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GRADISTAT

Version 4.0
A Grain Size Distribution and Statistics Package for the Analysis of Unconsolidated Sediments by Sieving or Laser Granulometer Developed by Simon Blott Surface Processes and Modern Environments Research Group Department of Geology Royal Holloway University of London Egham Surrey TW20 0EX E-mail: s.blott@gl.rhul.ac.uk Tel/Fax: +44 (0)1784 414168

The development of this program was inspired by Dave Thornley and John Jack at Postgraduate Research Institute for Sedimentology at the University of Reading, UK, and Department of Geology at Royal Holloway University of London, UK. It is provided in Microsoft format to allow both spreadsheet and graphical output. The program is best suited to analyse obtained from sieve or laser granulometer analysis. The user is required to input the mass percentage of sediment retained on sieves spaced at any intervals, or the percentage of sediment detected in each bin of a Laser Granulometer. The following sample statistics are then calculated the Method of Moments in Microsoft Visual Basic programming language: mean, mode(s), sorting (standard deviation), skewness, kurtosis, D10, D50, D90, D90/D10, D90-D10, D75/D25 and D75-D25. Grain parameters are calculated arithmetically and geometrically (in microns) and logarithmically (using the scale) (Krumbein and Pettijohn, 19381; Table 1). Linear interpolation is also used to calculate statistical parameters by the Folk and Ward (1957)2 graphical method and derive physical descriptions (such very coarse sand and moderately sorted). The program also provides a physical description textural group which the sample belongs to and the sediment name (such as fine gravelly coarse sand) after Folk (1954)3. Also included is a table giving the percentage of grains falling into each size fraction, modified from Udden (1914)4 and Wentworth (1922)5 (see Table 2). In terms of graphical output, program provides graphs of the grain size distribution and cumulative distribution of the data in metric and phi units, and displays the sample grain size on triangular diagrams. Samples may analysed singularly, or up to 250 samples may be analysed together.
The program is ideal for the rapid analysis of sieve data and is freely available from the author the above address. Please note that the copyright for the program is held by author, and any distribution or use of the program should be acknowledged to him. S. Blott October 2000

1Krumbein, W.C. and Pettijohn, F.J. (1938) Manual of Sedimentary Petrography. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York. 2Folk, R.L. and Ward, W.C. (1957) Brazos River bar: a study in the significance of grain size parameters. Journal of Sedimentary

Petrology, 27, 3-26.


3Folk, R.L. (1954)

The distinction between grain size and mineral composition in sedimentary-rock nomenclature. Journal Geology, 62, 344-359.
4Udden,

J.A. (1914) Mechanical composition of clastic sediments. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 25, 655-744

5Wentworth, C.K. (1922) A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments. Journal of Geology, 30, 377-392.

Instructions on the Use of the GRADISTAT Program


Single Sample Analysis

1. Switch to the "Single Sample Data Input" sheet if it is not already active. Enter the aperture sizes the sieves or Laser Granulometer bins used in the analysis into the cells in column B. Sizes may entered either in ascending or descending numerical order. For convenience, you can click on one the standard sieve or Laser Granulometer size intervals and GRADISTAT will enter the size classes you. Any non-standard sieve sizes can be used, although some of the statistics may not be calculated you have not used sieves with at least whole phi intervals. See the section below if the sample contains unanalysed sediment, such as material retained in the pan after sieving. At least one size class than the largest particles in the sample should also be entered. A large area to the right of the columns is provided for the cut and paste of data from other spreadsheets, such as the import of Granulometer data.
2. Enter the weight or percentage of sample beside each size class in column C. When you finished, make sure there are no data further down the spreadsheet which could cause an error. program will accept data down to row 230. 3. Enter the sample identity, analyst, date and initial sample weight (optional) at the top of the "Single Sample Data Input" sheet.

4. Click the "Calculate Statistics" button and wait a few moments for the program to finish running When the dialog box appears, click "OK". 5. The results are summarised on the "Single Sample Statistics" sheet, which includes a distribution histogram of the sample. Select "Print..." from the file menu to print the Summary Statistics page data is also shown on triangular diagrams on the "Gravel Sand Mud" and "Sand Silt Clay" sheets Further cumulative and distribution plots are given on other sheets.

