
to
case

Etruria

centuries
progress
we

before,
And

navigation
this
was

made
a

adequate

very

early period
need
not

already

endeavoured
But
numerous.

show.

the

Lydian
times

immigrants people
thousand grow
not at

have
the

been

so

very
; but
a

Herodotus,
a

indeed, speaks
was

of half

people
a

in

ancient
Nor

often
suppose

composed
that may

of

city or
came

tribe.
one

is it necessary A few
soon

to

they
under

all

in

fleet.

immigrants
up into
a

favourable

circumstances
the of

great nation
formed any

; and

though
their

Lydians
the

may

first have

great portion
from in

people
of their

afterwards

called
may

Etruscans,
succeeded of their

yet,

superior
many
more even

civilisation
customs

they

have much whom

imparting
to

and

language
and

the

barbarous their
name.

people among
that

they landed,
had
race.

perhaps
made

It is evident the
coast

other

settlements
an

also been Such


its

on

of Etruria

by

Hellenic with

were

Pisse,
others. its
a

Telamon,
The Greek
name

Agylla
of

or

Caere,

Pyrgi,
shown
Greek

port,
its

and

Pyrgi
which

(Uvpyoi, the
is further

towers) of itself denotes by goddess,


that who
a

origin;
to

containing

temple
over

Eileithyia, a purely
The
also

presided
treasury
of
:

child-birth.

circumstance
a

Caere

had

at

Delphi, affords origin of

strong presumption
and
was

in

favour
names

its the

Grecian Greek
in

origin. Telamon
the latter the

Pisse almost author at the


a

are

Grecian

universally recognized
who
same

antiquity; Cato,
foundation,
been

only

ascribes time that

to

it

an

Etruscan
had

admits

its site
a

previously occupied by
These Greek settlers

people speaking
to

Greek them^ of
an

dialect.^ selves
a

appear the in in
were

have

spread vestiges Argolic


"c.

considerable
relates

distance
^

into
even

interior. his the time

Dionysius
of
towns

Halicamassus Hellenic Ealerii


and in
race

that

might
other

still be

traced Such

Etruscan

of

and

Eescennium.
and weapons,

their

shields method the

lances which
"

their

the religiousrites,

their
Serv.
ad

temples
^n.
x.

were

constructed,
a

But

Apud

179.

Lib.

i.

ch. 21.

OEIGIN

OF

THE

ETEUSCANS.

15

strongest evidence
of

was

temple
in may

at

Falerii
similar
more

exactly like
sacred rites

that
were

Here,

or

Juno,
among

at

Argos,
which

which be

performed;
the the

particularly girlswho Livy,


who in

guished distin-

who basket-bearing virgin {Kavr]"j"6po^) the the chorus of

rated inaugusung their the

sacrifices,and
to

traditionary hymns treachery


his
a

goddess.
the

relating
to

of

the the

Faliscan hands commit


some

schoolmaster,
of

offered
that
care

give
was
one

pupils

into

Eomans,

remarks
to

it of

Greek

custom

to

several Etruscan

boys
words
are,

the

master.^

Moreover,
as

connected
as

with

religion,
observes,
^

haruspex
also

and

hariolus,
of the

Mr.

Newman

manifest
were
on.

corruptions
traces

Greek

and lepoaKoiro^i
at

Upev^.
shall It Eomans settlements
see
seems

There further

of the

Argives
aid

Eome,

as

we

highly probable occasionally received


made in that and also of Etruria,

that from

the

"

which
and from

the

early

Etruria,
derived

the
the

Etruscan Grecian of

city,were
were

population
race.

prompted Pelasgic, or
became know ancient
one.

by by

community

It

was

probably

the that
we

Hellenic, portion
their

of the
terror
a

Etruscan of the
seas.

population
of the

piracies the
was

Piracy, as
more

from

Thucydides,
and bulk of

favourite them

pursuit
as an

Greeks, great
maritime

regarded
the At

by

honourable
seem

The
a

Etruscans

do

not

to

have

been

people.

all events, the inland But


:

leading
of the
was

cities twelve

of the
was

Etruscan seated of the


on

confederacy were
the
sea.

not

one

of what Of

the the

great
their

bulk

Etruscan the

population
are

composed?
to

Umbrians,
on

whom
?
^ ^

Lydians
of
a

said
race,
no

have

found

there

arrival

Or

distinct

that

called

by Dionysius
Faliscis, eodeni
hodie 27.
p. 109. not

Mhasennce

It is evident

that

**Mos

erat

magistro
in

liberorum

et

comite
unius

uti
curse

simulque
demanda-

plures piieri, quod


bantur."
2
"

quoque

Grsecia

manet,

Li

v.

v.

Regal Rome,
that he

"Whatever have

Tarquin
the

may

have

done usages

at

Rome,

it is

evident
to
^

could

introduced

religious

above

adverted

at

Falerii. is the

This

opinion
2

of

Lepsius

in his

"

Tyrrhenische Pelasger in

Etrurien"

(8vo. Leipsic, 1842,


4

Bande).

Lib.

i.

c.

30.

16 mixture of

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

Hellenes

and

Umbrians

could the

have

produced
which

language
defeated
There

totally
all the

to unintelligible

Romans,

has

efforts of

modem been
was

to interpretit. philologists
a

must,

therefore,

have

third
or a

element,
Rhasennic?
race
"

and

the The

question
latter

is whether however
"

this

Lydian
it be for the

race,

if indeed
name

distinct Etruscans

at

all,

instead

of

only

another
and

is known ancient
as a

only

from

Dionysius,
How
race

is mentioned

by

no

other
existence
to

author.

they
is to appear where

came

into

Italy, if their
to

separate
The of

be

allowed, it is impossible
at
one

ascertain.
the

Etruscans

time

have

occupied
the
turn

plains

Lombardy,
were

they
time of

must

have
out

subdued in

Umbrians,
or

till they

themselves the

driven

by the Celts
; when

Gauls, about
them and appear the

Tarquinius refuge

Priscus

part of Rhaetia,
the

to have

taken
we

in the

mountains

of

remainder,
Hence
names some

may modern

presume,

proceeded
the been
the

towards

south.^
of

writers, from
have
from

resemblance
led
to
clude con-

the

Rhcetia the Etruscans

and

Rhasenna,
entered

that had with the been the

Italy
But

AlpS,

which

their
account

primitive abode.
of

this

is

quite
us

at variance

Livy.
of

That

historian
of

tells

that, before
Etruscans the

above-mentioned
both sides

invasion
the

the

Gauls, the
that

occupied
each
those the

Apennines,
the
The

towards

Adriatic, and'
district
on

that twelve

towards

Tyrrhenian
twelve
and

Sea, having in
cities
were
on

cities.

original
the from Po
as

the

Roman
or

side of the

Apennines,
colonies the the

twelve

further,

northern
all the

side, were

these.
far
as

The
the ^
^

latter

occupied

territorybeyond belonging
races, to

Alps, except the


who became

district

Veneti.

Hence,
Rhaetians
;

also, the originof the Alpine


barbarized
in of their ancient

especiallythe
their

these

countries, retaining

nothing
even,

cultivation
^

except

language,

and

that

corrupted.
Plin. H. Liv.
V.

1
'

N.
33.
or

iii. 20, " 24

Justin,

xx.

5. whether the Etruscans of


fonner
were

Livy
went

does

not

explain

driven But
the is at

into the
the

Alps,
of

there
is

voluntarily

in

the progress
while the

colonization.
agrees

latter

supposition

quite improbable,
It may

with

accounts

Pliny

and

Justin.

be

observed

that

Livy's

account

18

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

time,
Etruria

when

the
or

Etruscan the
on

dominion

had

been

limited

to

proper, the Tiber

north,
and the

the the Magra on country between the east, the south, the Apennines on
on

Tyrrhenian
to
narrower

Sea

the

west, all these

elements, being
more

confined fused
the nation

limits, became

gradually

and

more

of the Lydians, and the language and customs together^ the How the predominance. governing race, obtained thus formed say, but obtained it is the hard

the
to

name

of

Etruscans it should

it

is

difficult to
have been from

believe
race.

that The
to

not to

imposed by
the

dominant

Umbrians,
called
the
u

judge
became

Eugubine Tables,
by
and
an

appear

have

them
r,

Tursci, which,

easy the

transposition of
of e,

and

Tnisci, and
Tusci
of
some

by

addition
are

probably
Eoman

an

article,

Etmsci.
The
rest
name on

Etruria

perhaps
author.

corruptions.
may is of Tursci

Rhasennce,
mistake of

mentioned that

only by Dionysius,
The
root

perhaps
of have of

the

of the leader sought in Tyrsenus, the name hardly appellation can Lydian emigration.^ The
to

be

been the

derived

from

the
of

Tyrrhenian Pelasgians as
the

founders
name

Hellenic

portion
for
to

Etruscans; Sea,
seems

and

the
to

of been ever, howhave

Mare

Tyrrhenum,
confined in
to

the

Lower

have

chiefly given
near

Greek of

writers. Northern

The

Etruscans,
to

when
name

possession
the of the Po.

Italy, appear
their

Adriatic

through

colony

of

Adria,

the

mouths the

Besides inhabited

lapygians
various
are

and

Etruscans,

Ancient
as

Italy was they spoke


stock whether
or

by
from

other

nations, which,
to

cognate

dialects,
one

supposed
common

have Their

been

scended originally deis

stock. been
was

remote

universally agreed
their has
more

to

have stock

Indo-European;
Greek, Teutonic,
to

immediate

Celtic,
or

been May
not

determined, according differently


the
name

the

judgment
the Tursci
son,

be Tvp(rr)v6s

composed might
The

of Tvpa,

whence in

of
or

the

Umbrians,

and

riv6s,a signiiicant meaning particle,


Hence
we

Lydian
seems

something analogous?
Pors-ena licence
or

explain making
Latin

such of the

Etruscan
e

names

as
a

(or Porsenna), Vib-ena, "c.


taken

short

to be

by

some,

not

all,of the Latin


most

poets. Greek

authors

write

Tlopori^vas
{JEn.

Tloparij/os. Virgil,the

learned

of the

poets, has

Porsena

viil

646).

THE

SABELLIAN

RACES.

19

prejudice of inquirers. These various ranked under the three grand divisions
the

races

are

commonly
Sabel-

of

Umbrians,
as

lians,
which the from and the

and

Latins; though
call
and
as

some

writers,
the The with

Dr.

Mommsen,
those
races

recognise only two, including


others Sabines

under

Umbrians
races

Sabellian.

Sabellian
the tribes

included
sprung

the

Samnites,

which

them,
others. Samnites

the The is

Marsi, Marrucini, Peligni, Picentes, Hirpini,


near

connexion

between fact of
to

the the

Sabines
latter And and

and called the

shown

by
a

the

that h into

themselves
term

Safini^ with
was

change
both in

that

Sahellus
from both

applied
^

Samnites

Sabines
Horace
were

appears
uses

several
races.

passages

ancient that the

authors. the

it of

Pliny

says

Samnites

called with The

Sabelli,^ and
that of Samnium.* the

Livy

identifies

Sabellian

territory

Sabines,
the

Samnites,
of

and

their

cognate
the
on

races

pied occu-

greater part
the north
to
on

Central

Italy,from
and

Nar

and

the and

^sis from
on

on

Lucania the of these

Apulia
to

the and

south, who,

the the

Adriatic North

east

Latium

Campania
in very

west.

lay
the

the

Umbrians,
of with the the

early times, probably occupied


from
sea

the

whole

Northern

Italy,
of the
tinued con-

to
on

sea,

and

as

far and

as

Alps,

exception
on

Liguria
east.

the the

west,
time

the Eome

territoryof
was

Veneti

At
to

when these

founded for

they
had
not

still

occupy the

regions ; by
Gallia
were

they

yet
Gauls the

been and
most

driven the

from

north of

the

invasion

of

the for

establishment
at

Cisalpina.
no

But,

part
had held

all events, subdued

they by
as we

longer independent.
who appear the
as

They
have

been
as

the

Etruscans,

to

conquerors, the Umbrian

have

already observed,
above which

greater
south
to

part
at

of

as territory or

defined,

far

least, as

Felsina,

Bononia,

they

appear

have

Mommsen,
Of the

Unterit.

Dial. ii.

S.

101.
:

Samnites,

Sat.

1, 36

of

the

Sabines,

Od.

iii.

6, 38 ; Sat.

i.

9,

29, "c.
3

H.
"

K Alteri

iii. 12, 17. ; cf. Strab.


Consuli

v.

12, p.

250.

iEmilio, ingi-essoSabellum

agrum,
1.

non

castra

Samnitium,

nonlegiones

usquam

oppositae."
"

Lib.

viii.

c.

c2

20

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

founded. maintained

In

the

south-east

the
; but

Umbrians
after

seem

to

have

their reduced

independence
to
a

the

Gallic

invasion
Etruria
on

they
on

were

small

strip of land
chain of Tiber

between

the

west, and
from the

the

central
of

the
on

Apennines
the

the

east, and
Sabine
If

sources

the

north,

to

the

on territory

the
are

south.
to

the

Umbrians
races,
as

be

regarded hardly
been
as

as

the most

ancient
to

of

the Italian ancient


that
we
"

they

are

universally represented
agrees with since towards

be

by

authors"though
was

this

the

theory
case

Italy

peopled exclusively by land,


to

in that

might expect them be then they must


And this

have

thrust
the

the south those

regarded
before
to

progenitors of
to, who

Umbro-SabeUian dialects.

tribes
seems

alluded
be

confirmed
Tables

spoke cognate by philologicalresearches,


found
at

facilitated

by

the

celebrated

Gubbio,
of

the

ancient from the

Iguvium, containing tolerably long specimens


the

what,
been The
seem,

place

of

their

discovery, is considered
of

to

have

ancient

Umbrian

dialect.

southern in
to

extremities
ancient been

Italy,besides
before various the

the

lapygians,
of
or

very

times, and

foundation

Eome,

have
as

inhabited

by
or

Grecian

Pelasgio
Siculi,
obscure
scope
as

tribes,^such "c.,
and whose

the

(Enotrians,

ItaH, the

Daunians,
are so

history and
work
to

ethnological affinities altogether


to unravel
to

perplexed,that
present
of the

it would

exceed

the

of the

the
name

attempt
are

them. have

Only
been

who Itali,

supposed
famous may the

identical
to

with the

the
whole
seem

(Enotrii, has
Italian
to

become

by being
mention

extended

peninsula, we
southwards the
race

that of

originally
the and
toe

they

have

occupied only

extremity
the the

of

Italy,or Bruttium,
laetian

from

Terinaean
name

Scylwards north-

Gulfs.
over

Hence the

and

spread
Bruttii

territory subsequently
race,

occupied

by
seem

the
to

Lucanians,
have

Samnite
the

who

with
after

the
this

subdued

Itali.

How,

catastrophe, the
remote

Among
name

other
the
on

evidences

of Greek

colonization
in
or

at

very the to

period,may
of the

be mentioned
same

Scyllseanpromontory
coast

Argolis,and

promontory

the

of Brattium,

Italia,alluded

by

Homer

(Odyss.

xii. 73, 235,

"c.).

MAGNA

GEiECIA

"

LATIUM.

21

name

came

to for the

be

preserved,
whole

and

ultimately
from which in of the

to

have
to

been the

adopted
to

peninsula,
a

the
we

Alps
are

southernmost
solve. It

extremity, is
appears least
to
as

problem
been
as

unable extended
or era

have

applied
the time before
to

that

significationat
more

early
a

Polybius/
Christian

than its

century
of he

and

half
seem as

though
even

meaning
time

does

not

have

been thinks

quite

settled

in the define

Augustus,
part
the North from and of

Dionysius
under the

it necessary

to

what

comprehends

name.^
to

All

this

southern

Italy came
numerous

afterwards Greek

be

called

Magna along
Liris the in

Grsecia, from
its
coasts.

colonies the
on more

founded modern
to sea,

of

the

Itali, or
Silarus
on

Lucania, extending
on

the river
bounded of the

the

south the

the
on

the

north,

the

west

by

east

by

the

country
as

Sabines, lay
inhabited

the
at

district
an

known

later the

times

Campania, Opicans,
different
some

but
or

early period
identical,

by
were

Ausonians,

Oscans, who,
of the of
same

if not

probably only
It remains of
to

tribes
account

people.
the
most

give
of

Latium,

portant imLatin
were

all the the


seat

Italian Eome.

districts, as
The where On

the

country
of marked

of the Latium

race, at

and

boundaries
are

first

uncertain, except
and the
sea.

they
the

by
the

the

Anio,
Latins

the
were

Tiber,

east

and

south

the

surrounded
and
success

by

hostile their

nations,
limits

the
seem

Sabines,
to

Hernici,
with

^qui,
their The other

Yolsci,
in
war.

and

have

varied

early history of
Italian handed down
at

Latium
even

is
more

as

obscure
so,

as

that the

of

the

nations, and

from

figments
to

respecting it
have been

by
an

ancient

authors. the

It appears

inhabited also
or

early period by
and

Siculi,who,

perhaps,
a

had

possessionof Campania,
race

were

probably
or

Pelasgic
These

Greek
tribes
western were,

nearly allied
then of
most

to

the

CEnotrians

Itali. southern

would

have

held

possession of
far north
out
or

the the

and till

coasts for the

Italy, as
part,

as

Tiber,

they

driven

subdued
into in

by

the

advancing
gave
ii. 14.

Sabellian
name

nations, when
that

they
Their

retired presence
i. 10.

Sicily, and
1

to

island.
^
,

Hist.

Ant.

Eom.

22 Latium
Latin

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

seems

to

be

attested Greek.^

by

some

words
enumerates
:

common

to the tants inhabi-

with

Sicilian

Pliny

the

of Latium

in the

followingorder
with

Aborigines,Pelasgians,
The Aurunci The
from gians Pelas-

Arcadians,
seem

Siculians, Aurunci,
been

Eutulians.^ the Ausones. colonists

to

have

identical
must at
an
a

and
who settled

Arcadians
in Latium

have
very

been

Greece,
Latin in

remote

period.
of

The

traditions stories of

conveyed
Hercules

indistinct
the

memory

them

the
a

and the
on

Pelasgian Argives
of

founding
Evander
called third

Saturnian

city on
another
on

Capitoline Hill, of the Arcadian


the

building

Palatine, and
These
cause

Antipolis
were

Mons

Janiculus.
from what

settlements, however,
be

abandoned,

cannot

said,
or

and

the their

inhabitants Hellenic
that

probably proceeded
brethren in the of south the

further of

inland,

joined
is led
to

Etruria. may

It

possible
their

the

inconvenience
Eome ; for

situation the last

have

abandonment

was

city built
no

in this

district,
rounding sur-

by

necessity apparently which


parts being
then

left

choice,
with these
to

all the towns.


accounts

thickly studded rejects all history,


the Yet Latins

Dr. of
a

Mommsen,
Grecian
pure and

indeed,

in his

colonists, and
unmixed differ from

considers
race.

have
as

been
a

Italian those

his
as

opinions
an

lologist phiFor that


to

which of

he holds
Lower

historian.

in his

work

on

the

dialects

Italy,he maintains
the

the Arcadian
the

refugee Evander
of it the

brought
and Latin
or

Greek mother order

alphabet
Carmenta to commit which

inhabitants
out

Latium,
oldest

that
one,

his
in

formed

of

to

writing
founded mother and that

the

holy formulae,
Dr. Mommsen
on

Sacra

Carmina,

over

she

presided.
a

does his

not, indeed, say


own
a

that

Evander and his


;

colony ; but,
have
could

showing,
very into

Evander

must

exercised
have
come

considerable

influence
all is
a

they
Eom.

Italy
few

at

very

Mommsen,
may
are

Gesch. from he
;
as

B. the

i. Kap.
commerce
some

3, quotes
between
of

of these, and and


could

thinks But
no

they
there

have
more

resulted than

Kome latter

Sicily.
have
had

cites,

and

these

reference

to p. N.

commerce

gelu,

campus,

nepotes, "c.
12.

See

Newman,

Eegal

Rome,
=

11, and
iii. 9.

Miiller, Etmsker,

p.

H.

I
FOUNDATION OF ROME.

23 elsewhere the

important
denies the

admission

from

one a

who

so

stoutly
which

of possibility in that

such

visit in

state in

navigationwas

very

remote

period.^

SECTION
FOUNDATION OF

II.
ROME.

The

constancy with
forbids
us

which
to

tradition that

asserts

the
have

foreign origin
been founded

of Eome

think

it could

itself ('Pc3//"a=Valentia, by native Latins; while the name like Pyrgi, or Neapolis, to Greek strength) points directly, traditions founders. The respecting its origin are, however, and so so divergent as to deprive them, for the numerous most part, of any historical value ; and the fact that they are in Greek authors tends the same almost wholly found way. would be Latin traditions more naturally Any trustworthy ; have been such and fortunately preserved by Dionysius.

They
books in

were

taken, it appears,
as

from could of

the

sacred, or sacerdotal,
have been

; and

such

books the time

not, of course,

existence

before

Numa,

we

may the

infer, from
were

their

mentioning
the
occurrences,

antecedent

events, that
mere a

Pontifices

not, like

Pontifex

Maximus,
but monks of
a

of registrars
sort

porary contem-

composed
in the

of

chronicle, resembling
and that in

those

of the

Middle and

Ages,

fact,in the
1
'
'

absence
also die
dem

cultivated

reading public,prosie die

Insofern
in in

hat Eom

Sage durchaus
oder

Recht,
dem

wenn

Einfiihrungder
Von nicht
den

litteratura

Evander sei die Arkadern


von

Herkules
Latium

zuschreibt.

Pelasgern
nach
dem

Arcadien
den

Schrift

nach

gekommen, geworden
das ; der den

lange

dieselbe

selber
das

bekannt

Arcadische

FliichtlingEvander

habe dessen

dort

griechische Alphabet
daraus

Aboriginern
Lateinische zunachst Carmenta

mitgebracht und literas (grrecas gebildet


zur

Mutter

Carmenta

alteste

Aufzeiclmung
"

vorstand."
Indeed
as

in latinas commutavit, Hygin.) heiligeu Formeln, der Sacra Carmina, denen Dialekte, S. 28. Die unteritalischen

ohne

Zeweifel

der

Dr. he is

Mommsen
a

is

as

great a stickler
of

for the

of antiquity

Italian literature
in the

determined

opponent

early Greek

navigation. Thus,

work them

just cited (p. 3),he holds that the Samnites brought their alphabetwith and unknown remote when period over the they immigrated at some
into

Alps

Italy.

It

is difficult to

conceive

how

writer

who

holds

such

opinions should

consider

the

early

Roman

history to be

fabulous. entirely

24 fessional
were

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

authors, and

an

established

trade, they book-selling


the Eoman

the After

of recognisedhistoriographers

city.^
foundation

giving
could

the

Greek

traditions
as

respecting the
^ :
"

of Rome,
"

Dionysius proceeds
adduce of many the

follows

other

Greek
not

writers

who

record
will

various
come

founders
to
a

city ; but,
historian, or
from the

to^be tedious, I
Romans
writer
:

the

Roman

authorities.

The
prose

have but

not,

indeed,
are

singleancient
to

they
in the and of

accustomed sacerdotal who


the

draw

ancient

sources

preserved
some

their

books
from

(eV lepah SiXroLs:).Now


these of
books
were

writers

drew

say the children that

that
sons

Romulus of his ^neas

Romus,
while w^ithout
as

founders
say that

Rome,
were

others

they

the

of

daughter,
gave when them

specifying their
to

father ; and
of

^neas

hostages

Latinus, king
between

the

Aborigines,
not

the

treaty was
the

made

them.

Latinus
male

only
that
to

treated them
on

youths kindly,but, dying


of of

without

issue, made
say

heirs
death

part

of

his

dominions.
who

Others had

the

^neas,
divided
with

Ascanius,
all

succeeded

all

his

dominions,

the

Latin

territory into
Romulus and

three
Romus

parts,
; that

sharing them
Ascanius Romus

his
built

brothers Alba which


so

himself founded

and

some

other
after his

cities,while
his

Capua,
;

he

named

grandfather great; and


some

Capys
Anchises
;

Anchise,

called

after

grandfather

^nea,
bore

afterwards his
own

Janiculum,
name.

after his father last remained

Rome,
time

which

This another

deserted,
Romulus

till the

Albans when

sent

colony thither, led


form twice
was

by

and

Romus,
that
war,
a

its ancient

revived.
a

Thus
after We

it appears the

Rome and

was

founded

; first

little

Trojan
here it may of

again fifteen generations later."


of

have

strange jumble
be

traditions,from
a

which,
of truth. about

however,
First the

not

impossible to
be laid in down

extract that the

kernel

all it must of is his ^neas the

traditions
but pure

appearance who of

Italy are
but

nothing
to

fable.
knows

Homer,

best

authority concerning him,


appears after have

nothing
that
^

wanderings,
over

conceived
of Priam.

he
See

reigned
the

the

Trojans

the
^

death

Preliminary

Dissertation.

Lib,

i. ch. 73.

26

HISTORY

OP

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

Ida.^

All

the

Greek

Sibylline oracles
delivered her the

Teiicrian
of
a was

Sibyl, who According


not

originated with the prophecies in the ravines


was

Ida.

to

legend she
in

bom

at

Mai'pessus,
her tomb

place
her

far

from the

Gergis,
of
race

the

Troad,
The

where

shown

ip

Temple
was

Apollo.
of "the of

principal subject
which
The
to

of

prophecies
Ida
over

the

^neads,
Teucrians.

ruled

in Mount

the
was

remnant

the

Sibyl

and

her

prophecies
as

afterwards she

transferred

Erythrae,
greatest
offered
way of

where,
renown.

the
It
was

Erythraean Sibyl,
this collection

attained

her
was

of

prophecies that
no

to

Tarquinius Superbus, having


which
^

come

doubt
no

by

Cumse,
its
own

had

indeed

celebrated
to

Sibyl,but
have used
to

oracles, of

and That

appears this

therefore had that been the

the

Gergithean
is inferred
was

collection. from the

brought

Cumae Cumae
some

circumstance

Campanian
whom

partly

founded of

by the
dwelt. have

^olian
^

Cymaeans, among
this account

Teucrians

Gergis
We

inserted
as

partly for
not

its

and ingenuity,

partly because,
occur

the

books Sibylline it may and be

offered
amiss

to to

Tarquin
know That

will

again
of

further
contents

on,

thing some-

their

their

reputed origin.
is shown

they
of

were

of Trojan growth originally


to

by the
or or

circle

gods

which
or

they

appear

to

relate, as Apollo, Lato


or

Latona,

Artemis
all which but
more

Diana, Aphrodite
deities

Venus,
native

and

Pallas of

Minerva,
Ida the
;

belong
Idaean

to

the

worship by
their from

Mount

particularly is
of
at

it shown
as

inculcating
the

worship
it
was

the their

mother,
the

appears mother

fact that
to

bidding legend
Alban of

Idaean

was

brought
we are

Eome

from that

Pessinus,
the

A.U.C.

549.*

Nevertheless

of

opinion
the

^neas,

and,
which

in

connexion

with

it,

history of

the

kings, by
a a

the

Eomans in of
or

traced
a

their

origin to him,
manner.

obtained It
was

footing in
some

Eome

less

recondite
to

common

practice
hero

antiquity

refer

the

foundation and

of

cities to
were

demigod.
for

Hercules, Diomede,
1

^neas

favourite

personages

Lib.

i.

c. x.

49,

65.
*

Pausan.
Liv.

12, 8.
10 ; cf.

Athenajus, vi.

68

; xii. 26.

xxix.

Schwegler.

B.

i. S. 315.

THE

LEGEND

OF

^NEAS.

2?

this purpose
least
a

; and
on

tlie

ambiguity
hang
to

of

Homer's
of

language
the

left at of

peg who the

v/Iiicli to is

the

fiction

wanderings

^neas,

reputed
founder who
was

have of

founded

several

besides cities,
even

being
that may

remote

Eome.
a

Nay,
her

it is

possible
"

the have

Sibyl
been

"

evidently
to

mercenary
wares

impostor
Eome,
from
from

induced the

bring

to

knowledge
which would

that

Eomans the the books

claimed
more

descent
saleable.

^neas,

render that

It is evident educated sketch book


at
once

legend
later of

of

^neas

was

not

credited in the the

by

Eomans which he

of

the

times.

Cicero,

short second
on

gives

early Eoman
not
a

history in
about

of

his
to

Eepublic,
to

says

word

it,but
as we

passes

the

foundation remark

of

Eome.

Livy,

have

before
as

taken appears of

occasion from

in the the

Introduction, considered,

his
as

Preface,
it
was

whole

history before
received,
had then
to

the have such with both

time been hold the his

Eomulus,
But

commonly
of JEnesiS
so

fabulous. of the

the

story
and
race,

taken

public mind,
of the Julian

was

intimately
he consulted with the

connected

glory

that

perhaps

literary popularity and abstaining


without his functions hard from

his

favour He

imperial family,by
it

refuting it.^
into it historian. him when of

inquiring
of upon

accepted the story as critically, resigning on this


Hence he Sir observes G. Cornewall that made
"

stood,

occasion Lewis is

rather of his

at

the

outset

history he
and

speaks

the
the

exception
capture
^

in favour the

of torious vic-

-(Eneas

Antenor,
as a

after certain from

of

Troy, by charging
in his

Greeks,

fact ; " what words assertion omnium

thus had

him

with

inconsistency in varying
But
we

he

said Sir the

Preface.
Lewis

think in
not

that

the

very

which prove

Cornewall

adduces does

support

of this

contrary.
as

Livy
would

say,

"jam
nee

primum
refellere
mind

constat,"
est." Prsef.

he

**Ea

nee was

affirmare,
to of tlie

in

animo

"

How

gi*ateful

the
the into

story

imperial
the to laws flatter

is shown also

by the

splendid popular
of

flatterer

Augustus,
all

who
of

the gratified

it, against
have been

chronology, the
national

tale

Virgil, by pressing Dido, and by many


taste

fiction of

passages

calculated

the

self-love. his Preface

But and

the

J^neid

could at

hardly
least.
^

published

when

Livy

wrote

earlier

books,

"c. Credibility,

vol. i. p. 3^4, note

199.

28

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

have
word

done
"

in

announcing
"

certain
"
"

fact ; but

he

the qualifies satis Lewis

constat
"

with is

"

satis

"

jam
of

primum
Sir

omnium

constat"

"it
to

tolerably
him of with

certain."

Cornewall
that

proceeds

charge
son

saying
"

Ascanius ^ne^

he

was

certainly the

^neas"

certe

natum

constat,"
or

though
Lavinia. knew the the
son
son

he

had

not

ventured

to

decide
also

whether

by Creusa
not

however, t.ivy,
well
that

is here true

quite consistent.
could have

He been

very of of

the

Ascanius

Lavinia

; but

he

was

quite justifiedin callinghim


he
had The the

uEneas,
It
was

for

which

authority
passage
too

of

all
was

antiquity.

delicate
so as

ground.
to

whole

cautiously framed, pedigi'ee ;


satire
"

not
even

question
been
a

rudely
and

the

perial im-

or
"

may

have
pronounce

delicate

latent

upon it

it.
was

I will

not

for than

certain," says he,


born

Livy,

whether

Ascanius,

or

an

elder the

of Creusa

before

Ilium

and fell,
as
^

afterwards the Julian

companion
that many

of his father's
as

whom, flight,
of
were we

lulus,
In

family claims

the and

author lulus
; as

its name."
two

fact, Livy
show. that

knew born

Ascanius
centuries

distinct

personages,
to

apart

shall The

proceed
true
or

tradition,
two

Eome
settlement been

had of

been
some

founded
Greek in the

only
colonists

generation
on

after the

the

coast ; but

of

Latium,

had

preserved
had been be

pontifical
Eome

books
was

these

unfortunately
Gauls. It the
can

burnt

when

taken
we

by
see

the what

hardly
took the

doubted, however,
to
recover

when

pains

Eomans

their old
their
so, how

laws

after

that
at

catastrophe,^ that
that

priests re-wrote
had
not to

Commentarii should

epoch
authors
assures

for, if they
have
us

done find

subsequent
as

been

able

in

their

books,
a

Dionysius
antecedent

they did,
of

accounts

relating to
? In thus
to
writing re-

period

to

the

foundiation
no

Eome have

their memory, have

books, they must,


where them
;

doubt,
were

trusted that

their

unless

documents such
as

still extant
Annates The

might
laws,

guided
down

the

Maximi,

domestic treaties, inscriptions,

"c. histories,
of
we

Commentarii,
not

however,
very

to

the
; and

burning
when

the

city,were
that
Ibid.

probably
were

voluminous
1

consider
2

there

five

Liv.

i. 3.

vi. 1.

THE

PONTIFICIAL

TRADITION.

