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Reading Material
Handout No-ALTMCUP106 02 Ver 3 28.02.2008
Technical Module
i
About this Handout

This handout provides reading material on the technical topics included in the
Syllabus of E2 to E3 Time scale promotion linked training of Officers belonging to
Telecom wing of BSNL. The examination at the end of this one-week module will
include discussions that take place in the class and general understanding of
BSNL executives about the companys telecom infrastructure.

Mode of Examination

The examinations will be conducted with break-up of 30% subjective & 70%
objective pattern questions in each of the modules.

Duration of Examination

Examination duration will be 90 minutes

Qualifying marks

For the successful completion of the training, the executive undergoing the
training ought to score a minimum of 50% of the total marks in each of the
modules.

Failure & Re-appearance

The Executives who dont qualify the examination would be given another
chance to undertake/clear the examination in continuation of their training. This
supplementary examination would be arranged within 3 days of the declaration of
the results at the same venue.

For still failing executives, a second / subsequent supplementary examination
would be held on the date & place as finalized by ALTTC. However no TA/DA
would be admissible to the executives appearing for the same. No repeat of
training would be provided for the unsuccessful executives, unless specifically
agreed by the CGM ALTTC in consultation with corresponding circle CGM.



Reference:

1. Order No. 32-27/04/Trg dated 19th July 2007 of BSNL Corporate office

2. Order No. 32-27/04/Trg dated 12th April 2007 of BSNL Corporate office
ii
CONTENTS

TOPIC Chapter Page
SECTION-I Switching
Digital Switching systems: Concepts 1 1-4
Signaling in Telecom Networks: CAS & CCS7 2 1-10
Switching systems in BSNL & introduction to NGN 3 1-15
Intelligent Network 4 1-9
Maintenance issues of battery and power plant 5 1-5
Air conditioning & Engine Alternator 6 1-10
Section-II Transmission
OFC characteristics & laying 7 1-9
Testing & Measuring instruments 8 1-4
SDH Overview 9 1-9
Protection schemes in SDH 10 1-9
Synchronization 11 1-13
SECTION-III Mobile
Overview of Mobile Communication & cellular concepts 12 1-6
GSM Architecture 13 1-5
GPRS/EDGE 14 1-6
GSM Services 15 1-9
Overview of CDMA Technology 16 1-14
SECTION-IV Data Communications
Broadband Wire line Access Technologies 17 1-7
Broadband Wireless Technologies 18 1-5
Broadband Core Network 19 1-3
TCP/IP/Ethernet, IP Addressing 20 1-10
IP Routing, RIP, OSPF 21 1-3
MPLS-VPN 22 1-7
Multiplay 23 1-4
SECTION-V Information Technology
BSNL Application Packages 24 1-12
Overview of NOS & RDMS Package 25 1-4
IT Security Policy 26 1-3
SECTION-VI Sample Questions 27 1-3

iii
Amendment Record

TOPIC Version Date
SECTION-I Switching
Digital Switching systems: Concepts 2 28.02.2008
Signaling in Telecom Networks: CAS & CCS7 2 17.11.2007
Switching systems in BSNL & introduction to NGN 2 17.11.2007
Intelligent Network 2 17.11.2007
Maintenance issues of battery and power plant 1 24.08.2007
Air conditioning & Engine Alternator 1 24.08.2007
Section-II Transmission
OFC characteristics & laying 2 17.11.2007
Testing & Measuring instruments 1 24.08.2007
SDH Overview 1 24.08.2007
Protection schemes in SDH 1 24.08.2007
Synchronization 1 24.08.2007
SECTION-III Mobile
Overview of Mobile Communication & cellular concepts 2 28.02.2008
GSM Architecture 2 28.02.2008
GPRS/EDGE 2 28.02.2008
GSM Services 2 28.02.2008
Overview of CDMA Technology 1 24.08.2007
SECTION-IV Data Communications
Broadband Wire line Access Technologies 2 28.02.2008
Broadband Wireless Technologies 2 28.02.2008
Broadband Core Network 3 28.02.2008
TCP/IP/Ethernet, IP Addressing 3 28.02.2008
IP Routing, RIP, OSPF 3 28.02.2008
MPLS-VPN 3 28.02.2008
Multiplay 2 28.02.2008
SECTION-V Information Technology
BSNL Application Packages 1 24.08.2007
Overview of NOS & RDMS Package 1 24.08.2007
IT Security Policy 2 28.02.2008
SECTION-VI Sample Questions 1 28.02.2008
















Section-I

Chapter-1

Digital Switching Systems

E2E3 Switching Concepts, Ver2 28.02.2008 1 of 4

1.0 DIGITAL SWITCHING CONCEPTS

Telephony was invented in 1876 and automatic telephone exchanges
were developed in 1895. All these exchanges were analog. Now we have only
digital exchanges in the network, which work on time switching or time and space
switching. The digital exchanges are compatible to provide value added services
and Intelligent services
Communication can be defined as the transfer of information from one point
to another point as per desire of the user under the control of some system.

The key aspects of a communication network are :

1) Switching
2) Transmission
3) Call control or signaling
4) End terminals or network elements

2.0 SWITCHING

Switching is basically establishing a temporary path or connection
between two points or it can also be defined as writing at one point of time
and reading at another point of time.

There are two modes of switching employed in our network.

2.1 CIRCUIT SWITCHING

In normal telephone service , basically, a circuit between the calling party
and called party is set up and this circuit is kept reserved till the call is
completed. Here two speech time sots are involved one of calling
subscriber other of called subscriber. It is called circuit switching
Circuit switching is based on the principle of sampling theorem.

2.1.1 SAMPLING THEOREM

Sampling Theorem States
If a band limited signal is sampled at regular intervals of time and at a
rate equal to or more than twice the highest signal frequency in the band, then
the sample contains all the information of the original signal. Mathematically , if fh
is the highest frequency then sampling frequency Fs needs to be greater than or
equal to 2 fh
i .e. Fs >=2 fh
Let us say our voice signals are band limited to 4 KHZ and let sampling
frequency be 8KHZ.

.
E2E3 Switching Concepts, Ver2 28.02.2008 2 of 4

. . Time period of sampling Ts = 1 secs.
8000
. or Ts = 125 micro second

If we have just one channel then this can be sampled every 125
microseconds and the resultant samples will represent the original signal. But if
we are to sample N channels one by one at the rate specified by the sampling
theorem, then the time available for sampling each channels would be equal to
Ts/N microseconds The time available per channel would be
Ts=125s
N=32 for 32 chl PCM
125/32=3.9 microseconds per chl
Thus in a 30 channel PCM system, time slot is 3.9 microsecond
and time period of sampling i.e. interval between 2 consecutive samples of a
channels is 125 microsecond. This duration i.e. 125 microsecond is called time
Frame. A signal band is limited to max freq of say fm if sampled at the rate of
2fm then this signal can be reconstructed at the receiving end. This theorem was
given by Nyquist.

2.2 PACKET SWITCHING

The information (speech, data etc) is divided into packets each packet
containing piece of information also bears source and destination address.
These packets are sent independently through the network with the
destination address embedded in them. Each packet may follow different
path depending upon the network.


3.0 SWITCHING CONCEPT

To connect any two subscribers, it is necessary to interconnect the time-slots of
the two speech samples which may be on same or different PCM hightways. The
digitalised speech samples are switched in two modes. Viz. Time Switching and
space Switching . This time Division Multiplex Digital Switching System is
popularly known as Digital Switching System

3.1 Digital Time Switch

Principle

A Digital Time Switch consists of two memories, viz., a speech or buffer
memory to store the samples till destination time-slots arrive, and a control
or connection or adddress memory to control the writing and reading of
the samples in the buffer memory and directing them on to the appropriate
time-slots.
E2E3 Switching Concepts, Ver2 28.02.2008 3 of 4

Speech memory has as many storage locations as the number of time-slots
in input PCM,e.g.,32 location for 32 channel PCM system.

The writing / reading operations in the speech memory are controlled by
the control Memory It has same number of memory locations as for
speech memory, i.e.,32 locations for 32 channel PCM system. Each
location contains the address of one of the speech memory locations where
the channel sample is either written or read during a time-slot. These
address are written in the control memory of the CC of the exchange
depending upon the connection objective.

A Time Slot Counter which usually is a synchronous binary counter. is
used to count the time slots from 0 to 31 as they occur. At the end of
each frame, it gets reset and the counting starts again. It is used to control
the timing for writing/reading of the samples in the speech memory.

Buffer/speech memory

Incoming PCM 01 Outgoing PCM
02
04


TS4 TS6
31


Read address


00
01
06


31
Control
/Connection/Address
Memory
Fig. output Associated Control Switch

3.2 SPACE SWITCH:
A space switch is used to simple change the PCM of a incoming time slot
keeping the time slot number same in the outgoing PCM.

The memory location requirement rapidly go up as a Time Switch is expanded
making it uneconomical. Hence, it becomes necessary to employs both types of
switches, viz.., space switch and time switch, and therefore is known as two
dimensional network. These network can have various combinations of the two
types of switches and are denoted as TS, STS TSST, etc.