Multiple Sample Analysis

1. Switch to the "Multiple Sample Data Input" sheet. Enter the aperture sizes of the sieves or Granulometer bins used in the analysis into the cells in column B. The aperture sizes must be the for all the samples. Sizes may be entered either in ascending or descending numerical order convenience, you can click on one of the standard sieve or Laser Granulometer size intervals GRADISTAT will enter the size classes for you. Any non-standard sieve sizes can be used, although some of the statistics may not be calculated if you have not used sieves with at least whole phi intervals See the section below if samples contain unanalysed sediment, such as material retained in the after sieving. At least one size class larger than the largest particles in the sample should also entered. 2. Enter the weight or percentage of sample in column C onwards. Make sure there are no data further down the spreadsheet which could cause an error. The program will accept data down to row 230.
3. Enter the sample identity, analyst, date and initial sample weight (optional) in the green cells above each sample listing. 4. If you require a Summary Statistics printout for each sample, select a tick in the option box.

5. Click the "Calculate Statistics" button and wait for the program to finish running (this may take several minutes). GRADISTAT will give a warning if it detects a sample whose combined weight is greater the given sample weight. Click "OK" when prompted on the dialog boxes.

the given sample weight. Click "OK" when prompted on the dialog boxes.
6. The resulting statistics for all samples are summarised on the "Multiple Sample Statistics" sheet data for each sample included in the analysis are also shown on triangular diagrams on the "Gravel Sand Mud" and "Sand Silt Clay" sheets. Cumulative and distribution plots will show the results for last sample in the analysis. If graphical plots for other samples are required, use separate single sample analyses (above).

Unanalysed Sediment
Occasionally, samples may contain sediment in a size fraction of unspecified size, such as material retained in the pan after sieving. Ideally, the whole size range in a sample should be analysed, and may require further analysis of sediment remaining in the pan after sieving. The larger the quantity sediment remaining in the pan, the less accurate the calculation of grain size statistics, with statistics calculated by the Method of Moments being most susceptible. Errors in Folk and Ward parameters become significant only when more than 5% of the sample is undetermined. If the sample contains sediment in the pan the user should do one of the following: 1. Enter the weight or percentage of sample in the pan with a class size of zero (or leave the class blank). GRADISTAT calculates the statistics assuming all sediment in the pan is larger than 10 f (1 The grain size distribution graphs do not however plot the quantity of sediment in the pan.

2. Enter the weight or percentage of sample in the pan with a class size which the user considers the lower size limit of sediment in the pan. GRADISTAT calculates the statistics assuming all sediment in the pan is larger than this value and plots this quantity on the grain size distribution graphs. The above two options are recommended where there is less than 1% of the sample remaining pan.
3. Do not enter the quantity of sediment in the pan at all. GRADISTAT calculates the statistics ignoring the sediment in the pan as if it were not present in the sample. This is recommended where there more than 1% of the sample remaining in the pan. Samples containing more than 5% of sediment in the pan should ideally be analysed using a different technique, such as sedimentation or laser granulometry. Great care must however be taken merging data obtained by different methods.

Graph Scales The size scale used in graphical plots is dependent upon the range of sizes specified on the sample input sheets: the first and last values provide the extreme values on the graphs. While one size larger than the largest particles in the sample should be entered, other size classes outside the size range of the sample have no influence on the statistical calculations. These classes may be deleted to narrow the size scale on graphs. Note that unused size classes within the size range of the sample should also be deleted, otherwise GRADISTAT assumes that zero sample weight was present in size classes.

Copyright Simon Blott (2000)

Table 1. Statistical formulae used in the calculation of grain size parameters. f is the frequency in percent; m is the mid-point of each class interval in metric (mm) or phi (mf) units; Px and fx are grain diameters, in metric or phi units respectively, at the cumulative percentile value of x.
(a) Arithmetic Method of Moments Mean
xa = Sfm m 100

Standard Deviation

Skewness
Ska = S f ( mm - x a ) 3 100 s a
3

Kurtosis
Ka = S f ( mm - x a ) 4 4 100 s a

sa =

Sf ( mm - xa ) 2 100

Table 1. Statistical formulae used in the calculation of grain size parameters. f is the frequency in percent; m is the mid-point of each class interval in metric (mm) or phi (mf) units; Px and fx are grain diameters, in metric or phi units respectively, at the cumulative percentile value of x.
(a) Arithmetic Method of Moments Mean
xa = Sfm m 100