29

including pontiffs,
have
one

the

Pontifex
one

Maximus,
another's work and

we

are

perhaps
must

justifiedin thinking that, with


may been when restored of their
was no

assistance, they
which have

pretty accurately a
chief

employments,
have

also of their

in

those

days,
ments, amuse-

there

public literature,one consequently


It must
to the

chief

and

must

remained be

pretty deeply
allowed

impressed
the
must

upon

their down
on

memory.

also, that Hostilius,


two to
even

originalwork,
have rested may be
;

perhaps
tradition. with

time
a

of Tullus

But

for

century
at

or

tradition

trusted,
and if the

regard
before

least

leading
"Rome
not

politicalevents
landed
more

immigrants
two

who its

founded

only
than
a

generation
century
that and event

or a

foundation,
have

half, at
the

most, might
of

vened inter-

between

and

reign
the the

Tullus.^
edition of these

Meanwhile,
books and their

however,
restoration arrival miraculous mind. favourite

between after Latium birth To


a

first

Gallic
and

the conflagration,
gether to-

story
h'old
some

of ^neas's with of the

in

its consequences, had of taken

of

Eomulus,
the line among
some

firm
to
as

the
was

pubHc
as

trace

their the

kings

god
the

practice city to
town

ancients
or

to refer Thus have

the

foundation
founder like in
a

of their the Sabine the of

demigod
Cures Mars and of

hero.
to

of

of

is related
a

been,

Eomulus,
moment

offspringof
divine To

noble

virgin,who
like the these

enthusiasm,
run

it is

said, had
to

incautiously entered
would
nor

his

penetralia.^
been the
an

counter act
on

stories

have
were

unpopular
themselves

the

part

of
to

pontiffs ;

stories

ill calculated
were

promote

superstition and

priestcraft. They

therefore

Both

Nsevius
of ^Eneas

and

Ennius

adopted
Ilia.

tlie tradition
See Serv. father

that
^n. of

Eomulus
Yet and "c.

was

the

grandson
had the also

by his daughter
the the iii.

i. 273.

Ennius

adopted
of R. R.

story of Mars

being the
of Rome

Romulus
the

Remus,
Ennius years

exposure

twins, the
be
as

suckling
that
from far

them
was

by

wolf,
the

(ap. Varro,
in his

1, 2) also held
very died

only about
up to

700

old
;

time, which
at the
same

would

reaching
the end than
a

Trojan
of

times

while
that for

time,
would
of

he

before

of the

sixth

century
the is

Rome,
date to

computation
the

exceed
the

by

more

century
it

received

foundation

city.

These

contradictions

impossible

reconcile.
2

Dionys.

ii. 48, after Yarro.

30

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

HOME.

accepted
same

iii the

new

edition
the

of

the

Gommcntarii. honest

At
to

the

time, however,

pontiffswere
the after

enough
of
two

insert very Greek

the

story containing original


of Kome
; and

authentic the

version

of the the

speedy foundation colony


two

arrival of

hence
the

the

inconsistent
between

stories

-^neases,
and

Eomuluses,
a

confusion
of

Ascanius

lulus,

and

double

foundation

Eome.
some

Tlie story, however,


or

derived which of

support
been
the There

from

the
some

Pelasgian
centuries Palatine
reason

Grecian the and that

settlements

had
on

made,

before
Hills doubt

foundation
on

Rome,

Capitolineand
is
no

Mons

Janiculus. may

good
made,
three

to
we

such

settlements
was,

have

been

when

find that

Cumae
era

in all

founded probability, for the Etruria That


at

centuries of have

before and

the

commonly
Greek before that

received in

foundation
must

Rome,
been tion tradi-

that

the

colonies

also
a

planted long
of such of
even

event.

least

strong
the
of
:

settlements

prevailed

is evident

from

stance circumand

Romulus

retaining
the

certain

memorials

them,
that of

consecrating them worship


Maxima,
;

by religious observances
established

ah

Argive settlement, under


whose Romulus and

reputed leadership of Hercules, by consecrating


settlement
to

him for

the Ara
his

appointing
that of
an

an

hereditary priesthood
and in especially

worship
who of

and
was

Arcadian
more

under the

Evander,
person

also

honoured,
Carmenta. it

his

mother been may who

Why
is
to

these

settlements to of say, the but site.

should
much To have

have

abandoned be attributed
no

impossible
the
nature

perhaps
fresh comers,

had

experience
river further

of

it,this

site may

appeared
a

attractive and
a secure

enough.

Isolated,

craggy
to

hills, defend,
portance im-

which
offered

broad
least
to

rapid
in

helped
of But
no

at

stronghold, a point
a

small

settlers
soon

strange country.
to

these

tages advan-

were

discovered
which the

be

counterbalanced of the which

by equal
air, and
must
a

defects ; among
the often

unhealthiness of the

ticularly par-

overflowings
the

Tiber,

have

rendered
are

surrounding

neighbourhood
It
seems

complete
the site

swamp,
that

obvious. sufficiently

not

improbable

these

early colonists, when

they

abandoned

EARLY

GREEK

SETTLEMENTS

NEAR

ROME.

31

which
the

they

had

first

chosen,
there miles

may have

have

betaken Alba

themselves

to

Alban

Mount,
about
a

and twelve

founded

Longa.
from

It

lies within also Tiber


more

of Eome

; its elevated

situation

offered
and

strong position, while


rendered Hence the from the of
race,

its

distance
more

the
and

its floods

site both mixture

healthy
of this

convenient.
with the
arose

Greek
had the

race

originalinhabitants
the the
name

Latium,

whom

they
from

subdued,
later It
one was

first Latin of Prisci

distinguished
that the been
or

by
soon

Latini. Romans
man

discovered could their

by
not coast

the

whom hero before


more

they caUed
he the had

^neas
on

possibly have only


a as

that
two

landed

generation they got


with tale

foundation from
a

of their further

city ; and,
that

wiser

and

learned

acquaintance
their But

Greek
contained
were

traditions,
an chronism ana-

they began
of
to

to

perceive

many

centuries.

they
to

willing naturally un-

abandon of

it,and,

in order the

retain

it, they adopted


of their founder difficulties Alba had of

the with in

expedient
that the of

connecting
Alban

genealogy
There
were

the

kings.
however,

many
not.

way,

which,

they long
name,

heeded before
as a

become

thoroughly
as

Latinized its very besides

the
as

foundation

Eome,
of its

is

seen

by

weU Latin

by

the

names

kings, which,
; one,

having
had
a

are signification,

also

double

that
as

is, they
^neas
as we

gentile
is

name

besides

their

individual the of
name

Silvius, Latinus
have Greek
seen,

Silvius, "c. Greek,


and

; whilst
name

of

Eome,
after of the the
was

the

its

founder,
addition with

the

fashion, single,without

the him botch

gentile
connected
which That historical up for of
as a

Silvius,

which of

might
Alba.
two

have This

shown is
a

royal family
between

betrays
Eome

rent
a

the of Alba

stories. is also destitute may be of summed all

colony

probability. The
^

reasons

against it
Eome
"

follows

first, immediately

is there

founded. Alba
are no

long

time

altogether
as

vanishes
a a

traces

any

connexion there

betweeii
been
not
Rom.

colony
Alba,
i. Buch

and

its mother Eome also would with

city ;
have
all the

secondly, had
had

such

connexion,
but

the

jus connubii,
1

only

with
B.

See

Schwegler,

Gesch.

viii. S. 24.

32 Latin
women.

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

towns,
It
must

and is
have
no

had

not

needed

to to

resort

to

the

of stealing to say that

valid
had

objection jus
the

this
with

view Alba
and

Rome

the

connuhii

before
Curiatii

the
who

reign
been

of

TuUus

Hostilius, since
side
are

Horatii

fight on
of such
to

either

cousins

; because

this is. no

jus might have special record


no

acquired by treaty, although there


a

treaty
the

in the
are

early history. Moreover,


to

invitations

the
war

Consualia with

despatched
aid

Alba

Longa
are

; and
on

again, in
the brink the the

the of

Sabines, when
is asked

the

Romans
or

destruction,

no

from,

offered has

by. Alba,
a

pretended
way with in

mother

city. Dionysius, indeed,


is also
to

story
^

to

which contrary,^ which the

be

found of

in Paterculus

but

the

this

author

speaks
which

it,viewed
any

in

connexion
tween beit

all

circumstances and Alba


so

render

connexion
shows what
was

Rome
was

utterly improbable,
of

that

invented
to

for the
a

purpose

propping
Romulus of

up

sidered con-

be

weak

point.
to the
a

Another

objection,first started,
never

apparently, by Beaufort,^ is, that


have made any
so

appears

to

claim
warlike

kingdom

Alba

after Numitor's have failed Rome


not to at

death, which
do

prince would
from
an

hardly
which

had

he

really been
had she been

Numitor's

grandson.*
Latium,
Alban
of

Again,
would
; in

first is been

entirelyestranged
case

have
case

the would

been
a

colony
the Latin

which

she

have of the
as an

member Rome

league.
been

The

badness adduced from it: very Alba Rome

site

on

which

is built its

is also

sometimes colonized
stress upon the

argument
we

against
at

having
any

; but
was

are

unwilling
a

to

lay
late all

great

founded
any

very

period, probably
the

latest

of

city in Latium;

territoryaround

1 *

Lib.
"

ii.

c.

37.

Id

Romulus, gessit

adjutus legionibusLatinis
;
ac cum

avi sui. urbem et

Libenter
novam,

enim
tarn
manu

his,

qui

ita

Veientibus

prodidemnt, accesserim aliisque Etruscis


"

aliter firmare
cum

vicinis vix

Sabinis,

imbelli

i pastoral

potuerit."
because necessary
^

Paterc. considered to

lib. i. it
an

c.

8, " 5.
authentic

Paterculus, therefore, believed tradition, but


because

it, not
it

he

he

considered

probability.
sur

Dissert,

I'lncertitude, "c. 27,


mentions

p.
an

183.

Plutarch, Rom.

improbable

and

unsupported story
the succession.

that

Romulus,

after Numitor's

death, voluntarilyrenounced

34 founded
years,
or

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OP

ROME.

about

twenty
to

years

before.
and
soon

After

staying there
founded

five

they

went

Ehegium,
who

after

Hyele,
mentions sents repre-

Velia.^
about

Herodotus,
their

relates Massalia the

these
; but

events,
Pausanias
as

nothing
after

founding

these

same

fugitives from
the that this

Medes
a same

settlingthere
^

defeating
be and fix the

Carthaginians in
is the There

naval

battle.

It
to

can

hardly
Herodotus

doubted

battle

alluded other

by
dence evi-

by ThUcydides.^
foundation
to

is,however,
which is

to

of

Massalia,

incidentally
Justin,

of the
on

some

importance
of entered and

the

early chronology
tells the
us

of Eome. that

epitomizer
their way,

Trogus Pompeius,
the mouth of
an

the Phocaeans,
in the the

Tiber,

reign
Romans

of
;

King Tarquinius,
and Massilia

contracted the

alliance with

thence, sailing into


among of
course,

furthest and

gulfs
the

of

Gaul, founded
Gallic His

the
means

Ligurians
who the

savage

races.*

Justin,

Tarquinius Priscus.
relates that of when

testimony
Gauls
were

is confirmed

by Livy, Italy, in
way the shall of

the

passing
heard attacked But
on

into

reign
tribe

Tarquinius Priscus, they


from

their

that

the

Massilienses of the this

Phoceea

were

by
how

Ligurian
we

Salyes.^
with fixes took

reconcile

account

the
his

ordinary
from in

chronology
B.C. B.C.

Tarquinius Priscus,
If the Phocseans Massalia
never

which

reign

616

to

578?

only
some

to

their

ships
in

546,

and that of the

founded

years arrived

afterwards,
in
an

it is the in

evident lifetime

they
elder

could

have There

Italy

Tarquin.
of of

is,indeed,
be
one

account

Scymnus
a

Chius,

which

professes to
Massalia

taken

from

Timseus, of
and

previous
before

foundation the battle

hundred

twenty
work
c.

years
1
*

Salamis,
2 x.

or

b.c.

600.^

But
3

that
i.

Herod,
"

i. 163"167.

8, " 6.
Phocseensium
in

Lib.

13.

Temporibiis Tarquinii regis ex


amicitiam
cum

Asia

juventus

ostio Tiberis navibus


"

invecta

Eomanis inter

jiinxit : inde
et

ultimos Gallorum
"

Gallise sinus condidit."


v.

profecta Massiliam
xliii.
* c.

Ligures

feras

gentes

Lib.

3.

Liv.

34.

MacrtraXla
noA.ts

S' icr' airoiKia,

^x^P-^^'t

^wKoiwv fxeyiffTr)

'"Ev

rp

AiyvffTiyp Se

ravrrfy

eKTicrav

Uph TTJs fidxvs


"ETccii/
Tmatos

TTJs iy

^a\afj.ii/r) yevofietnjs
(pacriv, iKarbv
"

ws irpSrepov, ovrws

e^KOffi'

icTop^l 5e riiv ktIciv,

Vers.

208, seqq*

THE

PHOCJlANS

AND

TARQUINIUS

PRISCUS.

35

has

Been

shown

to
are

be

spurious ; ^ besides, the


said who
to

Phocseans those

who

visited from

Tarquin
the of Medes.
a

expressly
Herodotus,
Phocsean whom

have mentions Nor

been

flying
knows
"

Alalia,
does
"

nothing
Gallic such
a

previous

colony.
he have taken

Justin

or, of in
we

rather, Trogus Pompeius, descent,


was

abridged,
a

who, being
interest of
it which

likely to gives
more

strong
of the
or

subject,and recognise
we

the

longest account
one

possess, And

than
on

foundation

Massalia. of the

if,as

have of the Eome


era

shown is to

other

grounds,
then

date

foundation lower this than visit in

be

placed seventy
received,
the
as

eighty
account

years of

commonly
well with be

the

tallies

very

and,
of it. Our

fact,

may

regarded
to

chronology of Tarquin, forming a corroboration


of the tion foundaon

main of

object in adverting
and
to

this account
colonies

Massalia,

the and

Greek
a

planted

the

coast to

of

Italy at
that the

that

time,

couple
of
one means

of centuries in the

is earlier,

show

establishment this also

neighbourhood
laterally, Colwas

of Eome

during
it has

period
served

is

by
to

no

improbable.
that there
now

show

really
the

such
to

king
as

as a

Tarquinius Priscus, whom mythical


the of
one

it is for

fashion
to

regard
that

personage; notices of

it is

impossible
two

believe

two
on

independent
occasion that

of him the
same

by

different but of of
on

authors,
different accident the other. Where

both

event,
result

phases
on

event,
or

were a

the

either

the

hand,
which will
seems

of

fictitious

combination

the

colony
there

ultimately pretend
be the
same

founded say. We

Eome will

first

established
observe Lavinium
two

we itself,

not to
as

to

only
the Thus

that and

ambiguity
the
two

between

Laurentum and the

between foundations
are

^neases,
the
to

Eomuluses,
retainers ambassadors the murder of

two

of

city.
have is

the the

King
of the of the

Tatius

represented
yet
the

struck

Laurentines;
at

insult

avenged
this illhave

by

Tatius

Lavinium}
and the

May

not

feelingbetween
^ 2

Sabine

Tatius
of

Laurentines

By Meineke,
Liv.
i. 14.

in his edition

Scymnus

1846). (Berlin,

d2

:^6

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

aiisen

from

the

latter

having
of his

been

tlie

progenitors of
On for Eome this what and may

the

Greeco-Koman Romulus
does nium.
not

portion
to
"

subjects?^
and
renews"

occasion
reason

forbears appear It is

punish,
former that
a

treaty between

Lavihave Greek

possible
to

body
Tatius.

of

Laurentines
The
to
more

gone

to

Lavinium

murder

ancient

colony,which

subsequently migrated
at at

Alba

Longa,
should

was

first,

perhaps, established originally settled


to

Lavinium

; for it is

incredible, if they
have
moved reor

Laurentum,
much
was

that the

they
same

another distant.

place, of
Lavinium

kind, only four


the cradle that In of of

five

miles

probably
the

the

Prisci
more

Latini, the founders


modern Latins the
so

of

Alba, and

Laurentum

the

"

represented by
confounded

Eomans.

process with
two

of

time,
of

as

Romans also
races

their

early history
the
at

that

Alba,
of up the
to

they
; and

would Lavinium

naturally confound
came,

cradles looked of the

length, to
the

be

as

the

original settlement
as

of

-^neas, the

abode whole

Penates, and,
race.

it were,

the

birthplace of
as

Latin The do idle


not

above

remarks
to

are

merely offered
historical
to

conjectures. They
for it would abandoned be

pretend
a

any writer

authority ;
any in
a

in

modern
as

seek

subject

by Livy
towns
as

mythical.
and connected may

There

were,

however,
and there
so

certainly such
were

Lavinium

Laurentum,
them
;

also certain
a

traditions

with

and, in

famous

subject,
to

the

imagination
and of the for it

please
the

itself awhile of

in

endeavouring
After and look firm
must

select

arrange

vestiges
tradition the
a

probability.
more
we

the
sistent; con-

foundation

city,tradition
still to of
to

becomes that

is

for,

perhaps, three-fourths
But walls it is and
now

first definite

century

of

its

existence.

confined and

place, and
;

is aided

by

temples,

other that

monuments

in

short, it has
historian

emancipated
considered
It
seems
as

itself from

period which
Romulus,

the

Roman

fabulous.
that before of
from

probable
an

he

built

his

city,

had
^

contracted
The

alliance
is
such

with

some

the
the

Grecian

cities of
or

name

Laurentum

perhaps
would

derived
be

Greek

a street Aot5/)o,

village, a

small

place,

as

founded

by

new

colonists.

THE

ORIGIN

OF

KOME.

37
Etruscan

Etriiria, which, though belonging


continued when cities,
to

to

the

confederacy,
These Etruscan
not
were

retain the

their

Hellenic interests

customs.

general
to

of

the

league

in

question,
such Eome

seem we

have
must

acted refer

pretty independently.
the circumstance his
as

To

some

alliance with of

of his the he the

building
Etruscan appears

Etruscan

rites, and
;
as

adopting
the aid

ensigns
to to must
on

regal

power from

well

which

have which

received
we

Etruria have

in his

struggle with
to

Sabines,
on.

shall

occasion the and had

advert who

further fed

He flocks
to

also the

have

conciliated site of Whether

shepherds
who been

their

future
race.

Eome,

probably belonged previously


relate if

the

Latin with But which among their

they
to

connected

Alba,

it

were

useless

inquire.
further, let
us

before obtained the

proceeding
almost

any

the
not
a

story belief,
in

universal It the

acceptance,

Eomans

themselves. has been


so

plays

so

great
so

part
it is

traditions,it
and

subject
and of

of

much

of their solutely aband

poetry,

is in itself for

pleasing
student with

that poetical, Eoman

necessary

the

history

literature After
upon the his shores

to

be

acquainted
to

it.
is

the

fall of

Troy, ^neas
have

supposed
islands
at

to have

embarked and

fleet,and
of Northern

visited the

successively
of

Pallene

Greece,
after
makes

Delos, Crete, and Buthrotum,


the

Zacynthus.
and other

Hence,

touching
the Italian

Leucas,
at

places,he

shore

lapygian
end.
this
as

promontory,
off and Sicily, which the

and, coasting along

its southern

extremity, arrives
The

proceeds
overtook of the of

to

Drepanum Trojans
for
on

at its western

storm

the

sailing from
are

port

forms

opening
the Latin visit
coast

^Eneid.

They
the the

described of

driven

by
into

it to the

Africa,
of the
;
an

purpose famous

introducing
of
not

version
to

story

anachronism which
to
"

^neas's appear introduced

Dido been

episode, however,
his before

does have First

to

have

invented

by Virgil, but
poem
on

been Punic
seems

by
some

in ISTaevius, centuries the

the

War,"
also
1

two

Yirgil'stime.
of ^neas's

Varro

to
See

have
Ksevii

recognised

story

visit to

Carthage,

Fragnienta, ed. Klussmann,


note

p. 38, seqq. ; Lewis,

"c. Credibility,

vol.

i. p.

316,

76,

38

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

though
queen

he

makes

Anna, Dido's
of driven

and sister, the


to

not hero

the
^

Carthaginian
but is the
count ac-

herself,enamoured
of ^neas and

Trojan
the

being

African

coast

ignored
western

botli

by Livy
of

Dionysius.
^neas the
town

After

leaving Carthage, Sicily,and


at

again
of
a

visits

the
a

point
in
coast

founds

Segesta, and
of his Points

temple
this
are so was

of Venus

Eryx.
sails have

Then,
for

having
the famous the

left

portion
coast.

followers
on

Sicily, he
which

Italian

become between

through Virgil's poem


of Laus and

Cape Palinurus,
named from the

gulfs

Pgestum,
and

^neas's
islands
;

pilot,who
and

there

fell overboard of the the

drowned;
abode of the

promontory
at

Sirenusae,

the

of the Sirens Gulf of

Cape Misenum,
-^Eneas's

northern of the

extremity
trumpeter

the IN'aples, where

burial-place
visit
to

Misenus;
occasion
to

Cumae,
one

the poem

Sibyl gives
; and
so

of the

finest

episodes

in the of

lastly,
named

Cajeta,
after the
The

the
nurse

southernmost of ^neas.
are

promontory

Latium,

Trojans
some

supposed
miles

to

have
of

finally landed
the mouth
to

at

Laurentum,
Tiber. the here
or

ten

southwards

of

th"

Here

the

prediction was
consumed the
on

fulfilled, according
their tables
"

which

place where
either the slices the
term
are

they

which
were

they did reposing,


meat
"

by eating
of bread of

parsley on
which

which had To the

they
the
name

they given

laid their

was

to be

their
to
name,

wanderings.
have which the

spot
of

where

they
;

landed any later

they
times,

said that

Troy
So of

but in also

village of
was

may result

have of the the

existed

there

probably
like with

legend.
capture
is

Antenor,
to to

who,
sailed

^neas,
the

is said
to

after the

Troy
and
to

have have

Heneti the

top

of the

Adriatic,
related

established
a

there named

Venetian

people,

have

founded ^neas of

town

Troja.
in

When inhabitants

landed

Italy, the
the

aborigines
all the

or

native he
of
a

Latium,
were

near

spot, at
The

events, where
fourth
of

disembarked,

ruled
was

by King
Saturn.
It
was

Latinus,
fabled
;
v.

dynasty
was

whose

founder age
*

reign
to

Saturnus all the

the

golden

of

Italy.
Serv. ad

enjoy

Apud

^ii.

iv. 682

i.

THE

LEGEND

OF

^NEAS.

Z9

without blessings of civilization, its train. There in


common was

the and

evils

which but

it

brings
it
was

in all

wealth
;

abundance,

enjoyed
undisturbed
to

the
or

public felicitywas
and the

consequently
taken Saturnus hence
on more

by
or

theft

violence,
were

precautions

prevent
his
name

repress
on

them the

utterly unknown.
Over

had the the

dwelling
of Mons side of

Capitoline Hill, which


Janus,

obtained
a

Saturnius. the

against him,
a

hill

on

other than

river, dwelt

still
to

ancient

king
whereas his

he,

and
was

apparently belonging
an

the Janus

aborigines,
extended and Picus the

Saturnus

immigrant,
was

to

whom

hospitality.
Paunus. It Evander hill
next

Saturnus
was came

succeeded the

by Picus,
of Paunus
a

by

during
to

reign
and
; which
name

that

Arcadian
on

Latium,

formed

settlement is

the have

Mons its

Saturnius

by
of

some

thought
the

to

derived from

subsequent
a

Mons
or

Palatinus from

either Arcadian ancient of who

Pallantia,
town

daughter

of

Evander,
like

of

Pallantium.^ descended
an

Evander,
from the

most

of these the
son

founders,

was

gods, being
and veneration

Mercury
was

by Carmenta,

Arcadian with

nymph
great
the and

prophetess, by
few in the

afterwards till she also in


was

regarded
the

Eomans,
It after
was

superseded by reign
of

Sibyl. only
of
a

Paunus,
that

years

the

Arcadian with him

settlement,
from
to

Hercules the he of
oxen was

arrived

Italy,
which of

bringing
he them
so was

Hesperia
Here robber of

Geryon,
of
a

conveying by Cacus,
a

Argos.

robbed

some

ferocious
verse

the

Aventine,
of

legend
Mons
more

prettilytold
; but

in the

Ovid.
as

Dionysius
at

Halicarof the

nassus^

represents
this

Hercules version

taking possession
variance with

Saturnius

seems

There
a

are

various

other

etymologies
; from
an

as

from

Pallas,
mother
near

son

of
or

Hercules, by
wife of

Launa,
Latinus the
or

daughter
; or

of Evander

Palanto,

either

King
seek

from the

Palatium,
name

aboriginal colony
as

Eeate.
or

Others the

origin of
the

etymologically;
;
or

from
a

halare,

palare,
the the and

bleating
have

been

wandering of sheep originally fortified


is from of Rome is said
on

from

palus,

stake, supposing
But of

hill to

with

palisades.
or

perhaps
the

most

probable
Tljie
that

derivation foundation the


3

Pales, the god,


to have the 21st

goddess,

shepherds

flocks.
of

taken of

place on

festival

deity,

Palilia, celebrated
Lib.
i,
c.

Apiil.

34, seqq.

40

HISTORY

OP

THE

KINGS

OF

HOME.

commonly
Hercules the and

received
in these

account.

The

legend
a

of

the

arrival

of
on

parts made,
and
was

however,

deep impression
Eoman

public mind,
temples
the

perpetuated by
events of the

institutions

in his

honour. and time

All

settlements before the the and


man.

which

we war.

have

just recorded
It
was

occurred

Trojan
of

in

the

reign
Troy
was

of

Latinus,

successor

Faunus,
arrived

that in of

the

siege of
Latinus

took

place ;
an arms

when

iEneas On them. warned after


a

Latium,
the

already
his

old

the

landing
Both in
a

Trojans, he
and the from agrees forbear

turned Latin

against
however, Latinus,

the dream

Trojans
to

king

are,

hostilities ; and
to

colloquy ground
that he

with

iEneas,
the

assign
had

to him

forty
A

stadia

of

around

hill which his

he

occupied, on
to

condition radius the of

should

lend

aid
all

against the Eutuli.


round,
seems

forty stadia, or
average of

five miles

be

about

usual

territorypossessed completes
he had been while hands

by
In

these

primitive
of of this

cities.

pursuance

treaty, the
at
a

Trojan
spot
to

leader

the foundation
directed he
was

Lavinium,
a

which
sow,

by

the

flightof
first rested called ^neas

white

pregnant
she had
after

which,
the this the

offeringhis
and priests,
town
was

had sacrifice,
not

escaped

from

of the The of
as new

until

reached

place.
Hence,
after of

Lavinium,
had

Lavinia,
in

daughter

Latinus,
the

whom

received the in
; and

marriage.
Penates
a

first stable

resting-place of
Lavinium Eomans
was

Trojan
after it became

their

long wanderings,

ages

place

peculiar veneration
for the sacrifice Penates first
not

for the

customary
offer the

consuls, praetors,and
there
and of
to

dictators
on

of their

the

republic to
that it

when

they

entered

magistracies to
was

Vesta.^ the

These
on

deities
Italian

show

the

home

Trojans
founded

soil ; and which

they could
was a

therefore
2

have

Laurentum,

later

settlement.
But

Lavinia
a

had

been

promised

to

Turnus,
at

king

of

the

Eutuli,
^

neighbouring people, who,


Sat. lib. iii. c.
"

enraged

being thus

Macrob,
So Varro
;

4.

Oppidum,
ibi dii

qiiodprimum
"

conditum

in Latio
v.

stirpis"Romanse

Lavinium

nam

penates nostri."

Ling.

Lat.

" 144.

42 took which
the
sow.

HISTORY

OP

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

place thirty years


are

after

the

foundation

of

Lavinium, history of
to

supposed
We shall

to not

represent the

thirty pigs littered by


the natural is

inquire

into

this

miraculous

parturition. Alba ridge


been from which where its the massive walls

Longa
the

thought
side what
name

have

occupied the
lake of
to
some

overhangs

eastern

of

the
posed sup-

Albano,
have

fragments
still remain. but

of

are

'Its

is
see

by
the
its

derived

white

sow;

it is difficult
more

to

animal's
name

connexion
the

with
nature

Alba,
of
new

which

probably
combines
been to have

took

from

the

place. city seems


of had

Varro

both

these without after


none

etymologies.^
molestation,
defeat the
to

The

founded

for the

power

the
so

Latins, particularly increased,


to

the of

of the

Etruscans,

much

that

surrounding peoples
the called
two
was a

ventured

attack

them.
river

Agreeably
Tiber,
between then

treaty
the nations. succeeded which born

of peace

with
was

the Etruscans, the


to

Albula,

form

the

boundary
son

the

Ascanius
Postumus
some name

on

the

throne for

by by
in

his his

Silvius

name

is accounted in the woods.


next
was
an

having by
the

chance of
"

been Alban

It remained
two

family

the

kings.
Eome,
Silvius and

The

hereditarysuccession
The latter

for, unlike
JEneas

Alba

hereditary monarchy
Silvius.

"

were

Latinus

planted some
were

colonies, whose
Prisci
the Latini
;

inhabitants, according to Livy,^


but
were

called that the


were

it

seems

more

probable
Latins,
Latinus
or

account before Silvius

Prisci

Latini of

the The

more successors

ancient
of

foundation

Eome.^
or

Alba,
"

Atys
who

Epytus,
name

Capys, Capetus
to
or

Calpetus, being
his Aventinus
name

Tiberinus in it who it
" "

gave

the Aremulus and

Tiber

from

drowned
"

Agrippa,
buried
on

Eomulus the

Silvius,

was

Aventine,
Amulius.
and occupy

bequeathed

to

Procas, Numitor,
these

and

The ^neas

reigns of
to

sixteen
both

Alban

Trojan kings, from


a

Numitor,
colorem

inclusive,

period
dicta.
"

of

432

"

Propter
V.

suis

et

loci

naturam

Alba

Longa

"

Ling.

Lat.
'

"

144.

Lib.

i.

c.

3 ; cf.

Dionys.
j

i. 45. ad Mn.
v.

'

Paul.

Diac.

p. 226

cf. Serv.

598.

"

BIRTH

OF

ROMULUS

AND

REMUS.

43

years,

giving reign.
the

an

average
we

of this of

twenty-seven
term
we

years the 1185 for

to each Yarronian years, the

ditary hereera

If

add

to

753,
have

for (B.C.) exceeds of

foundation
one

Eome,
of

which

hy

year

the and

era

Eratosthenes besides
no

capture
for the

makes 1184), Troy (b.c. time of JEneas's wanderings. Amulius


was a

allowance

usurper

who
sons

dethroned
to
a

his and in

elder

brother,
his she Mars her in its the cradle

Numitor,

put
Khea
no

ISTumitor's

death,

compelled
order that

daughter, might
and into the have

Silvia,

to

become But
:

vestal,
was

offspring.
male

Silvia

deflowered Amulius be

by
cast

brought
river. and of
on

forth

twins that that


to

whereupon
babes Tiber had

prison, and
It the

directed chanced
slaves cruel

her the

should had been the

drowned

overflowed committed in their marked that


to

banks,
execution
at
a

whom

this the

order, exposed

boys
at

spot

Palatine The the the

Hill, subsequently
was

by
a

the
vast

Ficus

Euminalis.

neighbourhood flooding waters


cradle
to

time recede
a

solitude. their

Presently
had of

began
and

into she-

channel, leaving
that
come

high

dry, when
thirst, was
suck.

wolf,

thither

slake and of

her

attracted At
at

by

the

cries

the

children,
a

gave the

them

this the

juncture, Faustulus,
spot, and
So he took where have
was

herdsman

king's, arrived
babes with
to

found them he

the

wolf

licking
her,
and
to

the

her the
to

tongue.
cattlenurse.

from gave

carried
his wife

them

sheds,
Some Larentia As

them the

Larentia

explained
called grew the and

miraculous from
to

story by
her

saying

that

lupa, or wolf,
up cattle

prostitutelife.
instead of sloth-

the

boys

they
; and

took

hunting,
thus

fully tending
both of
to

having
of with infested

acquired strength
wild beasts

body

mind,
robbers
as

instead

pursuing booty
with What and

they
to

began
have
remote

attack

laden
much

; for

Italy seems
in took band number

been ages

almost
as

brigands spoil they


with the in

those

it is at the other up

present.

they
of

divided

with who

shepherds;
them,
and

youths

grew

with various

increased and

daily, they
^

celebrated

sports
and

festivals. Livy
says

Among
about

The

years

are

given "byDionysius

Diodorus;

nothing

them.

44 these Hill.
the is

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

was

Lupercal, which
said
to

was an

celebrated Arcadian

on

the Palatine

It

have when about

been he in had it

solemnity,
of this and

stituted in-

by Evander
Naked
honour Eomans. the

possession sportively
at

district.
in the and

youths
of the These

ran

wantonly
Inuus

Lycean
who

Pan,

afterwards certain
at

called

by

sports recurred
were

fixed
loss make
names

periods ;
of
an

brigands,
and

enraged
the
; for

the
to

their

prey,
on

availed

themselves Kemus

of

opportunity
such
to
were

attack of but the

Komulus

the

two

youths.

Komulus and

managed brought
him

defend

himself;
"

Eemus
times somenow

they took,
showed and

before
towns
as

Amulius

for

they
do

themselves

in the
as

just
Eomulus,
appear

as

they
of

"

they accused
from stood

him,

well

carrying
then their

off
to

booty
have
was

Numitor's

fields. with
was

They
the handed

even

pretty
and

well Eemus

authorities,
over

for

story
for

believed,

to

Numitor

punishment.
Faustulus

had

all
were

along suspected
of the till this
a

that

the

youths whom
he

he
not

was

educating
his and
to

royal
proper
now

race

; but

determined

to reveal
:

thoughts
that

occasion

should

present

itself
matter

thinking
Eomulus.
had

had

arrived, he

opened the
the

Numitor
to

also, on
the the
same

hearing thing
of

story
so

of

the from him

youths,
his

begun

suspect
was
on

; and

far

punishing Eemus,
as

point
of

acknowledging
and

grandson.
with and

Under
a

these band

circumstances, Eomulus

having
aided
masters

collected Eemus

together
put

shepherds, they
made

being

by
of

another
to

band,
death of the

themselves

Alba,^
at

Amulius.