4 ( four)
Time slot
counter
E2E3 Switching Concepts, Ver2 28.02.2008 4 of 4

4.0 Telecom network structure

The telecom network consists of
Local exchanges (LE) Which has only subscribers connected to it.
TAX Exchanges (TAX) Trunk automatic exchanges contains only outgoing
and incoming circuits and no subscriber is connected to it. It is used only for
routing calls.
Tandem exchanges Out going and incoming tandem exchanges are
basically exchanges between TAX and local exchanges for better
management of traffic. These exchanges do not connect subscribers.
Network elements (like telephone, fax, modem etc.)

The telephone network is also referred as PUBLIC SWITCHED TELEPHONE
NETWORK (PSTN) .The offered voice service is referred as PLAIN OLD
TELEPHONE SERVICE (POTS)
The PSTN network is organized in a hierarchical manner with Lev-1/Lev-2 TAX
exchanges and then tandem and Local exchanges.
Trunk Automatic Exchange
Lev-I TAX -------In 21 places
Lev-II TAX-------In 301 Places

Types of call

Local call: Call originated and terminated in the same exchange is called local
call
Outgoing call: Call originated from local exchange and terminated in other
exchange after picking up outgoing circuit.
Incoming call: Call received from other exchange and terminated in local
exchange.
Transit call: Call received from other exchange and terminated in other exchange.

When a new call is set up, it needs to be routed from calling party to the called party
through the switch network. The routing is based on the called party number. Normally in
PSTN the switching is static type. In case of link failure alternate paths are available
and routing is done through the alternate paths.









Section-I

Chapter-2

Signaling: CAS & CCS7
E2E3 Signaling: CAS & CCS7, Ver2 17.11.2007 1 of 10

Signaling in Telecom Networks

Channel Associated Signaling

1.0: Introduction
The exchange communicates with other equipment in the telephone network
according to the committed signaling system(s). A signaling system defines the
meaning and physical characteristics of the signals or messages and the applicable
signaling procedures.

A signaling system is called a channel associated signaling system when the
location of the signaling information is related directly to the user voice/data. The
location of the signaling information always identifies the related user voice/data.

Fig.1 Channel Associated Signalling

Examples are signaling systems which use the same circuit for signaling and
user voice/data, and signaling systems which transport the signaling information in
timeslot 16 of a PCM link.

The 30 channel PCM link (also called 2Mb link) consists of 32 timeslots. Of the 32
timeslots, 30 channels are used to transport user voice/data, one channel (timeslot 0) is used
for timing, status and synchronization. One channel (timeslot 16) is used to transport
signaling information related to the 30 voice/data channels. Figure 2 shows the structure of a
PCM link. The traffic on the PCM link consists of consecutive multiframes, which are
transmitted at 8000 Hz. These multiframes consist of 16 frames. Every frame consists of 32
timeslots onto which the 30 channels are mapped. Every timeslot consists of 8 bits. In
timeslot 16, frame 1, signaling information related to the user voice/data in timeslots 1 and 17
is located. In timeslot 16, frame 2, signaling information related to the user voice/data in
timeslots 2 and 18 is located, etc. Timeslot 1 to 15 and 17 to 31 are used for user voice/data
(channels). After one multiframe has been sent, signaling information related to all 30
channels in a PCM link has been sent.



E2E3 Signaling: CAS & CCS7, Ver2 17.11.2007 2 of 10

Fig.2 30 chl PCM Link

Subscriber Signaling Signaling systems used between the exchange and
subscriber equipment, such as terminals and PBX (Private Branch eXchanges), are
called subscriber signaling systems. Subscriber signaling must not be confused with
line signaling. Subscriber signaling can be transported over lines and subscriber
trunks.

Trunk Signaling Trunk signaling are signals used between public exchanges. They
are used to connect exchanges in order to build up a circuit. The signals can be
divided in supervision and address signaling.

Supervision Signaling Supervision signaling (also called line signaling) is used to
control and monitor the status of the transmission circuits. Examples of supervision
signals are the seizure signal and idle state signal. Supervision signals do not
contain any specific subscriber information such as the directory number.

Address Signaling Address signaling (also called build-up or register signaling) is a
protocol which is used to transfer the specific subscriber information necessary to
connect the calling party to the called party. Address signaling is related to a certain
call. Examples of address signaling information are the called party's directory
number and the calling party's category.

Compelled Signaling A signaling protocol is called compelled if a forward signal is
transmitted until it is acknowledged with a backward signal. The backward signal is
transmitted until a forward signal is received.
Non-Compelled Signaling In a non-compelled signaling protocol, the signals are
pulsed out for a specified duration. All signals are sent as a block, without any
acknowledgement from receiving side.

Inband Signaling A signaling system is called inband when the frequencies of the
signals are inside the band of frequencies used for voice transmission(300-3400Hz ).
E2E3 Signaling: CAS & CCS7, Ver2 17.11.2007 3 of 10

Out-of-band Signaling A signaling system is called out-of-band when the
frequencies of the signals are outside the band of frequencies used for voice
transmission.
Link-by-Link Signaling A signaling system is called link-by-link when the total
signaling information is sent from one exchange to the other. The receiving
exchange uses a part of the information for routing. When all digits are received, the
exchange takes over control of the originating exchange and sends the total
signaling information to the next exchange.
End-to-End Signaling A signaling system is called end-to-end if the originating
exchange remains the originating exchange for the entire signaling procedure. The
originating exchange sends the specific signaling information needed by the
subsequent exchange to establish the signaling path. As soon as the next exchange
has received enough digits to determine the routing, the exchange switches through
his voice path and becomes transparent for the originating exchange.

2.0 Supervision Signaling Systems

Supervision systems are used to control and monitor the status of lines and trunks.
These signaling systems are link-by-link.

2.1: Signal Definitions

Answer Signal
Signal sent to the outgoing exchange to indicate that the called party has
answered the call. On metering trunks the first metering pulse is considered as the
answer signal.

Blocking Signal
A signal sent for maintenance purposes to the exchange at the other end of a
circuit. It causes engaged conditions on that circuit for subsequent calls outgoing
from that exchange.

Clear-Back Signal
Signal sent in the backward direction to indicate that the called party has cleared.

Clear-Forward Signal
A signal sent in the forward direction to terminate the call or call attempt and to
release all switching units held on the call in the incoming exchange and beyond it.

Metering Signal
A signal sent in the backward direction to charge the call to the A-party. The
metering signal consist of metering pulses, which are sent periodically. One metering
pulse normally corresponds with a certain monetary value.

Reanswer Signal
A signal sent in the backward direction indicating that the called party, after
having cleared, again lifts his receiver or in some way reproduces the answer
condition.


E2E3 Signaling: CAS & CCS7, Ver2 17.11.2007 4 of 10

Release-Guard Signal
A signal sent in the backward direction in response to a clear-forward signal to
indicate that the circuit concerned has been brought into the idle condition. The
"Release-Guard" signal is also called "Return to Idle" signal.

Seizure-Acknowledgement Signal
A signal sent in backward direction to indicate the transition of the equipment at
the incoming end from the idle state to seized state. The "Seizure
Acknowledgement" signal is also called "Seizure Control" signal.

Seizure Signal
A signal sent in the forward direction at the beginning of the call to initiate
transition of the circuit at the incoming end from the idle state to seized state.

Unblocking-Acknowledgement Signal
A signal sent in response to an unblocking signal indicating that the speech circuit
has been unblocked.

Some of the supervision signals for operator functions are as follows:

Force Release Signal
A forward operator-originated line signal that requests a terminating exchange to
connect a busy terminating subscriber line to the incoming toll operator, and
disconnect the third subscriber who is in conversation with the operator-called
subscriber.

Forward-Transfer Signal
A signal sent in the forward direction on semi-automatic calls when the outgoing
international exchange operator wants the help of an operator at the incoming
international exchange.

Intrusion Signal
A forward operator-originated line signal used for requesting that the terminating
exchange connect the incoming toll operator with an established speech path.

Operator Ring-Back Signal
A backward line signal initiated by an operator terminating subscriber to request
that an originating toll operator be re-connected into the conversation.

Re-ring Signal
A forward operator-originated line signal sent to the terminating exchange (after
answer and clear back) to request re-ringing of a now on-hook terminating
subscriber line.
E2E3 Signaling: CAS & CCS7, Ver2 17.11.2007 5 of 10

2.1: MFC Address Signaling

Signaling Procedure
There are 6 forward frequency combinations i.e. 1380,1500,1620,1740,1860
and 1980 Hz each having spacing of 129 Hz. In backward direction MFC freq are
1140,1020,900,780,660 and 540 Hz. For a particular signal we need combination of
two frequencies.

MFC (Multi Frequency Code) signaling is an in-band address signaling system. The
signals consist of a combination of two of a set of six frequencies between 300 and
3400 Hz. This implies that fifteen different combinations can be made. Since more
than fifteen signals are needed, signal groups are implemented. There are two
forward groups, I and II, and three backward groups called A, B and C.

Common Channel Signaling System No. 7

A signaling system is called a common channel signaling system when the
signaling information related to a group of circuits is transported over a separate
common signaling link.
3.0 Basic Concepts

CCS No. 7 is a CCS (Common Channel Signaling) system which may be used in an
associated and non-associated mode of operation.