Standard Deviation

Skewness
Ska = S f ( mm - x a ) 3 100 s a
3

Kurtosis
Ka = S f ( mm - x a ) 4 4 100 s a

sa =

Sf ( mm - xa ) 2 100

(b) Geometric Method of Moments Mean Sf ln m m x g = exp 100 Standard Deviation Skewness
Sk g = Sf (ln m m - ln x g ) 100 ln s g
3 3

Kurtosis
Kg = Sf (ln m m - ln x g ) 4 100 ln s g
4

s g = exp

Sf (ln m m - ln x g ) 2 100

Sorting (sg) Very well sorted Well sorted Moderately well sorted Moderately sorted Poorly sorted Very poorly sorted Extremely poorly sorted < 1.27 1.27 1.41 1.41 1.62 1.62 2.00 2.00 4.00 4.00 16.00 > 16.00

Skewness (Skg) Very fine skewed Fine skewed Symmetrical Coarse skewed Very coarse skewed < -1.30 1.30 -0.43 0.43 +0.43 + 0.43 +1.30 > +1.30
-

Kurtosis (Kg) Very platykurtic Platykurtic Mesokurtic Leptokurtic Very leptokurtic < 1.70 1.70 2.55 2.55 3.70 3.70 7.40 > 7.40

(c) Logarithmic Method of Moments Mean Sfmf xf = 100 Standard Deviation Skewness Sf (mf - xf ) 3 Skf = 3 100 s f Skewness (Skf) < 0.35 0.35 0.50 0.50 0.70 0.70 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 > 4.00 Very fine skewed Fine skewed Symmetrical Coarse skewed Very coarse skewed
+

sf =

Sf (mf - xf ) 100

Kf =

Kurtosis Sf (mf - xf ) 4
100 s f
4

Sorting (sf) Very well sorted Well sorted Moderately well sorted Moderately sorted Poorly sorted Very poorly sorted Extremely poorly sorted

Kurtosis (Kf)
+

> 1.30 0.43 +1.30 0.43 +0.43 0.43 -1.30 < -1.30

Very platykurtic Platykurtic Mesokurtic Leptokurtic Very leptokurtic

< 1.70 1.70 2.55 2.55 3.70 3.70 7.40 > 7.40

(d) Logarithmic (Original) Folk and Ward (1957) Graphical Measures Mean
MZ =

Standard Deviation

Skewness
Sk I =

Kurtosis
KG =

f16 + f 50 + f84
3

sI =

f84 - f16
4

f95 - f5
6 .6

f16 + f84 - 2f50 2(f84 - f16 ) f5 + f95 - 2f50 + 2(f 95 - f 5 )

f95 - f5 2.44 (f 75 - f 25 )

Sorting (sI) Very well sorted Well sorted Moderately well sorted Moderately sorted Poorly sorted Very poorly sorted Extremely poorly sorted < 0.35 0.35 0.50 0.50 0.70 0.70 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 > 4.00

Skewness (SkI) Very fine skewed Fine skewed Symmetrical Coarse skewed Very coarse skewed
+ +

Kurtosis (KG) Very platykurtic Platykurtic Mesokurtic Leptokurtic Very leptokurtic Extremely leptokurtic < 0.67 0.67 0.90 0.90 1.11 1.11 1.50 1.50 3.00 > 3.00

0.3 to +1.0 0.1 to +0.3 + 0.1 to -0.1 0.1 to -0.3 0.3 to -1.0

Mean
MZ =

Standard Deviation

Skewness
Sk I =

Kurtosis
KG =

f16 + f 50 + f84
3

sI =

f84 - f16
4

f95 - f5
6 .6

f16 + f84 - 2f50 2(f84 - f16 ) f5 + f95 - 2f50 + 2(f 95 - f 5 )

f95 - f5 2.44 (f 75 - f 25 )

Sorting (sI) Very well sorted Well sorted Moderately well sorted Moderately sorted Poorly sorted Very poorly sorted Extremely poorly sorted < 0.35 0.35 0.50 0.50 0.70 0.70 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 > 4.00

Skewness (SkI) Very fine skewed Fine skewed Symmetrical Coarse skewed Very coarse skewed
+ +

Kurtosis (KG)
+

0.3 to 1.0 0.1 to +0.3 + 0.1 to -0.1 0.1 to -0.3 0.3 to -1.0

Very platykurtic Platykurtic Mesokurtic Leptokurtic Very leptokurtic Extremely leptokurtic