Numitor,
enemies had

the

beginning
the of

tumult, exclaiming that


drawn the away the Alban he citadel had
at ; but

entered

city, had defending


after

youth under
beheld

pretence
and with he him

when

Eomulus

Eemus,

they
whole

killed
once

Amulius,
called
a

approaching
council, to

congratulations, he
the and of

whom the

explained
of the

story
he

of his

brother's

wickedness,
and the

origin,education,
tyrant,

discovery
which

of his

sons, grandhim-

death

declared

Cic. De

Rep.

lib. ii.

c.

2.

FOUNDATION

Of

ROME.

"

45

self the
as

author. and the

Then whole thus seized had the

Eomulus council

and did

Eemus like. his


to

saluted

Numitor

king,
Numitor Eemus

the in

being
were

reinstated with
a

kingdom,
build
a

Eomulus the

and

desire and

city at
The

spot
was

where favoured
;

they by

been

exposed

educated. of
so

project
and

superabundant
also
were

multitude

Albans

Latins

the

shepherds
Lavinium with that

numerous,

that but

it seemed small But


curse

probable
in

that

and which

Alba

would should the

be

cities these of of

comparison
were

they
their

build.

plans
their them
not

disturbed

by ambition,
to

hereditary
as new

family.
should be decided
means

Being twins,
name

pretensions
over so

to

which

give
of

and

reign
birth will Hill
;

the

city could
to
sult con-

by priorityof
augury the the Palatine

they

resolved
; to

by
Eomulus the

of
as

the
a

gods

w^hich and

end

chose

temple,

Eemus

Aventine. As

they
to

thus

stood
;

surveying
but

the

heavens,
after the
a

six

vultures
showed of each

appeared
themselves saluted first
to

Eemus
to

presently Hereupon
because because and
a

dozen

Eomulus.
:

followers had the


was

him him

king
;

Eemus,

the he

vultures had
seen

appeared
greater shed,
and version brother of his for

Eomulus,
a

number. amidst of the the

Hence tumult

quarrel
Eemus

fight;

blood A

was

killed. Eomulus
over

commoner

story, however,
thus and become

is that

slew

his

having contemptuously
Eomulus, Palatine,
Such named the
; most

leapt
sole

the

rising walls
built
a

city.
the

master,

city
of

on

it after

himself. received versions of

was

commonly
different Alban in order
;

legend
it
we

Eome's
not

foundation
enter.

into

the

shall

The been

list of the invented Eomulus


name

kings
to

has

all the up
to

appearance

of times

having
the

carry

the

Trojan
at

lineage of
of

though
Silvius
a

it is not may firm have hold

improbable reigned
on

that Alba.

dynasty
The

the

of

story, however,
of

acquired
into So

the
to

popular
doubt it

belief,and, being
became Latin
name a

received

the also

sacred

books,
the

sort

heresy.
was

Valentia,
to

equivalent
; for

of

Roina,

forbidden the

be

whispered
recent

it

might have

betrayed

to

ignorant

the

Greek

origin

46 of the

"

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

and city,
the and Alban when of

have

upset the story of


Eome's there We into all have the that in
as

its

Trojan foundation
invented,
of that

through
How what

dynasty.
foundation
may be
at

legend
the surmised

was

grains
to

truth

bottom

it,it is
it may
at
a

impossible
have very
must

say.

already
Pontifical is

found

its way date been


; but

Commentaries

early
have

certainly known
mind year Cn. and
as an

is, that
article Eome

it of

i*ooted
at

the

popular
as

historical

belief

least

early
the

the

of

458

(B.C.295), since
caused and
to be

in that

year

^diles

Q. Ogulnius
of Eomulus tarch's upsets Pluto

erected

at the

Ficus
^

Ruminalis
This
was

images
at
once

Eemus

sucking the
2

wolf the

fact

account

that

story
Pictor

first introduced it from


at
one

the
of
a

Eomans

by

Fabius since than

Pictor, who
Fabius
B.C.

took

Diodes
least half

Peparethos,
century later
it has all

flourished
as

295.

Indeed,
of home

Schwegler remarks,^
and the could
not

the

characteristics been of Greek been it is

growth,
Into
to

possibly have meanings


not

invention. attributed

allegorical
we

which
*

have

the

legend
it and

shall

enter

though

probable enough
of Eomulus

that

symbolizes
the

in

general
The

the

warlike

character

early

Eomans.

testimony
upon
;
can

of

all

antiquity that
has been
we

the

original Eoman
by
this modern its foundation, hill of stood

city stood
excavations there
a

the

Palatine

confirmed attribute that


on

and,
be

to whomsoever
no

may

reasonable

doubt the

town,
was

or

citadel, which
in process became of the pause
at

formed
time mistress
a

proper into

nucleus the

Eome,

and

developed
of the
to

magnificent general
a

city which
We

world.
survey
we

will
of

here

moment
;

the

dition con-

Italy

this

period
apt
to

for

unless

obtain

correct
was

notion

of the
we

state

of civilization be form

and very

society when
incorrect

Eome of

founded,
Eoman The and

shall

ideas

early

history.
essential

step towards

civilization the
c.

"

which

in its proper in

primary significationmeans
Liv.
X.

dwelling together
^

23.

In

Romul.

3, 8.
this head

B.

i. S. 412.

The

German

writers

are,

of course,

gi'eaton

GENERAL

CONDITION

OF

ITALY.

47 the
to

cities and

communities from any


to

"

is

agriculture ; for, witliout


it is

plies suplive

derived

this

source,

impossible
mutual useful
to

for

men

together
division

in

great
build is

numbers. cities for

But, having
their

these

supplies,
the
are-

they begin
of

protection ;
arts

labour

established, the
wealth the

of

life

invented,
few and become

and and

by degrees,as
thus
arts to
are

begins
means

accumulate

in

hands,
the

afford

of the

leisure,literature
of and it is birth

finer
more

cultivated,

manners

society
are

refined laws the fraud and

and

polite,and
of

violence But

crime
soon

repressed by
that
to

civil institutions. wealth also view well


as

covered dis-

accumulation and

gives
to

not

only lators legis-

domestic
a

violence,
opens
on

but the

foreign aggression.
of rulers and
"

Hence
;

wider

horizon become consider and


to

they
to

politiciansas
the relations establish arise

lawgivers

^that is,

they begin
to
one

of cities and

communities

another,

alliances, leagues, unions, and


the first may formation Eome
was

confederacies,
The third and of

and last

thus

beginnings
be called of

of

State.

step
the

in what is the when this

the

political
neither in the

progress and

civilization At

large kingdoms
founded,

empires.
nor

time reached

Greece

Italy had
had had and

stage.

It

was

only

East,

wdiich

been

much
as

earlier

civilized, that
of

great
the

monarchies

arisen,

the

kingdom
far

Egypt

and

Assyrian
At the

Median

empires.
to, Italy
This is
was

period

alluded

behind

Greece other

in

politicaldevelopment. by
to

shown,
of the

among Greek

things,
led them and

the

superabundant
and

population
after the

which cities,

long
but
at

before

long
in

foundation

of Eome

plant
that

colonies

Italy,then
And

comparatively
Greece
are

uncivilized
not

scantilypeopled.
stage
when

though
cities

had

yet
up

arrived

single
a

swallowed

by,

and

amalgamated
arose

with,

great empire
of

yet
well

this
as

perhaps partly
the
nature

from

Greek

habits whose

mind,

as

from and

of their

country,

mountainous maintain of the their

character

numerous

bays helped
had of

cities to the

independence.
race

Yet

they

recognised
In

unity

Hellenic

by

community
had

religiousfestivals, and Italy the


second

by

their of

Amphictyonies.

stage

politicalexistence

hardly

48 been reached
Even

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

at

the time
in that

when

Rome

was

founded, except
can

in be

Etruria.
little doubt

country, however, though there


Etruscan of

that

the

confederacy had
the to

been

formed
longed, be-

before

tlie foundation
or were

Eome,

different

cities which
to have
not

nominally subject
part,
and
were

it,appear
when

acted
upon

very

independent
any

probably
of

called
extreme

to

perform

federal

duties, except
the in the

some

and
federacy. con-

common

danger
This

threatened may be
seen

well-being
wars

the

whole

waged
not

between appear
to

Eome
have

and been

Veii,

in

which

the
the

latter Etruscan

city

does

supported by
deprived
a
or

confederacy, even
of its to have

when

the hear
of

Romans also of
same,

it of

great part
but
a

territ6ry. We
been

Latin
even,

League,

this still

appears looser

the the

perhaps,
of
as

description.
which

Of

politicalconstitution
upon and that of

the

other

nations the

bordered the

Latium, others, we

such know

the little
or

Sabines,

Hernici,
it
seems

Volsci,

nothing
of

; but

probable

their chief, if not

sole, bond

union

lay

in

community,
in its

race.

We

have, therefore, to figure to ourselves


as

Rome of

early
yet

days

closely

surrounded

by

vast

number

small

whose virtuallyindependent cities,

views political
or

were

almost

entirely confined
These
we

to

their

own

preservation
before

advancement.

cities

had

all been

established
was

Rome,
almost

which,
the like

as

have

before in Latium.

intimated,

probably
to
"

last

founded

They
few

appear

have

been,

the
than
we

original Rome
modern
are were

itself,small
a

places,
thousand of their
were
"

in

fact, little

more

villages of
to form
a

inhabitants;

though
ruled besides

apt

higher
had the

idea

importance
in

because

they by
a

walled who

and

and fortified, title of

general

magistrate
Alban
and

king." Thus,
of

the
as

Roman

kings, we
small

hear Even

kings
the its all

of such

places

Caenina, Cures, Ardea, "c.


of

Alba,
that

ancient

metropolis
the Caelian
a

Latium,

was

so

city
be have

population, when
on

transferred

to

Rome,
as cities,

could
we

accommodated
before

Hill.

These

observed,
;
a

possessed
we

territoryof only know

some

ten

miles

in diameter of

fact which

not

from

but tradition,

which

we

may

immediately

50

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

small

an

area

would but

3,000
a

persons,
or

hardly have sufficed to accommodate it was amply large enough to serve


for
some

as

fortress

citadel the When


or

thousand
of Romulus of
on a

men. were

We

must

remember young
men.

that

followers the

probably all
as

population
place
been the

colony such
coast

that

of Laurentum, Greek
narrow a

at may
"

whatever have
and in

th6

the

original
its half

settlement boundaries
this
to

made,
course
"

began
of
even was

to overflow

less than the The

century
forth

might easily happen


seek
for themselves
to
new

it

youth

that

went

homes.

Romulean

emigration was
for
their the

forced

content

itself with
in fact
now

the

site of Eome

settlement,

for

it

was

the

only choice
with

they
with

had,

surrounding
But from the

country being
nature of

fully occupied
the
or

cities.
of
a

the

place, and
themselves

help
other
any

wan,

1,000 soldiers,without

apparently

women

incuinbrances,
force which
to
a

might

easily defend
town

against thought

neighbouring against them.


was

might

have

it worth

while

direct

Such, then,
Palatine
HiU
or

the
a

originalRome
wall erected

; the

western its

half of the
in
a name

with

round

base

rangular, quadof

rather

lozenge-like, form
The built

; whence to

the

Borna

Quadrata.
of
or

wall, according
was

the

well-known

description fomo"rium,
furrow clods lifted made

Tacitus,^
sacred

with

Etruscan

rites; the
out
a

space

around
drawn

it,being marked

by

with

plough

by

cow

and the

bull

; the

being carefully thrown


over

inwards,
necessary of portay
are
as a

and

plough being
gates ; whence,
because

the to

profane
the
2

spaces
name

for the

according

Cato,

portando,
a

the

plough
with

was

carried.

We

thus
a

to

consider

city founded
in fact
a

these

religious rites
limits, the

sacred

enclosure,
marked under
Isidor.
"

templum, whose
the
1 8

pommrium,
enclosure
was

the the
xv.

extent

of

city'sauspices.^ This
Ann. A

protection
2, 3.
Eom.

xii. 24,
terrestre
was

Ap.

templurn
32
was

always
Palatine

of

square

form

irXivGiov,Pint.
B.i. S. 448

22

; Cam.

Nagele, Studien, S.
also within the

But
or

there
small of

square omeA

be

good

; ap. Schwegler, city,in the Area Apollinis, a mimdits, walled deposited things considered to place, in which were in fouudinar also called Eoma a city ; which place was rata, Quad122 ; i^nm.l2.

(Fest.p. 258.)

THEORY

OP

COMMERCIAL

EMPORIUM.

51

of the

presiding deity,or deities,as Tarquinian


So be
not

Eome that the of

was

"

or

at

all events and and

Eome Veil it

"

under
was was

Jupiter, Juno,
of

Minerva. could her

also

under

safeguard
till the

Juno,

taken,
the
ever

thought,

deity had

given
hill.
that

consent. Such
was

original Eome
have entered
a

little fortress head could of have any been

on

That such for that


a

it could
a

the

writer

city founded
commercial attained

in such

place
as

intended in
a

great
has

emporium,
all

is maintained in this
to

work in

great popularity belief,and


A mixed

both
seems
race

country

and
want

Germany,^
of

surpasses

betray total shepherds, we


of another also

historical

judgment.
the

of

are

told, partly Latin, partly Sabine,

and

partly
but in

nation
to
on

representedunder
be

name

of

Luceres,

supposed
and

Latin,

had

long
at

dwelt

together
this for their
near

concord

amity
to
a on

these

till hills,

length
choose it

pastoral people place


the
a
mere

resolve

turn

merchants.

They
indeed

of

commerce

top, hillthat

which, though
side, and
continual convenient drained remains
have
on

is,indeed,
which

Tiber, yet
swamp, have

three

sides, was
could

subject to
any
was

inundations,
the of Cloaca

never

presented
till it which

or wharf, landing-place,

at

all this of

events sewer,

by
one

Maxima.

That evidences foundation


even

still

the

material with the

early Eome,
the those who is

should
we

been be

coeval

of

city will,
inclined

presume, historical

hardly
least the

maintained

by
Mommsen

reject all
to

tradition.

Indeed,

Dr.

assign it,at
and consider almost
a

in its finished Palatine in with

state,to the republican times,^


the

regal period
A fine

to

have

been for

entirelysurrounded city !
account

marsh.

situation

great commercial
Dr. Mommsen's of the

of

the
as

origin

of
as

the that

founder of the

and

inhabitants itself. there


1 '

city is just
the
a

incredible
of

city

He

accepts
have

tradition union

early Eoman
a

historythat
and
a

must

been

between
B. i. ch. 4

Eoman

Sabine

Dr.

Mommsen's i. ch. of the

Hist, 47.

of Rome, Dr.

B.

5, p.

M.,

who

does

not
was

even

know

the

number in

or

names

in their

kings, yet period !

is certain

that peperino

not

employed

building

e2

62
The

HISTORY

OP

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

race.

evidence
in which
one

is here

too

strong
tells
us

for him it
a was

; but

he

rejects
part

the and

method
invents

tradition his which


own,

accomplished,
so

of

which

is not

hundredth

probable,or
"

rather

is

utterly incredible.
Dr.

That

the

Eamnians,"
be

says for

Mommsen,^
gave their
must
name

"

were

Latin
new

stock, cannot
Roman determined That
we

doubted,

they
the

to

the

commonwealth,
the in
a

and

therefore

have

substantially
Latin

nationality of
sense

united

community."
were
a

certain
That of
a

the

Eamnians
a neiu

stock

will the

allow. fusion that gave that

is,they

were

Latin

stock, arising
with the the in the have Greek

from

tolerably recent
Latium
to

Greek

colony
settled.

people
Eamnians the words
an r

of

part
name

af

where
we

they
also do

That
but
not

Eome
means.
are or

will We

allow,

sense

the and
m.

author Romani Ramnis last

not

believe

that

Ramnes and
an

identical Ramnes is

because

both
a

evidently
become claim
;
an

name,

*Pafivov^,the
as

syllable having
We shall dermis render from whence and
; not

Latinized,
for

just
Eamnes there

7rov";
an

becomes from

pes. the

these

origin
tradition

Attic

Ehamnus such

although
is

is

which

might Emigrants Thespia,


to

origin not
it

altogether improbable.
went

Athens^
a

said,
of

first to

Sicyon

and

large portion
founded
name, at
on

them Palatine

afterwards HiU and


a

proceeded city
named with into

Italy,
Greeks However

the

Valentia
many

which arrived absurd Latin

when
same

Evander

JEneas

the this

place, was
may be

changed
cart

Roma.

story first,

thought, which,
before
the of

by putting
horse,

the

name

places the
the and

it nevertheless
was

shows the Greek This

that, in
word
account

opinion
not

antiquity, its etymon


^

pu)fi7}, is

the

gentile appellative Eamnis.


from be
an

given by
the

Festus

author
to

of

Cumaean had

history ; who,
the best
an

after

Latins,
about

may

thought
Without,
it is

have

mation inforAttic before


at

Eome.

however,
that

claiming
their
name,

origin
the

for

the of

Eomans,
the

enough
the

founding

city,was
of
a

evidently Greek,
Attic

derived from have


p. 266.

all

events, probably like that brier;


1

borough,
which may

pd/ivo"i,
given

characteristic
i. p.

of

country
'

Vol.

45, Engl. transL

"

Voc.

Romam,

RAMNIANS

AND

ROMANS.

53

name

to

more

than

one

town

in

Greece.

"We before

agree the

therefore
foundation

with of

Dr.

Mommsen,

that called
to

the

Eomans,
;

their who

city,were
wished

Eamnians

probably
Eomans that

also

after,by
to

those their from who We the


to

distinguish
we

the

according
Romani
name comes

originaltribes
Ramnes,
dwelt also when in Roma. agree that

; but

cannot

admit the

it is

evidently
Eamnians
"

ethnic

of

those

the

substantiallydetermined
"

nationality of
Dr. Mommsen's
come

the

united

community
it Tor is Jie

though, according
how
us a

hypothesis,
that conclusion. appear, Latin

strange
tells
at

he in the

could
next

have
page
"

to

"It when

would the less than


a

therefore, that
and Sabellian in and entered
more

period
were,

very

remote,

stocks

beyond
manners,

question^
and later union
customs

far

sharply
were

contrasted Eomans

language,
the into Latin

the

Samnites
a

of
canton

age,
; and

Sabellian
as

community
older and take Titles the their

in the the that

credible of

out withtraditions, the

exception,
it is

precedence
Titles

Eamnians,
the older

probable
to

intruding

compelled

Eamnians

accept
to
race

synoihismos."
Titles, or
those
as was

According conquering
can

this
; for to

account, the
it is
a

Sabines,
are

are

the

only
that and

who

superior who
did in Attica. who
to
pare com-

compel
we

others

synoikismos ;
told it the the

Athens the

Yet

have

just
the

been

Eamnians goes
on

determined this Attus

nationality;
invasion
or

author

Sabine

with

voluntary
with his centuries and who
must
a

settlement few thousand

of

Clauzus,
the

Appius
Eoman

Claudius,

followers, in
when rural

territorymany by
compares the Eomans
a

afterwards,
formed
came

they

were

received

into in had

tribe.;that
numbers

is,he
to be

people
who with Eoman
were

cient suffiall

victorious,
conquerors, of the

and

have

the

power
not
a

and

pride of

small

tribe who

ing formcame

twentieth

part

people, glad
to

into there

their
!

territoryas
Latin
at
a

refugees, and
and Sabellian remote that Dr.

be

received

How and

far the
"

stocks

differed do
can

in languagre

customs,
nor

very

period,"we
Mommsen

not

pretend

to

tell ;

do

we

believe

tell. We

only

54

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

see

that
to

his views

are

not he

always consistent, but


wishes
to

vary in his

ing accordsecond

the

point
which

that he

prove.

For,
ancient

chapter, in
into he he

treats

of the most
presume, of

immigrations
remote
races,

Italy,and
classes under

therefore,we
Latins the from term
"a

very

period,
which
us

separates the
dialect
races.
^

all the other

Italian
and
to

Umhro-Samnite,
marked

tells

that

the Latin of these


It is
rests
on

formed

contrast"

the dialects

hardly worth
nothing
the but that

while

to

pursue

in detail

theory
the
"

which

the wildest

conjectures. We
supposes,

shall

only

brieflyobserve
had been

if,as Dr. Mommsen


race

Sabines

superior

in

prae-Eoman
whether
name

times

though,
them Eomans
suppose
federacy con-

indeed,

it is difficult to

determine
town

he

considers the

superioror
would
that have such
a

inferior been

"

no

taking its
it is been
;

from

built. should

Further,
have

impossible to
by
we as

city

founded

the Latin have

for Latin
not

trading
was

purposes

because,

said, the
would
the it

League
have of

but for

very
a

looselybound
purpose
can

together,and
because

united

such

; and
no

during
between
would oppress them

early days
and Latin the

the

city we
Had
have
we are

trace been

connexion

Latins.

there

this

connexion,
Sabines
to

the the their


mercial com-

Confederacy
and,
as

suffered
told

the

Kamnians,

they did, force


the

upon

the synoikismos? But strongest reason hypothesis is perhaps the fact of


of

against this
to

total repugnance
a

early

Eoman

manners

and of

institutions
and when

commercial

life ; her

though empire
in

in process
to

time,
of the

she

had
to
some

extended
extent

the

mouth

Tiber, Eome

engaged
Dr.

foreign commerce.
indeed,
is of

Mommsen,
from

opinion that
the
as

the both of

Eomans

sessed pos-

the earliest
to
see

times
as

country
the adds

on

sides of the
;

Tiber
we

down do
not

the

sea,

well

port
to

Ostia
his

though

what
to

strength
him,
one

this

commercial
for

theory.
1

According
des

of the

reasons

choosing
Lateinische Dialekthat both

**Innerlialb
in

Italischen

Sprachstammes
zu

aber

tritt

das

wieder
ten."
"

einen

bestimmten

Gegensatz
i. p.

den We

nmbrisch-samnitischen have

B.

i. S. 11 ; and Sabines

cf. Transl.
were

53.

already

seen

Samnites

Sabellian,and

in fact almost

identical.

ORIGINAL

ROMAN

BOUNDARIES.

55

Rome
was

as

an

entrejpSt was,
of if the

that

being
does
at

so

high
was

np
to be

the river
a

it

out
"

of the way and


"

pirates. But
vanishes

if Ostia
not
once.
on

landingmeans

place
As

assumption

mean

that, it

nothing
a

this
matter

advantage
of Eomans
to

fact, however,
could the than of the
sea.

and

Dr.

Mommsen's

own

showing,
"

the

not

have

originallypossessed
evidence,"
that the he

the

territory down
more on

"We of

have

says,

trustworthy right
bank

that

legend,
must

possessions
to at

the

Tiber
;

have very

belonged
quarter,
the chief
^

the the

original territory of
fourth
of the milestone
on

Eome the

for

in

this
to

later

road

the

port, lay
of Eome." of

grove
seat

creative

goddess (Dea
and

Dia), the
a

primitive

of

the Arval
Now
even

Festival,
the

Ar\^al Brotherhood
were

Ambarvalia time
of of the the of the the time
to

festival when

boundaries,
was

and of the from barvalia Amthe


at

in the

Empire,
Eoman of the

Eome
were

mistress
at

the

greater part

world, they

celebrated Thus
we

original boundaries
Strabo'^ that, in
continued borders of the

State.

learn the
on

Emperor
at

Tiberius,

be

celebrated

various and

places
among

primitive Ager Eomanus,


on

them

Eesti, which
from the Eoman And the the
not

lay
The

the
grove

road
on

to

Alba,

about bank that

five of

or

six miles

Eome. fourth

the

right
quarter
of
a

the

Tiber,

at

milestone,
not

shows,
reach
a

therefore,

the
way

primitive
to

did territory this

of the

the
us

sea.

agrees

with ceded that

the
to

account

Livy,^
on

who the

tells

that of
was

Veientines Tiber
; and

Eomulus whole of

tract

right bank
to

the time

territorydown
Ancus.

the
to

sea

acquired
Eomulus he

till the who

According
member. ancient Cornewall
we

tradition,
of

it

was

founded said
to

the Arval have been

Brotherhood,
a

which,

indeed,
On that

is himself of

modes

thus Dr.

reconstructing
Sir G.

history like
Lewis here

adopted by
a

Mommsen,

has

passed
In that
were

very

sensible he

judgment,
observes,
is able
"

which We
are

shall

extract.
to believe

such
a

attempts,
modern

called

upon

historian

to

recast

the traditions
ages
2

which and
to

thus
1

preserved through
Trans, vol. i. p. 49.
3

the

dark

of
lj^.

Eome,
v. c.

Engl.

3,

s.

2.

Lib. i. 15, 33.

66

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

extract their
a

the

truth
form

which

is
are

imbedded false. We

in
are

them,
first
to

although
believe from

in
that

existing

they
in

tradition

was,

substance,
Christ to

faithfully conveyed
the
it be

the and
it
ing cover-

eighth century
then
to

before

Second is
not

Punic

War,

believe of
some

that, although
truth

literally true,
under
own

is

typical
for

which

can

discerned
of
our

its age.

the
of and

first historical

time

by
types
than been

writer
more

This with
some

doctrine
reason

is

difficult

to

reconcile
that
a

experience
facts may

even

the

supposition through
tradition.
refined the the of

authentic of years,

have

preserved
oral and

long
It

series
fact of

in
more

an

unaltered than
an

state, by

is in

nothing
the of It the
man

ingenious
of

application

rationalist

method
so

interpreting

marvellous ancient

legends
historians.

mythology,
is

much form the

employed
of the grove

by

only

another in

system
was

reduction,
into and One hand skill than
;

by which
an

god
in

Mars

sacred who

converted

armed wolf of

disguise,
was

overpowered
into
a a

Ilia,

the

Komulus
may may be be

transmuted

courtesan.

imitation

executed

by
with

coarse

and
resources

clumsy
and better

the

other

performed
but
^

all

the

of

modern

learning;
forgeries." Nothing
scope. stands
"

still

they

are

both

no

historical

can

be
must

truer

than take

these
the

remarks,

in

their

general
as

We
or

either
as

early

Eoman

history
those

it

nearly

it the

stands,
natural
must

rejecting product
abandon

only
of it
an

figments
and
as no

which

are

evidently
age
a
"

illiterate

superstitious
better
escape it may than from
not

or

we

altogether,
Our

romance

from

first

to

last. in the

only

hope

of

this
rest
so

last

alternative,
on

lies

circumstance
as

that
C. Lewis

entirely

oral

tradition

Sir

G.

supposes.

Credibility,

"c.

vol.

i. p.

440,

seq.

68
to him of

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

are

done makes
had
a

by
no

Romus. mention of
as
"

Cicero,in
of that

his account

of the foundation he
Roman
: as
"

Rome,^

Remus,
name

though
the Romulus

is

aware

that quently frene-

Romulus

brother Remus

; and

poets
Remi

consider

identical

with
"

potes,"
is

"

domus Latinized form way

Remi,"
form
;

turba

Remi,"
It

plebs Remi,"
was

"c.^

Romulus
Latins
a

only
and

of Romus.

natural

for the says,


a as

to

give it this by

not

so

much,

perhaps, as
but

Servius
such

tive diminuwas

of

endearment,^
of their
an

because

termination

agreeable to the
words modern

genius
with

language, as
Like sdrucciole and

is shown their
"

by

the

many the

they

have

such

ending.
parole

descendants,

Italians,they loved
words

well long, slippery,


off the

vocalized
Thus

that

tripped nimbly
Greek
The word
name on

smoothly
into

tongue.
as

they changed
the
name

the

circus

circulus,just Romanula,
affords

they
of

had

of Romus.
the ancient

of Porta the

instead another

Romana,

for

gate
also

Palatine, Janiculum,

striking
however,
name

instance.
all the
names

So

Tusculum,
to

several

rivers

Albula, "c.,
as

belonging
called

early Latin
closer

times.
to

Romulus,
own

Latins when

him, kept
it to

his

Greek for

of

Romus

he

gave

his

newly-founded city j
at all events

if not 'Pwfjiog,

itself

actuallyderived
it.
a

from been

was /5w/i";,

near

enough
Latin

to

suggest
of make
was

Had

his

name

derived

from have the

the been

city by
called

inventors to

later age, he
him the

would

doubtless
father of

Romanus,
as

eponymous

Romans,

just
for

King
We

Latinus do

of the

Latins.
any valid

not,

therefore, see
universal its

etymological grounds
of

rejecting the
was

almost
after

testimony
We

antiquity, that
urge the
course

Rome dible incre-

named

founder.
who

might

further from the

how

it is that the
or one so

the

Romans,
their any

possessed forgotten in
and been

earliest times
of
a

art

of

writing, should
name

have

century
a were new

the

of

founder,
of the

obliged to

invent

for him.

Why,
before
had is
a

which neighbouring cities, in aU

in

existence their

long

Rome,
it been

could

probabilityhave
all the deeds of Rome

refreshed

memories,
Romulus
are mere

necessary. person, That the


so

As
him

fictitious

attributed
institutes the first

to its
wars

abstractions.

founder

fundamental

military and
ii.
c.

political regulations, wages

De See
**

Rep.
Ut

2, seq.

2
*

Catull.
pro

Ivi. 5 ;

Prop.
Ad

iv. 1, 5;

Juv.

x.

73

; Mart.

x.

76, 4.
factum

Romo

Romuliis ^n.

diceretur, blandimenti
i. 273.

genere

est, quod

gaudet

diminutione.""

NAME

AND

EEALITY

OF

ROMULUS.

'5^

with first the

the

celebrates neighbouring cities,


"

the

first

trinniph,wins

the

spolia opima,
idea of
a

all

these, it

is

said, are

abstractions

arisingfrom
old

founder

of warlike
we

Eome.^
all have
assume

From did
not

this

idea,then,
their

learn, at

events, that
been
a

the

Romans
one.

consider
on

early city to
are we

commercial events of every

But to
we

what been
mere

grounds
down he

to

the

alluded

to

have

abstractions
some

The of
to

founder and

city must,
; it

presume,

lay

rules have

civil contend

military conduct
with that
not

is not and may his

unlikely that
have been state in

may

offended, jealous,
Eomulus
see was

suspiciousneighbours
infant could

far from ; it is

improbable
we

general victorious, otherwise


have
maintained that
were

do

how torious, vic-

itself; and
he
not

if he have

it is not the is to

altogetherincredible
assert

may

instituted

triumph. beg
"00

To whole

that

these

acts
a

real,but

invented,

the

question.
dictation had be

It is

good specimen
often from the

of that

terial magisGerman

cathedra
as

which
come

too

characterises skies. that be

critics colour
was
a

"

if

they

just
derived

down from his the the

The

only

for

it must

assumption
must to

Eomulus

fictitious have

personage,

when that

deeds

also prove

fictitious.
so are

But

we

already seen
miraculous and

arguments

him

altogetherinconclusive.
JN'or do attended person. Besides make up the the his circumstances prove him

which
to have

are

said
an

to

have

birth

death

been

unhistorical

abstraction, it
the

is

said, the
is

other

element
^
"

that wolf

goes

to

history
Acca

of

Romulus Ruminal

myth

the

that

gives
at

suck,
the

Lupercal,
the

the

the fig-tree, the laceration I^ones.

stepfather Faustulus,
of Romulus the

stepmother
on

Larentia,
of the

Goat-lake ideas
are as we

day

Caprotine
from the the

These of Faunus

mythological Lupercus,
or

evidently
must

taken had

worship
of

who,
This

assume,

cognomen

Rumus,
appears

Ruminus.
in the ditional tra-

fecundating goat-god, Ruminus-Faunus, legend


to

have

been

fused

into

one

-person

with

Romulus,
to be
a mere

the

eponymous Here it
occurs

founder
to

of Rome.

ask,
how

if the
came

Romans it that

considered

Romulus
him

identical
name,

with

Faunus,
from
two

they

also made
have

derived
did ? The

the

name are

of the

city,as

we

just been

told

they
The

views

utterlyincompatible.
be seen,
rests
on

whole

induction,
Schwegler, B.

it will

two

conjectures:

i. S. 425.

:j|5i"j ^^^

60 first,that Faunus
or was

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

had
to

the

name

of Rmnus
with

second, that Rumus


or

is,

supposed
we

be,

identical

Romus,

Romulus.
home German
same

If

ask
or

for the

evidence
we are

for Faunus told


"

having
two
"

the

name

of

Rumus,
Schwenck that

Ruminus,
and

that

other the few with

authors,

Zinzow,
himself
was are

had had
"

conjectured
identical

thing ;

and

Schwegler
or

conjectured,"a
critics sensible

pages Fauna who of

before,that Luperca. reject,on


the Roman

Rumia,
With
most

Rumina,
evidence
the

perhaps
these
more

such

contented

occasions,
!

much

evidence

historians
If
we

inquire
traces

how
the

Romiilus
ancient Festus

is connected
authors
^

with
such

rumus^

we

find,
or

indeed,
rather

in

of

some some

connexion,
his
same name

confusion.
the Ficus the
teat

Thus

says
"

that

derived the

from
"

Ruminalis

; others
or a

which

is

nearly by
which

thing
been authors nalis Rumito

from

(ruma,

rumis)
notice

of the
to

wolf
same

he Other

had

nourished.
reverse was

Plutarch

has
as

the

effect.
that the
a

the

derivation,
named the after Ficus

Servius,^who
; and

says

Ficus notice

Romulus

Livy gives
of

the So

effect that that the is It to

Ruminalis

is

corruption
or

Romularis.*
of

theory gains nothing against it.


be with
mere

here

rather, the balance

dence evi-

would

learned
an

and trifling It

battling with
course, Rome.

the

wind
to says, the

proceed

such
to
same

inquiry.
ruma

is, of
with

necessary

Schwegler's theory
has
"

connect

Roma,
derived
is with

he

name

of

the
as

meaning
name

with

Palatium is

; it is ruma,

nourisher," just
the
pa

the

of

the

Palatine whose
root

remotely
from
to

from

shepherd-goddess Pales,
the
as

pal,

the its

Sanscrit

(to nourish, feed).^ But,


"nourisher,"
Roma is
a

viewed
no

regard
so

meaning, Ruma,
a name

by

means

appropriate
viewed

for

citadel

(strength,a stronghold) ; and,


m

etymologically,it requires the requires no


The
same

to be

changed
the old

into

o, while

Roma

change
remark

at

all,piofia being
to

Greek odd

form

for

poifxri.
from
it to

applies

Dr. from

Mommsen's
ramus

derivation
he considers name,

Rama,^
mean

and the

this

apparently
or

since the

wood,

bush-town. is
a

Surely,
more

Greek

p^\ir\,
these.

adopted by Niebuhr,
1

hundredfold
; Anm. 26.

appropriate than
2

Schwegler,
Ad "Ubi
^n.
nunc

B.

i. S. 426

p.