CCS7 being a common channel signaling system, has following features

Based on separation of speech circuit from the signaling link.
Speech ckt has no signaling function except when a continuity check is done.
Results in faster call setup
Efficient utilisation of speech ckts.


The overall objective of CCS No. 7 is to provide an internationally standardized
general purpose CCS system:

optimized for operation in digital telecommunications networks in conjunction
with stored program controlled exchanges.
that can meet present and future requirements of information transfer for inter-
processor transactions within telecommunications networks for call control,
remote control and management and maintenance signaling
that provides a reliable means of transfer of information in correct sequence
and without loss or duplication.

The signaling system is optimized for operation over 64-Kbit/s digital channels. It is
also suitable for operation over analog channels and at lower speeds. The system is
suitable for use on point-to-point terrestrial and satellite links.

E2E3 Signaling: CAS & CCS7, Ver2 17.11.2007 6 of 10

3.1: Functional Blocks in CCS No. 7
The CCS No. 7 consists of the following functional blocks:

MTP (Message Transfer Part)
TUP (Telephone User Part)
ISUP (ISDN User Part)
SCCP (Signaling Connection Control Part)
TC (Transaction Capabilities)

Fig.3 Architecture of CCS no7

Level Structure of CCS No. 7

The CCS No. 7 protocol has a layered structure consisting of four levels (fig 4):
Level 1 defines the physical, electrical and functional characteristics of the
signal link.
Level 2 defines functions relevant to individual signaling links, including error
control and link monitoring. This level is responsible for reliable transfer of
signaling information between two directly connected signaling points.
Level 3 defines network functions such as message routing and network
management.
Level 4 defines application and user functions. User parts are defined to
control the establishment and release of traffic circuits.

The first three levels together form the Message Transfer Part (MTP). The functions
of each of the CCS No. 7 layers are transparent to one another because of well-
defined interfaces between them. A mechanism has been provided to deliver CCS
messages of up to 272 octets between the MTP and the user part, and within the
user part.
E2E3 Signaling: CAS & CCS7, Ver2 17.11.2007 7 of 10


Fig .4

Signalling Associations

A CCS7 network can have following types of associations between speech and
signaling path

Associated -Signaling path same as speech path
Non-associated - Signaling path different from speech path and the signaling
path to be used not specifically determined.
Quasi-associated - Non-associated with a predetermined signaling path.


Fig. 5 Associated and Quasi-associated mode of signalling


3.3: CCS No. 7 Network Elements
The signaling network consists of several network elements:
SEP (Signaling End Point)
STP (Signaling Transfer Point)
STEP (Signaling Transfer and End Point)
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
CCS link
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
SWITCHING
SIGNALING
CCS link
E2E3 Signaling: CAS & CCS7, Ver2 17.11.2007 8 of 10


- - - - - Voice ckt
Signalling link
Fig.6 Network Elements

An SEP provides high speed, Common Channel Signaling connections for the
speech circuits which terminate at its exchange. Signaling messages arriving at an
SEP are used to set up the necessary speech circuits to complete a telephone call to
the end user.
The STP transfers signaling messages that arrive on one signaling link to a second
signaling link where the message will then be routed toward the destination. An STP
does not contain voice circuits, but it does provide the important function of
transferring messages (either to another STP or to an SEP) towards their ultimate
destination.
The STEP performs both the SEP and STP functions. The STEP can transfer
signaling messages that are destined for another exchange, and it can analyze
signaling messages used to set up speech circuits in its exchange.

3.2 Signal Unit Composition
ITU-T Signaling System No. 7 signals are sent in packets known as signal units.
The signal units vary in length according to the type of information transferred. There
are three types of signal units:
MSU (Message Signal Unit): This is used for transferring signaling information
supplied by the MTP itself or by the user part or SCCP.
LSSU (Link Status Signal Unit: This is used for transferring signaling
information used to indicate and monitor the status of the signaling link.
FISU (Fill-In Signal Unit): This is used when there is no signaling traffic to
maintain link alignment.

E2E3 Signaling: CAS & CCS7, Ver2 17.11.2007 9 of 10

Point Codes

Every SP (Signaling Point) and STP (Signaling Transfer Point) when integrated in a
network will be allocated its own unique point code. This is used by the MTP routing
function to direct outgoing messages towards their destination in the network as
indicated by the inclusion of the appropriate point code in the routing label. This point
code is known as the DPC (Destination Point Code). The routing label also contains
the point code of the SP originating the message known as the OPC (Originating
Point Code). The combination of the OPC and the DPC will determine the signaling
relation. If two or more signaling links are required then the message handling
function performs load sharing over the links. In this case the SLS (Signaling Link
Selection) field is used to identify the chosen link.

3.3 User Part

The CCS No. 7 functional Level 4, known as the MTP User functions, defines the
functions of the signaling system that are particular to users. The ITU-T has defined
several user functions of CCS No. 7, important are:
TUP - Telephone User Part
ISUP - ISDN User Part
SCCP - Signaling Connection Control Part
TCAP - Transaction Capabilities Application Part

Telephone User Part
The TUP defines the telephone signaling functions necessary for CCS No. 7 to
control national and international telephone calls.

ISDN User Part
The ISUP defines the signaling functions needed for basic and supplementary
services for ISDN voice and non voice applications.

Signaling Connection Control Part
The SCCP is used by call control for non-circuit related message transfer. Intelligent
network features requiring database access, such as credit card verification, virtual
private network services, and 800 services use connectionless SCCP in conjunction
with TCAP to query these databases. ISDN supplementary services use TCAP and
connectionless SCCP for sending information end-to-end. OMAP (Operations,
Maintenance, and Administration Part) uses TCAP and the SCCP connectionless
service in MTP and SCCP routing verification tests, and in circuit validation tests.
Connection-oriented SCCP can be used for the ISUP user-to-user service 3 for data
transfer, and is used for reliable data transfer on the interface between a base
station and MSC (Message Switch Controller) in the GSM network.

E2E3 Signaling: CAS & CCS7, Ver2 17.11.2007 10 of 10

Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP)

The TCAP provides services for interactive applications distributed over exchanges
and specialized centers in an CCS No. 7 telecommunication network. The TCAP
provides the means to establish non-circuit related communication between two
nodes in the signaling network. Some examples of interactive applications that use
the services of TCAP are as follows:

MAP (Mobile Application Part) used by GSM (Global Systems of Mobile
communications)
INAP (Intelligent Network Application Part)
OMAP (Operations and Maintenance Application Part)

5.0 CCS7 Normal Call Processing Messages

IAM (Initial Address Message): The IAM contains the dialed digits,
voice/data trunk identity, and other related info. IAM/SAM contains all
necessary information to set the path from one switch to the other.
Check tone (optional): For speech path continuity check After completion the
COT (Continuity Signal) message is sent. If the check tone fails, the
CCF(Continuity Check Failure) message is sent .
ACM (Address Complete Message)
Audible ringing tone
ANC (Answer, Charge): On receipt of the answer signal, charging is started.
CLF (Clear Forward): If called subscriber hangs up first, the CLB (Clear-
back) signal is sent in the other direction, followed by the CLF.
RLG (Release Guard): When the incoming equipment is released, a release-
guard signal is sent back.

Advantages of CCS7 signaling:

1. Faster call setup.
2. No interference between signalling tones by network and frequency of human
speech pattern.
3. Greater trunking efficiency due to the quicker set up and clear down, thereby
reducing traffic on the network.
4. No security issues related to the use of in-band signalling with CAS.
5. CCS allows the transfer of additional information along with the signalling
traffic providing features such as caller ID.
6. New services like IN services are possible because of CCS7 signaling.
7. Efficient utilisation of speech ckts.









Section-I

Chapter-3

Switching Systems and introduction to NGN
E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 1 of 15


EWSD - System Overview











1.0 System Features :

EWSD Digital switching system has been designed and manufactured
by M/s Siemens, Germany. The name is the abbreviated form of German
equivalent of Electronic Switching System Digital (Electronische Wheler
Systeme Digitale). EWSD switch can support maximum 2,50,000 subscribers
or 60,000 incoming, outgoing or both way trunks, when working as a pure
tandem exchange. It can carry 25,200 Erlang traffic and can withstand 1.4
million BHCA. It is claimed that with the latest hardware and software version
(Ver. 16), the system can withstand a BHCA of 16 million , can connect
6,50,000 subscribers or 2,40,000 trunks and handle 1,00,800 Erlang traffic. It
can work as local cum transit exchange and supports CCS No.7, ISDN and IN
and V5.X features.


3.0 System Architecture :

The main hardware units of an EWSD switch are as under:-

(1) Digital line unit (DLU) - functional unit on which subscriber lines are
terminated.

(2) Line/Trunk Group (LTG) - Digital Trunks and DLUs are connected to
LTGs.
The access function determined by the network environment are handled
by DLUs and LTGs .

CCNC
MDD
MTD
MB
CCG
SYP
CP
LTG(B)
LTG(C)









SN










T TR RU UN NK KS S
OMT PRINTER
DLU
S SU UB BS S
E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 2 of 15


(3) Switching Network (SN) - All the LTGs are connected to the SN which
inter connects the line and trunks connected to the exchange in
accordance with the call requirement of the subscribers. CCNC and CP
are also connected to SN.