< 0.67 0.67 0.90 0.90 1.11 1.11 1.50 1.50 3.00 > 3.00

(e) Geometric Folk and Ward (1957) Graphical Measures Mean ln P16 + ln P50 + ln P84 = exp 3 Skewness
ln P16 + ln P84 - 2(ln P50 ) ln P5 + ln P95 - 2(ln P50 ) SkG = + 2(ln P84 - ln P 2(ln P25 - ln P5 ) 16 ) KG =

Standard Deviation

MG

s G = exp

ln P5 - ln P95 ln P 16 - ln P 84 + 4 6 .6

Kurtosis
ln P5 - ln P95 2.44 (ln P25 - ln P75 )

Sorting (sG) Very well sorted Well sorted Moderately well sorted Moderately sorted Poorly sorted Very poorly sorted Extremely poorly sorted < 1.27 1.27 1.41 1.41 1.62 1.62 2.00 2.00 4.00 4.00 16.00 > 16.00

Skewness (SkG) Very fine skewed Fine skewed Symmetrical Coarse skewed Very coarse skewed 0.3 to -1.0 0.1 to -0.3 0.1 to +0.1 + 0.1 to +0.3 + 0.3 to +1.0
-

Kurtosis (KG) Very platykurtic Platykurtic Mesokurtic Leptokurtic Very leptokurtic Extremely leptokurtic < 0.67 0.67 0.90 0.90 1.11 1.11 1.50 1.50 3.00 > 3.00

Table 2.

Size scale adopted in the GRADISTAT program, modified from Udden (1914) and Wentworth (1922).
Grain Size mm 1024 Large -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 512 Medium 256 Small 128 Very small 64 Very coarse 32 Coarse 16 Medium 8 Fine 4 Very fine 2 Very coarse 1 microns 500 Coarse Medium Sand Gravel Boulder Descriptive term Very Large -10

phi

Very small -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 64 Very coarse 32 Coarse 16 Medium 8 Fine 4 Very fine 2 Very coarse 1 microns 500 250 Fine 125 Very fine 63 Very coarse 31 Coarse 16 Medium 8 Fine 4 Very fine 2 Clay Silt Coarse Medium Sand Gravel

Jack at the and the Microsoft Excel analyse data mass or sediment calculated using mode(s), sorting Grain size (using the phi statistical (such as description of the coarse sand) size fraction, output, the data in both Samples may be

author at distribution

Sedimentary

Journal of

655-744.

aperture sizes of Sizes may be on one of classes for calculated if contains class larger the data of Laser

you have error. The

the "Single

running.

distribution page. The Clay" sheets.

or Laser the same order. For intervals and although intervals. in the pan should also be

data further 230.


cells above

take several greater than

sheet. The the "Gravel results for the single sample

material analysed, and this quantity of statistics parameters contains

class size f (1 mm).

considers to be sediment

remaining in the

statistics ignoring where there is

different taken when

the sample size class the grain be deleted the sample present in those

arameters. class interval in metric (mm) or r phi units respectively, at the

Kurtosis
Ka = S f ( mm - x a ) 4 4 100 s a

arameters. class interval in metric (mm) or r phi units respectively, at the

Kurtosis
Ka = S f ( mm - x a ) 4 4 100 s a

Kurtosis
)
3

Kg =

Sf (ln m m - ln x g ) 4 100 ln s g
4

Kurtosis (Kg) Very platykurtic Platykurtic Mesokurtic Leptokurtic Very leptokurtic < 1.70 1.70 2.55 2.55 3.70 3.70 7.40 > 7.40

Kf =

Kurtosis Sf (mf - xf ) 4
100 s f
4

Kurtosis (Kf) Very platykurtic Platykurtic Mesokurtic Leptokurtic Very leptokurtic < 1.70 1.70 2.55 2.55 3.70 3.70 7.40 > 7.40

Kurtosis
KG =

f95 - f5 2.44 (f 75 - f 25 )

Kurtosis (KG) Very platykurtic Platykurtic Mesokurtic Leptokurtic Very leptokurtic Extremely leptokurtic < 0.67 0.67 0.90 0.90 1.11 1.11 1.50 1.50 3.00 > 3.00

Kurtosis
KG =

f95 - f5 2.44 (f 75 - f 25 )