266.

3 *
"

viii. 90

Plut. ; cf.

Rom.
est

4,

6. vocatam

ficus ruminalis B. i. S. 420,


444

(Romularem
Anm. 10.

ferunt)."
"

i. 4.

Schwegler,
P. i. c. A,

"

ETYMOLOGIES

OF

ROMULUS

AND

ROMA.

61

Of birth had that


to

course

all

or

most

of

the
; we

circumstances have
not
are

connected admitted
on

with it.

the

of Romulus said
so

are

fabulous
us

abeady
fabulous. and may

Livy

before

; but

he

does

conclude,

that

account,

all the how


; but

circumstances the

of his of

reign
that

It is

impossible
may have from be

say

legends
connected

Eomulus's

birth

education have

arisen old
as

it is not

improbable
with
to

they

sprung

traditions

the

Palatine historical tacked and

Hill.

It would of
as

just

irrational, however,
these doubt traditions the

reject the
have of been

existence his
name,

Romulus,
it would monkish

because be
to

to

existence
some

Edwy.
to

Elgiva, because
acts to

the

legends
age
treats

attribute

supernatural
its
own

St. Dunstan. and convictions. will invent in

Every
A and
more

history according
age,
or an

views

superstitious
believe cultivated transactions fabulous. many

illiterate would not

but be

poetical age,
at
once

things
; but

which it does

exploded
that
to

times of

follow
are

thence also say

the

ordinaryas

life
we
are

in

those go

periods
of

be that

regarded
these that the

Nay,
additions first
arose

will
a

further,

and

culous miradition tra-

proof

good faith, and


to

show

in

the the

times age.

which of

it these
to

relates, because

it is

framed

in the

spiritof
had historian should

If

early
us,

times
as a

purely
German Berlin
a

rationalistic

account

been

transmitted have written

such

professor or
or

might
at
once

in it to

his be

study
the

at

Leipsic,we
age.

pronounce

forgery of

later

ROMULEAN

CONSTITUTION.

Romulus,
named

having

thus

built

city
to
were

on

the

Palatine, and
laws and with the he

it after

himself, proceeded
The
"

endow
to

it with be
no

religious ceremonies.
Alban,
usages retained
to

latter
a

performed
doubt,
to

that of his
were

is, Latin
Latin those he

rites,

concession,
The of

subjects.
in honour should of up the in have

only
Hercules

Greek
; and
even

rites which

it is difficult

perceive why
he
was was

preserved
descent.

these, except
The

that

himself

Grecian after

worship
in the

of the

Hercules

kept
of

times,
; under

and

especially in Maxima,

neighbourhood
Forum
one or

Palatine
was

which,
Ara

sequent sub-

Boarium,

the
to

besides Romulus

two

temples

dedicated

that

demi-god.

62 then called
laws.

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

his

subjects together, and


this account

dictated

to

them

tain cer-

According
absolute

to

the

Roman and

sovereign
State. the He

was

an

king, the head

both

of Church

ruled

by by
but

divine augury.

right,for
Livy
of

the

gods had

given him

kingdom correctly,
he

has

represented these

matters

Dionysius
them

Halicarnassus
as

quite erroneously,^ when


and The Roman power been

describes
to

Romulus the choice

calling the people together


a

leaving
was an

of

constitution.
was

king, like
had it

those

of ancient

Greece,

irresponsible; his
it would

apxh
been

which avvTr"vdvvo";,^

hardly have
And

delegated
the
same,

to

him
were

by the
elected

people.
by
same,

though
and

after

Romulus

kings
or

the

people
to

senate,
which
as

yet
he
be

the had

very appears

nearly the
to

absolute
on

power them
;

enjoyed
for
a
3 new

have

passed
of his

may who

seen,

instance,

in

the

example
of
own

Servius

Tullius,
and

bestows
power.

constitution
order
to

free will
person
more

absolute

In

render

his
of

venerable,
command
;

Romulus
as
a

assumed

certain

badges
and

authority and
the

more

august dress,
Some from
more

especially supposed

attendance

of of

twelve these

lictors.
was

have the

that

the

number

taken it

vultures that

seen

by
of the

Romulus;
from twelve

but
the

Livy
of the the

thinks

probable
in which

it

was

derived

Etruscan

practice ;

nation
a

each

cities

confederacy supplied
that the the from Romulean of the

lictor.

This
and

agrees,

too, with

circumstance

sella curulis

were toga jpfcetexta

borrowed The
as

Etruscans.

kingdom
Jews,
be

was

theocratic

; almost

as

much
with

so
a

that

if the

comparison
admitted.

of Not

the

latter is

Pagan government may appointed by the will of


but

only

the

king

the
the

gods,

as

manifested

by

augury,

all the institutions

of

state, the

senate, the

centuries

1 *

Ant. See

Rom.

lib. ii.

c.

3.

See

Rubino,

Rom.

Staatsverfussung.
Th.
; dein
a

Waclismuth, Romulus,

Hellenische
ut

Alterthumskunde,

i. Abth. Numa Tullo


reges

i. S.

"Nobis

libitum^ imperitaverat
:

religionibuset
et Anco ; sed
"

divino

jure populum
Ann. iii. 26.

devinxit
aiictor

repertaque

qusedam

praecipuusServius
"Tac.

Tullius

legum fuit,quies etiam

obtemperarent.

ROMULEAN

CONSTITUTION.

63^

of
same

knights,
divine the

and

the

whole
^

constitution,
Hence its

are

founded
nature

on

the
even

sanction.

conservative For the

under

popular
the

forms

of

republic.
was

grand plea
their

of

the

patricians against the possession by


the

plebeians
of the the

always
This
to

sacred

character,
character

auspices.

conservative
in
name

is manifested which
of

tendency
been

retain,

at

least, institutions
after

had

virtually abolished.
a

Thus,
was

the

expulsion
for certain

kings

Eex

Sacrificulus
none,

pointed ap-

functions,

which

it

was

thought, long
after still and

but the

royal priest could


power of the

properly discharge
Curiata had

; and

real

Comitia their

vanished, they
of

nominally
But

retained

original power
of his
an

sanctioning

confirming.
the chief
is the the

characteristic

the

early monarchy
their leader

is, that
in
war

the
and is to

king
that be

general
are

of

people,
army,

people
to

but

whose

principal duty
to

it

prepared
the

obey

the

first

summons

take

the

field.
senate

Thus, during is,


"

first sine

interregnum, imperio,
animis,

the

chief

fear

of the

Ne

civitatem

exercitum

sine

duce,

multarum

circa

civitatum

irritatis

vis

aliqua

externa

adori-

retur."2
THE ASYLUM.

After

awhile
and of

other

spots beyond
rather

the
to

city walls
for the

began
the limits the

to

be

occupied
increase
too

fortified,but

provide occupied
at

expected
were

the

citizens,than
the
was

because thus

present
was

small. HiU

Among
; since

places
on

CapitoInter that for

line duos

it

this

hiU,

the the

spot
two

called

lucos, in

the

depression
his

between This
was a

summits,
of

Eomulus

opened
from

Asylum.
ancient

place

refuge
not

fugitives

other in

communities;
times

contrivance

unfre-

quently adopted
1
"

by the founders
et

of

cities,in
institu-

Hunc
.
. .

(senatum) auspicate a parente


"

conditore

urbis

nostras

tum

accepimus."

Tac.
"

Hist,

i. 84.

"

Id (centurias

equitum) quia inaugurate


rerum

Eomulus

fecerat."

Liv.

i. 36. Ut
et

"Omnino
enim

apudveteres, qui
sic divinare et

potie-

bantur, iidem
Testis
est

auguria tenebant. civitas,


in qua

sapere,

regale ducebant.
privati
"
"

nostra

reges

augures,

postea
rexerunt.

eodem

sacerdotio i. 40.

praeditirempublicam

religionum

auctoritate
2

Cic. Div.

Liv.

i. 17.

64 order
course

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OP

ROME.

to

augment
have earth.

the
of

population.
lowest

Such

refugees
that

were

of
gests, sug-

commonly
may

the

class ; and of

hence, Livy

arisen

the

fable

populations

sprung

from

the

Rem
as a

ARKS.

-^The

asylum
all that

is of

course

regarded by
an

the

critics sceptical is

pure

invention.
with

it First,
we

is

said,such
of under the

institution
manners

entirely
times.

at
"

variance
All the

know

of

the

peoples of antiquitylived
; the

strong
were

and

stable

regimen
the

(in festen Formen)


down
more

civic

communities the the


more more

always organized
the

to

the

lowest
were

classes these

; and

remote

times,

binding
of civil

regimens,
these

compact
and
to

all the

tions relasee

life. of

Under

circumstances

it is difficult to dissolute the


common

how

these
have

bands
come

adventurers, vagabonds,
from the

feUows tion, tradi-

could

together,which, according
Rome

flocked

to must

neighbouring
to
us a new

towns

and of

tribes."

This, times,
Golden

we

confess, appears
to

idea

these

ancient
the in

and

hardly
those

be

realized

in

any,

except, perhaps,
had

Age,
It

Saturnia
that there

Regna
were

which
no

long passed by
persons
as

Italy.

assumes

such all
or

insolvent

debtors, brigands, pirates,criminals


persons
desirous hear

of

sorts, runaway
with their We
own

slaves, lot, or

dissatisfied
of
a

with

the

government
for the ancient been and sake of

change merely
classes in the

novelty.
and the
ever

certainly
it not of be. probable imRome's

of such
that

authors,
found
at

think
time will

they might
Roman of nation

have
now

foundation, just as they


That from
a

may

probably
sprung,

the

should

have

it is further entire
a

said,
of

band
Roman
one

robbers,
state.^

is contradicted The

by
state

the
was

character

the Such

old
a

original

family by

state.

can

be

made

neither

by legislationnor

military

1
*

Schwegler,
We
do not

B. i. S. 465.
see

how

this view
S. 345

agrees
in

with

the
of to

passage it.

quoted
for the

from
to

Hegel
us

(Philosophic
accept the
Roman
are:

d.

Gesch.

f.)

support
of

Hegel

appears

to

robber-state, and, by
This
is

means

it,

account

severity of
His
v/ords

discipline.
"Dass
Rom

preciselycontrary
als wesentliche

to

Schwegler's view.
war, seiner

urspriinglich eine
hat,
Ein
muss

Rauberverbindung
Grundlage
des
Staats

und

sich

als

Rauberstaat lichkeit

constituirt

Eigenthiimdie mit

angesehen
mit

werden.

Dieser

Ursjuaing
auf

fiihrt
muss

harteste Gewalt

Disciplin zusammengehalten
sondem
ein

sich.

Staat, der
Es Zustand der

Gewalt
nicht ein

beruht,

werden.

ist da

sittlicher

Zusammenhang,

gezwungener

Subordination."

66
On not for

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

this

we

will observe

that first,
a

the and
as

Eomulean invention
established

Asylum
of the
among

could

then
no

have

possibly been
invent
an

fiction

Romans,
selves them-

people
which
is has

institution their

entirelyforeign to
even a name.

habits,and

for which

their

language
where it

not

Secondly,

it

could

not

have
to

been retain

invention, because
its
name names even

the

place
to

stood

continued
The

down is

the

imperial times.
uncommon or

long survival
"We
a

of such have

by

no

means

unparalleled.
Clement's
more

still in of

London,
the Danes

in

the

Church
in that several

of

St.

Danes,
than and between
"

memorial

settled
well This is
as a

neighbourhood
others in London that the
name,

eight centuries
parts
of and Romulus of the it

ago,^ as

other

England.

longer period than


And

imperial times. indissolubly


to

being
that of of

called his

Asylum
and

Romulus,"
to

was

connected
as

with
the that

helped king
a

hand in any

it down this way

posterity,
as

first

Roman
even

being

good

voucher

fact, or

better, than
been
an

written

document. it reflects

Thirdly, it
no

is not upon that

likely to
the in
some

have

invention, as
A
nation

great

credit

Roman

people.
dishonour to and

is not

apt
prone

to

invent may be

stories
to

degree
.^Eneas.
at

it,however

it
the

the
a

opposite course,
descent from existed

imagine for instance,as


it

Romans
But if that

did,
an

asylum

Rome,

could
says,

have the
we was

been

no course
a

other of

than
Roman

of

Romulus,

for,as
of
none

Schwegler
other.
as we

whole have
to

history knows
of
a

And have

here
seen,

natural

explanation
and purposes

it ; for Greek

Romulus,
; and in
own

all intents
was

the asylum instituting

he

only
a name as

following a
from he

custom

of his

country.
he
name.

And
no

he

gave

it

his
called

own

language, city by
who of it
a

since

could

find

Latin

name,

just

his

Greek

Dr.
a

Ihne,

course

supposes

that

the

founder
to

of

Rome

was

Latin,

calls had this

"preposterous
connexion

supposition"
with We he and have

believe of

that

Romulus
to

sufficient

knowledge
endeavoured,
such remark

Greece,
shall How

adopt

foreign institution.
to

and

further much would able


to

endeavour,
force prove attract had there

show
be in

that
Dr.

had

connexion. that
"

may

Ihne's would the which


in

even

this been

useless, for
many

Romulus

surely never nobody


England,
knew
"c.

have

suppliants from something


Danes
and

neighbouring states, if the


of, and
to

asylum
.

been

new,

See

Worsaae's

Norwegians

p. 16, seqq.

THE

SENATE

OF

ROMULUS,

67
the
to

which
How
"

nobody
"

could
he
a

trust,"

we

must

leave

reader say,

to determine. the

many
was

attracted

it is

impossible

but, though
been the

institution

novelty, we
it

think and

it would

have

readily
class of

discovered, easilyunderstood,
persons for whom
was

eagerly embraced

by

intended.

THE

ROMAN

SENATE.

"

THE

CONSUALIA.

The and

city having
its
to

been

thus

founded,
Komulus

its boundaries created in the


a

enlarged,
council, or
of it.

population augmented, guide


of
a

senate,

him

with

their

advice
a

ruling
whose

It consisted

hundred be them

members,
that
to

number
were

probably
more

deemed age
were

sufficient, or
and called families rank

it may

there
enter

not

entitled

it.

These
or

senators

Fatres, or
were

fathers, by
bear from the the
new

way title

of of

honour

affection

; their

to

patricii, or
mass

patricians,to
of the
to advise

distinguishthem
The functions
no

or plehs, general

people.
;

of this

senate

were

merely
;

they
arose

shared
from

portion of
respect
due

the
to

royal
their

power

their

influence
was

the

judgment,
which

which

called

auctoritas,or
A

authority.^
in the
manner
we

city formed privilege of

have
as

described
it did
not

was

necessarilyill provided
the

with

w^omen

and,
the

enjoy
them,
In his of

intermarriage
power it could it
was

with

surrounding cities,
to

although
it
was

in warlike that

quite equal
but
a

any

of

evident
to

last

singlegeneration. by
the advice

order

remedy
and

this

defect, Eomulus,
to

senate,
their
a

sent

ambassadors

the

surrounding peoples,to request


or

alliance which of
was a

connubium,
seems

the
to

right of intermarriage ;
have times. resembled But The the
new

process

somewhat
state

the

cognition re-

new

in

modern

tion applicacity was

everywhere
was

scornfully rejected.
also

not

only despised,it
Cicero,
Sabine the De

feared, and
as

its

increasingstrength
senate when that after he both

Rep.
in

ii.

8, represents Romulus

instituting the
at the
same

the

War,
and
the

conjunction with
tribes
were

Tatius, and

time

divided the in

people into
curiee from
was

and

curiae ; while
before
seems

Dionysius
the

relates
War. the

senate

established
; but not

Sabine

The

account

the text
of the

is taken senate

Livy
at least

it

probable that
till after the

full complement union.

completed
E

Sabine

68 looked

HISTORY

OP

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

was

upon with did would

as

dangerous.
insult,
and
an

The the

refusal

was

frequently
were

accompanied
"

ambassadors
for
women

asked,
In that

Why
The

they they
Koman that
was

not

open find

asylum
wives."
not

manner

suitable

youth
the

could

brook
end in this
a

this
war

insult ;
and but and

it

was

evident Romulus
same

matter to to

must

violence.
at

willing

encourage

temper,

the

time
for

determined
its

provide
He busied of the

fittingplace
therefore himself in

tunity oppor-

manifestation.
meantime honour He the

dissembled

his
some

anger
solemn

; and

in the in

preparing spectacle
and

games

Equestrian Neptune,
directed the the

which
to

he

called

Gonsualia.
among with

then

be

announced
were

neighbouring people; magnificence then


to to

games
or

prepared
in
to

all the in order

known,
and

that
cause

lay
them

his be

power, looked

give

them

renown,

forward

with

interest

and

curiosity.
has of

Remarks.

"

Whether down
as a

the
to
to
us

exact

nature not
seem

of

these
to

games
a

been
very

correctlyhanded
vital

does

be of

point

importance
On
we

the

general credibihty
tradition
that may before but the

the

early Roman
varied
a

history.
little ; and
tilius
we

such
do

subject pretend
on

naturally have
time of tradition.
to

not

Tullus

Hos-

the not

history rested
think that have the

anything

Nevertheless, charges
objected
of
^

do

story

is amenable

all the is

that that

modern
the the games

critics

brought against it.


were

First, it
till the

of the and when


two

Circus

not not

introduced have Circus of taken


was

time

Tarquin reign
a

Elder,

indeed the

could site of

place nothing
and

in the but

of

Romulus,
But the

the

marsh. of

professed
say gave
not
a

historians word

Rome,
the Rome

Livy
in

Dionysius
of

Halicarnassus,
that It is
as

about
at

Circus.

They merely
honour

state

Roinulus

some

games

Neptune.^
games

probable enough origin of


that those there

that of

posteritymay
the have Circus been Roman
; and
none

have

regarded

these

the

it is at earlier

all events
at

quite
It is

certain

could the

Rome.
in the

only Cicero, amongst


sketch which
a

classical Roman pen, says

authors, who,
his De

slight

he

gives of
the

history in
that
^

Bepuhlica,^ and place in

perhaps by
"

slip of

they actually took


Liv.
i.

Schwegler,

B. i. S. 471.
3

9; Dionys. ii. 30,

Lib.

ii.

c.

7.

THE

CONSUALIA.

69

the

Circus.
and

For

though
the

they
the

are name

also of Eomulus
were

alluded cir censes,


must

to

hy
those

"Valerius
authors

Maximus/
say

under Yirgil,^

nothing
some

about

Circus.
where could he the

N"ow

of

course

have

prepared
method

space

chariots beenin

driven

round,
viewed

the

only
the

in which and

they
this In

have

conveniently
his he mother would

by

spectators ;
a

place
the

called

tongue
have said

KipKos,

circus,or
these

ring.
were

Latin

tongue
first

orbis.
not

Hence

really the place


the

Circensian

games,

though
for suitable of the

performed
but,
It it may is further

in

the

afterwards

expressly provided
or
some

them,
spot.
tine Pala-

be, in

Campus
How
town

Martins,
should the

other

objected :
inland
a

pastoral folk
or

city,an
come

without

navigation
such
: an

commerce,

have Where
the Conis
no

to
ever

celebrate
a

festival to
festival 1
"

of JN'eptune, and Further

all the

gods

has

shepherds'
in the all it
was

originallywere
Italian And

sualia found

"

concerned

Neptune
Greek the
not to

Equestrian Neptune Neptune


so

only
at

mythology taming Neptune,


Census
;
a mere

; the

has

relation

of

horses. but

in
was

the

Circus

jMaximus,
The

Census,
Poseidon of

that

honoured.
is therefore

interpretation of
unauthorized knew

as

Hippios
later

altogether
who

subtlety
and horse-races
; and

archaeologists,
and of

perhaps
was

that

in
to

Greece,

in Thessaly especially in honour

Boeotia, it
as

customary
and
tamer

give

Neptune
ferred transhibited ex-

the

breeder the games

of
races

horses
on

accordingly they
and in

and
on

horseback of the
a

chariots,
to

by Hippios.

Eomulus
But this the

the

festival

Consualia,
new

Poseidon how
pletely com-

interpretationis only
later Eomans
were

proof

incapable

of

understanding
that old
a

their

antiquities.^
Now knew
so

of

course

nobody
about he his

would

presume and many

to say

an

Eoman modern

much

language
have had

antiquitiesas
sources

German,
which
way of
we

although
are now

might
Census

for

studying them
had
some

lost,and

might, therefore, possibly


and We the
see,

have

connecting
are

Equestrian
at

Neptune
as

with diffiraces

which

unacquainted.
does in

all events, horse and them

much

xiulty as
with
a

Schwegler
and

connecting
in with

chariot with he

shepherds' festival, as
world,
therefore

connecting
Census,

anything
may

in

the

whoever

have

been.
We

might
ii
c.

leave

Dr.
2

Mommsen

and

his

followers
3

in

the

mer-

Lib.

iv.

s.

^j,

y^

636_

Schwegler,

B.

i. S. 472.

70
cantile
of the

HISTOKY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

theory
Palatine

to settle the

objection about
fete Greek
to

the

pastoralinhabitants
for that
; for

city celebratinga
it
was

Neptune, except
and

second the
a

tliat objection,
are

the pure

Equestrian Neptune
know
to

Mommsenites
mixture
was
a

all

Latins,
But
we

nothing
our

about

Greek

in

Latium.

according
find
no

theory

that

Romulus
in of this
our

Greek

by descent,
; nay,

whatever difficulty to the

Equestrian Neptune
view.
said

it

only

adds

probability
but

It

is

that

the

Consualia which
is

were

originallynothing
or

shepherds'
The

in festival, for this

they

rolled

jumped

upon

hides.

authority
voc.

Varro,
:
"

De

Vit.

Pop. Rom., quoted by


oleo
vetus

Nonius,
carminibus

Cernum,

p. 21

"Etiam
A

pellesbubulas
quo ille
versus

perfusas
est

percurrebant, ibique
:

cernuabant.
ludos
we

in

Sibi
in

pastores
Nonius

faciunt may he set says

coriis the
:
"

consualia." Varro
in

But his
a

against
book

Varro

same
"

De

Lingua
turn

Latina,
ferise illi

where

Consualia
ad
^ aram

dicta

Conso, quod
sacerdotibus

publicas ei
Eoman rape

deo,

et in

circo

ejus ab

ludi other and

quibus virginesSabinse
the

raptae."
And
Varro
as

Here Consus
we

Varro,
with

like the

aU

the

best

connects authorities,

Circus,
a

with

of the
may

Sabines.

will

here

venture and the Varro


"

conjecture, which
is
at
were

reconcile founded

with

himself,
fete

which

all

events

as

well

Schwegler's, that
"

Gonsimlia
does
not

a originally(urspriinglich) pastoral

for

bear the

him

out

in

saying

that

such

was

tJieir

origin
races,

namely,
for
"

that

shepherds, after seeing Eomulus'


a

chariot
ludos and

made

themselves
"

sort
ran

of

Consualia
about
seen on

^'
"

sibi

faciunt

Consualia
in

^in which

they they
be

oiled chariots

hides
run.

skins,
Such
a

racing fashion, as
would There be

had

the the
was

piece of mimicry
can no

quite in
events,
festival

Italian
an

character. Consi
time in the of

doubt
at

that there
all

Ara the
was

Circus,
and
as we

for it existed

there,

down

to

Tertullian.

It

appears

to have
at

been the of

underground,
of the

and

kept

covered

concealed, except
understand
in imitation
Lib.
So

Consualia, when,
some

the of

words those

Varro,

the

priestsgave

games

there From

which

laccompanied the

Sabine

rape.^

1 '

vi.

s.

20

(ed. MiilL).
:

also Dionysius

ttji/

Se

rore

rep

KaQicpwdelcrau kopriiv in koX (Is 'PcDfiuXco


Ka\ovyTfs,
iv y

4fi" "yovT"S 'Pw/xotoj SiereAouv,

Kwi/(Tovd\ia

fiauSs
yrjs,
Koi

re

viroyfios

tSpvfievosirapd. rwv T"f fieyiarcp


Koi

rrji irepicrKacpela-t]! imro^pofioov,


re

Qvaiais

re

inrfpTTvpois
"

a-rrapxcus

Koi Spdfios 'Ittttup ^(vktwv yepaiperat, 31


.

d^evKTWif

iviTf Kflrai.

Lib.

ii. c.

Dionysius, therefore, had

seerithQm.

THE

ARA

CONSI.

71
and it other
was

this

underground
are as
an

site

of

the

altar,Hartung,i
infer view that

German

who critics,
to

followed infernal

by Schwegler, deity.
that This the and

consecrated
ducing adwas

Consus
the

is

supported by
at his altar ;

circumstances Flamen festival work and

offering
the Vestal horses

made that
on

by

the the

Quirinalis
of the decked games

Virgins
and mules mules

and
were were

Consualia,
with in
to

released used in

from

garlands, while
Circus
infernal

celebrating the
in
near

the the

Maximus.

For and

the

horse

stood

relation to

world,

mules of

especiallywere
their

acceptable
; for

the

infernal it
was

deities, on
a

account

unfruitfulness
to

which
on

reason

custom

and

sacred

I)recept not
or

harness

mules

the

occasion the

of of

the
a

fericedenicales,
deceased
2

solemnity
a

for the is

of purification

family
the
not
were

person,

"

it parallel,
an

said, which
on

exactly suits
mules
on were

Consualia. harnessed

How suitable
must

occasion

which

can

be

parallelto
been
to

another

which the games the

they
in games

harnessed, as they
Circus,
alluded it is rather
to

have to

perform
These

the

difficult in the

perceive.
before of the

were as

by Varro,
memoration com-

passage

quoted,
rape of is

performed
Sabines.
to

by Why
but

the

priests in
used former has the

the

they

mules have

instead

of been deal

horses
a

it

impossible
kind of

say,

always
a

sacerdotal

animal. in

Schwegler trying
with to which he

expended
Consus
an

great

of

misplaced ingenuity
all the

prove

infernal be

deity, when
historians. in the Eomans first

circumstances

adduces
of

may the

explained, in conformity satisfactorily


For,

the

account

Eoman

place,it
should

is the

most

natural
there the
an

thing
altar of

in
to

the

world

that whom

the

have connected

placed
with that the much

the

god

their It
was

traditions also
on

origin
and do

their
mules

races. horseshould

natural this feast ribbons


a

horses
as

enjoy

holiday
on

occasion,
of St.
;
a

they

at
are

the also

present
decked
to

day
with
us

at Kome

the and

Antony,
for

when

they

garlands
rather
was

practice,however,
an

which ceremony.

seems

of

too

cheerful

nature

infernal because

The
was an

altar

underground deity,but
in when

and

concealed,
it
was

not

Consus
the
secret

infernal of the had


'

because

thus games.

typical of
It
as was

design only
in
474. at

Eomulus time

institutingthe they
were

revealed counsel of

performed, just
with

the

of Romulus

been.

This
Rbmer.

agrees
B.

the

explanation
^

Servius
ib. S.

Religion d.

ii. S. 87.

Schwegler,

72
which
autem

HISTORY

OF

THK

KINGS

OF

HOME.

passage
"

we

look
est ut

for in vain

among

those
ideo

cited

by Schweglei* :
sub
tecto
^

Consiis
Circo
we

deus

consiliorum, qui
tectum

templum
esse

in

habet,
learn

ostendatur
a

debere

consilium." the
with Conso

Kay,

from

passage

in

Tertullian,
he
:
"
"

that
saw ara

following
his
own

inscriptionto
eyes,

the
stood

same

which effect, the altar

probably
Et
nunc

actually
defossaest
:

upon

illi in

Circo
modi

ad

primasmetas
Mars
a

sub

terra

ctim

inscriptionehujuscomitio of the

Consus
"

consilio,
where
we

duello,

Lares brief

(or coillo)
whole and
action trans-

potentes

have

history in
the the
we war

; the

design
life.

of

Eomulus,
with
now

which
and

ensued,
union

the them

subsequent
in domestic

reconciliation
And Eomulus the

Sabines,
see as

with the

the

reason

why
the in of

Flamen

or Quirinalis,

of

deified sacrifice

Mars,

and

Vestal reference the

Virgins,
to

should
war,

have the

offered with the

; the to

former union

the and

Vestals under

reference of
a

the

Sabines

Eomans The

Lares

common

city.
of How idea
or

inscription shows
entertained the it eponymous is of

what the

sort

at
at

least what

the time of
a

Eomans

themselves became

god.
of
; but

Consus Poseidon Grecian


When of the

deity

this festival, instead


it is natural
to
a

Hippios, deity
the games
name

impossible
have

to say

that
one.

should

ultimately given place


use

Latin

Latin

writers

the

term this is to from


a

Consualia

in

speaking
the shall sound bad of
was

given by Eomulus,
that the
was name

prolepsls; they employed


Whether
we

the

most

familiar
of

them.

Eomans
not

derived
to

Consus

consilium,
the

stop

inquire.
; for
we

If

they did, perhaps


are

similarityof they
use were

sufficed

them

constantly told
the ancient

that
authors do

very
name

logists. etymoConsus

But in

though
with

the say

conjunction
it.

consilium^ they

not

that

it

derived

from

Schwegler having
seen, was.

satisfied himself
concurrent to

for

such of

reasons

as

we

have Consus

and
an

against the
infernal to

testimony
argue he that has

that antiquity, such

god, proceeds

gods

were

closely
us

related
mules

fruitfulness, though
used the in these

just
their this

before
un

told

that
was

were

games
deities
races,

because
! For

fruitfulness
Consus
was

acceptable to
be this and conciliated
reason

infernal games,
was

reason

to

with he the

and with We

the

like

and festivities,

for

also rape
1

connected

the

first Eoman
not
2

marriages
our

the

of
Mn.

Sabines

shall

abuse
De

readers*

Ad

viii. 636.

Spect. 5.

74 the wives the


ties of

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

Romans,

they
heart.

would
of their

share

in all the

fortunes

of

city,and
to

consequently
human

children, the dearest


to to

of all

the

He

persuaded them
affections
He

lay aside
to

their
fortune
a

anger,

and

to

give their
barred love

those

whom

had

given
no means

their persons.

representedto
following
more

them

that that

wrong

by

from

it ; and

they would
because
to

find their husbands


every
one

all the

kind

and

ate, affectionattentions These of the


;

of them

would
and

endeavour

by

make

them
were

forget their
seconded
excused
to
a

parents

their
and

country.
flatteries

arguments husbands,
an

by the
their
act

caresses

who which

by allegingirresistible love
is
ever

apology By
these

female
women

mind
were

the

most

efficacious.
but

means

the
;

gradually pacified;
about in
to not

not

so

their

parents

who,
tears

going
and

mourning
excite their

attire,
spective re-

endeavoured

by their gathered
renowned

complaints
And

their
own

cities to avenge
alone. whom
was

their about

cause.

cities
to

They
most

Tatius, King
on

of

the

Sabines,

also embassies
the

were

despatched sovereign
slow in the

the

subject; for
parts.
have
But

Tatius he and

in those

his

Sabines

appearing too
and in

matter, the Cseninenses,


as we

Crustuminians,
also

Antemnates,

who,
a

said, had
themselves
found
even

shared

the
to go

injury, made
to
war.

league
the took

among

and their
own

prepared
account,
to

But

Caeninenses
the

allies too

slow; they therefore


invaded
and easy

field

on

their

and

the

Eoman

territory.
order and

But

they
and

began
and
so

devastate
an

pillagewithout
prey to

discipline,
their

became them
at

Romulus,
He and then

who

fell upon

routed

the

first onset. in

pursued

flying
of his took

host, killed their king

combat,

possessed
lost their
marched

himself

spoils; and
their victorious
as

the

enemy

having
he

ihus he
as

leader, he
home of with

city at the
army

first rush.
; and
as

Then
was

his

ostentatious their the

his deeds
he

he

was

great
the
a
an

and

admirable

in

accomplishment, spoils of
Here he the

ascended

Capitoline Hill, bearing


adapted
he marked
an

slain

king
them the

on

frame

to

the

purpose.

deposited
; and at
a

by
same

oak, regarded as
time

sacred
out

by
his

the mind

shepherds
the for

in

limits

for

temple

to

Jupiter,adding

appropriate

name

the

god.

THE

TEMPLE

OF

JUPITEK

FEKETRIUS.

75 victorious
and

"

Jupiter reretrhis," lie exclaimed,


here this be for bear
to
a

"

I, the
arms,

King
to

Eomulus,
thee
at to

thee

these which

royal
I the

dedicate

spot
for

temple

have

determined
I
now

in my

mind,

after posterity,
or

example

set, a
are

ceptacle re-

spolia opima, king temple


of
or

those

spoils which
Such The
not

taken

from of the

slain
first

leader dedicated

of the
at

enemy."

is the have

origin
willed

Eome. should

gods
be of such

that

the

words

its

founder future the

altogether vain,
nor spoils, an

when
at

he mentioned
same

the
that
common

dedication of

the

time made since many twice has Eomans


too

reputation by
the
to

such
of the

offering
of the been

should

be

number the

dedicators.