(4) Coordination Processor (CP) - It is used for system-wide coordination
functions, such as, routing, zoning, etc. However each subsystem in
EWSD carryout practically all the tasks arising in their area
independently.

(5) Common Channel Signaling Network Control (CCNC) Unit or Signaling
System Network Control (SSNC)- This unit functions as the Message
Transfer Part (MTP) of CCS#7. The User Part (UP) is incorporated in the
respective LTGs.

2.1 Digital Line Unit (DLU)

Analog or Digital (ISDN-BA) subscribers, PBX lines are terminated on
DLU . DLUA, DLUB, DLUD & DLUG are the existing types in hardware
configuration of the DLU. DLUs can be used locally within the exchange or
remotely as remote

DLUs are connected to EWSD sub-systems via a uniform interface
standardized by CCITT, i.e., Primary Digital Carrier (PDC) to facilitate Local
or Remote installation. A subset of CCS# 7 is used for CCS on the PDCs. One
DLU is connected to two different LTGs for the reasons of security. A local
DLU is connected to two LTGs via two 4 Mbps (64 TSs) links, each towards a
different LTG. In case of remote DLUs, maximum 4 PDCs of 2 Mbps (32
TSs) are used per DLU, two towards each LTG. Signaling information is
carried in TS16 of PDC0 and PDC2. In case of a local DLU interface, TS32
carries the signaling information.

Within the DLU, the analog subscribers are terminated on SLMA
(Subscriber Line Module Analog) cards (module). Similarly Digital (ISDN)
subscribers are terminated on the SLMD modules. Each module can support
16 subscribers (in case of DLUB or DLUD), and one processor SLMCP. One
DLU can carry traffic of 100 Erlangs. A standard rack of local DLU (in case
of DLUD) can accommodate two DLUs of 992 subscribers each.

In case the link between a remote DLU and the main exchange is
broken,
the subscribers connected to the remote DLU can still dial each other but
metering will not be possible in this case. For emergency service DLU-
controller (DLUC) always contain up-to-date subscribers data. Stand Alone
Service Controller card (SASCE) is provided in each R-DLU for switching
calls in such cases for analog and ISDN subscribers and enables DTMF
dialing for push-button subscribers. This card is also used for interconnecting
a number of remotely situated DLUs (maximum 6), in a cluster, called a
Remote Control Unit (RCU), so that subscribers connected to these remote
E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 3 of 15


DLUs can also talk to each other in case the link of more than one DLU to the
main exchange is broken.

DLUG :

The latest type of DLU is DLUG which can accommodates upto 1984
analogue subscribers with 32 ports per SLMA but the SLMD still
accommodates 16 subscribers. A standard rack of DLU can accommodate two
such DLUGs . The DLUG can be connected to four LTGs with 16 PDCs with
a provision of one signalling channel (CCS) per LTG. It can handle up to 390
Erlangs of traffic.

2.2 Line/Trunk Groups

The line/trunk groups (LTG) forms the interface between the digital
environment of an EWSD exchange & SN. M Ma ax xi im mu um m t tr ra af ff fi ic c h ha an nd dl li in ng g
c ca ap pa ac ci it ty y p pe er r L LT TG G i is s 1 10 00 0 E Er rl lang as it is able to connect four PDCs either from
lines or trunks. Hardware-wise LTGG, LTGM, LTGN and LTGP are existing
in our country.
The LTGs are connected in any of the following ways :

(i) Via 2/4 Mb/s PDCs with remote/local DLUs to which subscribers are
connected

(ii) Via 2 Mbps digital access lines to other digital exchanges in the network ( (
M MF F R R2 2 T Tr ru un nk ks s, , C CC CS S# #7 7 T Tr ru un nk ks s) )

(iii) Via Primary rate Access lines to ISDN PBXs (ISDN subscribers with
PA)

( (i iv v) ) V V5 5. .2 2 I IF F, , A An nn no ou un nc ce em me en nt ts s T Tr ru un nk ks s, , O OC CA AN NE EQ Q, , I IP P ( (I In nt te el ll li ig ge en nt t P Pe er ri ip ph hr ra al l) )
( (S SS SP P) )

Functionwise LTGs are of two types:

(i) B Function LTG is used to connect lines e.g. DLU, PA, V5.2 IF etc.

(ii) C Function LTG is used to connect trunks on CAS and CCS#7

The bit rate on all highways linking the LTGs and the switching
network is 8192 kbps ( 8 Mbps ). Each 8 Mbps highway contains 128 channels
at 64kbps each ,
2.3 Switching Network

Different peripheral units of EWSD, i.e., LTGs, CCNC, MB are
connected to the Switching Network (SN) via 8192 kbps highways called
SDCs (Secondary Digital Carriers), which have 128 channels each. The SN
consists of several duplicated Time Stage Groups (TSG) and Space Stage
Groups (SSG) housed in separate racks. Connection paths through the TSGs
and SSGs are switched by the Switch Group Controls (SGC) provided in each
TSG and SSG, in accordance with the switching information from the
E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 4 of 15


coordination processor (CP). The SGCs also independently generate the
setting data and set the message channels for exchange of data between the
distributed controls.
The switching network is always duplicated (planes 0 and 1). Each
connection is switched simultaneously through both planes, so that a standby
connection is always immediately available in the event of a failure.
SN(B) has only 5 types of modules and each TSG and SSG is
accommodated in only two shelves of the respective racks. Here one shelf can
either accommodate one TSG or two SSGs thus requiring maximum 10 racks
for 504 LTGs. Remaining four shelves normally accommodate LTGs. The
latest, SN (D) can connect 2016 LTGs and thus handle traffic of 1,00,800
erlangs

Main Functions:
*Speech Path Switching

*Message Path Switching

*CCS#7 signaling channels connection (NUC)

2.4 Coordination Area

2.4.1 Coordination Processor

The coordination processor (CP) handles the data base as well as
configuration and coordination functions, e.g.:
- Storage and administration of all programs, exchange and subscriber
data,
- Processing of received information for routing, path selection,
zoning, charges,
- Supervision of all subsystems, receipt of error messages, analysis of
supervisory result messages, alarm treatment, error detection, error
location and error neutralization and configuration functions.
- Handling of the man-machine interface.

The Basic functional units of CP 113C are as follows:
- Base Processor (BAP) for operation & maintenance and call processing,
- Call Processors (CAP) for sharing call processing load if the exchange
BHCA cannot be handled by BAPs. Maximum 10 CAPs can be provided.
- Common Memory (CMY)- 64 to 1024 MB mainly for resident programs
& database.
- Bus to Common Memory (BCMY)- For giving a time shared access to
processors to read CMY whenever a number of processors give such a
request.
E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 5 of 15


- Input / Output Controller (IOC) - 2 to 4 IOCs coordinate and supervise
accessing of CMY by IOPs.
- ATM Bridge Processor (AMP) If a SSNC (EWSD powernode) is
connected, the AMP is used (usually instead of the second IOC pair). It
represents the interface between the ATM equipment in the SSNC and the
CP. Its task is to convert the ATM oriented data streams from SSNC to the
internal EWSD format.
- Input/output processors (IOP) - Various types of IOPs are used to
connect the CP113C to the other subsystems and functional units of the
exchange as well as to the external mass storage devices (EM i.e.,
MDD, MTD, MOD), the two O&M terminals (OMT/ BCT), to OMC via
data lines etc. Maximum 12 IOPs can be connected to one IOC. The figure
is shown on next page.

2.4.2 Other units assigned to CP are:

Message Buffer (MB) for coordinating internal message traffic between
the CP- SN, CP-LTG, LTG-LTG, LTG- CCNC/SSNC in the exchange.

Central Clock Generator (CCG) for the synchronization of the exchange
and, where necessary, the network. The CCG is extremely accurate with
error rate (10
-9)
. It can, however, be synchronized even more accurately
by an external master clock (10
-11
).

System Panel Display (SYPD) to display system internal alarms & the CP
load
It thus provides a continuous overview of the state of the system. The SYP
can also displays external alarms such as fire & air-conditioning system
failure .

Operation and Maintenance Terminals/ Basic Craft Terminal for
Input/output. Two OMTs/ BCTs are provided for O&M functions.


2.5 Units for Message transfer part (MTP) of CCS#7 e.g. CCNC/SSNC

The common MTP functions in an EWSD exchange are handled by the
common channel signaling network control (CCNC) or Signaling System
Network Control (SSNC). The UP is incorporated in the software of the
relevant LTG.