Kurtosis (KG) Very platykurtic Platykurtic Mesokurtic Leptokurtic Very leptokurtic Extremely leptokurtic < 0.67 0.67 0.90 0.90 1.11 1.11 1.50 1.50 3.00 > 3.00

ndard Deviation

P ln P5 - ln P95 16 - ln P 84 + 4 6 .6

Kurtosis

ln P5 - ln P95 2.44 (ln P25 - ln P75 )

Kurtosis (KG) Very platykurtic Platykurtic Mesokurtic Leptokurtic Very leptokurtic Extremely leptokurtic < 0.67 0.67 0.90 0.90 1.11 1.11 1.50 1.50 3.00 > 3.00

d from Udden

Single Sample Data Input Screen


Sample Identity: VF-74-103 Analyst: Date: Initial Sample Weight:

Enter your data in the columns below, and then click the "Calculate Statistics" button. See the "Information" sheet for more information.

(optional)

Auto. add apertures at:

Aperture (microns) 2000 1400 1000 710 500 355 250 180 125 90 63 44 31.1 22 15.6 11 7.78 5.5 3.89 2.75 1.94 1.38 0.97 0.69 0.49 0.35 0.24

Class Weight Retained (g or %) 0 0 0 0.13464 1.063936 2.055048 1.918908 0.857588 0.074471 0.705293 2.99559 6.214972 8.757624 9.820956 9.701094 9.020275 8.088584 7.219306 6.642093 6.1388 5.430837 4.335836 3.386764 2.851151 1.931925 0.654313 0

the columns below, and then click the "Calculate See the "Information" sheet for more information.

SAMPLE STATISTICS
SAMPLE IDENTITY: VF-74-103 SAMPLE TYPE: Bimodal, Very Poorly Sorted SEDIMENT NAME: Coarse Silt ANALYST & DATE: , TEXTURAL GROUP: Mud

MODE 1: MODE 2: MODE 3: D10: MEDIAN or D50: D90: (D90 / D10): (D90 - D10): (D75 / D25): (D75 - D25):

mm 26.55 427.5
1.514 12.51 62.30 41.16 60.78 7.822 26.91

f 5.257 1.247 4.005 6.321 9.368 2.339 5.363 1.591 2.967

GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION GRAVEL: 0.0% COARSE SAND: SAND: 9.9% MEDIUM SAND: MUD: 90.1% FINE SAND: V FINE SAND: V COARSE GRAVEL: 0.0% V COARSE SILT: COARSE GRAVEL: 0.0% COARSE SILT: MEDIUM GRAVEL: 0.0% MEDIUM SILT: FINE GRAVEL: 0.0% FINE SILT: V FINE GRAVEL: 0.0% V FINE SILT: V COARSE SAND: 0.0% CLAY:

1.2% 4.0% 0.9% 3.8% 14.7% 19.6% 17.1% 13.9% 11.5% 13.3%

MEAN ( x ) : SORTING (s): SKEWNESS (Sk ): KURTOSIS (K ):

METHOD OF MOMENTS Arithmetic Geometric Logarithmic mm mm f 41.46 11.71 6.416 98.87 4.613 2.206 4.319 0.211 -0.211 23.20 2.963 2.963

FOLK & WARD METHOD Description Geometric Logarithmic f mm 10.87 6.524 Medium Silt 4.899 2.292 Very Poorly Sorted -0.035 0.035 Symmetrical 1.123 1.123 Leptokurtic

Particle Diameter (f)

12.0

10.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0

-2.0

10.0

8.0

Class Weight (%)

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0
1 10 100 1000

Multiple Sample Data Input Screen

Enter your data in the columns below, and then click th "Calculate Statistics" button. Enter Sample Info in the g

Auto. add apertures at:


c Print summary sheets for each sample? d e f g

Aperture Class Weight Retained (g or %) in Different Samples (microns) Sample Identity: GU/S-COI 12/1/96 GU/S - Average AF 13/11/03 GU/S - Average AF 17/12/03 GU/S - Average COI 25/11/94 GU/S - Average COI 1500-68 - Average Analyst: Date: Initial Sample Weight: 2000 1400 1000 0 0 0 0 0 710 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 355 0.004014 4.675681 0 0.166187 0 250 0.098238 12.99385 0 2.363564 0 180 0.076329 17.273932 1.20501 5.030106 0 125 0.430358 15.738308 4.639825 7.028166 3.987615 90 3.035325 11.668246 8.123842 7.742225 11.953984 63 6.565712 8.669724 11.566525 7.740544 16.974026 44 10.052864 6.974656 14.529959 7.761027 17.514639 31 12.489373 5.337089 15.974208 7.953405 14.464243 22 13.148105 3.518258 14.819778 8.11849 10.116833 15.6 12.150551 2.175727 11.21269 8.095567 6.474093 11 10.123945 1.638512 6.764591 7.763282 4.220675 7.8 7.809071 1.602272 3.311222 7.045425 3.069594 5.5 5.718063 1.604948 1.53618 5.917719 2.45906 3.9 4.191694 1.466198 1.004309 4.608086 2.035881 2.76 3.313934 1.25158 0.977263 3.45722 1.691093 1.95 2.848277 1.035399 0.993582 2.61212 1.393471 1.38 2.515149 0.845574 0.940187 2.05931 1.147202 0.98 2.06598 0.64693 0.818224 1.618779 0.911418 0.69 1.569905 0.461032 0.685058 1.261867 0.711995 0.49 1.153072 0.313739 0.561466 0.993002 0.557877 0.35 0.612441 0.108344 0.330773 0.577167 0.31154 0.24 0.0276 0 0.005306 0.086743 0.004761 0.17

r data in the columns below, and then click the e Statistics" button. Enter Sample Info in the green cells.

GU/S COI 1500-68 GU/S b -1116 Average - Average GU/S AF-2 12/1/75 GU/S b -AF-1 Average 12/1/75 GU/S - Average 1501-68 -GU/S Average 1501-68 b - Average

0 0 0 0 0 0 3.604557 11.495766 16.642773 17.477981 14.714564 10.473305 6.748492 4.344437 3.083241 2.438432 2.033051 1.717682 1.435813 1.18958 0.946728 0.740848 0.581399 0.326333 0.005017

0 0 0 0 0 0 3.160243 13.149202 24.071202 26.930851 18.736395 7.467365 1.27392 0.043211 0.602259 0.921616 0.743472 0.534033 0.506627 0.55053 0.511933 0.400658 0.289489 0.106993 0

0 0 0 0 0.065557 1.767711 4.100812 6.172086 7.420751 7.861467 7.967071 8.131159 8.417578 8.565385 8.259365 7.325703 6.012912 4.765061 3.774262 3.041448 2.368833 1.785294 1.344274 0.749643 0.103629

0 0 0.124762 3.062886 6.489483 8.054194 7.931425 6.775624 5.610307 5.060921 5.094733 5.423187 5.839905 6.167096 6.232338 5.886676 5.231523 4.503152 3.77232 3.059401 2.284067 1.603087 1.128058 0.595343 0.069511

0 0.02729 2.092459 7.077386 9.012115 7.541572 5.285283 4.468872 5.21201 6.274257 6.777713 6.690072 6.346932 5.933774 5.433718 4.762462 4.019686 3.382727 2.856974 2.377375 1.817072 1.282018 0.882235 0.439634 0.006364

0.159655 0.911598 3.649185 7.105325 8.595659 7.411983 5.330171 4.419444 5.014277 6.003723 6.499957 6.437459 6.128438 5.742582 5.263824 4.61913 3.90446 3.288541 2.781564 2.326399 1.795226 1.279635 0.884398 0.440971 0.006397

GU/S-COI 30/11/98 - Average

0 0 0 0.529458 0.854595 0.455526 0.747293 2.632942 5.928417 9.435427 11.869631 12.536753 11.572834 9.647779 7.543366 5.736241 4.467094 3.7471 3.327422 2.95619 2.398056 1.764383 1.23028 0.610376 0.008838

SAMPLE STATISTICS

METHOD OF MOMENTS Arithmetic (mm) METHOD OF MOMENTS Geometric (mm) METHOD OF MOMENTS Logarithmic (f) FOLK AND WARD METHOD (mm) FOLK AND WARD METHOD (f) FOLK AND WARD METHOD (Description)