Although
empire
cated. Whilst
so

that years

time
have

down

establishment
many
wars

elapsed, so spoils
fortune of

have

waged, only
So the

have been
were

such
the

been
so

subsequently dedi^
great
in of
an

rare

honour

thus seized

employed
the
a

their celebrating their borders


But
:

victory,the Antemnates being


left defenceless the
same

occasion
over

to

make

foray
the

them.

they they

committed
were

mistake

as

Caeninenses

while

spread
them

in disorder with their of his

through

the fields, Eomulus


them the wife
on

suddenly
first onset,
at

attacked and the

legion,routed
ravished
to

the of

captured
their
means

city. Hersilia,
the

Eomulus,
him

intercession

brides, besought
them

to

pardon
thus, by augment
double

fathers, and
of coalition and

receive
and

into his
to

city;
with
most

and
and

concord,

strengthen
flushed
A

the

state;

Eomulus,
acceded
secret to

though
the
Eome's

his
portant im;

victory,readily
tradition, and
cannot
as

request.
future

the

of the of

greatness

for

it

be

doubted

that

empire
matiQg
The

much

by

their
as

policy by

acquired their and conciliating amalgavalour


"

Eomans

the

vanquished,

their

in

subduing

them.

policy is expressed
'*

in

liae Virgil's
debellare

Parcere

et subjectis

superbos." i

"^

Compare

the

speech
et

of the

Emperor

Claudius

to the Senate

"

Quid aliud
nisi

exitio Lacedsemoniis

Atheniensibus

fuit,

quamquam

armis
noster

poUerent,
cives

At ? arcebant quod victos pro alienigenis eodem sapientiavaluit, ut plerosque populos


"

conditor

Romulus

tantuni

die hostes, dein

habuerit.

"

Tac.

Ann.

xi. 24.

76 Romulus
were

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OP

HOME.

now

marched attack
the

preparing to
easy become Eomulus

against the Crustuminians, who him. His victoryin this quarter was
preceding
demoralized thus
at
were

still more
had

than

ones,

for the

Crustuminians
defeat of their

completely having
colonies that

by

the his

allies.

vanquished
Crustumerium

more

immediate

enemies,
AVe
who may

planted
suppose
to

and hundred

Antemnae.

these

only

few in

soldiers,
; whilst
a

served

keep

the

conquered

cities

check

considerable
relations and her

migration to Rome,
ravished

of especially
to

the parents and

of the

brides, tended

fuse

together

Rome

conquests.
last For
war

The
of aU. of anger

against the people


did

Sabines
not

was

the most
mere

formidable

that

follow

the

blind their
enter to

impulse
warlike

and

cupidity ; they carefully matured


concealed
were

preparations,and
till

their

design
Tatius of the

to

upon

tilities hosit out.

they

thoroughly prepared
to counsel.

carry

Stratagem
of

was

added the had


some

bribed Roman

the

daughter
on

Sp. Tarpeius,
who for
water

commander

citadel

the
to

CapitoHne,
fetch

proceeded beyond
sacred The
her

the
to

fortifications
the

solemnities,
on

admit

soldiers
whelmed over-

into

the

fortress. and

Sabines,
with had
to

being
arms

admitted,
to

kiUed
the

their been

; either

make
for

it

appear sake upon

that

citadel
and The

taken

by force, or
can never

the

of

example,
had

show is the
on

that

treason

rely
which

impunity.
Sabines

story
for

embellished

by relatingthat
bracelets and

Taipeia
the

stipulated commonly
with her

heavy golden
the left arm, of say

carried
;

their

rings
ment agreeto

beautifully set heaped


upon for what

gems

when, instead
Some left

these, the
that her in the

Sabines

their
had

shields. in their
arms

they

hands,
her

object was
of

"get possession of
The

their

and made

that the

fraudulent

tion inten-

being perceived, she


Sabines, however,
of
come

was

martyr
manner,

it.

in
nor

whatever
on

had

got
did

session pos-

the into

citadel;
the level the

the

following day
the

they
and

down

ground
Romans,

between incited

Capitoline
rage and
to

Palatine
desire
to

hills, till
of

by

the

recovering
of it.

their The

citadel, were

preparing
were,
on

mount

the

assault

principal leaders

the side

THE

SABINE

WAR.

77
of the in the Eomaiis
van,

of the

Sabines

Metius

Curtius,

on

that

Hostius sustained Eoman


; but

Hostilius. awhile

Hostius, j)lanting himself


his courage
was

by
which

and

audacity
on

the

fortunes

of the

host,
no

arrayed
he
fall than back
was

very the

unfavourable

ground
was

sooner

did and

Eoman ancient

line

immediately
of the of he Palatine.

broken Eomulus

driven

to

the

gate heaven,
of

himself

carried
hands the

away towards

in the

crowd

fugitives;
exclaimed,
that I

when,
"

liftingup
was

his

Jupiter, it
here
on

by
fraud

command the

thy auguries
of Sabines

laid

the

Palatine and
;

first foundations

the
are

city.
in the them

Already, through possession valley,and


at

corruption, the
and attack
now

of
are

the

citadel

they
the

have

crossed Drive this


vow

hastening
0 and
a

to

Palatine.
men

least

hence,

father

of

gods
foul which

and

; arrest

panic
thee,
to

of the
as

Eomans

stop

their

flight.
shall

I here be
a

to

Jupiter Stator,
the if
"

temple,
that

monument

posteritythat saying, as
exclaimed,
mus

city was
this

preserved by thy present


his prayer had been

aid."

So he

perceiving
From you
to

heard,

spot, Eomans,
stand the and
renew

Jupiter Optimus
the

Maxi-,
these had

commands
was a

fightI"
if flies to

By

words

the voice

flight of
from
was

Eomans

arrested, as

they

heard
Metius fi'om whole Palatine

heaven

; and

Eomulus Sabines. the he


was

their

head. down the the fidious per-

Curtius the

leading
had Forum
:

the

Charging
from
not

citadel, he
of the

driven
;

Eomans
now

him

length
hosts

and
"

far from
our

gate, exclaiming
and
to

We

have
!

conquered

cowardly
ravish

enemies

They
to set

have

learnt

that
men."

it is While band

one

thing
he
was

virgins,another
Eomulus
as

fight with
upon him
to

thus

boasting, youth
; and

with be
on

of

his boldest
he him
was as

Metius

happened
back.

horseback

the he

more

easily driven
another the

The

Eomans inflamed whose self him-

pursued by
the
was

fled ; whilst breaks the

Eoman

band,

king's
the

courage,

Sabines.

Metius,
threw and

horse

frightened by
marsh he the
were

cries of the

pursuers, shouts The

into of the Sabines

; but

animated
to

by

the

gestures
and hills ; but,

Sabines,
renew

managed
in figlit
now

get through.

Eomans the

tlie

valley

between

the

Eomans

evidently superior.

78
At
upon
at

HISTORY

OF

THE

KIl^GS

OF

ROME.

this whom

juncture
the
war

the had

Sabine

women,

by the injury inflicted


aside

arisen, throwing
between
on one

womanly
of the and

fear

this

terrible

ventured, through the thick sight,


themselves

flying
to

missiles, to throw

the combatants side


to their the
a

pacify their
the

rage,

appealing
themselves

fathers, on
case

other
not
to

to their stain

husbands, imploring them,-as


with the

might
or a

be,

the

blood of

of

father
'*

son-in-law

and

contract

stain

parricide.
your and anger

If

you

this marriage, regret this relationship, us; for


we are

turn

against
mutual be

the

cause

of

this

war,

of

the

wounds
better
to

and
for
us

slaughter of
to

husbands

and
as

parents.

It will
as

perish than, either


the women, soldiers
the tumult which of

orphans

or

widows,

live The

deprived of you."

sight of
the
common

their
and of

pathetic entreaties,touched
leaders.
was
on

both aU

their strife

The

fray by
sides this

ceased
a

at once,

and

succeeded
both In of
to

found pro-

silence

; amidst

the leaders

stepped
was

forth

for
not

the

purpose
a

making
but
two

treaty.

cluded in-

only
the

peace, The

the

converting

the share

two

cities

into

common

one.

kings agreed
was

the
to

royal
Eome.

power; The not town

but

entire

government
in order
were

assigned
the

city being thus doubled,


seem

that

Sabines

might
the called

to be

neglected, they
A
monument

called
battle

Quirites, from
is the

of Cures.
so

of that

lake
of

Curtian,

named

from

the

spot where
the

the

horse bore

Curtius,

having
to the

at

length emerged

from

deep bog,

him

safely

margin.
"

Remarks.

The
a

rape

of which

the

Sabines, and
the two of

the

war

which

ensued,

terminated
one

by
most

peace

fused

peoples together,form history.


or a

of

the the

important

traditions the the

early Eoman
were was a

It

involves
race

questions whether
latter,whether
as some

Romans mixture

pure

mixed

; and

if the

effected

by treaty
with

and of

agreement, or,
the Romans.

have the

supposed, by
tradition is
at

the actual

subjugation
some

That

accompanied
; bnt

fabulous

circumstances to

must
on

be this

once

admitted

it would

be
rests

unreasonable
on

rejectit
must

account, if the
as

principal fact
should

evidence be

that

be
to

considered

almost

irrefragable. It
be

would

preposterous

expect

that

early history

THE

SABINE

UNION.

79
with all that

handed
array The of work

down

in

all which

that

connexion

of events, and
modern historical
no

evidence,
of of
us

characterise for

compositions.
doubt
a

Herodotus,

instance,
mixed ridiculous up

contains

vast

substratum appear
to

truth, though
the
not most

occasionally with
childish
the fables.

what
This ancient often
are

to be arises

and from

characteristic
manners.

unfrequently
were

simplicityof
world
; ;

The

ancients in
a

the

children credulous

of the
manner

they

regarded things
not, therefore,
us,

simple and regarded


as us

and

they

to

be

wilfullypalming
truths such

untruths with

upon
ordinary extraor

but

rather

as

transmitting to
of

accompanied
as

and
the

fabulous

circumstances, them,
believed.
to

they themselves,
such fables

great majority

That

should

attach particularly events the of

themselves

the

more

striking and
It
was

important
that
were

early history is natural


upon

enough.
the ; that

these that

made the such

deepest impression topics


and with of

popular mind;
were

constant

conversation
as

the
;

subjects
and
were

of

songs

poetry

might
not

then

have

existed

hence

accompanied
which fictions,
their War

and exaggerated details,

embellished

with

pleasing
Sabine

have
value

only depreciated, but


the
an

actually destroyed,
critics.
The

historical
was

in

eyes

of of

modern the kind

pre-eminently
subject
for what attached traits

event

just alluded
"We other will then will

to, and
endeavour

natural
to

embellishment of this

and

fiction.
or

eliminate have

sort,
to

what and

incongruities, proceed
the
to

may

themselves

it,

examine

the main
the dates
at

subject of
to

the the

tradition.

Among
are

objections
which the

story
is

of

the

rape the

of

Sabines
numbers the the rape

the the

event

placed,and
to

varying
Pictor,^
of

of took

ravished

virgins.^ According
the fourth be The month
more

Fabius the

place

in

after

building
the
on

city.
this

Nothing,
calculation and of

it is
was

said, can
made. in the of the

simple
Consualia
month Other

than fall after

way

in which of
or

the the

18th

August,
festival

consequently
the foundation
too

fourth

Palilia^
whom

city.

writers, to

this

period

seemed

short, as
it into four the

Cn.

Gellius, quoted by Dionysius,^ arbitrarily


These
was

converted
that the

years. event not

variations unknown

compel
; but

us

to

conclude
sarily neces-

date

of that

it does

not

follow The
1

it did

take

place.
number
,2

original tradition
Schwegler,
Buch

gave
ix. S. 7.
3

the

of

the

ravished
Eom.

Sabines
14.

Ap. Pint.

Lib.

ii.

c.

31.

80

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

at

thirty;
But

which

number the
names

was

evidently
Sabine
women

taken
are

from said
to

the have

thirty
been
it

curiae,to which

of
too

given.
only

as women

this

seemed had

small,

another peace

tradition
;
^

assigned
is When

to the
a

who

sued of

for the the

which

evidently
other
or

only
these
to

rationalistic
make the

version number and

original account.
women

traditions
are

of

the

627,

or

683,
and

800,2
serve

the
with

purest
what

most

arbitraryinventions,
most

only
invented

show later It may

levity the
the
number

positive data
taken this

were

by
of been
gave from

the

annalists.

be

that

thirty was
evident ravished

from could For

the
not

number have

the the
names

curise ; but whole


to

it is
of

quite
the

that
women.

number the curiae

those
women

who

were

all also

Sabines,
fell into

besides the which hands

whom,
of

the

three

Latin the

towns

the

Romans ensued

though
between
women

from the

intimate and almost


were

connexion

subsequently
that the

Romans have

Sabines,

it

was

natural the

Sabine whole
women.

should

engrossed
not

tradition.
the

The

however, thirty curiae,


Ten this
names

named before the

after

Sabine
union

of
was

them so,

must

have

existed the

Sabine

; and the three

that tevr
are

appears curiae

from that

circumstance been
are

that, among
or

of

these

have
names

preserved, two
Diaconus,

evidently
Velitia, in
curiae
*

Romulean. Festus ; in is
^

These

Foriensis, Rapta, Veliensis,


as

Titia,in Livy
^

Paulus

among Of

the these

new

Faucia

and

Acculeia
from is
as

in Varro.^ the

the
wa?

Curia

Veliensis
Romulean
was

evidently named
; while

Yelian

Hill, and

therefore Acculeia it to

the

Titia

evidently Sabine.
a

The in

also

probably
Goddess
of the

Romulean of

; as

sacrifice

was

offered

Angerona,
makes stood
near

the

Silence, particularly as regarded the


name

forbidden indeed which very lend It

utterance

secret

of in
; but

Rome.

Macrobius^ of

the

sacrifice Porta each


to

performed
Romanula

the the

chapel
curia and

Volupia^
sacellum
names

the

and Sabine

probably adjoined
some seems

other.
old the
ii. 47.
Rom. to to 14 be

The

Roman

confirmation

the
even

tradition. Sabine
women

probable
Rep.

that

must

have

been

1 Cic.
2

De

ii. 8 ; Dionys. 47
; Plut.

Dionys.
number,
for

ii. 30,

;
a

comp.

Thes.
of memory 683.
"

et

Rom.
on

6.

But of

the

Plutarch

"nearly 800," appears "nearly 700 ;" alluding


41.

slip
number

the

part

the

See

Lewis,
38.

vol. ii.

p. 421, note
8

"

Page 174. Ling. Lat.

vi. 23

Page (ed. Miijl.).

366.
.

"

Lib. Sat,

ix.

c.

i. 10.

82

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

Before that
"

we name

address

ourselves
is

to

these
a

objections,let
Greek should
one,
"

us

remark

the

Talassius the

evidently
the customs from ;
a

daXdaaios,

pertaining to
word
it
came

sea.," How

Latins

have very

adopted
easy to

Greek unless
we

in

their down
was a

marriage
to

it is not

say,
as a

them

the

time

of

Romulus,

who,

have of

seen,

Greek

word,

moreover, liamnes

appropriateto
had

festival
not

the

Equestrian Neptune. long wanderings


of the
difference
to

The
over

evidently
the

yet forgotten their


That there is
was a

the

sea.

opinion
There Order

about is
a

the

origin of
of

cry

Talassius about and the

nothing
the

point.
the

difference Garter
was

opinion
but

manner

in which

of the of

instituted,

whether

story
on

about

the Countess that the

Salisbury be true;
was

nobody
Edward

doubts III.

that

account

Order

instituted

by

It is allowed

that

the
but it

Roman
were

wedding
to
as

customs from

were some

not

mere

arbitrary inventions,
nature
to

really derived
contrary
of all

ancient

practice; and, indeed,


suppose into that

is

experience
have
it

of human
trated pene-

such habits

observances
a

these, which

have

deeply
a mere

the

people, could
so,
we

originatedfrom
very much of the

idle

story.
of
the

But

if this be

think

speaks

in

favour

old

tradition, and

the
If

unanimous it be
see

opinion
admitted

Romans Romans

themselves at
one

concerning
stole their

it.

that

the

time

wives,

we

no

more

convenient

epoch
at the among

to which commencement
"

to refer of

the

practice than history.


of

where That
"

tradition the

places it,
round their
as an

their

practiceobtained exceedingly
retained in
^

most The

of the

people

antiquity
seem

is

an

assertion.

Spartans only
some

to of

have
a

marriage Dionysius
ancient

ceremonies
makes

traces
excuse

such
act

practice;
he

and,
it
was

Romulus

his

that by alleging that

Greek
in Greek
we

custom,^ Italy.
shown the very The

we

may
same

conclude

considered
our

it

as

unknown
of the

passage

tends

to confirm

theory
also
Thus

origin of Romulus.
have with
that tradition the of

But

festival of the
the rape
one

Consualia the the


the

was

connected
we

of
in of
to

Sabines.

have
in

two

prominent
and

usages,

public life, the


Romans,
*'

other

the
to

domestic
a

daily
which,
but
of

customs

both
"

referring
school should
of

tradition

according
pure
so

the

etiological
That
there at

critics,was
been two

nothing
customs cf, Herod,

invention.
a

have
"

different

nature, yet
"

the

riu'.

Lye. 15;

vi. Q5.

ii. 13.

REMARKS

ON

THE

SABINE

WAR.

83
and And rape is effect,

same

time

capable of being joined together


we

as

cause

most

and extraordinary,

should
been

say

unexampled.
with
a

further,
of the

that

they
of

could

have there

both had

connected

the

Sabines,

unless

previously existed
the To

tion deeply-rooted tradiwe

that
to

event

among

Roman
suppose

people,
that
a

confess

ourselves
from met

unable those with

understand. customs at
a

story

invented have

two the

comparatively late period


which
us

should

universal
to

acceptance
seems

that

of the

rape

of the

Sabines

appears If could said "with the

have of

done,
the been

to

utterlyincredible. mythical, continues


of the
wars

rape

Sabines
the with There

is

Schwegler,^
Eomulus

it is

not

have

occasion
some

which

to the

have

waged

and neighbouring cities,


no

afterwards
wars

Sabines.

is and

historical
;

ground they
are

for the

with for the

Csenina, Crustumerium,
purpose the of first
on

Antemnae
as a

invented

displayingRomulus
and of
account
a

victorious first

warrior, as celebrating
attributes
to
sure

triumph,
founder

winning
their of

the

spolia opima;
was war

which,

ominous But

character, it
the Sabine

necessary has
a

assign
We rape which
to

to

Rome.

historical

ground. assigned
not
some reasons

have
may

for

thinking
The
or a

that

the of the

Sabine
wars

be may

altogether mythical. perhaps


are

details

ensued that

be

exaggerated
is the and

misrepresented ;
mere

but

say

they

altogetherinvented
for
war

conjecture and
precon-

gratuitous assertion, made


ceived
are

purpose its

of

supporting a
described Romans. careful of

theory.

The

Sabine
much

issue, as
to

by Livy,
In and order
secret

probably
extenuate

made their

too

favourable
most

the

to

defeat, the
Sabines.

is made

of the

preparations of Livy
himself
an

the
a

The

pretty story
there the
were

Tarpeia, which
several of without taken it

calls

fable, and

of which
to

different
national let
on or

versions, is
self-love.

evident the foot

invention should

salve have

wounds

That
to

Sabines of the

marched have

hindrance
first assault Romans has
to

the

Capitoline and
with

the

and betrays their superiority,

suggests
defeats

the

idea their

that the

had

previously met
The in
war,

some was

which

vanity
the

concealed. have been

however,
of

much

longer than
we

it appears

the
a

narrative circumstance

Livy,
to the

where

have

only

decisive

results;
a

characteristic national either

of

tradition, and
But

of especially it
seems

tradition

derogatory
the

reputation.
that the

probable, from

consequences,
1

last battle

Buchix.
G

S. 8.

84
drawn

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OP

ROME.

was

one,

or

that the

peace

and

union
of

were

effected
women,
or

between
in
some

the other

two

nations, by

intervention

the

manner.

Before moment

examining
to
soon

these
and

consequences,
one or

we

will

advert

for That

the after

wars, its

two

of

their

incidents.
to

Kome,
some

foundation, should
should
in

have

had

contend
and

with
that is of

of these

the

seems surrounding cities,

natural, sufficiently
have

in

struggles it by
the fact

general
We

proved
that to of

victorious

shown

of its existence.
which
to

think
to

the
a

Temple
late
This
as

Jupiter Feretrius,
shown Greek
There term

continued the very

exist times

period,
is its

undoubtedly belonged by
is for its small and

early

Kome.
as

dimensions, insignificant ^eperpov, which


from which carries
can

well
to

by

name,
no

derived
Latin

from

it up be The

Komulus. the of

word that
a

Feretrius

derived,

in "f"ipeTpov

tongue being ferculam.


more

Temple

Jupiter
in to the that Almost union.

Stator

may war,
^

be

doubtful

matter. said

The

Consul

Atilius
a

Samnite

a.u.0.

458,

is also

to have

vowed

temple
and the
we

deity.
every Even of

writer Mommsen

on

Roman allows

history admits
such
a

Sabine

war

union, though
it
as a

before

foundation
may the
or

Eome that

; it

and,
was

as

he

describes
a war. a

forced union,
his
account

suppose

preceded by

But

of

matter, besides

being unsupported by know,


the

single scrap
Sir G.

of evidence Cornewall

tradition, is is,so
far

in the
as we

highest degree improbable. only


entire writer

Lewis
his

who, consistentlywith
of Rome war,
to

principle

of

regarding
^

the

early history
to

be

without

foundation, withholds
union.

his

assent

the

Sabine

and

consequent
The event not

amalgamation
so

of

two

races

into

one

nation
a

is

an

historical
who
were

striking and
Romans several tradition

important, that,
the
art

among

people
if

absolutely barbarians,
as

memory of

of

it,even
be

they possessed
And find it the served, prethat

not,
of

the

did, the

writing,may
oral enhanced

supposed capable

surviving
of

centuries, merely by
is

tradition.
we

value

the

greatly
been

when
at

if not
on

exactly by
union had

the

conquered nation,
forced.
The

all events

by

which

the would

national the

vanity
to

of the
not

Romans
the

doubtless
of it been

have
too

willinglyignored
numerous

event, had

memorials

and

too

strong

be

set

aside.
"

Liv.

X.

36, 37.

See

"c. Credibility,

vol. i. p. 438.

MEMORIALS

OF

THE

SABINE

UNION.

85

We

will

here

enumerate

some

of which

the

material
have

evidences manifested

of

the

union,

without
to

going
Roman the "c. in

into in

those their

must

selves them-

every

language, customs,
with and

laws, religious equivalent


had to its

observances,
that of

name

Quirites coupled
the

Eomani,
name

On

Quirinal Hill, which


to

changed
to

ancient
were
"

of Mons the

Agonus showing
from
;

the Yetus

Sabine
and

one

of CoUis

Quirinalis,^ Jupiter,
a

besides and

Capitolium
Rome that

its the

temple Quirinal
the Semo

Juno,

Minerva,

the
"

city on
the of
name

to be
or

stantive sub-

city,distinct
sacred from Latin This
to

following temples
or

fanes, Mars,
the

Sabine the

deities

Quirinus,
; that

Sabine

which Dius

hill derived and


on

its of

of

Sancus,

Fidius,

those the the

Flora, Salus, and


could
not

Sol.
have

Sabine
supposes,

city

Quirinal
foundation
on

existed, as height
have
should
a

Niebuhr
of

before

of Rome.

It is the hand to

improbability,
to

that
a

Romulus

the

one

attempted
or,
on

found that

city in
Tatius is
no so

such the

near

proximity
should
of

foreign one, permitted


tinct disdown the
two

the
to

other,
so.

and

Sabines
way

have

him

do

There

probable
close the

accounting
but that
arose

for two

cities

being
been

found

together
Sabine
and

handed after

by tradition; namely, peoples


The which had united

that

city

by agreement
to retain

compact.
of then removed the

Sabines

continued

possession
it
was

Capitoline,
to

they

had
a

conquered, and, indeed,


tongue
of

united in

the
to

Quirinal by
make way for north-eastern into
a

land, subsequently
Hence the

order
at

Trajan's Forum.
foot
the of

Janus

Geminus

the

the

Capitol, afterwards
index
an

converted and
to war,

by

Numa
its

temple,

famous

of

peace entrance

must,
Sabine

from

situation,have
this
we

formed originally

the

and city,

is certified

by

the

additional
to ;

name

of

Janus

Quirinus, which
was

frequently find
of the been

attached Hill the

it.^

For

Quirinus
his
a name

the would of

peculiar hardly
as

deity
have

Quirinal given
author to

and

therefore
had

gate
the if

it been

gate

Rome,

Schwegler supposes.^
The
same

admits
But

storming
the

and

taking
were

of the settled

line Capitoon

by
^

the

Sabines.*

Sabines

the

Festus, p.
Suet.
does

254. 22
run

Oct
not

; Hor. counter

Car.
to

iv. 15, 9 ; Macrob. Macrobius's hasta

Sat. i. 19. that

The Janus

view
was

in the called

text

explanation
quam
^

Quirinus,
3

"quasi

bellorum

potens, ab

Sabini

curim

vocant."

Buch.

i. S. 481.

Ibid.

S. 484.

86

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

Quirinal previously
is still more
to

to

that
that

event,

as

ho

and have

Niebuhr allowed

assume,

it

improbable
on

they
on

should the

the
as

Komans
we

settle
the

the

Capitoline than
and the the that

Palatine. then the

For, Quirinal

have hill. made

seen,

Capitoline
tradition
war now

Quirinal
settlement
one.

were on

virtuallyone
was

The

old

after the
We
two

is the

only probable
the
to the

will

continue

history after
of Tatius.

tho

amalgamation

of

the

peoples, down

death

THE

SABINE

UNION

AND

CONSTITUTION.

The after

joyful peace
so

so
a

suddenly
rendered
above

effected them

by the Sabine
still

women

terrible
and

war

dearer

to

their
on

husbands which which

parents, and
he

all to Eomulus
to

himself,

account

affixed
the

their

names

the

thirty curiae
women

into
was

he

divided

people.
than this

The
;

number
it has

of the
not

undoubtedly larger
down
to age,
to
or us

but

been

handed

how

the

thirty were
and

selected, whether
of

according
or

the

position
At

dignity
were

their

husbands,
three
centuries

simply by lot.
of

the

same

time

enrolled

knights, called
were

Eamnenses,
named after

Titienses, and
Eomulus The
cause

Luceres.

The after of the

Kamnenses
Titus
name

the
and

Titienses

Tatius, the Sabine


Luceres
is doubtful.

king.
further

origin

So

far

Livy.
who

Cicero

says

that

Eomulus

also divided
and

the

people into three


was as
an

tribes, named

after

himself, Tatius,
fell in the

Lucumo,
war.^ of these
were

ally of Eomulus,
afterwards suppose
;

and

Sabine

And

Livy himself
tribes,^we
at
we

mentions
that he

the knew
is

existence that
no

three

may time

they
other

instituted

this
can

and, indeed, there

XDcriodto which
The The
names

conveniently assign their institution.


to

of

them of

appear that named

have after

been

rather
were

looselyused.
sometimes
name

members

Eomulus
The

called
appears
1
2

Eamnes,

sometimes

Eamnenses.
from

former and

in the passage

just quoted

Livy,

both

in the

De "Ut

Rep.
tres

ii. 8.

antiqiisetribus, Eamnes,
Lib.
x. c.

Titienses, Luceres,

suum

quse^uc

augurem

habeant.""

6,

THE

THKEE

TKIBES.

87
after

subjoined
we

passage

of Varro.^

Those

named
Titles.

Titus

Tatius of

find

called

Tatienses, Titienses, and


occur

The

first two

these

names

in the in will

passages in

already quoted.
cited
Eemarks.
two

The

name

of Titles the

is found
we

Varro,

tlie passage

below.'''

Of

Luceres

speak only
some

in the of the

After
two years

the

amalgamation
not

peoples, the reign of


concordant.
of After struck demanded Tatius
a

the few the

kings
had

was

common

but

elapsed,
of due the
to

relations

King
when
of

Tatius these

ambassadors
the redress from

Laurentines
them

; and

by

the the

law

nations,
of his But the

was

deterred
the he
to

affording it by
he bore

entreaties

relatives
this

and

love

which

towards upon gone his


to
a

them.
own

by

conduct

only brought down


them
was :

head

punishment
at to

due

for, having
upon with

solemn Eomulus than been

sacrifice is said became


not

Laviniuni,
have borne
; either

he

set matter

and
more

killed.

this

equanimity
Tatius of the had

him

because
or

he

thought
a

that

unjustly killed,
can never

because

partition

supreme

power

bo

trusted.

Eemarks. union very

"

Schwegler
have

observes,^ that
and much this
on

the

tradition
to to

makes all inner

the bability, proHe

speedily completed,
taken
a

that, according

it must does

longer
as
an

time

effect the

it.

not, however,
truth of the that

bring

forward

objection to
he arise
as

mental fundaWe want

story, wliich,

the this

contrary,
sometimes life dealt

accepts.
from

are

of

opinion
and

objections like
numbers time the may

of
our

considering the simplicityof early ancient


own,

compared
It

with

the

small the

which have

are

with.

is possible, tion tradi-

however,
has

that
us

been

longer, and
of the

that

given
same

only

results.
that the

The
^

author

thinks

relation

two

united

"

Ager

Romanus

primum

divisus

iu

parteis tris, a
ut
a

quo

Teibus Tatienses

appellata
a

Tatiensiiim, Ramnium,
Ramnenses
a

Luceruin,
ut

uominatse,

ait

Ennius,
"

Tatio,
v.

Romiilo, Luceres,

Juuius,

Lucumone."

Ling.

Lat.

" 55

(ed. Miill.).
2
"

Trihuni ad
an

militum,

quod

terni
"
"

tribus
Ibid.

tribubus

Ramnium,
cf.

Lucerum,

Titiuni MSS. infor

dim

exercitum
a

mittebautur.

" 81

" 91.
this

Though
passage
we

some

have that
3

here"

tacium,
of the

taccium, tatium.
tribes
was

From

may

the Buch

institution ix. S. 11.

for

military purposes.

88

HISTOEY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

peoples was
form from
a

at

first

only

federative
but
a

and

isopolitical ; they
This is

did

not

single state
fact that

in common,

confedeiacy.
its
own

apparent
a

the

each
a

state

retains

king.
tradition

Moreover,
tells about of it to
us

credible,or
the
common

at all events did not that whom met If its

sensibly devised,
consult
had of them

that

two

kings

immediately
each
he

together
his
own

their
one was

but affairs,
men,

senate ; and

hundred

with

first took

counsel

apart
of and

after this that


in
common.

they
in
one

together for
this
"

the purpose
founded
"

coming
internal

lutions reso-

is well

bility probacognises re-

speaks only
was a a

favour
one

then

the

later constitution, which


one

king,

senate, and

assembly
have much

of been

the

people,
time to

work

of

gradual assimilation, and


It must

must taken two

produced
have

by
been

series

of mediations. the

have
the
on

longer
It may

accomplish
and
the

religiousunion
before
sacra

of

peoples. subject were


the
no

centuries

all differences

this

reconciled,

Roman this
we

completely
remark the that short if the that

fused
there

with
are

Sabine.
traces

On

may for

of

double
It
a can

kingdom, except
hardly
be

period
double have
hear

of

the

life of
had
no

Tatius. lasted memory

imagined
death of

kingdom
preserved
of of

derable consiof

time, tradition
After the Tatius
;

should
we

it.

only

single kings, alternately


the two
a races

Sabine
that had

and

Roman

but

this
no

alternation motive for

shows

there
there

could

have

been
one.

concealing
to draw

joint reign,
conclusion

reallybeen
to

It is

impossible

any

from

the

symbolical empty
a

throne, with assigns


considers the that But

sceptre and

crown,

which,
next
;

according
his
own.

tradition

preserved by Servius,^Romulus
empty
it

placed
to

Servius

himself

throne

Remus dormant be
of
"

after Schwegler,^

Niebuhr,
the
two

represented
if this
one

the

right
true

of

one

of

peoples.
there The
was

even

view

the both
it is

one,

it admits and

that

actuallyonly
devised"

king
tradition
such

Romans

Sabines.

"sensibly
views

astonishing how
when
own

readily the scepticalcritics adopt


to their rests
own
"

traditions

favourable

of each

king having
with the

held

his

separate senate,
follower of

only
is

on

the

authority of Plutarch, and


the other
of

his

Zonaras,^ and
this
it may

totally incompatible
as

accounts

period, such
have taken

the

institution

curiae,"c.

How
of

long
the
1

to

effect the

complete religious union but, with


s

two

peoples
i. 2

it is

impossible to

say ;

the

easy-going
3.

Ad

^En.

; vi. 780.
3

S. 488;

Anm.

Plut.

Rom.

20 ; Zonar.

vii. 4.