E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 6 of 15




OCB 283 SWITCHING SYSTEM

M/s Alcatel France has developed OCB_283 switching system. It
has single T Stage switching.
OCB-283 Exchange has got 3 basic subsystems :-
1. Subscriber Access subsystem
2. Connection & Control subsystem
3. Operation & Maintenance Subsystem

























Fig. 1 (OCB 283 Functional Architecture)


The various connection and control functions in OCB-283 system are
distributed with appropriate redundancy as indicated in the diagram.
n=7
STS
1X3
1 to 4 MAS
LR
LR
LR
MCX
SMX
(1 to 8) x 2

SMT
(1 to 64) x 2


SMA
CSDN
CSED
Circuits
+MP
SMC
2 to 32
1 MIS
MAL
SM
M
TMN
AL
CS
NL
E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 7 of 15


2. Brief description of the functional components :-

2.1 STS ( BT Time base) : Time pulses are generated in triplicate and
distributed to LRs at Switching unit. The time base is usually
synchronised with the network by a synch. interface. Synchronisation
interface gets the clock from PCMs which carry traffic also and
synchronises the local clock with the PCM clock and thus network
synchronisation is achieved.

2.2 SMX Host switching Matrix (MCX)/Switch Control Function
COM
This is a pure time switch of maximum 2048 LRs connectivity
capability. The switching of LR time shots are controlled by the
function COM which in turn obtains the connection particulars from call
handler known as Multiregister.

LRs are 2 Mbps binary coded PCM links with 32 time slots.
2.3 SMA Auxiliaries : Following auxiliary functions are
available
- Auxiliary Equipment Manager (ETA) :

The ETA supports the following function:
- Tone generation (GT) e.g. dial tone, busy tone etc.
- Frequency generation & reception (RGF) for R2 MF signal, tone
dial reception etc.
- Conference call facility (CCF).
- Exchange clock.

2.3.2 CCS # 7 Protocol Manager (PU/PE)
64 kbps signalling channels are connected to this by semipermanent
link and carries out level 2 and level 3 of the signalling message
transfer.

The defence and signalling link resource allocation is done by a control
function PC.

2.3.3 V 5.2 Protocol Handler : The signalling protocol between an
access network an d local exchange is processed and managed by this
function.

2.4 SMC Call Handler MR
This obtains necessary data from subs and circuits and process for
connection and disconnection of call with the help of a database
manager TR. In addition this helps in carrying out circuit tests and
some observations. Besides MR function there is one CC (Call Contorl)
function which again contains register to handle CCS # 7 calls in
conjunction with MR registers.

E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 8 of 15


2.4.2 Data Manager TR:
This function is responsible for managing and storing various
subscriber and trunks related data base. The data is returned by
the call handler MR as and when required during call processing.

2.4.3 Charging function (TX):
This function is responsible for charge computation on the basis of
certain charging parameters supplied by the translator during
analysis of digits received from a source (Subs or Circuit). This
also prepares detailed billing messages and forwarding the same
to the operation & maintenance function for further processing.
Besides the charge related function the TX also is responsible for
carrying out some traffic observation on subscriber and trunks.

2.4.4 Matrix handler (GX)
This function is responsible for processing and for defence of
connections on receipt of :-

(a) request for connection and disconnection from MR or MQ
(marker).
(b) fault in connection signalled by the switching controller function
(COM).

GX also carrier out monitoring of connections and checks data links
periodically..

2.4.5 Message Distribution function (MQ) marker:
Its function is to format if required and distribute messages
- It also supervises semi permanent links .
- Interchange of messages between different communication
multiplexes.

2.5 SMT PCM controller (URM) :
PCM interface receives PCM from other exchanges remote subs
access units, access networks and digital recorded announcement
systems and the URM function carrier out the following:

HDB3/Binary code conversion
Injection / extraction of TS 16 for CAS.

2.6 SMM OM Function:
This function enables to create all data required for subs/circuits and their
testing. This also enables spontaneously issuing fault and alarm
messages in case of indications coming from OCB units. OM function
further provides features for saving detail billing/ bulk billing messages on
mag tape (cartridge) . The OM function possess a two way communication
path with the exchange system.
E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 9 of 15


2.7 TOKEN RINGS

There are 1 MIS and 4 MAS token rings for control message
communication between different stations.


2.8 CSNL/CSND Subscriber access function :

This functional component is implemented in CSNL/CSND or CSED
and is responsible to forward new call connection &
disconnection requests to control functions.

SUBSCRIBER DIGITAL ACCESS UNIT (CSN)

The digital satellite exchange (CSN) is an entity for connection of
subscriber, which is capable of serving analogue subscribers and
digital subscribers simultaneously.

The CSN is a connection unit designed to adapt to a wide variety of
geographical situations. It can either be local (CSNL) or remote
(CSND) in relation to the connecting exchange.

E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 10 of 15


INTRODUCTION TO THE 5ESS SWITCH

The 5ESS switching system has been designed M/s AT & T and supplied by
M/s Lucent Technologies Ltd.The 5ESS-2000 Switch has 3 major types of
equipment modules:
1. SM/SM-2000 (Switching Module),
2. CM (Communication Module)
3. AM (Administrative Module).
1.0 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 5ESS SWITCH
The 5ESS-2000 Switch is a digital exchange that can serve as a local (lines),
toll (trunks), tandem (lines and trunks), OSPS (Operator Service Position
System) or international gateway exchange, depending on the type of switch.
It can serve a small community with fewer than 100 subscribers or a large
metropolitan area serving more than 200,000 subscribers.
Modular Distributed Design
AM
CM SM SM
DSCH
NCT Links
NCT
Link
SM

Fig. 1 Different Modules of 5-ESS Switch
The SM connects all lines and trunks . It performs most of the call processing
functions. There can be many SMs per 5ESS-2000 Switch.
The CM provides communication between the SMs and the AM. There is one
CM per 5ESS-2000 Switch.
AM provides O& M functions for the switch.
2.0 SWITCHING MODULE
All external lines, trunks, and special services circuits like tones,
announcements , testing and conferencing circuits are terminated at the
switching module. The analog and digital signals are converted to the digital
format used inside the 5ESS-2000 Switch. The SM performs almost 95% of
the call processing and maintenance functions including:
E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 11 of 15


- Line and trunk scanning
- Tone and cadence generation
- Digit analysis
- Call routing
- Circuit switching
- Packet switching
- Announcements
- Call progress supervision
- Routine maintenance and self-maintenance
One 5ESS-2000 Switch can support as many as 192 SMs (SM Classic type).
Each SM can handle as many as 5120 lines or 500 trunks, or a combination
of the two. The SM-2000 can handle more than 65,000 lines or about 18,000
trunks.

2.1 Types Of Switching Modules
A 5ESS-2000 Switch can be equipped with the following types of SMs.
- LSM (Local Switching Module) :This type of SM serves local lines,
and ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) users. The LSM is
usually referred to as the SM.
- HSM (Host Switching Module) : This type of SM provides the normal
LSM subscriber interfaces and also interfaces one or more RSMs
(Remote Switching Modules).
- RSM (Remote Switching Module) : This is done by having the
RSM connected to an HSM. This RSM can be as far away as 242
kilometers from the host. UP to 4 RSMs (called a MMRSM (Multi-Mod
RSM) can be interconnected to serve 16,000 lines, 2,000 trunks, or a
combination of line and trunks. The RSM provides full stand-alone
capabilities, including direct trunks to other exchanges, and can be
used singularly or grouped in clusters
- PSM (Position Switching Module) : This type of SM supports
OSPS (Operator Services Position System ) features.
3.0 COMMUNICATION MODULE
3.1 The CM provides communication between the SMs and the AM and
between different SMs.
Major Components of The CM
All versions of the CM are divided into two functional units : The MSGS
(Message Switch), and the ONTC, (Office Network and Timing Complex). The
following description is based on the most common type of CM in the field, the
CM2.
The MSGS and ONTC are each made up of subunits. The four major
functions of the CM are performed by these hardware subunits :
E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 12 of 15



MSGS
- MSCU (Message Switch Control Unit): It controls MSPU unit
- MSPU (Message Switch Peripheral Unit):It stores control information
of different SMs
ONTC
- CMCU (Communications Module Control Unit):It controls TMSU and
clock generator is available.
- TMSU (Time Multiplexed Switch Unit) Where NCT links are
terminated
CM3: is the latest hardware version of CM. In this type of CM there is a
single rack/shelf.
4.0 ADMINISTRATIVE MODULE
In the 5ESS-2000 Switch, the AM (Administrative Module) is a switch
equipment module which has the overall control of the entire 5ESS-2000
Switch. The AM controls the CM and communicates with all the SMs (through
the CM).
Administrative Module Functions
The AM has a minimum of one cabinet and can have a maximum of three
cabinets. The AM performs resource allocation and processing functions that
are done more efficiently on a centralized basis such as:
Call routing for inter module and intra module calls
Administrative data processing/billing data
Traffic measurement reports/system performance reports
Memory management
System maintenance
Maintaining file records of changes to the system Software
Release.
Personnel interface/system monitoring
Allocating trunks for call processing.
4.1 Administrative Module Components
There are three main units located within the AM :
CU (Control Unit)
IOP (Input/ Output Processor)
DFC (Disk File Controller)
The CU monitors overall system operation. The IOP interfaces with the MCC (Master
Control Center), ROP (Receive Only Printer) and other peripheral devices. The DFC
controls the TD (Tape Drive) and (DD) Disk Drive.
E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 13 of 15


- Manages data transfer - controls memory transfer between its own
memory, its hard disk, and the microprocessors that serve the
peripheral units in the IOP.
- The MM stores program instructions and data. The MM stores
the instructions and other data needed by the processor to process
calls, collect administrative information, and perform system
maintenance.
CU
CC
MM
DFC
IOP
TD
DD
MCC
ROP

Fig. 2 Administrative Module Components
4.3 AM Peripheral Component Functions
Disk File Controller
The DFC is responsible for interfacing with the SCSI (Small Computer System
Interface) Peripheral Devices, such as the disk and tape drives.
Tape Drive
The tape drive is a backup for information stored on disk.
Input/ Output Processor
The IOP is the interface for other peripheral devices used by the switch, such
as maintenance interfaces (MCC and ROP), datalinks and alarm signaling.
Master Control Center
The primary functions of the MCC are to provide the following
- Visual displays of system status and alarm information
- The means to control, test and reconfigure the system
- The means to manually recover the system
- Access to exchange data
The ROP (Receive-Only Printer) provides a printed copy of reports from
the MCC.