ANALYST AND DATE: SIEVING ERROR: SAMPLE TYPE: TEXTURAL GROUP: SEDIMENT NAME: MEAN ( xa ) : SORTING (s a ) : SKEWNESS ( Sk a ) : KURTOSIS ( K a ) : MEAN ( x g ) : SORTING (s g ) : SKEWNESS ( Sk g ) : KURTOSIS ( K g ) : MEAN ( xf ) : SORTING (s f ) : SKEWNESS ( Skf ) : KURTOSIS ( K f ) : MEAN ( M G ) : SORTING (s G ) : SKEWNESS ( SkG ) : KURTOSIS ( K G ) : MEAN ( M Z ) : SORTING (s I ) : SKEWNESS ( Sk I ) : KURTOSIS ( K G ) : MEAN: SORTING: SKEWNESS: KURTOSIS: MODE 1 (mm): MODE 2 (mm): MODE 3 (mm): MODE 1 (f): MODE 2 (f): MODE 3 (f): D10 (mm): D50 (mm): D90 (mm): (D90 / D10) (mm): (D90 - D10) (mm): (D75 / D25) (mm): (D75 - D25) (mm): D10 (f): D50 (f): D90 (f): (D90 / D10) (f): (D90 - D10) (f): (D75 / D25) (f): (D75 - D25) (f):

% GRAVEL: % SAND: % MUD: % V COARSE GRAVEL: % COARSE GRAVEL: % MEDIUM GRAVEL: % FINE GRAVEL: % V FINE GRAVEL: % V COARSE SAND: % COARSE SAND: % MEDIUM SAND: % FINE SAND: % V FINE SAND: % V COARSE SILT: % COARSE SILT: % MEDIUM SILT: % FINE SILT: % V FINE SILT: % CLAY:

Triangular Diagram

SAMPLE IDENTITY: VF-74-103 TEXTURAL GROUP: Mud SEDIMENT NAME: Coarse Silt

Gravel

Gravel: 0.0% Sand: 9.9% Mud: 90.1%

Gravel

Very Coarse Gravel: 0.0%


80%

Coarse Gravel: 0.0% Medium Gravel: 0.0% Fine Gravel: 0.0% Very Fine Gravel: 0.0%
Sandy Gravel

Very Coarse Sand: 0.0% Coarse Sand: 1.2% Medium Sand: 4.0% Fine Sand: 0.9% Very Fine Sand: 3.8%

Gravel %

Muddy Gravel

Muddy Sandy Gravel

Very Coarse Silt: 14.7%


Coarse Silt: 19.6%
30%

Medium Silt: 17.1% Fine Silt: 13.9%


Gravelly Mud Gravelly Muddy Sand Gravelly Sand

Very Fine Silt: 11.5% Clay: 13.3%

5% Slightly Gravelly Mud Trace Mud Sandy Mud 1:9 1:1 Ratio Sand:Mud Muddy Sand 9:1 Slightly Gravelly Sandy Mud Slightly Gravelly Muddy Sand

Slightly Gravelly Sand Sand

Mud

Sand

Triangular Diagram

SAMPLE IDENTITY: VF-74-103 TEXTURAL GROUP: IGNORING GRAVEL FRACTION

Sand

NOTE
Gravel is also present in this sample

Gravel: 0.0% Sand: 9.9% Mud: 90.1%

Sand 90%

Very Coarse Gravel: 0.0% Coarse Gravel: 0.0% Medium Gravel: 0.0% Fine Gravel: 0.0% Very Fine Gravel: 0.0% Very Coarse Sand: 0.0%
Clayey Sand Muddy Sand Silty Sand

Coarse Sand: 1.2% Medium Sand: 4.0% Fine Sand: 0.9% Very Fine Sand: 3.8% Very Coarse Silt: 14.7% Coarse Silt: 19.6% Medium Silt: 17.1% Fine Silt: 13.9%

Sand %
50%

Sandy Clay

Sandy Mud

Sandy Silt

Very Fine Silt: 11.5% Clay: 13.3%

10% Clay Mud Silt

Clay

1:2

Silt:Clay Ratio

2:1

Silt

Frequency Distribution Histogram

10.0

8.0

Class weight (%)

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0 -2.0

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

Particle diameter (f)

Cumulative Frequency Curve 100

90

80

70 Cumulative mass retained (%)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 -1.0 1.0 3.0 5.0 Particle diameter (f) 7.0 9.0 11.0

Frequency Distribution Curve

12

10

Class weight (%)

0 0.1 1.0 10.0 Particle diameter (mm) 100.0

Cumulative Frequency Curve

100

90

80

70
Cumulative mass retained (%)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 0.1 1.0 10.0 Particle diameter (mm) 100.0