DO
that bility
have

IIISTOKY

OF

THE

KINGS

OP

ROME.

the little town


as

upon
to

the Palatine
rtsist of
to

would,

in

the

long
of and

run,

been
as

little

able

the

victorious
of

advance Tiber
some

the
the
cient an-

Sabines Anio.

the
idea
;

other
seems

towns
even

the

valley

the
to

This

have

occurred

of

the

writers
that
to have

and

thus,
such of
.

for
a

instance, Velleius

Paterculus^
must

thinks,
been is

averted

catastrophe,Eomulus grandfather, !N"umif or.


been

have

aided

by

the
that

legions
Rome

his

Kiebuhr

of

opinion
same

must

have

subject
these
on

to

the

Sabines.^ the
common

The

state

of

things

is
to

apparent through the veil which


throw Eome
over

tradition seized
is
to

endeavours

events brink

the of

Sabines

have It

the

citadel,and
from the

stands of Eomans
a

the

destruction.
Tatius
"

probably
have
been from
at

memory to the
to

this
:

subjection that
Ennius
of
^

appears

hateful

calls him

tyrant law,
he

"

and,
slain

his

refusal

punish city
of

breach

international
and Penates

is

Lavinium,
been

the

the

Lares

of

Latiuni. when arch all


logists, apo-

It has
the

also

observed
are

by Huschke,
the Tities first

and

others, that
most

three
as

tribes
a

mentioned

together, the
:

knowing
of the

rule, place
not
as seem

an

order

precedence
Luceres,
for of

which

does

to

be

altogether accidental, as
last.^ A
still
more

instance, are
the of

regularly put
the Romans be it could of
name

decisive
the

proof
name

subjection of
if Quirites,
to the

at first would that this for

be
name

collective

shown

originally belonged
the conqueror
name

only

Sabines
his
to

the
on

Quirinal ;
the

otherwise

always imposes Quirinus, given


the

conquered.
is
race. a

Lastly, the

of of

the

deified
of the

Romulus,
Sabine

indication significant

originalprecedence Schwegler
is also of of the

opinion, with
shows
a

Niebuhr,
when
with the the

that

the

tradition
the Palatine

of

the
did and

rape not

Sabines the
must the

time

city on city on

enjoy
extorted

right of
have
"

connuhium been

the

Quirinal,

therefore

inferior

to it ; till at

length subjected
"

Rome

right,
may

that

is,political equality, by
it is and significant, the not Roman
on

arms.

But, however
without
takes
a

this

be,

doubtless

not

deep
We

historical
on

ground,

that

tradition
that the
was

always
Sabine Rome

its stand

the
must

Palatine

city,and
from
on

of

the

conquerors.
was
1

conclude
and

this

that
the

Palatine

at Lib. Rom. The

least
I

the stem

stock

which

rest

grafted.
^

8, 5.
Gesch. i. 305
; cf.

Ihnc, ForschungeD, S.
not
we

33.
as

Ann.

i. 151.

remark,
in

however,

does
as

hold have
are

good universally,

Schwegler quotation
note 2.

self himfrom

mentions

his note, and the

already seen
put
last.

from

the

Varro,

L.

L.

" 81, where

Tities

Above,

p. 87,

THE

PALATINE

AND

QUIltlNAL

CITIES.

91

"With
concur. was

good

deal

of that

these

remarks

of

Schwegler's
that of the the
were
a

we

entirely
ment governthat

We

think

Livy's assertion,
is the
reverse

whole

assigned to Eome, though


Tatius in
a

truth

; and

the the

Eomans, reign
of

not

actually conquered,

placed, during period by


the it first, added. adduced be

at

least,and

perhaps

for

considerable
reasons

afterwards,

subordinate

position.^
the the Sabine

To

the
we

Schwegler
The combatants is

for this

view,

following may,
women

think,
rush

tradition
was

that

makes

in between
reasons
:

probably adopted by Livy secondly, it


were

for

two

picturesque, and
if the Eomans short

obviates

the the

embarrassing question,
Sabines
and
not

Why,
did
success

thus

driving
the after of the Eoman
more

before

them,
their

they stop

in their

victorious

career,

complete varying
were

by regaining possession of adopted by Cicero,


with the
consent
^

Capitoline ?
a

There

is another
success

tradition and

that

battle

of

undecided

result, thirty
of This

Sabine

women

spatched, depeace
state
are

the
seems

Senate,
accordant when
not

to

beg
with

from of

their

countrymen.
which into
we

the

things

lind

afterwards.
are

Thus,

the

people
but
race.

distributed
Sabine like Juno extant

Curiae, these

designated

by
the
a

Eoman latter

by
In

names,
manner

showing
Tatius

the

predominance
in all the

of curiae

dedicates

table, or
tells

altar,to
us,
were

Quiritia, or
in of his

Curis,

which all
are

tables, Dionysius
the transactions

time.^
and
retreats

Again,
Tatius

during
the latter

the

joint

reign
and Tatius and insult who
a

Eomulus

conducted into the

by

monarch,
Thus
to

Eomulus who
not

quite
whom

background.
;

it is

receives
to

the

Laurentine the

ambassadors Laurentines

it is
to

Tatius,
the also
was

Eomulus,
their
to

apply
; and

redress

which

ambassadors solemn

had sacrifice

received
at

it is Tatius

proceeds

the

Lavinium,

though
the Alban
a

that

town

peculiarlyLatin,
which

if not

Eoman. and Tatius

Dionysius, indeed,
against
converted

tells of
town

joint expedition by Cameria,*


^

Eomulus

of

they
the
other

subdued

and

into

Eoman

How

much
on

more

later

Romans

prided

themselves
from

on

their

Ramnesian
:

origin, than
"Hoc et "c.
2

their

progenitors, appears
istam

the

speech
oriundi

of Canuleins
ex

si

poUuit
non

nohihtatem genere
nee

vestram,
sed per

quam

plerique

Alhanis

Sabinis,
"

sanguine,

co-optationem

in Patres

habetis,"

Liv.
"

iv. 4.

Matronis

ipsis,quae
"

raptse erant, orantibiis," De


oratrices

Rep. ii. 7; and,


c.

"ex

Sabinis ii. 45.


^

virgines raptae
ii. c. 50.

pacis

et

fcederis, ib.
"*

"

8 ;

cf.

Dionys.

Lib.

Loc.

cit.

92

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

colony, transferring 4,000


read
of

of

the

inhabitants

to

Rome.

But
to

we

this event

in

no

other

author, and
of

Dionysius
that
on came

is little his

be

trusted

except when
and

he

speaks

things
evidence

under occasion

own

knowledge
reduced
a

observation.
we

His find him

this

is

ticularly par-

as suspicious, as

afterwards

mentioning

Cameria
sides, Beto

by Tarquin,

and

again by
of

the

Consul

Verginius.^ nothing
in
as

joint military expedition superiorityor


of

this kind the

proves two

the

relative

of inferiority

kings
those
was

the

ternal in-

government
For

Rome.
as

these
we

reasons,
are

well
to

as

for

some

of

stated

by
ordinate subas

Schwegler,

inclined
lifetime

think

that

Romulus But
are we

quite
go
so

during
Ihne, Ampere,^
was

the and

of Tatius.

cannot

far

other

writers, who
Had

of the

opinion
case

that

Rome would

absolutely conquered.
ceased to

that
of
a

been

its

name

have of The

exist, and
have the

instead

history from
the

the

Roman of

point
view. of that not

view,

we

should

had
sole

one

from

Sabine

point
the

resumption
the
power Roman

of

power

by Romulus,
of
a

after

death
show

Tatius, and
the been We

recurrence

after !N'uma

Roman
a

king,

and

influence, though
that

for

time

had inferior,

annihilated.
may

here

remark,
;

originallythe
after

curiae Sabine

were

evidentlya
may and

Romulean have
number than
a

institution altered and

however,

the
new

union, they

been

adapted people
to

to the

circumstances,
was

their
more

increased. division

The

early Roman
for

constitution

little
In
an

of the

military
and
and

purposes. purposes

fact,the
army,

Romulean which The

population
Romulus
was

were

all intents

of

the
seems

supreme

irresponsible commander.
army.

term
was

popultLs itself
the

to have who
as

the originally signified

It
at

fightingmen
same

alone
manner

at first

enjoyed
Germans
the

any

civil

rights
whom

Rome,
was

in the the

the

ancient

; among

it In who

only
of
not

warriors

who

administrated

afiiairsof

State.^

process

time, these rights were belong


to

gradually extended
and hence the

to citizens

did

the

army,

original military
noted deIts ancient
as

of j^opulus signification the

became instead

ultimately quite obsolete, and


of the

Roman

people
was

Roman
in
some

army.

however, signification, popularej


1

still retained

cognate words,
or

to

lay
v.

waste

populatioj a laying waste


'

plundering, "c.
t. i. p.

Lib.
"

iii. 51, enim

40, 49.
ueque

L'Hist.

Rom.

Rome,

442, seq.
"

Nihil

publicseneque

privatse rei

nisi armati

agunt."

Tac.

Germ.

13.

THE

ORIGINAL

KOMAN

PEOPLE.

^V^^
consisted

Eefore of 100 into


one

the about under under the

Sabine

union, the
men,

army

of Eomulus into
ten

probably containing
soldier
not

^s"*J^i^
"^

only
men

1,000
a a

distributed

each curiae, company of miles that in


an

cicrio, or
decurio.

captain
Hence

; and

this
name

again divided
for this
a
"

tens

the
we

of

thousand. but

When
of

consider

was

standing
for

army,

composed
an

men

engaged
appears the and field,

agricultural and
excellent
one

pastoralpursuits,such summoning
when
on an

arrangement

both it well been

army service

quickly
:

to

for

keeping
have

in hand

but

for

civil purposes

it would

totallyuseless
The word

and

inexplicable. evidently
the under
was comes

curio

from
to
as

the
be

Greek Eomulean.

Kvpios,

lord

or

master, thus
formed
sacra,
a

showing
of

institution the

Each It had
common

curia

sort

clan,
the

curio
also its

its head. The

and

hence

curio these

priest.
also

head-quarters or
curiae. Thus
we

places of assembly
find shows
on

for

clans Curiae

were

called
; the

the that

Palatine

hill the

Yeteres while curiae ranks

position of which
proves Sabine after the

they

were

Eomulean,
to

the

epithet veteres
called with

that
union. the

they
Greek of

were
men

antecedent who
to

the the

erected
were

The

formed which

from clientes,

k\vw,
the

hear,

is synonymous the institution. the

obei/.

Another

proof
We army, feudal

Greek

origin of
exercitus of

must

not, however,
the

confound later
to

populus,
It

or

primitive Eoman
resembled when
a

with

times. do

rather

militia. under

All their Hence and in


to

were

bound
; but

military service,
times in

quired, re-

lord

in

peaceable

they
civil

cultivated

their the To had


as a

fields. expenses

they
of these head

also

became

involved

affairs, by

risks

losses,disputes,lawsuits, "c. agriculture,


with
or

help
recourse

them

conjunctures
of their gens,

advice

and

money,

they
tween be-

the

clan, whom
These
to
a

they regarded
relations late

sort

of

father, and
and client

called

patronus.
to

last

patron
after become There clients curies. the

continued of

subsist and

period, long
soldier
had

primitive
and
no

relation

captain
shall

common

obsolete
can

forgotten. doubt,
in
as we

be their the

show

further
or

on,

that of

the the

gave But in

votes

the

Comitia

Curiata,

assemblies

clients

were

certainly not
dictum
some

patricians,and
the That
term

quently, conse-

opposition to
have voted in

the

of

Niebulir,

populus clients,
from
a

must

always

included the he

plebeians.

the

although they
passage in

curiae,were
tells
us

plebeian, appears
Ecmulus

Cicero, where

that

distributed

the

94
into jplehs

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OP

ROME.

clientelce of the could


been anny, of not

leadingmen,
constituted

or

patricians.^The
whole of the

clients,
did

however,
must have

have other
or

the
of
a

plehs. There
who
not

plebeians
populus,
and

lower
had
was

grade,
not
an

belong
The

to the division

who
curiae

the

franchise.

the

people
of

into

arbitrarypolitical
was reason

regulation;
the
did
nature

the

division

them

into This

three may be

tribes the

dictated

by Livy

of

the

population.

why
; the

not

think is
no

it necessary

to mention the of

the

formation
and the

of these

tribes.^
former of

There

about difficulty stock what name,


on an

Eamnes

Titles

being
Titus
was

the

originalGreek
But of their

Romulus,
Luceres been

latter the

Sabines
and

Tatius. the

the

were

composed,
of writers

what

origin of
his
"

have

matters

dispute.
derive who

Livy
the

confesses
name

ignorance
Lucumo,"

the

subject.^ Many
and Lucus the and
war

from

Etruscan,
from

ally of Romulus,
from

fell
of the of

in the

Sabine
of

war;*
the aided

some

Asyli, the origin


Lucerus,
Tatius.
a

refugee part
Ardea,
who that and

population;^
Romulus
mere

one^

king
is
name

in guesses

his

against
on a

It

dent evi;

these

are

founded

sunilarityof
undecided.
most

Livy, therefore, very


of the

sensibly left
immediate

the

point
the

The
;

second
since the had and

proposed
the

derivations
or

might

seem

probable
and also

besides Sabines
an

Ramnes,
the

followers

of

Romulus,
have

of

Tatius,

early Roman
of the
to

population
who

must

element

composed
who

shepherds
his been

joined Romulus,
This

the

refugees
would
was

flocked

asylum.
considered
the these
or

part

of
to

the the It
an

population
rest ; and

naturally have
the estimation that

inferior Luceres

such

in which among

stood.
was

is, however,
Etruscan
some

not

improbable
named Caeles
sua a

refugees
Mons

Lucumo followers
was
"

Vibenna,
"

Cselius
the and

Vibennus,

with

(cum

manu) place
HilU
of

to

whom

Querquefrom him that

tulanus the
name

assigned as
of had the formed

residence,
We
can

derived

Caelian
any

hardly imagine
alliance
at

Romulus

regular
clientelas

Etruscan

this

early
Eep. ii.

"

"Et
16.

habuit

plebem

in

principum
Anm.

descriptam."
2)

"

De

9,
*

It is

extraordinary how
of the in

Schwegler (S. 498,


of

can

charge
the
same x.

him
note
c.

with he

being ignorant
qnotes
3

existence which

these

tribes, when
as

in

the i.

passage
c.

Livy speaks
L. L.
55

of them

such.

(Lib.

6.)

Lib.
Cic.

13. 8 ; Varr.
y-

4 *

De

Itep.ii.
20
v.

Prop.

iv. 1, 29, "c.


"

riut. Yarr.

Rom. L.L.

; Schol.
s.

Pers.

i. 20.

Paul.

Diac.

p. 11?.

46.

THE

LUCERES.

95

l-)eriod ; while
obtained in of the the
a

at the

same

time the time

the of

Mons

Cselius
as we

appears find

to

have

its sacred

name

before

]^uma,

it mentioned assertion all and

books

relatingto
named

the

Argive chapels."^ The


recorded is

certain three

tragicpoet
of the

Volnius,
were

by Varro,^ that

names

tribes

Tuscan,

altogether absurd
Luceres much

inadmissible. The been lie with


not

arguments
thus

brought by Schwegler against the


do the
not

having weight, fugitives,

composed, opinion thought


that
to

appear

to

us a

to

be
out

of

is of land
to

formation

of

tribe members

of such
to

assigned

it,and
But

furnishing
among like these

the

Equites, is
have
It been all

be

of.^ of

fugitives may
Vibenna.
tribes should had

politicalrefugees
events,
formed
as

condition,
one

Cseles

is, at

likely that
of these

of

the whom of

Eoman

have

been to his is that the

out

persons,
out

Romulus the

invited

as hospitality, subsequently

conquered Albans,
In
a

which

Schwegler's improbable
position, Schwegler
Luceres the other
or can

supposition. point
that
never

order

to

support

out

what

subordinate
were

place
fi'om the

held

; and
a

shows,

though
taken
not

they

admitted

among the

knights, yet
two the

king
that But

was

from

them,

as

tribes,and

they
these

were

represented
are

in

senate for the

priesthood.^ having
been

arguments

equally good being


or

Luceres

refugees.
derived in the
we on

Schwegler's arguments, early Etruscan


affect
our

from Latin not

there

no

traces

of not

influence
; because at

language
assume

do religion,-^
a

view

do this most

that but

large
among

Etruscan other can Etrusthere


at

colony

settled

Rome

occasion,

only,

refugees,though perhaps
Lucumo with
a

the

distinguished of them,
The circumstance Etruscan
a

an

few and

followers.
more

of

having
Rome such been The and

been would

second
no

regular

settlement
one

be

good argument
that both
a

against

former

; and

in

remote

traditions with of

the is not

name

of Cseles

Vibenna

may

have

connected division

very

extraordinary.
tribes any

peoi)le iuto
and

three
not

merely

for

political
of
race,

administrative to the have

purposes, been We
a

from

difference

appears among in

frequent might
of the

Grecian

and practice, of this

especially
AVe

Dorians.**
of
our

avail

ourselves

circumstance
are

support
1

theory
v.

Grecian

origin of
5r,.
3

Rome.

Van-.

L.

L.

47.

^ ^

ibiJ. Ibid.

s.

j^. i

g, 50a.

Buck
See

i. S. 514.

509, seq.
14.

the

examples

collected

by Schwegler, B. ix. ".

96
of

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

opinion, however,
arose

as

we

have
an

said

before,that
before
in his

this

threefold That
the

division Komans the

at Rome been

from

actual

diversityof
tribes

race.

had

divided asserted

into three

their

union

with sketch

Sabines, though
Roman to the

by Dionysius
of the tradition. with
the

imaginary shown,
patres
on

of the

constitution, is, as
remainder
into
or

Schwegler

has
The

entirely
not can-

contrary
be
Romulean The

thirty curiae
of the

brought

accordance
the

hundred

the

senate,
is also
;

thousand

originalsettlers
undoubted nowhere

Palatine.
the Titles

notion
the

confuted
whilst Romulean for

by

the

identity of
ventures to

with
names

Sabines

Dionysius
tribes.^ Grecian

give

the

of the
better

three

argument
Romulean
to

origin may
; and

be the

derived
Romans

from
are

other

parts of

the said

constitution imitated but the

cularly partinot,

have

Lacedaemonians.^

It has

was

however,
out

imitation,

hereditary custom.
which the
a

Dionysius
of the

pointed
sembled re-

several
the

particulars in Spartan
sacra on
:

the

Romulean

constitution

as

division

people
house,
the Greek

into

curiae,

with

common

for

each,

curia, or
a

curial

in which

they
also

feasted
common

together
to

and festivals,
curiae. The

hall,like
of
a

Prytanea,
had
a

all the

body-guard
likcAvise found
the

Romulus
resemblance
to

Spartan prototype.
the but

Dionysius
and
not

between
senates
;

relations
on

of

Romulus
we

Spartan kings
he The
a

their

this of

point
the

shall

as insist,

totallymisunderstood
number in the

this

part
with

Roman

Constitution.^

three,

bined com-

ten, 3, 30, 300, also

plays

great part

institutions

of both We

peoples.
will here

add

few

words

respectingthe agrarian
after
of

tion constitu-

of Romulus.

Dionysius
the Roman of the service

tells

^ us

that

Romulus,
the another

setting apart
the
as crown

portion of
of the divided

territoryfor temples, and


We

support

and

portion

common one

land,
of them
account

the
the

rest into

thirty equal parts, and


are

assigned
to believe
we

to each because

of

thirty curiae.
with

disposed
notices
tracts

this in

it tallies Thus

scattered
says, that
as

which of
were

find

Latin

authors.
and

Cicero
were

large

arable

land, pasturage,
for the
use

wood,
^

set

apart

royal,and

cultivated

of the

Schwegler, Band i. S. 504 ; cf. Dionys. ii. 7. A rijvAaKiSaifxoyiwv iroXiTeiav oi'P(i)fia7oi. IxifjunfrinivoiKOT^irdtn-a,
"

then,

vi.

106.
3

See

Dionys.

Ub.

ii.

c.

13, 14, 23.

Mi.

7 ; iii. 1.

9S
tlieir

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

own

name, who
were

instead

of

being compelled
if Tatius and
at

to

assume

that

of

thd

Romans,
Another he the

evidently inferior.
was

is,why, difficulty
abandoned Avith

king

of

Cures,
to

should share

have

his

solo

ancient

monarchy, only
of

regal power
But the

Romulus had the another


name

Rome

ancients whence

derivation
would is much

Quirites from

quiris,
or

a
*'

spear

;^

signify "spearmen,"
more

warriors."
; and

Such
after

derivation
all it would
term
"

the befitting
on
"

warlike the

Sabines

only put Populus

them

level with
the
or

Romans, seeing
army. mixture
**

that the

Romanus
a

meant

Roman

Professor in the

Newman,
Italian
a

who

maintains

Gaelic,
on

Celtic, subject :
The

ancient here

populations,observes
clue which words
a

this

We

happen
gives

to have has
numerous

the in

Romans

had with

not.

Gaelic
and the

language
us

common

the
a

Latin

;
;

Coir

(sounded Quir),
to
^

spear;

Curaidh,
at rest

warrior

similarityof
Quirite
author
cannot

which

Quir
The

and

Quirite sets
is
"

the

question
but
as

what
the

meant."

analogy
observed,
from the

certainlystriking;
that until it is shown is
no

had

just before
have two
come

that

Cures

also in

same

root, there

proved
too far

disagreement
to

the

explanations,"it is,perhaps, going


is

say On

that the

the

question
from with formed with the
was

entirelyset
we

at
as

rest.

whole, however,

accept
or

much
spear.

the
The

more

probable
were

one

the

derivation

cwm,

quiris,a
and

Sabines
in the

enrolled, together curiae, which


some now

the

Romans the

Luceres,
of the

thirty city
of

military force
But
as

entire
no

3,000

men,

300

horse.

this
name

force
was

longer consisted
not, indeed,
and
was

only
abolished,
honour
called It
"

of

Populus Romanus, accompanied


the Sabine with

that
one

but

of

e"|ual extent
whole army

taken

from

tongue,

and

the

Populus
a

Romanus

Quirites."
this The may

is

nice the

point

whether

have
of
seen

meant

"

the is not

Roman
at

people
unusual
*'

and in

Quirites."
and is

omission

the in
et

copula
the

all

Latin,

constantly
for there
"

familiar

address But
not
we an

Patres

Conscripti,"standing
in the

Patres is
a mere

Conscripti."
and apposition,

think
1

that

present case
Paul.
from

Oviil.
i.

Fast,

ii, 475;
"We

Diac.

p. 49, mris

Plut.

Rom. Varro

29;
also

Macrob. this

Pat.

9, "c.

learn

Dionysius
mediately

(i.48

/?i.) that

knew
not

derivation
in his from
'

(Kvpeis y"p
works,
Lib.

ol 'Saffivoi ras

a"xA"Js KaXovtrtv), but through


Quirinus

it does
; which

appear
derives

extant

except
v.

he

Quiritibus."

8, 73.

Regal Rome,

p. 65, seqq.

EOMANI

AND

QUIRITES.
formula
^

99

addition. of
are
"

This

is sliown

by
this

the

whicli
the be
a

frequently occurs
and

Populus
have the

Eomanus

Quiritium,"
can

where form

Eomani

Quirites
some we

identified.

Nor

latter in the

corruption,as
passage
a

critics also

thought,
two

since

following
in death
at

of

Livy
manner.

find

words Patres

identified, though
devoted M. Fabio to Pontifice

different time of

It relates invasion devovisse


:

to the
"

the

the

Gallic

Sunt, qui
se

]\Iaximo

prsefantecarmen, tradant,"^
Quirites. Quirites
Eoman
on

eos

pro is

patria
add the

Quiritibusque
an

Eomanis,
"

where
^Ve stands In would
one

Romanis

evidently
of the amicable up
a

adjective
occasions

the

might

here

also

many

which

for the

whole the

Eomans. union memory and


was

fact,after
have been

of the

Eomans

and

Sabines, it
feud
to

keeping people
Eomauus

of their

ancient

call

part

of the the and

Eomans

another

Quirites. As
to

individual

citizens

name

naturally applied
name

all,

both to be

Eomans

Sabines, because
an

the

of

the

city continued
been
a

Eoma,
But

and

inhabitant
name

of it must for Eomans had and

therefore and
not

have Sabines

Eomanus.

this

common

individually is collectively.
of

another
In army

presumption
of had been

that

they

separate
the

names

process

time, however,
altered, the
name

when

constitution

the

like Populus, entirely Quirites, retained

lost its
denote which

and militarysignification, those


were

only
the

its civil

meaning,
bore

to ;

who

enjoyed
at

civil

rights, as
in

the
men

suffragium, "c.
who the
arms.

originally vested
last the in collectively than direct
"

only
civil

Thus

it became

usual

appellationof

Eomans,
because the

when it

addressed
was was

their

capacity; probably
Quirites,"and Populus.
"

because

shorter
more

Populus
and

Eomanus

Quirites
word not

personal than
of
"

Nay,
from of

only
at

lost its

original meaning
to

warrior," or
as

but became soldier," the the


so as

length entirelyopposed quelling a mutiny

it ;

we

learn

anecdote

of

Caesar

and

insubordination of

Decumani,
hurt lambs. their
3

them merely by calling

Quirites instead
became
as

milites; which
and obedient

militarypride that they


On
in the must of the the

docile and
were

whole, the
many
as

names

Romani

Quirites,which

remained

language
be accounts is
no

centuries, and
the the way

pretty nearly equivalent,


of the truth

regarded
of

strongest possible proof


Sabine
of union

given by
for this

the

historians.
name,

There

probable
see

accounting
der
Suet,

double

1 *

For

instances
V. c.

Becker, Handb.
^

'Rom. in Jul.

Alt.
c.

B. ii. i.

21, if.

Lib.

41.

70.

h2

100

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

except by the treaty and


would have

union

of two and of
not

peoples by
and

; and

that

union
latter

effected
case,
name

by-

agreement,
been nation been
now
one

force

; for in the

which of the would

conquest
have

subjugation, the
and that of the

conquered
alone
We have will

would

vanished,

victors

preserved.
return to the
course

of the

after l\istory

the

death

of Tatius.

REMAINDER

OF

THE

REIGN

OF

ROMULUS.

Eomulus
war;

abstained
to

from

avenging the death


wrong

of

Tatius

by

though
and

expiate the
of the
Eome
an

suffered
renewed

by
On

the the

sadors, ambasalliance

the

murder
between
was

king, he
and

which

existed

Lavinium. peace
at ; but

this

side,
and It

therefore, there
much
was,
nearer
war

unexpected
out

another of Rome.

broke close

almost

the

gates

indeed,
the

this

vicinitythat
that

occasioned the

the

hostilities.^

For

Fidenates, thinking
too

neighbouring
to

city
which

was

growing
Rome

strong,
have

seized

the
at

occasion

make

war

before it

should
to

arrived

that

pitch
made

of
a

strength
sudden of
;

promised
into waste the the

attain.

Wherefore

they
on

incursion Tiber laid


to

Roman

territory,and
lies between the their The rushed Romulus admitted from took of

the

side

the

all that

two

cities
to

then, turning great


alarm of

left,they continued
rural

ravages, tumult into


at

the

of the first and

the

population.
as

and the

trepidation
forth his

husbandmen,
news

they

city,brought
led

the army,

of
so

the

matter.
a
a war

once no

indeed his camp

close
about

of

delay.
left
a

Having
moderate his
at
a

pitched
rison gar-

mile

Fidense, and
the them with field in with

to

guard
thick all

it, he
a

all

remaining
spot
of and
cealed con-

soldiers.

Placing
his

part

ambush the

by
troops
and

brushwood,
horse,
up
to

greater part
Fidense and
;

his

he the

approached
very

by
a

sending his cavalry


tumultuous and
out

gates,
he of

threatening
his

disorderly attack,
enemy. This it

obtained
a

object
ment engage-

of

drawing

the the

display
was

cavalry
to

made
^

flightwhich
miles
from

his
the

design
same

feign

less

Fidenae
up,

was

only five

Rome,

on

bank

of the

Tiber, but

higher

at the

present Castel

Giubileo.

WAR

WITH

FIDEN^.

101

surprising.
attack enemy and

Whilst

his foot

horse also forth

seemed

hesitating l)etween
give
drawn Eomans enemy that way
; when

retreat, the

began
from

to

the
and

rushing suddenly
before
to

the

crowded

gates, by
the

driving
of there whose

them the

the

Eoman of

line, are
The

ardour

pursuit

place

ambush.
the

concealed
in flank had been
rified ter;

suddenly rise,and panic by


the is increased

charge

pursuing
the The

by seeing
to the

garrison
them his

left in the

camp

advancing
which before
; and

attack.

Fidenates,
all

danger
horses

threatened
and

on

sides, took
wheel

to

flight almost
their much

Eomulus

cavalry
to

could

round in
a

they endeavoured
than the real. close But
at

regain
not

their of

city
the their

more

disorderly rout
was was

feigned

one

Eomans pursuers. could


was

; for theirs

they could
them in

escape

Eomulus

their heels, and, before


one

they
Thus

close the gates, broke


Fidense

in with
a

troop.
this

taken,

and
were

made

Eoman

colony.^ by
war, to

Tlie
as

Yeientines
as

contagiously irritated consanguinity


Fidenates
were

well

from
to

their

the

Fidenates;
of the

for
most
war

according
other
also served
to

Livy the
make

Etruscans, though
The

writers

them
to

Latins.

proximity
as

still further

irritate them,
all who

the

Eoman
nearest

arms

seemed

threaten

hostilityto
to

were

them.

Eesolving, therefore,
invaded the Eoman incursion than
nor

bring
of

matters in

to

settlement, they
of
a

territorymore
awaited

the

manner

datory depreneither
to

regular
the the

warfare.

They
but

pitched
in

any

camp

Eomans,
which

returned had

Veii, carrying off


the
fields.

With

them

booty

they
no

seized
in

The

Eomans the

hereupon, finding
Tiber, resolved
But
a

enemy

their
war

territory,pass
to

and

intent

upon heard
attack to

the

last
were

extremity.

when
and

the Veientines intended


to

that

they

pitching
went

camp,
to

their

city, they
of homes
was

forth

meet

them,

preferring
within

try

the fortune
for their

the open
and

field,to contending
hearths.
In the without (lib.i.

their walls

battle

which
recourse

ensued,
to

Eomulus
1

victorious,
not
c.

having
14); but
alluded
it to

any
Dio-

Livy does

state

so

here
we

c.

is

mentioned
as a

by

nysius (lib.ii.

53)

; and
on

find

Fidense

by Livy

Roman

colony

little further

(c. 27).

102

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

stratagem, and
veteran but
one,

the merely tlirougli


He

superior qualities of his


enemy
to
a

troops.

pursued the attacking


so

routed

their

gates,
and

abstained too, that with


from

from
was

well

fortified site. So

town,

defended

by its very
the revenge
no

he

contented
he of

himself

laying
"i

waste

Veientine
rather less to

as territory,

returned,

motive

of

4;han

the

desire

booty.

The

Veientines, tamed
ambassadors
years
was

by

their
to

losses

than
peace.
were

by
A

their
truce

defeat, sent
of in
a

Eome

beg
but says
^

hundred
of

mulcted district

part

their

granted them, territory. Dionysius Pagi, and


that

they
that

the

ceded
on

was

the

Septem
and

the

treaty was
of the

engraved
Such

columns. the
domestic
; in

were

military transactions
we

reign of
in tradition

Eomulus his

which, whether

consider
"

his the

courage

recovering

grandfather's kingdom
or

as

ordinary
in

relates"

his his

wisdom
wars

in

building

his

city,and
was

strengthening it by
at

and of his

treaties,there
divme

nothing
his
own

variance

with after

the

belief

apotheosis
so

death.

From the

such

originor beginnings
years
more

of

Eome
she

grew

strong, that
the

during
peace. than

forty ensuing
was

enjoyed
all

uninterrupted

Eomulus

beloved, however,
most
on

by
he

populace
to
as

but by the patricians, It


was

of

was

endeared
peace

the
well

soldiers.
as

perhaps always
a

this account
of

that, in
300

war,

he had

body-guard
works,

armed

men,

whom

he

called

Celeres. these
or

Eomulus,
assembled
a

after
concio

performing
at

immortal

had
the

the

lake,

marsh,

of

Caprse,
army. thunder with
so

in

Campus
he
was

Martins,
thus

for the purpose


a

of

reviewing his
tempest
the
no

While and thick

employed,
arose,

terrible covered could

of

lightning suddenly
a

and

king longer

darkness
was

that
he

the

assembly
upon

discern

hinu

Nor

again seen
their

earth. when and

The

Eoman

youth having
had

recovered and
was

from

alarm,
a

the storm
brilliant who

passed
stood
to

over

succeeded
throne told
;

by

calm

sunshine, beheld
had up
near

the the the


^

royal king,

vacant.

The he
had

Fathers,
been

them

that

carried
not
war

heaven

in

tempest
Lib.

but,,though
The
same

they doubted
makes the

this

affirmation,
campaigns.

ii. c. 55.

author

last two

LAST

DAYS

OF

EOMULUS.

103

they they
the his

remained had

for

some

time

dejected
At of

and

sorrowful,
the whole
as a

as

if of

suddenly
the of

become

orphans.
a

length
liome

them, following
son
a

impulse king
that I and

few,

hail

liomulus
;

god,

god,
and

the

parent
will
ever

of

they implore
towards
were

favour,
his
some

pray

he

be

propitious
that
torn

them,

offspring.
who of the

believe, however,
that

there
to

already by
kind
as

suspected
Fathers down.
awe

he

had
an

been obscure

pieces
of this
man,

the

hands
been the

; for

report
of
were

has
as

handed
fear and

But

admiration

the

well

wdth
to

which

they
The

overcome,

caused

the
was

other

account

prevail.
the
sorrow

belief of
one

of

it,moreover,
Proculus loss

strengthened by
who, perceiving the

contrivance
of the

Julius of

citizens for the

their

king, and
in
an

their

anger of

against the people, and


his

Fathers, stepped

forward

assembly
add said

the
to

trusting that
even

his

authoritywould
a

weight
"

words,

in

so

ordinary extra-

matter,

Quirites, Eomulus,
descended break of the

the

parent heaven,
Struck

of

this

our

city, having
to
me

suddenly
at

from

appeared
with that I
awe

this

morning

day.

and

veneration,
lift up my Eomans have

I stood eyes

and still, him. will be

humbly
Then of the

implored
Eomulus

might
'Go

towards the

said:

tell the
I Let and resist

it is

gods
head of
no war

that all
; let

Eome,
the them power

which

founded,
therefore
to

should cultivate

the
art

of

earth.

them

the

know,
can

transmit the into Eoman

their arms.' It

posterity,that Having
is the thus wonderful

human he

spoken,
what of the

again ascended
this
and of his The the

heaven."
and how
was

belief army

story acquired ;

much

regret

plebs

for

Eomulus

mitigated by

the

certainty

immortality. reign
a

of Eomulus the
two

lasted

thirty-seven years.
works of the of Eomulus He of them
^

As
.

ruler,
of

great
and
to

were

the

foundation
as

the

Auspices
in

the

Senate.

is represented

always
the

listening

counsels

the in He

latter.cattle

He

kept

people
by
severe

order

by

mulcting

rather
1 2

than
"Patrum Ibid. P.

corporal punishments.
"" consilioqueregnavit.

was

the

auctoritate

Cic. Dc

Rep.

ii. 8.