E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 14 of 15


NGN: CONCEPT AND ARCHITECTURE

The current generation network of BSNL, popularly known as PSTN is mainly circuit
switching based network and it is organized into an hierarchical architecture viz.
Level I TAX exchanges, then Level-II exchanges and then tandem/local exchanges.
The PSTN network is mainly optimized for voice calls and not much suited for data
services. We have a separate network for data services. Today the world over trend is
for a single converged network used for all type of services viz. voice, data, video
which is called Next Generation Network and is a packet switching based network. To
change over from current generation network to next generation network we have to
move in a step-by-step manner to safeguard our existing network infrastructure and
investment and therefore we have to follow an evolutionary path.

2.0 Why NGN?
The NGN concept takes into consideration new realities in the telecommunication
industry characterised by factors such as: the need to converge and optimise the
operating networks and the extraordinary expansion of digital traffic (i.e., increasing
demand for new multimedia services, increasing demand for mobility, etc.). The other
reasons why we should evolve our existing network to NGN are that the existing
circuit switched networks have following problems:
Slow to develop new features and capabilities.
Expensive upgrades and operating expenses.
Proprietary vendor troubles
Large power and cooling requirements.
Limited migration strategy to New tech.
Model obsolescence.

3.0 What is NGN?

3.1 ITU-Ts Definition of NGN

A Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packet-based network able to provide
Telecommunication Services to users and able to make use of multiple broadband,
QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are
independent of the underlying transport-related technologies. It enables unfettered
access for users to networks and to competing service providers and services of their
choice. It supports generalised mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous
provision of services to users.

3.2 ETSIs Definition of NGN

As per ETSI NGN is a concept for defining and deploying networks, which
due to their formal separation into different layers and planes and use of open
interfaces, offers service providers and operators a platform, which can evolve
in a step-by-step manner to create, deploy and manage innovative services.

The following diagram depicts the concept of NGN.

E2E3 Switching systems & NGN, Ver2 17.11.2007 15 of 15


Current Gen networks NGN




















In NGN basically the call control (i.e. signaling) and the switching is separated
out in different layers and between these layers open interfaces are used. The
call control functionality is realized by the component which is called call
server or softswitch or media gateway controller and the interfaces to the
existing PSTN switches is done with the help of media gateways for voice
transport and by signaling gateways for signaling transport. For switching and
transport of the packets existing IP/MPLS backbone is used. With NGN
architecture the new and innovative services can be given very fast and cost
effectively. Also the capital expenditure and operational expenditure come
down drastically.
The NGN is characterized by the following fundamental aspects:

Packet-based transfer
Separation of control functions among bearer capabilities,
call/session, and application/service
Decoupling of service provision from transport, and provision of
open interfaces
Support for a wide range of services, applications and mechanisms
based on service building blocks (including real time/streaming/non-
real time services and multi-media)
Broadband capabilities with end-to-end QoS and transparency
Interworking with legacy networks via open interfaces
Generalised mobility
Unfettered access by users to different service providers




Interfaces
Switching
Call
Control
Call
Server
IP/MPLS
Gateways
SDH Transport
with Overlay
packets for data

Common
IP MPLS
Transpo




















Section-I

Chapter-4

Intelligent Network and Services
E2E3 IN Ver2 17.11.2007 1 of 9
INTELLIGENT NETWORK

Over the last thirty years one of the major changes in the implementation of Public
Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN) has been the migration from analogue to digital
switches. Coupled with this change has been the growth of intelligence in the switching
nodes. From a customers and network providers point of view this has meant that new
features could be offered and used. Since the feature handling functionality was resident
in the switches, the way in which new features were introduced into the network was by
introducing changes in all the switches. This was time consuming and fraught with risk of
malfunction because of proprietary feature handling in the individual switches. To
overcome these constraints the Intelligent Network architecture was evolved both as a
network and service architecture.

In the IN architecture, the service logic and service control functions are taken out of the
individual switches and centralized in a special purpose computer. The interface between
the switches and the central computer is standardised. The switches utilize the services of
the specialized computer whenever a call involving a service feature is to be handled. The
call is switched according to the advice received by the requesting switch from the
computer. For normal call handling, the switches do not have to communicate with the
central computer.

1.1. Objectives of the Intelligent Network

The main objectives of the IN are the introduction and modification of new services in a
manner which leads to substantial reduction in lead times and hence development costs,
and to introduce more complex network functions. An objective of IN is also to allow the
inclusion of the additional capabilities and flexibility to facilitate the provisioning of
services independent of the underlying network's details. Service independence allows
the service providers to define their own services independent of the basic call handling
implementation of the network owner. The key needs that are driving the implementation
of IN are:

Rapid Service Deployment
Most businesses today require faster response from their suppliers, including
telecommunication operators. By separating the service logic from the underlying switch
call processing software, IN enables operator to provide new services much more rapidly.

Reduced Deployment Risk
Prior to IN, the risk associated with the deployment of new services was substantial.
Major investments had to be made in developing the software for the services and then
deploying them in all of the switches. With the service creation environment available,
the IN services can be prototyped, tested and accessed by multiple switches
simultaneously. The validated services can then be rolled out to other networks as well.



E2E3 IN Ver2 17.11.2007 2 of 9
Cost Reduction
Because the IN services were designed from the beginning to be reusable, many new
services can be implemented by building on or modifying an existing service. Reusability
reduces the overall cost of developing services. Also, IN is an architecture independent
concept, i.e. it allows a network operator to choose suitable development hardware
without having to redevelop a service in the event that the network configuration
changes.

Customization
Prior to IN, due to complexity of switch based feature handling software, the
considerable time frame required for service development prevented the provider from
easily going back to refine the service after the customer started to use it. With IN, the
process of modifying the service or customization of service for a specific customer is
much less expensive and time consuming. The customization of services is further
facilitated by the integration of advanced peripherals in the IN through standard
interfaces. Facilities such as voice response system, customized announcements and text
to speech converters lead to better call completion rate and user friendliness
of the services.

1.2. IN Architecture

Building upon the discussion in the previous section, one can envisage that an IN would
consist of the following nodes:

Specialized computer system for - holding services logic, feature control, service
creation, customer data, and service management.
Switching nodes for basic call handling
Specialized resources node

The service logic is concentrated in a central node called the Service Control Point
(SCP).

The switch with basic call handling capability and modified call processing model for
querying the SCP is referred to as the Service Switching Point(SSP).

Intelligent Peripheral (IP) is also a central node and contains specialized resources
required for IN service call handling. It connects the requested resource towards a SSP
upon the advice of the SCP.

Service Management Point (SMP) is the management node, which manages services
logic, customers data and traffic and billing data. The concept of SMP was introduced in
order to prevent possible SCP malfunction due to on-the-fly service logic or customer
data modification. These are first validated at the SMP and then updated at the SCP
during lean traffic hours. The user interface to the SCP is thus via the SMP.



E2E3 IN Ver2 17.11.2007 3 of 9
Physical Plane

Service Switching Point (SSP)

The SSP serves as an access point for IN services. All IN service calls must first
be routed through the PSTN to the "nearest" SSP. The SSP identifies the incoming call as
an IN service call by analysing the initial digits (comprising the "Service Key") dialled by
the calling subscriber and launches a Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP)
query to the SCP after suspending further call processing. When a TCAP response is
obtained from the SCP containing advice for further call processing, SSP resumes call
processing. The interface between the SCP and the SSP is G.703 digital trunk. The MTP,
SCCP, TCAP and INAP protocols of the CCS7 protocol stack are defined at this interface

Service Control Point (SCP)

The SCP is a fault-tolerant online computer system. It communicates with the
SSP's and the IP for providing guidelines on handling IN service calls. The physical
interface to the SSP's is G.703 digital trunk. It communicates with the IP via the
requesting SSP for connecting specialized resources. SCP stores large amounts of data
concerning the network, service logic, and the IN customers. For this, secondary storage
and I/O devices are supported. As has been commented before, the service programs and
the data at the SCP are updated from the SMP.

Service Management Point (SMP)

The SMP, which is a computer system, is the front-end to the SCP and provides
the user interface. It is sometimes referred to as the Service Management System (SMS).
It updates the SCP with new data and programs(service logic) and collects statistics from
it. The SMP also enables the service subscriber to control his own service parameters via
a remote terminal connected through dial-up connection or X.25 PSPDN. This
modification is filtered or validated by the network operator before replicating it on the
SCP. The SMP may contain the service creation environment as well. In that case
the new services are created and validated first on the SMP before downloading to the
SCP. One SMP may be used to manage more than one SCP's.

Intelligent Peripheral (IP)

The IP provides enhanced services to all the SSP's in an IN under the control
of the SCP. It is centralized since it is more economical for several users to share the
specialized resources available in the IP which may be too expensive to replicate in all
the SSPs. The following are examples of resources that may be provided by an IP:
Voice response system
Announcements
Voice mail boxes
Speech recognition system
Text-to-speech converters

E2E3 IN Ver2 17.11.2007 4 of 9

The IN architecture is depicted in below given Figure:



Data
Base
CCS7 Network
IP SSP
USER USER USER USER
Communication Interface
Data
Base
Communication Interface
Program Interface
Communication Interface
Legend
SMP: Service Management Point
SCP: Service Control Point
Service switching Point
IP: Intelligent peripheral
SMP
SCP
E2E3 IN Ver2 17.11.2007 5 of 9

1.3. DESCRIPTION OF IN SERVICE FEATURES

An IN service comprises mandatory (providing core functionality) and optional features.
A brief description of the various features that constitute the IN services offered as part of
IN solution is given in the following paragraphs.

Call Forwarding on Busy/No Answer (CFC): This service feature allows the called
user to forward calls if the called user is busy or doesn't answer within a specified
number of rings.
Customer Profile Management (CPM): This feature allows the user to perform online
modification of the password (authorization Code).
Mass Calling (MAS): This service feature allows processing of large numbers of
incoming calls in a given time span, generated by call-in broadcasts, advertisements or
games, etc.
Origin Dependent Routing (ODR): This service feature allows the subscriber to have
calls routed according to the calling party's area of origination. Based on the area of
origination the subscriber can also accept or reject the call.
Origination Call Screening (OCS): This service feature allows the subscriber to bar the
calls originating from certain areas identified by their area codes.
Off-net Access (OFA): This service feature allows a VPN user to access his or her VPN
from any non-VPN station by using a personal identification number.
Off-net Calling (ONC): This service feature allows the VPN user to call any external
public number from a VPN location. Authorization is required for accessing this feature.
Premium Charging (PRMC): This service feature allows for the pay back of the part of
the cost of a call to the called party, when he is considered a value added service
provider. The call is charged at a premium over normal call charge.
Private Numbering Plan (PNP): This service feature allows the subscriber to maintain a
numbering plan within his private network, which is separate from the public numbering
plan.
Reverse Charging (REVC): This service feature allows the service subscriber to receive
calls at his own expense and be charged for the entire cost of the call.
Time Dependent Routing (TDR): This service feature enables the subscriber to route
calls based on time of day, day of week and day of year. The precedence when more than
one type of parameters are specified for determining routing shall be
1. Day of year
2. Day of week
3. Time of day
Call Distribution (CD)
This service feature allows the subscriber to have the calls routed to more than one
directory number. Based on the values defined, only a percentage of calls are routed
to a directory number.


E2E3 IN Ver2 17.11.2007 6 of 9
IN Services and access codes

Existing New Codes Service Access
1600 1800 Free Phone
1601 1801 VPN
1602 1802 VCC(ITC)
1603 1803 Tele voting (no charge)
1604 1804 ACC
1901 1860 UAN(Local)
1902 1861 Tele voting(Charge)
0900 1867 PRM
0901 1860 UAN(LD)
1868 UPN
1907 1807 UAN Mgmt
1808 UPN Mgmt
1809 VPN Mgmt
FLPP

IN platforms in BSNL and its SCP Codes:

Kolkata
(East Zone)
345 General purpose
(GPIN)
Bihar, Jharkhand, West
Bengal,Orissa,Assam, North East-I & II,
CTD and A&N Islands
Bangalore
(South Zone)
425 General purpose
(GPIN)
TamilNadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Chennai T.D.
Lucknow
(North Zone)
180 General purpose
(GPIN)
UP (E), UP (W), Uttaranchal, Punjab,
Haryana, H.P., J&K and Rajasthan
Ahmedabad
(West Zone)
233 General purpose
(GPIN)
Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya
Pradesh, Chattisgarh, AP
Hyderabad
(Central)
424 Mass Calling IN
(MCIN)
All India(Mass Calling)

Virtual Card Calling Service (ITC)
Also known as Indian Telephone Card. Meant for customers who want to make
STD/ISD calls from any Bfone (may not be his own) and limit the usage. No
metering will be there on the Calling Telephone Number. Metering will be there
against the VCC account.
Access code : 1602-SCP Code- PIN Destination No.
(1802 by 30-04-2009)


E2E3 IN Ver2 17.11.2007 7 of 9
Account Card Calling Service (ACC)
To place calls from any PSTN phone to any destination no and have the
cost of these calls charged to the account specified by the account card
calling (ACC) number.
Personal identification number(PIN) is required for
o Balance enquiry
o Making call
o Change of PIN
Subscriber can renew the account by depositing a fresh amount of money
after expiry of existing deposit with in the validity period of the Account.
Detailed record for all the ACC calls will be sent to the subscriber for his
information.

Free Phone Service (FPH) or Toll Free No.

Meant for customer oriented organizations who want that their customers
should feel free to contact without worrying about call charges.
Here the concept of reverse charging is applied with additional features.
The service subscriber will have one logical number against more than
one PSTN no. distributed all over the network. He can have his own
routing plan using Time Dependent Routing, Origin Dependent Routing
facilities.

Premium Rate Services

Concept of charging on higher pulse rate for the Services rendered by the
subscriber.
The pulse rate will be decided by the subscriber. Caller is charged.
The revenue will be shared by the Subscriber and BSNL
He can have his own routing plan using TDR, ODR on local access basis.
A typical PRM no. would look like 1867 XYZ ABCD
Where Service Access Code : 1867
XYZ : 3 digit SCP code
ABCD : Last 4 digits are PRM no

Universal Access Number Service

Publish one number(unique IN number) and have the incoming call routed
destination based on origin of call or time/day on which the call is made.
The caller will be charged as per the normal charge of PSTN call.
One logical number against more than one PSTN no. distributed all over
the network.

E2E3 IN Ver2 17.11.2007 8 of 9
Universal Personal Number Service
Outgoing facility also available in UPN service. It introduces the concept of
Personal mobility rather than terminal mobility.
A subscriber to this service can receive or make calls using his Universal
Personal Number from any BSNL phone.
The subscriber will be given some management codes and password.
Using that he can convert/reconvert any BSNL phone into his Universal
Personal Number.
All the calls made by subscriber using his UPN will be billed at his UPN by
the IN platform.
The subscriber will be able to get all his calls incoming on the UPN
number anywhere in India.

This is a service newly introduced through Alcatel IN Platform.

Virtual Private Network
Enables the subscriber to establish a private network using existing public
network resources.
Virtual PABX and it can be nation wide.
Individual members can have privileges-ON net.
Calling possible from outside VPN-Off net
Billing will be against the Group id

VPN Features
Multi site Organization
Short Group Numbers
Abbreviated Dialing
Date & Time Screening
Exception List
Call Duration Control
Multiple Account Codes
Dual Invoicing
Call Forwarding
Hunting List
Substitution

Tele-Voting Service
To conduct telephonic public opinion polls and surveys. Thus provides
easiest way to conduct poll/survey.
Opinion by dialing the advertised Tele-voting number. The calling user can
be charged (Unit) or charge free.
The service can be available based on origin or time basis.

Tele Vote Features
Validity Period
Counters
Global Vote Counter
Local Tele voting Counter per
VOT number
Winner Counter
Black List
Origin Dependent Handling
Day Type/Time Dependent
Handling
Pre Filtering at SSP
E2E3 IN Ver2 17.11.2007 9 of 9

Fixed Line Pre-paid Service


Types of FLPP Services in BSNL
1. PCO FLPP Account - offering only Prepaid Services (for Local +STD+ISD)
2. General FLPP Account - offering both Prepaid & Postpaid services
3. General FLPP Account offering only Prepaid services

FLPP PCO and FLPP General Pure pre paid - can be given to subscribers from AXE-
10, 5ESS, EWSD, E-10B, OCB-283 and not from CDOT.

Dialing Plan: Only Destination Number needs to be dialed.

Internal Routing Plan:
As on date only OCB-283 exchanges can act as SSP and trigger the FLPP Calls to
the SCP.
Rest of the new Technology exchange shall only prefix the FLPP Call with 1805-
345/ 233 and then the call shall be routed to nearest OCB 283 exchange which
will further trigger the FLPP Calls to the SCP.
If the FLPP Call is originated from E-10B Exchange then the exchange shall
simply route to any of the new technology exchange. Further routing shall be as
explained above.