104

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

HOME.

founder
of

of the Roman
been
a

militarys}'stem,and
warlike
success,

has

the
must

reputation
be buted attri-

having
to

very

prince ;
and his
to

which

his
to

military
the

personal prowess;
us,
wars

for,
enter

according
upon
a

accounts

transmitted
All
to

he

did
were

not

single aggressive war. be said defence, though he may


ones

his

in

self-

have

brought upon

himself

the earlier

by

the

rape

of the

Sabines.

Remarks.
who

"

On
born

the
in In

end
so

of Romulus
wonderful
to enhance
a

Schwegler
manner

remarks

"

One the

had

been

could

only
nature of

leave

earth

by

miracle. the

order

the miraculous

of these his

occurrences, is marked

moment

both
;
a

of

his

conception
which The ; for he

and has

death

by by
a

an

ecUpse
the

coincidence

been

already
also is

observed affords
borne enemy,

Dionysius" by
and

and

Plutarch.^

Greek

mythology
to his

in pai-allel
a

story of Hercules
; where

Hercules

to heaven

thunder-cloud
her

is reconciled

Hera,

marries

daughter
was

Hebe.

This, or
to the

similar,
of is

story of the
the Roman

Greek

mythology
; since to

certainlypresent
of
an

minds

poets
between
are

the the and from had

idea Italian
men,

apotheosis
the

in this form idea


men

as originally

foreign

religion as
and Greek
a a

of

sexual

intercourse Both ideas

gods

begetting of mythology
Greek
a

by gods.
it who
was

derived

the

; and

doubtless invented the idea To


the

Ennius, who
the
among
same

received

education,

first

apotheosis of
the
effect

Romulus

in such

form, and
Greek

domesticated

Romans." Mommsen
: *
"

The

hero-worship
clumsily
un-Roman honoured
at

is

entirelyforeign to
Romulus

the Romans
was

; and

how

recently and by
his oldest and
as a

the

legend
in Roman
at

invented, is shown

quite
most

metamorphosis
name

into

Quirinus. I^uma,
never

the

tradition,was
Athens." beheves

worshipped
actual
a

god

Rome,

like Theseus

Nobody,
the

of course,

in the such times Dr.

apotheosis of
was

Romulus

only question
have
very

is,whether

belief

congenial against
as a a

to, and

might
The proves

prevailed in, the


argument
it could which not

in which

Romulus
uses

lived 1 the

Mommsen
a

story
Httle

that

have

been him.

late

invention,
of

very

reflection
1 "

might
Buch D"
X.

have
" 10.

shown

No

inventor
"

story invents

Lib.

ii. c.

56. p. 113.

fort. Rom.

8.

Kap. 12,

106
of

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

thinking.
among

But,
the

in

fact,

that

the before

deification the
time

of of

Komuhis Enniiis

-was

known from
in

Romans that books

long
the
:
"

appears

the circumstance

temple
dictos

dedicated
enim

to him

is mentioned
ex

the

sacred

Argive

collis
:

plureis apparet

Argeorum

in quibus scriptum sacrificiis,


" *

sic est

Collie

Quirinalis, terticepscis sedem

QuMiii.'

"^

Schwegler
of the
course

himself

recognises the high antiquity of


to

the

division
must

city,according
have
are

these

books

divisions

which

of

preceded
of

those

of Servius. that
the

We

opinion, however,
Proculus,
The
that
a

though
time

the

belief

in

the

apotheosis of
the

Eomulus

originated at
or

of his death, yet that

story

of Julius

at

least his
that
to

prediction,is
could

more

modern
Roman

addition.
arms,

prophecy
Rome
was
ex

nothing
be the

resist of

the
the been

and

leading city
must

"world, is evidently invented,


in the
AS a

vaticinium
after Rome
was

eventu, which
had made

have

at

all events, of

considerable

progress

conquest

Italy,and
and ad

perhaps
to

inserted

by Livy himself,
the

rhetorical

flourish

capiandum

vulgus. Dimng
or

reign
a

of

Romulus

there
There

was

nothing
of

suggest
sort

to

justifysuch
as

diction. pre-

is

nothing
to

the

in

the

tradition
to

given by
Julius,

Cicero
on

according
built to

whom,
and

Romulus

appeared
he

Proculus
a

the

Quirinal Hill,
be him

merely requested
that
was now

that
a

temple might
and called

there

; for

god

Quirinus.3
That have
a

simple
in

and

primitive people
deification
amidst like of

like

the

early Romans
is of

should

believed
centuries

the

Romulus

nothing surprising.
the perial im-

Many
the

afterwards,
Caesar

all the
his

enlightenment
the mouths

times, Julius gods,


The
not

was,

successors,

translated

among who

only, says
that honour, of i^uma Romulus
with

Suetonius, by
but also in the
a

pf those

decreed

him

belief of the
his
own

vulgar.'^
of
as

descent

from

god,

apotheosis, the sceptical critics


^des the Romuli
same on as

colloquies of
this

Egeria,

and upon

other

supernatural events
the

description, are
Van. L. L.
v.

eagerly seized
The
same

by

52.
; but

books

also mention this may have

an

the tlio

Germalus Casa
3

(ib. " 54)


i. S.

it is

possible

been

Romuli. B. De "In

380, Anm.
ii. 10, 20.
numerum
"

14. So

3 *

Rep.

also

Dionysius, lib.
est,
non

ii.

c.

63.

deoriim

relatus C8es.
c.

ore

modo

decementium

scd

et

persnasione vnlgi."

Jul.

88.

APOTHEOSIS
"

OF

llOMULUS.

107

of 2)i'Oofs

the

falsehood prove and the

of

early Eoman
and will

history.

But

in fact

such of

objectionsonly
ancient of character

thorough misconception
of especially the the do transcribe that
we

of these ancient of and think


an

critics

manners,
we

the

notion eminent of

deity.
word
to

On

this
:

point
"

words
use

German the

scholar deics is remind

^Notwithstanding
readers that throw

meaning
it of

known, sufficiently
our

yet
when aside

not
are

fluous superthe

they
the For of

thiuking
of the would lead

Latin word very

deusy they
Gott
false
we

must

quite
the

notion it the of A

German
us

(or the
ideas should
our as

English
of

word

God).
views

to

religious
the
a

ancients, if, for


Eoman deus emperors is far from

instance,

regard
notions of
;

deification

according being
the
so

to

divine
every

being.
of

much and in

saint
the

since

person's soul,
ceremonies became
was
a

after

quitting
those The deus
;

body,

after the

performance
of
an

like
a

employed
invisible
a

apotheosis
to not

emperor,

deus. called

guide assigned
which
to

every

man
a

by heaven, good,
but also in denoted

word

denoted this

only
word

wicked

being.
an
as

According

view,

the

deus

general only
were

invisible, or spiritual, personality.


numerous
as

These

spiritualbeings
presented
also and every but

the

corporeal
not

appearances every these


man,

which

themselves

to

the

senses

; since

only
of

plant, every
in

place, nay,
the

every

property
this

creatures

objects, had,
^

belief of

antiquity,their spiritual counterparts."


to

According
existence Eoman of

view,

it

would

be
or

as

rational any other

to

doubt in

the the

St.

Augustine,
the

St. Jerome, have


of been

saint the he

calendar, because
to

they
existence

placed among
because
as
a

heavenly
had been

choir, as
deified.
on

doubt

Eomulus

And of

if that his

king

is to be

regarded
also
must

mythical
amongst
find
no

personage and the the best

account

apotheosis, so though
It this but

Julius is

Caesar

succeeding
attested

emperors, of

their is
true

reality
that
we

facts the

history.

deifications after the

during
Sabine
it
was no

republic ;

happened
less
to
or

partly because,
way, that of
a

mixture, superstition ran


difficult to find
sooner

that

and

partly because
of

anybody empire,
claimed

deify in
the rule

period

equality.
been the and who had For

But

had

the the

single person,
Venus

re-established,than

practicewas
a

immediately revived. origin,through


persons in that all

like Eomulus, Coesars,

divine
fewer

^neas. believed

There
in

were,

perhaps,
The

period
events,

the
1

deification.
Hartimir,

higher classes,at
Komcr,
B. i. S. 31.

'Relviiion der

108

HISTORY

OP

THE

KINGS

OP

ROME.

grown
were

more

and sceptical much

rationalistic ; but above the

the

mass

of the

people
vailed pre-

still not
under We will

advanced

superstition which

the
now

kings. proceed
to examine

the

remaining
little pass
eponymous
seems

occurrences

of

the

reign of

Romulus.

Although
personage
as as

Tatius, it is said/
Romulus
is of the double
"

can

as

for

an

historical

for he
"

is the

hero

of the
be
some as

Tities,
oldest
a

Romulus

Romans

^yetthere
which the

to

historical
the

ground

for the of

kingdom king
the from and

legend

offers

constitution

the
of

federated
a

state.

It is
races

quite possible that


may

temporary con-

reign
alternate
rule

both Sabine

have
The

preceded
tradition with when
a

the served pre-

of

Roman of
were

kings.

by
and
crown, his

Servius
which

double

Romulean
near

throne,
Romulus

sceptre
he
was

always placed
to to

giving
others Remus.Can

sanction

anything,
Romulus

seem

to

point
but

this

way,

though
and

refer

them,

not

and

Tatius,

to Romulus

anything nothing, reign


facts
of

be

more

perverse
may of have

than
been

reasoning like
a

this 1

It

is

quite possible that


says be like tJie

there

reign

of

which

tradition
not !

that

Romulus
of

and which

Tatius, only
tradition
very

it could

those

monarchs,
are

tells

something
refer

Surely such
The

arguments
are

begot
but

in the

spiritof
to

contradiction.

admitted,

the ?

persons We The have


reason

whom

they

are

rejectedas question
is,that he
was

unhistoricaL
case

Why
Romulus.

already
for

examined

this

in the is

of

rejectingTatius Now,
us

the
any

eponymous

hero
in such The
no

of
an

the

Tities.
let
a

if there that
Tities it
was

otherwise

weight
not

argument,
were

observe

the

does parallel
a

hold.
wanted its
name

Romans

nation, the
;

only
But

city tribe,and enough


been observe
in
a

eponymous
have

hero
been

though
from

natural

that

should
an

taken
at

Tatius.

if that

king

had
of

been

eponymous
or

hero
a

all, it would

surely have
Let and
us

the

Sabines,
the

Quirites,as
of
on

nation.

that

body

Tatius the

was

brought
where

to Rome

buried

magnificent tomb
x.

Aventine,^

public

"

Schwegler, B.
*'

" 5.
cum

Ob

quam

rem

sella curulis

sceptra
Romulum

et

corona

et ceteris ut

regniinsignibus
also
in

semper

juxta

saucientem Serv. ^n.

aliquid
i. 276

ponebatur,
But Remus. and ibi
"
"

pariter imperare
these

viderentur.""

; conf.

id. vi. 780.

Servius

places refers
'
""

the double

insigniato Romulus
ab
eo

In

eo

(Aventino) Lauretum,
interfectus

quod

sepultus est
Varr. L. L.

Tatius
v
.

rex,

qui

ab

Laurentibus

est, vel ab silva laurea.

" 152.

Qdirrtrai

CONCERNING

KING

TATIUS.

109

libations
the that time the

still continued of the

to ;

be

made

to

his manes,
of

at least down tells

to
us

empire

since in his

Dionysius
time.
not

Halicarnassus

practiceexisted
we

Here, then,
but tells also
us.
as

have

evidence,
his

only

of the

existence in the way

of

Tatius,

of collaterally For
to

having perished
be

tradition
were
so

it

can

hardly
these them had
a

believed
for

that

the

Eomans
to
an

besotted

make made Komulus

libations
at

centuries
to

imaginary untimely neglect


took

king, death,

or

to

have

all,except
left

expiate
For

his this

which been

unavenged.
of the

having
this The down

punished by
of

devastating pestilence, Eomulus


anger annual
; for

method

appeasing
of

the

gods.i
have
to

performance
from should the have

these

rites must it is

been

handed
that of

regal period
been
means

impossible
the

imagine
in favour

they
a

established
a

during
one.

republic

king, and
Be

by

no

popular

it remarked incidental. his time

that He

the had

testimony
no

of

Dionysius
no

on

this

subject
to make His all the

is

only

point
matter

.to prove,

theory
of

out, for in

nobody
notice of

doubted the

the

existence

Tatius.

merely
more

accidental

is, on

that

account,

valuable.

Schwegler rightly just quoted,


at connects

observes these
on

that rites the of

when
to

Plutarch,
with of this
not

in

the

passage

Tatius

those the

performed
of is the
no

the

grove
or

of

Ferentina,
Council

occasion

meeting
have
as
a

Diet,
doubt

Confederate

Latium,
appears and

explanation
to

quite groundless.
between

There Rome the

been

the

slightestconnexion
state, during the
of Plutarch

Latium,

confederate
The
text
:

reigns of

first two It
runs

kings
thus
ovq was

of in
vvv

Eome. the

is doubtless

corrupt.

vulgate
Ferentina

kuI

6 'P(i)fxvXo"s ijyvKrerag Kadapfjiol"s

xoXeic,
There

irl
no

laropovaLVeVi
Porta the emendation
so

r^e
at

^epevTivriQ Rome;

ttvXijs ffwreXeicrdai. Becker^


or irvXr}';,

wherefore

would that

adopt
of
at

either

of
piatory ex-

Doujatius, vXyjs for


rites
were

Cluver, Trrjyijs ;
the grove
or

that

the

performed
are

either

the

fountain this
removes

of

Ferentina,
the
we scene

which of from
was

both

frequently
Rome of Varro that such

mentioned.
and and rites the

But

them the

entirelyfrom
passages and

Aventine

; where

know,
Tatius

Dionysius
were

just quoted,
The

that

buried,

performed.
eKacrroy

Se

its 'PcS/jL-nv KOfiiaOels eVri/i^ Ta(pf}, Ka\ xocis

aincf Kad'

iviavrbv

tjirSXis

iirireKel
1

5r]iJ.6(Tias. Dionys.
"

lib, 11.

C.

52.
2

Plut.

Rom.

24.

Kom.

Alterth.

B. i. S. 177.

110

HISTORY

OP

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

cities alluded
as wo

to

by Plutarcli
had then

are

only
that

Rome

and with

Laurontum,
the
grove of

which,
Feren-

have It is

said,

nothing

to do

tma.

evident, therefore,
Nor need
the
we

Plutarch

requires still further


Either

emendation.
own

scruple to apply it.


of his
; witness
or

through
makes

his sad
on

ignorance, or
with
Palatine heard We of Roman called

blunders

he transcribers, his

havoc the
over

topography
KaXrf
(xktii,

discovering a spot
Littus,
a

Pulcrum is

whteh

nobody
for Scalar

elsewhere, read,
grove

and cVl
on

which

evidently
It

mistake the

Caci.
or

should

t^q Aavptvrivrjg vXr/c, at


the
name

Lauretum,
the

the

Laurentine may have

Aventine.
from its

is

possible that
his

grove

derived rather
be

its than

Tatius,

and

connexion

with It

Laurentum,
will
not

from to

consisting of laurel-trees. Schwegler's conjectures


whole

necessary

examine
in the

respecting a symbolical meaning


that Tatius's violation towns the had which

historyof
towards

this

affair ; and
geance venflicts conraces.

of the

law

of nations

Laurentum and the

Lavinium,
which which It

contained took between

the
upon

Latian

Lares,

Laurentines taken

him, typify bloody


Sabine
and

place
hidden

the these and in the

Latin

is wonderful in the

what
commonest

meanings
them

aesthetical how face.

critics

cover dis-

occurrences,

they
and

overlook
we

the
go All

most

obvious the

things

that

stare

'Not need
Remus.

into
these Roman In after

fanciful

resemblance
no

between

Tatius

things have history.


a

connexion

with

the

of the early credibility

similarlyingenious
that two in the the

manner

Schwegler kings
of
at

goes Rome

on

to the

suppose,^

Buttmann,

first two

myth

has

personified
elements

fundamental, though
existence
"

first

sight disparate,
the
a

of Roman
"

the
be

warlike

spiritof king,

nation, and
word

its deisidcemonia the

or, if

we
"

may Hence

allowed
the first

to borrow who

from
the lust

Latin,

its

religiosity. by
force of ambition founded

founded
with the the

Roman
of

state

arms,

must

have

inspired it

conquest,

the

of

military superiority;
it
anew

whilst

second

regenerated it,and
warlike exhortation word which
^

by religionand
of of the the
as

morals.

Tlius
and the
an

activityis the
to
a

central

point

acts

of

Romulus,
art

zealous

exercise to the

military
if it
were

is his

last

he

addresses

Romans,

political
character

testament." We

have

alreadyintimated
^

our

opinion that the warlike


Mytliol. ii. 85.

Buch

X. "

"

6 ; cf.

Buttmann,
B.

Schwegler,

i. S. 524.

I
of Romulus and
none

POLITICAL

CIIAEACTER

OF

ROMULUS.

Ill

has

been

much

exaggerated.All
of the
new

his

wars

are

defensive,
undertakes
have spired in-

necessary from his the

to the

maintenance of

state ; he

lust

conquest, and it;and


his

therefore

could the

not

by extraordinarily character arises long peace reign. military skill which from the bravery and he displays in the wars that are forced upon him, and more particularly, puted perhaps,from his being reof Mars. the son His last years in almost are spent ignoble and circumstance is seized this the aesthetical critics by peace ; very as an objectionagainst the length of his reign. His "political testament," as Schwegler calls it,is evidentlythe figment of a later only in Livy, as we have alreadyintimated. According age, found have before to Cicero,in a passage to which the two we alluded, and civil grand characteristics of Eomulus's reign were religious the Auspices and the Senate and it is to these, and not to his wars, that Cicero ascribes his apotheosis.^In fact, Eomulus, as the first the founder of all the institutions of the state, king,was necessarily and it is preposcivil,^ political, religious, and, therefore, military, terous
which followed His
" "

subjectswith

this is shown

to
a

contrast

him

with

Xuma,

and Such

to maintain
a

that is drawn

both

had

peculiarand
the view

separate mission.
of

contrast

merely
are

with

colouringthe

assertion

that

both

kings

the

creatures

of invention. the institutions political of the the and senate, the patricians, first each 300

Besides the 300 curia.

Romulus curiae, in

also founded
that

Equites,or knights, at
tribe, or
as
a

number;
Besides

is, 100
the

from

each

ten

from

these, Livy mentions,^


formedhave
names

distinct

body,

Celeres, which
appear, in

fact,to

king'sbody-guard. But the Celeres been the same the Equites. They are as
for the
same

only two or Romulean,


it
was

different
name,

afterwards
name

Celeres being the Greek, class, superseded by Equites. And haps perled
some

this double different The


name

which
;

authors

to think

that their
run,

they were identity.*


^
"

bodies

but

Pliny acquaints us
to be derived from

with

Celer
septem

seems

/ccXXw,to
et hsec

Ac

Romulus,
rei

quum subito

et

triginta regnavisset annos,


non

egregia
con-

duo

firmamenta

et senatum, publicsepeperisset,auspicia

tantum in

est

secutus, ut, quum


"collocatus
^

sole obscurato 11. 10. 1.


c.

deorum comparuisset,

numero

So

De putaretur."" Rep. Livy : "jura dedlt," lib.

8.

3
*

Lib.
"

1. c. 15.
sub

Celeres

Romulo

sunt regibusque appellati

"" (equites).

N". H.

lib.

xxxlil. 2, se(iq.

112

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

KfXrjc,
is

runner,
as serve

or

race-horse,

in

the

iEolic also

dialect identical

Kfknp.
with

Celms

the

same

CeleVy and, therefore,


to

Eques.^

This

may

explain

the line in Horace: poemata


for to
Ramnes."*

"Celsi

prsetereiintaustera

Here

the word
have

Celsi is racked

commonly
their
as

taken brains

an

adjective,and
it

mentators com-

explain
the

by

supposed
But

equivalent epithets, such


Celsi Ramne^
the
true
means

elati^fastidiosi, sublimes, "c.


or

the

Roman,

rather

Ramnian,
could in

knights,
not
mean same

old Romulean
or

stock

; for Ramnes
"

by
both

itself

hiigkts. Ramnes,
way
as

Ramnenses,

for

forms,
"

the

Tities
nouns,

and
an

Titienses, are
and adjective, of

used here

indifferently,^ is,like
stands for

other with

ethnic
the

Romani,

but

stronger meaning
that the to the

originalor genuine
Celerum
and in
was

Romans.
next

It should person the in

be

observed
and

Tribunus

the

power

dignity
The

king,

his

absence

had

p^i^dlege of
like

assembling
wars

the of

Comitia.

Romulus,

it is

said,^ are
In

poor

invention, and,
borrowed
of this is

many

other

pretended
of that the

events

of the times.

regal period,are
support

from

occurrences

historical

assertion, it
a

is affirmed copy It

Romulus's
year

campaign
328.
to

against
that of be for

Fidense

manifest

of that

of the
our

is not

intention
that all

affirm
events must

the them
made the

wars

of Romulus

are
as

true, literally

and

the

occurred for
so

exactly high
an

they
of But

are

described. for the

Allowance
circumstance of

quity, anti-

and the
we

that its

greater part, perhaps,


on

first do and

century
not

Rome,
that

history rested
are

oral

tradition.
are

think

they
accounts

inventions. of
or wars

They really

rather
;

meagre

fragmentary
the

that

occurred

wliich, through
have
an

original want, desultory,and

subsequent
is

loss, of

details,
The

unconnected,
that the

unhistorical

appearance.
a

affirmation

campaign against Fidenae


as

copy will

of

that

of

328,

is

quite unfounded,
to compare rush

anybody
The town

may

see

who

take

the

trouble
the

them.^
into the

only
with

resemblance the

is that ;
an

in both event

Romans

flying enemy
dictus." "Celsi
ratione
"

Paul.

Diac.
omnes

p.

55.

"Celsus
. .

Grseco Sed

KeXAeiv

in
sic

genere

dicuntur

equitantes.
"
.

propria qxiadam
; Serv.
3

dicwntur

equites Jtomani"
p.
2 *

Celeres Dial.

xmd.

celsi, die

Ritter, KcXrires."
Mn.

Doed,

Etym.

32;'Koen.
Ars. Poet.

ad

Greg.
Buch

p. 140, seqq.

xl

603.

342.
x.

gee Liv.

Varr. i. 14

L. L.
; iv.

v.

55. seqq.

Schwegler,

"

9.

31,

114

HISTOllY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

amalgamate
to
remove

as

much

as

possible the
of creed of and

Sabines
manners.

and

the
But

Romans,
it is
we no

and

all differences the

tion objecunable
among

to to

general truth
the

early Roman

history that
The

are

explain
the

origin
and

of

every

early religious observance


same

that
to

primitive

superstitious people.
in the

remark

applies
There the
two since army of

festival of Jbhe

Populifugia,the Caprotine Nones,


circumstance
on

"c.

is

nothing singular, however, just


may Palus named have should

that
same

festivals
Romulus
at

have
chosen
we

fallen
a

the to

day,
his
nature

purposely
Nor

holiday

review
the

the

Caprese.
be drawn

shall

inquire into
the

the
No

or Caprotine festival,

whether
from

it resembled

Lupercalia.
the German

conclusion

can

the

discussion

of such

points,though
it woidd of Romulus

they

admit

of many But
more

fanciful when natural the

with interpretations,

which

critics

abound.
much

Schwegler says,^ that


if the

have
had instead the old in the would

appeared
been of the

disappearance
the
we

assigned
Nones is much of

to

Quirinalia, on

17th
see

of
at

February,
once

of

Quinctilis, or
more

July,
than
no

that

tradition the time

consistent there
was

the

modern of

since critic, Had

Romulus
a

month
occurrence

February.
in

story

been

modern been have is

invention^the placed
looked
on

question
as

probably
observes,
which
the

have would

the
"

Quirinalia, which,
natural with the
"

Schwegler
way in

more

but

the

it stands

more

consistent

genuine antiquity of
of

tradition.

Schwegler proceeds
Romulus,
shows with he the
was can

to

argue

that

the

connexion and

Rumus,

or

festivals
an

of the

Lupercalia
obsolete

Caprotine Nones,
of the Roman ancient
to

that

ancient be
we

and

being
from and

that religion, sacred reconcile

only
But his

dimly recognised
must

certain his is the

ceremonies. this with

leave

him Romulus

followers eponymous
or

other

theory, that
his
name

hero

of

Rome,
theories

from

which too

is derived.

One

the

other

of these

proves

much. that

Schwegler having
obsolete been
or

is further
torn to

"convinced"

the

story

of

Romulus

pieces by
"

the

senators, also

arises But
as

from
his
were

some

misunderstood
"

religious worship.
is that

only
also much

ground
torn

of

conviction

Orpheus
be

and

Pentheus from

to

pieces, we
on

shall

perhaps
the

excused

laying

weight
We

it.

ourselves

think
1

that
B.

tearing to pieces is
21.

very

problema-

i. S. 534, Anm.

THE

MUEDER

OF

EOMULUS.

115

tical ;
a

though, it
death,

is and

likelyenough
that the

that

Romulus
of

may the

have

met is

with
one

violent

laceratingpart
so

story

of
to

those any

popular exaggerationswhich
remarkable
occurrence.
"

readilyattach

themselves is
more
"

On
course

this
was

point Schwegler
of in the

critical.^ historically

Of
so

it

necessary,"he observes,
outbreak attack

to

assign
Senate. Romulus

motive

for
as

horrible murderous

an

deepest
bosom the of rule

and the of

bitterest

hatred, Hence,
became and

that it
was

the

invented

.that {gedichtet),

at

last

despotic and
ostentation he

oppressive,that
alienated all

by

able insufferfrom sake

pride
him
;

hateful

hearts the

indecentlyslightedthe Senate, consulting it only for


and lands Yeientine the
new

of appearance, the

often among

not

at all ; as, for

instance,when
his
own

he

divided

conquered
the he

his

troops,by
in

supreme of the

will,and
Senate
;

restored that

hostages against the opinion


citizens
a

treated

contemptuous
hateful

and

overbearing
offences and

manner;

administered and

and justice arbitrarily, made


a

punished
this

crUelly;
violent with knows historians them

having
out

himself

by

despotic
the old

conduct,
a

of

well-grounded suspicion surrounded


men. serve

self himtion tradi-

guard

of 300 may

All
as

this,about
a

which

nothing,
were

proof
when

how

little the
were

Roman want of

at

loss

for

causes,

they

in

for their
so.

pragmatismus.^^
But manner? their who
are

Exactly
matize in

"the
are

Roman

historians"
"

who

prag-

this and

They
wanted

exclusively Greek
so

Dionysius,
to

Plutarch,
because

followers.^

And
to

Roman
a

history is
pretty
did book

suffer

these !

rhetoricians

make

for their

countrymen
It is
a

pity that Schwegler's


accounts
as

critical

acumen

not

lead

him

to

reject these
Roman
to

worthless.
was

But He

they
inserts of

told them

against early
in
a

and history, the reader

that

enough.
that the

manner are

make faults Yet he

believe

faults

these

historians

the

of the

history.
to

proceeds

give the
is

Latin

view

as

follows

"

According
rule
of

to
1 ^

the

old
f.

tradition,which

represented by Ennius,

the

S. 535 The

authorities Rom.

Plutarch,
Joann. Roman for the

quoted by Schwegler for the 2 ; Dionysius, 26, 27, Num.


32 ;
can

above ii.
6Q ;

"

inventions," Zonaras, 5, ll.


vii. The is

are

4 ;

Antioch, authority
the

Fr. that

App.
be

B. C. ii. 114;
for any

Dio.
one

Cass.
of

Fr. the

adduced
been

assertions

only Livy

body-guard.
Celeres

But

it has the

before
This

shown

that

guishes Livy wrongly distinview


of

from

Knights.
i2

is also the

Schwegler.

116
Romulus him
the
as
a

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

was

just

and Even
that

mild

; after

his in of
a

death

his

people

lamented
to

father.^
views
"

Cicero

says, views
on

complete
the Greek

contradiction historians
"

above

is,the

that
the

Romulus

continued and

throughout
the
^

good understanding
his

with

Senate,
with The
a

punished
of

offences

of

subjects,not
to show had the
no

cruelly,but
Romulus,
to

wise drift

moderation."

this passage
well

is the the

of

course

that
reason

having
him,

behaved
that

towards

Senate, they story, or


must

kill his But

and

consequently
put
to

rather be

suspicion,of

having
it is
to

been

death

by

them may the XVI.

unfounded. totally
very revolution
most

quite possiblethat Senate, and


put
him
to

Romulus that from

have desire

behaved of
a

handsomely they
may towards Louis when

the

yet
death.
he

have
his

Louis
his that

behaved
on

kindly
; while

subjects ; yet
who
an

ended

days

the in

scaffold his bed.

XV.,
we

reallydeserved
author
out to

fate,died
a

And him
out

quote
not

support
that

view,
make
a

we

should

quote
leave
on,

fairly,
others

and that Julius in

pick
told his

passages

for

it,and

make

against it.
vision that

Cicero
of

says,

little further

that the

Proculus

Romulus deliver

at the

instigationof
from
se

Fathers,
hatred of

order

they might
him
"
"

themselves quo that illi a

the

having
Romuli

killed

impulsu patrum,
And
to

invidiam desired in

interitus
a lution revoown as

pellerent."
is the

the

proof
the

the

Senate
power Cicero

attempt
death and

keep
Romulus

supreme
; to

their

hands
it the
were

after
a

the
base

of

which for his

alludes In of

if

ungrateful
as

return

kindness.*
with the the
mass

fact,
the of

popularity of Romulus,
not

Livy
as

says,
we

lay
see

people, and
the passage The

with

the

Senate,

also

by

conclusion

just quoted.
of Julius Proculus
so
^ :
"

connexion

with
as

this

story
to

is not

of much of the

historical Caesars.

importance, except Schwegler


to

far The

relates tradition
as

the

family
the

observes be the

represents
of the

tion eleva-

of Romulus

god Quirinus by
him
to

first revealed rest

to Proculus

Julius,
1

and

communicated
i. 177 ff.

the

people.

This

Enn. De

Ann.

2 *

Rep.

iL

p. 8, seq. ille

Ibid.
ex

10, 20.

"Ergo
rex

quum
tantum

Romuli

Senatus, qui constabat


eos

optimatibus, quihis patriciosque


eorum

ipse

tribuisset,ut post
tulit Romuli

patres
ut

vellet

nominari sine

liberos, tentaret

excessum,

ipse gereret postea regem

rege

rempublicam,
destitit."

populus
"Ibid,
"

id
c,

non

desiderioque Romuli

non flagitare

12.

B.

i. S. 536, seqq.

THE

JULIAN

FAMILY.

117
that

trait is not of the

without
race

significance.
with It the is
as

In

it is reflected marks the its other

familiarity
and that

Julian

gods,
Eoman did Can

which

prominent
hand,

hereditary character.
Julius the the have value and may Proculus appears

striking,on
a

this
to

citizen, while, according


not
come

ruling tradition, the reign


of Tullus

Julii

to

Eome

till

later,in story
some

Hostilius. the Julii


to the

the

former who

version may of the

of the have
set

proceeded
on

from

themselves,

having belonged
been settled have

originalstock
from the that

Eoman

people,
? And for

having
it

at

Eome

very

beginning
out

consequently
mentions

happened
Eome calls

Livy,
Hostilius

of

respect
the

Augustus,
families What

the

Tullii,instead

of the

Julii,among
1
"

Alban

transplanted to Schwegler
Eome here assertion after

by
"

Tullus the

ruling
that of who Alba
names

tradition the ; Julii


an

"

is
were

only

the

unsupported i)lantedto
is not occasion

of the

Dionysius,i
reduction

trans-

assertion Tullii
not
on

which
that

only

contradicted of the

by Livy,
Julii
^

the is he
to

instead

but passage the

also, what
where person that
was
a

unusual, by
the he

Dionysius himself, who,


of
was

in the

relates whom

tion apparimistake
1^

Eomulus,

mentions in

that

appeared

named the is the

Julius, and,

order he

there

may

be

no

about

identity, adds
worth be of this drawn from

that Greek from

descendant Nor
can

of Ascanius any he inference mentions

Such
on

authority.
Tacitus,^ who,
does the
not

the

subject
as

though
at

the

Julii

coming
by

Alba,

say

what may

time.
not

But have

Schwegler's question,
been like
to

whether

former

version

invented

the Julii

themselves,
mentions N"ow

is answered Proculus

who, by Cicero,''
as

Livy
story
old
same

and Eomulus
to

Dionysius,
flatter Julius

Julius Cicero

the
not

person invent it from And

whom

appeared.
innocent

assuredly
must

did taken

the
some

Csesar ; but
of that from
some

have
as

annalist, as
fact will

intention
an

himself.

the

exculpate Livy
to

insinuated

forgery.
the

We late
are

will
Sir C

now

proceed
wall
more

examine

objectionsbrought by
Eomulus.^
are

Come
with

Lewis force

against the history of


than

They
not

urged

by

the

German to

writers, and

disfigured and
1

weakened

by

attempts

explain
Li^. i. 30,
dm

away

facts

by

Lib.

iii. 29. eh

'^

Ilape\6(iiv tis
Ann.

t'^v dyopciv 'IouAjos

Hvo^ia, twv

^AaKaviov.

"

Lib.

iL

c.

63.
4

xi. 24.

j^ep.n.

10, 24.

See

"c., vol. i. Credibility,

chap.

xi. " 9.

118

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

finding
The

for

them
wo

supposed
think

resemblances
are

in

the

Greek

mythology. profess to
or

Nevertheless

they
who

equally

inconclusive.
"

narrative, observes
from
near

Sir G. C. Lewis,
were

does

not

be

derived lived

historians
time
; nor

either
of

contemporary,
facts

who

the

are or

any

its main It is

supported by
of all of
or

contemporary
credible

documents

inscriptions.
On
few

totallydevoid
the texture

external
find

attestation.
that it

examining

the

history,we
of

is,with

exceptions, a mosaic,
thrown

work, patchinto
a

explanatory legends, pieced together, and


form.

narrative

These
and of

legends
local ;

are

and partly political and religious


we

institutional

partly
The the

monumental

partly
have

ritual"
have
to

question
there

contemporary
where
no we

historians

discussed
show

in

Introduction,
were

endeavoured
at

that,
modern Annales

though
sense

literaryhistorians
two

Eome, yet

in that

the
the their the

of the and

term, till about


the of

centuries Pontificum

B.C.,

Maximi
that TuUus account may the

Commentarii
the latter

supplied
as

place; reign
of
an

books Hostilius of the

began
were

at

least

early as
the not

; that

they

and retrospective, Thus for

contained
Eomulus

city from
have

its foundation.
on

reign of
more

possibly
a

rested

tradition

than

about

half

century.
not follow

It does

that

the
or

history was
from the

not,

at

one

time, supported
we

by contemporary
to

documents This arises

because inscriptions, ancient most

cannot

point writing
cite truth

them

now.

method

of

history.
their

The

ancients
at

did

not, like

modern
as

historians,
of the whence in the

authorities

the
or

bottom
at
now

of the page,
all events then
we

vouchers
source

of their derived of the the


see

information,
it j

of

the

they body
We

though they
On
the
same

and

allude

to

them

work.

grounds
histories
of

might
with

question,for
or

instance,

authenticity of
from the

the

of

Thucydides
the what

Tacitus. younger took of


to

correspondence eruption
; of if

Tacitus

Pliny
collect

respecting the
authentic which
contained find It
art

Vesuvius,
we

pains

he

information
an

yet,

possessed that part


the

his

history
bably pro-

account
name

of

eruption, we Pliny.
the

should

not

in it the
or

of the

younger

is

affirmed,
was

assumed,
known

universally by
from modern best

ancients, that
foundation We
;

the and

of
same

writing
this

at Eome

its very

the

fact is allowed

by
in
an

the the

authorities. But

have that ta

examined

question
used

Introduction.

to suppose ; and

the Eomans

never

art which

they

knew

is absurd

SIR

G.

c.

lewis's
it for
were
or

objections.

119

suppose It cannot in of record.

that be the

they
doubted time

never

used that there

public public they

purposes documents survived


we

is incredible. and

tions inscriptimes
ferred, re-

of

Eomulus,
in
a

that
to

till the have


on

Dionysius,
of the and

passage with Yeii

v^hich

already
a

speaks
Other walls material and

treaty

being engraved
of and the of the the

column. be the

tangible evidences
on

history would
Quirinal,
the and the

buildings
the

the

Palatine
on

Vetus
of

Capitolium,

Sabine "c.
;

Temples
not to

Quirinal,

Temple
domestic

Jupiter Feretrius,
customs,
libations be
as

speak
the

religious

the

festival and that

to

Consus,
matters

marriage
like
"

rites,the
nature.

funeral

to

Tatius,

other the

of the
was

It cannot all credible

said, therefore,
attestation." assertion
"

history

devoid

of

external The

that

the

history is
a

"a

patchwork
of the advert will

of whole

explanatory question.
a

legends
But
to

is

and quite gratuitous, this from

begging

before the
"

entering upon
drawn his

subject,we

for

moment

objection

Eomulus's
was

youth. only eighteen passed


from in
more

In

spite of

youth (forhe
and his

years

old

when and

he

founds

Rome),

early

life

among very

herdsmen
commencement

in rustic of his

pursuits,Romulus
as

appears

the

reign
the does

wise

versed legislator, intimates

all the than

arcana

of that

political
he
acts

science. upon

Dionysius, indeed,
advice
not of his

once

grandfather, Numitor
the
account.

; this

ever, expedient, howand

substantiallydiminish
received
The that

improbability

sistency incon-

of the upon in the it to formed the

history is evidently constructed


is characteristic of and and excellent

all principleof collecting

primitive institutions
the in

and

condition

Rome,

attributing
narrative is and

invention the
Life the
same

of

the

founder
as as

Romulus.

The of

manner

the
in

Cyropaedia
those works

Xenophon
the is

Plutarch's
are

of

Lycurgus,
of their
reasons

institutions

real,but
the

account and

originalestablishment
attributed the to the of formation the

fictitious,
are jectural. con-

and

motives Thus

founder
Roman

Cicero wisdom

considers of Romulus

state this of the in


to

as

due he

to

the

alone.
and
to

Consistently with foresightof Romulus,


one so

view,
site

enumerates

all the he

natural

political advantages
well of

of

Rome,
so

which

attributes
a

the

selecting
become of the

highly

favoured
a

position, and
different
it is

fitted the

the

capitalcity of
indeed,
to

great empire.
a

The
cause

story
for

birth

twins,

implies
this

the the

site of

Rome,

-for, according

fable,

founded

on

spot

120
whei'e

HISTORY

OP

THE

KINGS

OP

ROME.

they
is

were

exposed, damaging
the author

suckled

by

the

wolf, and
from in the

discovered

by
of

Fttustulus."
It rather that
to

to

this in

argument
a

the
same

youth
page, the time

Romulus
adverted his

should,

note That

have

the

parallelof Augustus. precisely of


in in
more

emperor,

at

of he

uncle's

death, was
Rome; yet,
succeeded
a

the the

age

gf

Romulus which

when he

founded

spite

of

opposition
sceptre
feat of than

rienced, expeThis of

he

seizing the city.


of

the the

world.

surely
what We is iEneas

is

much

extraordinary
a

founding
the descent

was

at

first
seen

only
that

small

have

the

story

Romulus's
for may

life among

men herdsfrom

part
; and

of

the

invention
same

necessary
we

tracing his dispense


with his of

for the
account

reason

Dionysius's grandfather,
are

pragmatical
Numitor.
no are

of not

his

acting on

the

advice

We

are

concerned

about

Cicero's
under There his the

which praises,
name can

doubt

rhetorically exaggerated,and,
a

of be

Romulus,
doubt did in

only

panegyric
was

upon

Rome
to

itself. found

little he left

that

Romulus for

compelled
was

city

where

by
the

necessity;
But the

it

about

the

only

vacant

space

neighbourhood. comparison
Both of the Life

early history
of works is told the the
nor

of Rome is

to

Xenophon's
most
a

Cyropaedia, or
one.

Plutarch's

Lycurgus,
are

certainlya
of of Romulus of the of

fortunate un-

these all that

productions
age

highly
is rude

literary age
and could have in the

while

of

fragmentary.
been

Neither invented feels

the

Asylum,
way of

the

rape

Sabines,
;

by

models
to

worthy
offer
to
a

imitation
of

and,
for

fact,Cicero
latter.^ We

himself
not

obliged
here mouth upon
we

sort

apology

need into

advert of

the

silly speeches
as

which

Dionysius puts
upon

the founded

Romulus,
a

such

his of

course dis-

government,
constitution that
;

complete
it is

mistake

the of
the

Romulean
this

though

suppose

the

flourishes
with

rhetorician

have

partly suggested

the

comparison

Cyropaedia.
The assertion that that the

history
of

is and

written

on

the
in

principle of
the

collecting all
institutions

is characteristic

excellent
and in the

primitive
them to probable; im-

and is not

condition

Rome,
and

attributing
author
"
"

Romulus,

only unfounded,
contrary
et

highest degree
has

it is also
^
* *

to

what

the

just

before

ITovura

quoddam

subagreste

consilium.

De

Rep.

ii. 7.

122

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROMK.

completely
in this did the

new

one. as

Not Sir G.
have

is it

pretended
says

that
; on

he the

founded

all

the share

religious system,
appears

C. Lewis

contrary, his
In this deal
we

to
as

heen
as

extremely
and shall
not

small.
a

way,
more.

Tatius Into

almost

much
his the
or

he,
we

JS'uma

great
as

question
how

about

laws

enter,

do

not

perceive
"whether "Another
into the

it affects
were

credibilityof
unwritten.

early
C.

Eoman

history,
"woven the

they

written,

class of
the

legends," continues reign


of

Sir G.
are

Lewis,
local

story of

Eomulus,
the

those
and of

which other

explain
Stator
the

origin of public buildings


such
as

and

monuments,

nations, denomiand Porta


names

the
the

Asylum,
Curtius,
third
as

Temples
the

Jupiter Forum,
of
a

Jupiter Feretrius, Pandana,


of the Lacus A

Tarpeian Kock,
the class those the the

Caelian
the

Hill,

Comitium,
are

the

the

Curiae.

legends
the

religious or
the

sacred

character,such
Matronalia,
we

explaining
handed down

origin of

Con-

sualia, the
Before

and

Populifugia."
of the
we or are

call the

accounts to

origin
bound

of these
to

things legends
that in that

invented
not

explain them, they


have
to

show
way

they
which

could

possibly have
tells
an us

originated
did.
at

existed

in the for

tradition

If

we we

deny,
are

instance,
to
prove that

Eomulus he

opened
not is But

asylum

Eome,
so a

bound
all to

that
his

could
so

possibly
this, we

done
such has

; or,

at
as

events,
be

doing
that is

improbable

degree
been

wholly

incredible.
to

submit,

not

done. is
an

Therefore,

say

the' tradition

respecting

the

asylum
guess
;

aetiological
as we

legend
have
At

nothing shown,
same as

but not
we

a a

conjecture,or
very will admit

and, indeed,

before the

plausible one. that, in


some

time
the

of

the
and

instances the Lacus


to

mentioned,

Tarpeian Eock,
the
real

the
are

Porta, Pandana,

Curtius,
account

the
a

ancient
name are

explanations
not

probably
had very

mere

guesses into

for

origin of
various

which any

fallen

oblivion.

These, however,
Eoman

connected

Vith

material them

point
show

of

history ;
rested
with not the

while
on

the

explanations of
tradition.
tradition
as

that

they
not

any

constant

But

the

case

is very
are

diiFerent
two

Asylum.
of it.

Here

is constant
a

; there

explanations
Eoman

And,

it concerned
more

very have
was name

important
been
rectly cor-

point
that

of

history,it
down.
The

is all the
of

likely to
Feretrius
; also
names

handed of

Temple shown,

Jupiter
the

certainly,
of the The

Jupiter
Hill, as

Stator
we

probably,

Eomulean

the

Cselian

have

and

of the

Curia?.

ALLEGED

^ETIOLOGICAL

LEGENDS.

123

Comitium,
we

as

the

place
in

wliere

Eomulus

and

Tatius in of is

met, appears,

believe, only
is
more

Greek

writers, certainly not


when and
more

Livy.
Forum
a

The in
pro-

Forum the

doubtful the the

; for

Livy speaks
Sabines,
it

the

battle

between
to

Eomans
account

only by

and lepsis, is
a

make

to his intelligible have of been the and

readers. rudiments
even

It of

possible,however,
forum,
as a as mere
a

that

there in the

may time

market, place
as we

Eomulus,
for the

of the

Comitium,
The relate which
more

of

general assembly shown,^


historical The
are

Comitia

Curiata.^
and of
are

Consualia,
to
a

have

certainly Eomulean,
the and substance

very

important
The

event, about
Matronalia

tradition uncertain.

is unvaried.

Populifugia
not

latter,in
*

fact, is
who
;

decidedly
which

Eomulean

it is the

only, we
on

believe, Dionysius
the death of

attributes
on

it to the

flightof

people
was

Eomulus

occasion,however,
Sir

there "The
"

no

flight.
institutions
as religious,

ancient civil and and

of

Eome,"
as

continues
names

G.

C. Lewis,

both

well

the
were

of many
to
a

remarkable

buildings
been

public monuments,
or, if

anterior

regular
of them

temporary con-

registration ;
ever

any the

authentic
most

records

had Gallic

made, they

had

for

part perished

in the the

conflagration,and
Punic

through

other

casualties, before

Second

War."
as registration, we

Contemporary began
at

have Tullus

shown

in the

Introduction,
in that Eoman
some markable re-

all events
;

in the

reign of long

Hostilius, perhaps
the
names

of ^Numa

therefore, not
and

after the

origin of
"

earliest
"

institutions

buildings. And,
may
must

though
have
have have been

the

of

public monuments registration, yet surelythese


valuable
Maximi did
to

anterior

to

contemporary
a

formed

of themselves that that other the what ways.

very

kind did

of
not

We registration.

also shown

Annales
records But

perish
extract. Eome citizens

in

the from

and conflagration, memory, and in

perish
continue

were our

restored

"Even
of curiosity of her

before her

had

become

great imperial
excited and about after

power, the

the

would

naturallybe
and

origins
had
tended ex-

institutions, usages,
her

buildings ;
a

she the

dominion,
a

and

acquired
which

vast
seen

renown, to

desire
so

to

learn
an

the

history of

system

was

exercise

great

influence, would
^
2

naturally increase.
toto

We

may

therefore

assume

"Et

effusos

egerat Eomanos,
v.

quantum

Forospatium
^

est." Lib.

"

Lib. i. 12.
c.

Varro, L. L.

155.

Above,

p. 68, seqq.

ii.

56.

124
it

HISTOllY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

as

certaiu,that such

explanatory legends began


that the

to

arise at

a as

com-

early period, and ])aratively


demand These

supply
enforced
M.

was

multiplied by

the

increased." remarks
Hue's upon
are

illustrated
in

and

quotation, in
came

note,
his
a

from

Travels
a

Tartary.
and

Hue,

it appears,

in

travels

ruined

abandoned

city, where
the

he called

found
"

Mongol
Town."
a

shepherd,
Sir

^who

knew

only

that

place was
note

The
:

(^Id
"

G.

C. Lewis

concludes

the

by observing
a

In

country

inhabited satisfied

by wandering
there

pastoral tribes,such having


is excited fixed

state

of may

incurious exist
;

and but

ignorance respecting ancient


are

monuments

where
a

persons relic of

habitation its
true

in

the

vicinity of
their of it has

striking

antiquity, and
; and

living as
if the up

neighbours, history
To Lewis As it

curiosityrespecting it perished, a
the fabulous

legend

soon

springs
Sir
of

to

the cravings of satisfy make


to

appetite for
it had been

information."
was

the show

parallelcomplete,
that Eome

incumbent to
a

on

G.

C.

reduced

state

solitude.
"

is,he

makes of

people constantly living in antiquity


of
"
"

the

vicinityof
of

some

relic "striking
even

say,
"

Tarquin's Temple forget altogether


the
to

Jupiter, or
founded for them
"

iN'uma's
or were

Temple
what had

Vesta

who

them,

for

purpose,
never we

although
ceased will say of

proper

service in

which
; till
we

they
at

destined after
a

be
two

performed
or

last,

lapse
of the
at

three
that the
to

centuries space rise of

(^annot the

go

beyond three, writing


invented
it not London say, of be

for

there

is less

than and

between

foundation

Capitoline Temple
Eome
"

literary
some

liistorical stories
^ow
are

curiositybegins
the

revive,

and

to

explain
have

origin
to

of

these

monuments the

would
in

just as

reasonable

suppose for
some

that

people
the

living
for

should

forgotten Abbey,
service
was

centuries it
was

foundation,
a

Westminster

and

that

designed
in

place of worship, though


last it
a originally

continually performed
were

curiosityat it,till;
that
was

reviving,stories
church
on

invented
in the sixth

to

gratify it,
sequently sub-

dedicated site of

century by
was

]ving
The

Sebert

to

St.

Peter,

the
the

which
1

the

abbey
and

erected
same
as

by

Edward
will

Confessor
to

illustration for

apply

institutions
must

usages, in

as

well
use,

buildings ;
familiar
are

these, like them,


to

have

been

daily
Eome
the

and

knowledge.
too

In
were

fact,we
as

apt

suppose
as

that

the
are

of antiquities,
to

antiqtieto

the

Eomans

they

ourselves, after

LEGENDS

ABOUT

BUILDINGS.

125
most

lapse
have As

of

further which

twenty
served

centuries, and
to

when

of the

things
the

perished
we

identify them.
than and And
to

have of the

said, there

are

less

three the
as

centuries
time it is of

between

building
the that first
"

Capitoline Temple
Eoman annalist.

Fabius

Pictor,

literary

certainlyassumed
century
of less in and this than that dence evi-

explanatory legends began


we can

arise
at

at

comparatively early
a

period,"
a

hardly place
time of would
a

this

period
The have it is that

less than and

half

before

the

Pictor.

origin
been allowed
are

founder

famous
a

temple
and oral of

therefore ! Whereas of may events be

forgotten by
the

century
mere

half

author the
a

the

tradition

unsupported by
for

monuments
a

accurately preserved
with

period higher
of the "c.

exceeding
The
same

century.^
reason

will the the

apply,
other

little allowance
and the

for

antiquity,

to

all
;
as

monuments

institutions the of

kingly period According kings, even


to to

Cloaca

Maxima,
all these of whom
were

Forum,
the works

Circus,

modern very
our

views,
names

imaginary
But

the with

are

not

certainlyknown.
and

proceed
"

quotations.
past
was

As

the of
area

remote

unrecorded
fettered
to

unremembered,
restrictions
was

the had

invention the whole the

the

was setiologist

by
and

no

; he

of

fiction

open His

him,
was

he

not to

even

bound condition

by
that

laws

of nature. afford in
an

story
that

only subject
the the

the

it must
name

apparent explanation of
; and

custom, object, or
manners,

proper

question

thoughts,

and the

cumstances cir-

introduced

must

agree

with the

the

of peculiarities licence and


to

Eoman in

people.
the

We

find of of

accordingly that
these
or

utmost

prevailed
the
merest

fabrication

antiquarian legends ;
usage, because
were

that

resemblances
a

sound,

sufficient
manners

suggest

the idea

of

real connexion.
severe

Thus,

the

of the

ancient
were

Sabines
said
to be

were

and of the
;

simple, and although


it
was

their habits who


was no

warlike, they
were

colonists

Lacedaemonians,
there

distinguishedby proof
of the
as

similar such

characteristics

historical
to

any

connexion,
Thus that
ever we

and have

quite
Komans face

unknown

early Greek
the
to

writers."

the
on

painted
of the

greatest simpletons
believe any idle their it for

existed

the

earth, ready them,


and

story that

might

be which

palmed
was

upon

accept
of these institution

genuine history,
there is not
a

entirely composed
monument
or

tales ; for the

single
1

old

Eoman

origin

Credibility, "c. vol. i. p.

101.

126
of
We from

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

which, according
know
not

to

modern other

is critics,
so

not

an as an

a3tiological myth.
the Romans
were

of

any

nation

civilized

their very

origin that possessed,like them,


And

entirelyimaginative

history.
for That

yet the

Romans

were

not

guished particularlydistin-

imagination.
were

they

superstitious, however,
in

and"

ready

to believe

many
must

wonderful be allowed.

things
But

connexion such
a

with

the is not of

supernatural world, incompatible


France the
was one

temper
Louis

with
of

the the

shrewdest
most of

practical sense.
that
once

XI.

sagacious monarchs
have prey

ever

sat upon him

throne.
on

The the

Duke
we

Burgundy, indeed,
a more

overreached
of

; but

whole
Yet

hardly
was

strikinginstance
most miraculous and have

worldly

wisdom. the

Louis

the

of the many

abject superstition.
incredible not been
so

So

Romans
on

might

have

believed with

things
life.

points connected
upon

and religion, which

yet

easilyimposed
reserved
agree
as

in matters

concerned

their

every-day
not
"

Sir G.
that the

C. Lewis, however,

needed

to have

the to

proviso
Roman of and
are

explanations
and The
were

of

the

setiologist must
with the of the
accordance for

thoughts,

manners,,

circumstances

of peculiarities

the

people."
Romulus
manners

Asylum,
that been later

the

rape in

Sabines, the
with

deification

certainly not
invented.
to

the

thoughts they
as we

of to

generation
And is
a

whose

edification

said

have

this

circumstance,

have

already endeavoured
at all. An

show,

proof
is not

that

they

were

not

invented

ethnographical hypothesis
misled that the that

legend
from touch

; and

if

some or

of the

Romans, thought
we some are

by

"

the

merest
were

resemblances descended will and

of the
now

sound

usage,"

Sabines
the
same

Lacedaemonians,
and then
even

afraid eminent

reproach

modern modern

ethnographers subjects,would
or

who, philologists,
an

in

vestigati in-

not

readily admit

tion interpolaaffirms
the

into
"

the

of England historj'-

Germany. Dionysius affinity,


Roman

On

similar

grounds
the

of

apparent
of the
of the

that

Romulus

copied
and the

relation

king
of the

to

Roman table

Senate,
of the

institution

Celeres,and
to

common

Curiae, from
as no we

Lacedoemon." have

Romulus,

endeavoured
to

show,

being

of from

Greek the

descent,
"

had

need

borrow

these

institutions

Spartans.
We must

suppose

tliat the

legends

which

were

worked

up

into

LEGENDS, the

HOW

MADE

HISTORICAL.

127
and

history
and illustrate.

of

Eomulus

were

originallyindependent
tlie

nected, uncon-

referred At
as

only

to

peculiar subject
were

which into not


a

they
the

served

to

what
is
we now

time

they
doubt
"

moulded
us,
we

continuous
means

narrative, such

presented
from

to

have

of

discovering;
from his of birth the
"

but

cannot

that his

the

account

of

Eomulus

to his

death his

Alban

origin and
his
wars,

his foundation

city to
was

politicalmeasures,
in which it has

and

lastlyhis
earliest This
of

apotheosis
narrative

substantially related
the form

by Fabius,
descended

and
to

the
us.

historians,in
was

not, like
for the
most

the

early
a

British

history
oral

of

Geoifrey
materials
were

Monmouth,
of it were,

part

purely originalfiction; the


from the
same

to

great extent,
the have

derived At

legends, which
the connexion thus

incorporated into
the details of
must

history.
been
was

time first

and the

supplied by
some

the

compilers ;
of the of the

story

the

Asylum
Sabine
we

local of the

legend

; that ;

rape

of the

Sabines

illustrated

the
women

origin
was

festival
a

that

tion intervenin the of the


cause

of the

probably
of the the

separate story
cause

; but

narrative, as
Sabine their
once

read and

it,the Asylum
the rape

is the Sabine

of

the

rape

women,

women

is the The three

of

interpositionbetween independent
same

hostile

armies. become

events,
links in

of

each

other, have

continuous

the

historical in this time the

chain."

Altliough
at

paragraph
"the context it
was

Sir.G.

C. Lewis
were

appears into

to be
a

tain uncer-

what

legends"
done "the first and

formed him Fabius

continuous
to

narrative, yet
been of

whole that

shows

plainly enough
and and
"

have torians. hismust

opinion
For he

by

the the

earliest

says' that
the

connexion

details
could If

have been not the for C.

been
no

supplied by
other than

compilers ;
the been of earliest

and

these

have be

Fabius
must

historians.

this

so,

then of

there

have

historians, or compilers, before

period
the

literaryhistory, or
which for is
our

history written
with the

and views

published
of Sir

public ;

quite at
part, we
thus

variance

G.

Lewis, though,
Tlie

tliink it
:

probable enough.
two

theory, then,
era

stands
was no some

about

centuries of the

before

the
and any

Christian
progress connexion

there

account

whatever oral the

origin
without

of

Eome;
whatever worked

only
them

scattered them
"

legends
in

between into

first links

compilers adopted
the
same

these,

and

continuous

torical his-

chain." It is

truly surprising that

people

which

appears

to

have

en-

128
deavoured there
must

nrsTORY

of

the

kings

of

rome.

at least to
at

preserve have down

some

memory been
a

of their
list of of been

affairs

"

since the

all the

events

consuls

from
a

expulsion
of
more

of
than of

kings

to
"

the

time have

Fabius,
in

period
utter

three their

centuries

should

such

ignorance
two most
were

history.
over,

But, passing this

let facts

us
:

observe

that
these

the

theory
of

involves

extraordinary
in

first,that
were

scattered

legends,
second,

which

wholly unconnected,
an

still
cause

capable
and the in

being placed compilers


same nexion. con-

together
what should is

relation intelligible
more

of

effect ; and first the

still,perhaps,
have The

astonishing, that
them writers known

agreed
two

in

weaving

together
of Roman

earliest

history,Fabius
were

and

Cincius

Alimentus,
other

were

contemporaries,
whose
;

and

speedily
such in

followed

by

writers, in
have

time

the

oral

legends, if
writers

they
with

were,

must

still survived

yet

all these the

agreed

representing Roman only


those
sources

history substantiallyin
show ! sort

same

manner,

and from
to

slightdivergences which Surely


of this is much
at

that

they
the

drew

independent
suppose that been
as we

more

incredible

than

some

history,or
this

all events

materials

for

it, had
But
we
*'

handed have here

down. touched dwell there upon is


a

upon it.

subject
of

in the

Introduction,

need But

not

although
"

continuity
the another
can

narrative," proceeds Sir


of Romulus
an

G.

C. Lewis,

running through
stand to
we one

story
in

though

the of

successive
cause

events

relation intelligible the each deliberate

and

effect; yet
of the the of

trace
can

throughout perceive
that The

invention treated
an

setiologist ; we
manner

subject is by
or a

after

of
:

Ovid's is
no a

Fasti.

story

is formed

aggregation

parts
of
a

there

uninterrupted
statue

poeticalflow
one
a

epic unity. foundry,


stones

Instead

resembling
Even founded of it
'

cast, in
formed

piece,in

it is like different Romulus

tesselated colours.
to

pavement,

into who

pattern by
the
to

of of

Mebuhr,
on
a

conceives is

story

be

heroic the

lay,

forced

acknowledge
of

that

parts

are

without

spirit or

features

poetry.'
It is
"

"

difficult

to

perceive
"

how

narrative

which
of and
so
"

is admitted which stand

to
to

have
one

continuity," and
in
a an

the

successive of If
see

events
cause

another

relation intelligible

effect,"should
for
"

resemble confess

tesselated
we

pavement.
not

it

does

we

must

that

do

exactly

the

resemblance

it may

be

130
and

HISTORY

OP

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

institutions;no religious
part either
in

person

is named
or

as

taking
spiritof
as

any

dependen in-

the

Senate

in and

the
in

popular assembly.
the
but
a stitutional con-

He

is

represented king
in

as

governing mildly early part


he in and The meets

the

of his

reign ;
is

afterwards obedience
arouse

becoming despotic,although
at

with there

nothing

but
to

home
or

and awaken

successes

war,

nothing

his

fears which

his

jealousy.
to

joint government
in the utmost

with

Tatius,
for five

is described

have
on

lasted the and

harmony
the
with real

years, is
two

only
were

conceivable

supposition
with small
be

that

offices of the
power
"

kings

honorary,
the

unaccompanied
the
as

supposition altogether
narrative. lived
a

inconsistent

spirit of
were

the

old

Even

Spartan kings,
j and it may

their

powers,

in

perpetual
as

discord

safelyaffirmed
account to in authentic

that

such

relation

is described

in

the is

received

have

existed

between These which


it
or

Eomulus

and

Tatius,
a

unexampled
of of
an

history."
criticism

objections are
saddles
on

good example
faults not do

that

mode

of

the

history the
which who have here

and historian, to to but itself,

charges
to
one

with
two

inconsistencies of the Sir writers G.

belong
"the

undertaken calls
is

give
of

an

account

of

it. the

What

C. Lewis of

received
account

narrative"

of of

politicalhistory
a

Eomulus,

the

Dionysius
the of and

Halicarnassus,
tongue,
head that
a

Greek who could

imperfectly acquainted frequently


never

with
out

Latin
own

rhetorician that have

invented been who


was

his

speeches
could
never

have and

delivered
in

events

happened,

riously particularnoto-

ignorant
Lewis

of the Eoman

constitution. Eomulus

When

Sir G. Comewall
been
an

accepts the
of his powers the

description of having
been

having
of the

elective

king,
been have what
state

extremely limited, of
decrees have
the been

his

having
would

merely
he is

executor

of

the

Senate, one
awakened

thought
himself

that

his

suspicions might
afterwards, that
him

by
the
as

adds

all "no

organization of
person
or

derived

from

alone,
either

that
in the

is

named

taking lump,
this
make

any

independent part
But
no; he

Senate

in the

popular
in

assembly."

accepts
to

these

flat contradictions

the

without

stopping
an

inquire
its

how

they

arose

; he

considers
to
a

imbroglio
it
an

actual

part of the

history,and credibility.

then Now

proceeds
suppose

argument
in

against

foreigner
and written

settled

London,

imperfectly acquainted
our

with

our

guage, lan-

still more his

imperfectly with
a

should institutions,

have

for

countrymen

historyof England

full of the most

ABSOLUTENESS

OF

ROMULUS.

131

glaringblunders
between in is his work

; would

from posterity,
those of better

observing the
informed

contradictions

and

historians,be
fictitious in the of of the 1 Yet

tified justhis

pronouncing
account which

the

whole

history itself
Lewis does

preciselywhat
The

Sir G.

Cornewall
that writer

present

case.

accepts
the
errors

early

Eoman
been
seems

constitution

is that

of

Dionysius/
and of
were

which

have

pointed
to

out

by

Eubino^
his idea

other the

writers. of Eomulus

Dionysius, who
from
at

have

formed

reign
Romulus

those
least

of
were

the
so

subsequent kings,
and his but address them

who

certainlyelective, or
summon

there constitutionally, in
a

makes

the
says
was

people together suggested by


nowhere existed

long

speech, which
which In

he

but grandfather Il^I^umitor, in the head of the of writer.


a

could

have

this
or

speech
a

Eomulus
to

leaves
which This
as

to

the

people
G. C.

the
in

choice

monarchy
for

republic; being
"his

the
is
an

people reply
Sir ''elective"
throne
a seems

another

speech by electing him


Eomulus he is of

king.
described title chief of

Lewis's

authority
but that when he of

king;
to

adds the

that

to

the is

be

royal family
the will of

Alba,"

this

complete misconception by by
^

the
is

Eomulean

constitution.
the

Eomulus fested gods, maniSo

rules

divine augury,

right.
the

He

king by

agreeably to

the representation of

Livy.^
which may

also
the
:

Ennius

represents

people passivelyawaiting
Eomulus and

king give
them

issue of the
"

quarrel betAYeen
Sic

Eemus
tenebat

expectabat populus, atque


victoria

ora

Kebus, utri magni


that Becker, indeed, affirms,^ concerned

sit data

regni."
of

the of
:

portent
the
"

the

twelve
this is

vultures
a

only
of and

the

building
who
on nomen
:

city.

But avitum tutelae

direct

contradiction

Livy,

says "ut

Intervenit

malum,
ea

reg7ii
essent,

cupido;"

further

dii, quorum
urbi

loca

auguriislegerent, qui
regeretj
The
"

novse

daret, qui conditam


^

imperio
in

ad

...

inaugurandum
is further

templa capiunt." by
....

matter ad
ii.

illustrated

another

passage quae

Livy

Vocata
1 ^

concilium 3,
seqq.

multitudine

jura dedit;

ita sancta

Lib. Eom.

c.

Staatsv.

B.

i. S. 7, Anm.

1 ; and

the

Second

Section,
urhe

"

Von

dem

Konigthume."
3

Lib.

i.
est.
"

c.

6 ; cf.

c.

18,

"

sicut

Romulus

augurato

condeuda,

regmim

adeptus
4 5

Ap.
Rom.

Cic.

De

Div.

i. 48.
; Anm. 602.
"

Alterth.

ii. i. S. 294

Lib.

i. 6.

k2

132

HISTORY

OF

THE

KINGS

OF

ROME.

generi hominum
lictoribus
it appears

agrestiratus
cetero

si fore, habitu fecit."


he

se se

ipse venerabilem
Eubino to the

insignibus
maxime

imperii fecisset, quum


duodecim

augustiorem, turn
as

sumptis,
consent

"Whence,
did not

observes,
his

clearly enough by
is

that of the

mean

establish
awe

ordinances

the

people, but
of all the

by
best divine

inspired
writers. tain foun-

by

his

dignity.
an

Such

is the

view

ancient

Romulus

absolute
and

monarch, ruling by
supreme tribunal to but

right,the
the chief

of all law

the justice,
no

commander,
that who of
has

priest
for

of The
that

his

people, amenable
are

public opinion.^
created the them executor

Senate
purpose,

only
and to

his

advisers

; it is he he
was

suppose

that

merely
of

of

their

decrees

is

one

of the

greatest possiblemistakes.
as

Cicero

clearly
hind than
passage

discriminates

their
Dio

functions who

those
was

only
much

council, and
informed
in
a

of

Senate.'^

Cassius,

better

Dionysius respecting the


which
tell the Sir

early
his

Roman

constitution,

G.

C. Lewis