FLPP General Pre paid over post paid - can be given to subscribers from AXE-10,
5ESS, EWSD, OCB-283 and not from E-10B, CDOT.
Dialing Plan:
a. Post paid by default : Only Destination Number needs to be dialed(this shall not be
FLPP Call).
b. To Make prepaid call: 1805 345/233 + destination number

Internal Routing Plan:
As on date only OCB-283 exchanges can act as SSP and trigger the FLPP Calls to
the SCP.
Rest of the new Technology exchange shall simply route the FLPP Calls to
nearest OCB -283 exchange which will further trigger the FLPP Calls to the SCP.
(Not available from CCB PCOs)

Note:
FLPP Prepaid over Post paid can not be provided from E-10B and C-DoT
exchanges because of its inability to send more than 16 digits on trunks.
FLPP Pure Prepaid can not be provided from C-DoT exchanges because of it
routes the local without treating it as IN Call and ISD calls can also be not made
because of its inability to send more than 16 digits on trunks.
















Section-I

Chapter-1

Maintenance issues: Battery and Power plant

E2E3 Battery Power plant, Ver1 24.08.2007 1 of 5

GENERAL INTRODUCTION


The power plant of any telecommunication system is usually referred as the heart of
the installation since the communication system can function only as long as power
supply is available. Failure of power supply system in any installation renders the
communication facilities offered by it to be instantly paralyzed.

Requirement of Power Supply:

Any power supply arrangement for a communication system must have two basic
characteristics.

i. Reliability of the components of the power plant and continuity of the power
supply.

ii. The power fed to the exchange equipment should be free from noise or hum
and to telegraph equipment from large ripple harmonics.

Maintenance Free Secondary Cells

Maintenance free, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries ensure a reliable effective
and user friendly source of power. It is spill proof and explosion resistant and there is no
need to add water or to clean terminals. It has low self-discharge rate which eliminates
the need for equalizing charges. The container is made of polypropylene. Each plate is
individually wrapped by a highly absorbent, microporous glass separate developed
specially for VRLA batteries. The chemically inert glass ensures life long service. The
absorbed electrolyte ensures that there is no spillage even in the unlikely event of
puncture of the cell. Gas evolution under float conditions is negligible. The water loss
throughout life due to gassing is roughly 0.1% of the total electrolyte present in the cell.
This will in no way affect performance and also eliminate the need for specially
ventilated battery room and acid resisting flooring. As the batteries can be installed in
stacks, there will be considerable space saving also.

Various capabilities of Batteries are 120 AH, 400 AH, 600 AH, 1000AH, 1500 AH, 2000
AH, 2500 AH, 3000 AH, 4000 AH & 5000 AH.

VRLA Technology A brief review of Chemical Reaction

The electrode in all lead acid batteries, including VRLA battery is basically identical. As
the battery is discharged the lead dioxide positive active material and the spongy lead
negative active material react with the sulphuric acid electrolyte to form lead sulphated
and water. During charge, this process is reversed. The Coulombic efficiency of the
charging process is less than 100% on reaching final stage of charging or under over
charge conditions, the charging energy is consumed for electrolyte decomposition of

E2E3 Battery Power plant, Ver1 24.08.2007 2 of 5

water and the positive plates generate oxygen gas and the negative plates generate
hydrogen gas.

Under typical charging conditions, oxygen at the positive plate occurs before hydrogen
evolution at the negative. This feature is utilized in the design of VRLA batteries. In
flooded cells, the oxygen gas evolved at the positive plate bubbles upwards through the
electrolyte and is released through the vents. In MF-VRLA batteries the oxygen gas
evolved, at the positive plate, instead of bubbling upwards in transported in the gas
phase through the separator medium to the negative plate. The separator is a highly
absorbent glass matrix type with very high porosity, designed to have pore volume in
excess of the electrolyte volume (starved electrolyte design), due to which the oxygen
gas finds an unimpeded path to the negative plate. the oxygen gas gets reduced by
reaction with the spongy lead at the negative plate, turning a part of it into a partially
discharged condition, there by effectively suppressing the hydrogen gas evolution at the
negative plate. This is what is known as the oxygen recombination principle.

The part of negative plate which was partially discharged is then reverted to the original
spongy lead by subsequent charging. Thus a negative plate keeping equilibrium
between the amount which turns into spongy lead by charging and the amount of
spongy lead which turns into lead sulphated by absorbing the oxygen gas generated at
the positive plate. The oxygen recombination principle can be shown by the following
reaction:
1. Reaction at positive plate :

H2O = 1/2 O2 + 2e (1)

2. Reaction at negative plate :

Pb + 1/2 O2 = PbO .(2)

PbO + H2SO4 = PbSO4 + H2O .(3)
To reaction (1)


PbSO4 + 2H + 2e = Pb + H2SO4 (4)
To reaction (3)

To reaction (2)
3. The total reaction at negative plate

1/2 O2 + 2H = H2O

Thus, the recombination technology makes the battery virtually Maintenance Free.


E2E3 Battery Power plant, Ver1 24.08.2007 3 of 5

Battery capacity :The energy that can be taken out of a battery before the cell
voltage collapses is called the battery capacity. It is defined as Discharge current (A
) Discharge Duration time (hours).

MONITORING OF VRLA BATTERIES

Following steps are required for monitoring of the VRLA Batteries:
(a) Periodic physical inspection of each cell of the battery for cracks and leaking etc.
(b) Discharge of battery for a short duration and recording the voltages of each cell
in the string.
(c) Measurement of a mark deviation (>30%) in the impedance or conductance of
the cell as compared to the one recorded at the time of commissioning.
(d) Measurement & recording of cell temp. periodically.
(e) Float Voltage of cells & its comparison with the mid point voltage.
(f) Float current in fully charged battery.

Periodic Physical Inspection: Check for any crack or leakage every month. If not
every month, at least once in two months.

Battery Partial Discharge Test: Put battery to a test discharge for 30 minutes by
shutting power plant so that 20% of the battery is discharged. This can be decided by
the table supplied by the manufacturer. Record the Voltage of each cell. Any cell
showing more than 5% variation compared to voltage of other cell can be potential weak
cell.
Impedance Measurement:Take impedance measurement when the charger is on and
the battery is on float. Any change in impedance/conductance of the cell more than 40%
shows imminent failure of the battery/cell. A change of <30% shows a healthy battery/
cell.

Temperature: Every 10 degree rise in battery temperature doubles the chemical
reaction in the battery. The SMPS power plant takes care of the temperature by
reducing the charging voltage but still it is important to measure individual cell temp.
periodically and keep record for study and analysis.

Float Voltage: Float voltage is another important parameter on which life and
performance of the battery depends. The float voltage should be set to 2.25 V per
cell and charge voltage to 2.3 V per cell taking the adjustment factor of 3 mV/cell
per degree centigrade.

Mid-point Voltage Measurement: Some battery monitors measure the midpoint
voltage of each battery string. In this method the monitor will raise an alarm if there is a
sufficient imbalance in the two half string voltages.

Individual Cell Monitoring: In this technique, the voltage of each is measured and
deviation in any of cell can be detected quickly.


E2E3 Battery Power plant, Ver1 24.08.2007 4 of 5

Effect of Temperature on the battery:
With rise in temperature the battery life decreases.
For every 10 degree rise in temperature, the capacity of battery becomes half.
There is a temperature compensation in SMPS Power Plants and it is 3 milli-volt per
degree rise in temp.

Life of battery:
Batteries upto 200AH: 4 Years
Batteries more than 200 AH: 6 years

SMPS(Switched Mode Power Supply) Power plant:

The salient features of SMPS power plant are:
1) The power system is intended primarily to provide uninterrupted DC power to
telecom exchange and current for charging the batteries.
2) The system works from commercial AC mains which is rectified and regulated to
-54 V DC and is fed to the equipment (exchange).
3) The modules switching frequency for SMPS is 107.5 kHz. Therefore size of the
module is very compact.
4) The system has provision to connect three sets of VRLA batteries and facility to
charge them simultaneously to ensure that uninterrupted DC power is always
available to the exchange.
5) The power systems is suitable for VRLA batteries.

Life of Power Plant:
Static P/P : 15 years
SMPS P/P: 15 years


E2E3 Battery Power plant, Ver1 24.08.2007 5 of 5


Earthing

Purposes of Earthing

Apart from protection from hazardous stray currents in electrical equipment in
Telecommunication circuits and equipments, earthing is provided for the following
purposes:

(a) Reduction of Crosstalk and Noise :
One pole of the battery (+ve pole) is earthed in the telephone exchange so
that cross talk between the various circuits due to the speech currents of
one circuit finding path through the other via common battery feed points of
the transmission bridge and poor NSN via earthed terminal of the battery is
reduced.
(b) Protection of buildings and equipments from lighting strikes.
(c) Used as return path for the conductors in some telegraph and voice circuits.
(d) Protection of costly apparatus and persons against foreign voltages and
leakage currents from power wirings to the metallic frame of the equipment.
(e) Earth is used to afford convenience & reliability, in the operate path of the
circuits involved in the switching apparatus of telecom circuits.
(f) Earthing power supply systems is used to effect reliability of power as it
helps to provide stability of voltage conditions preventing excess fluctuations
and providing a measure of protection against lighting.
Earth Electrodes :

Three types of earth electrodes are commonly used for earthing systems.
1) Rod electrodes
2) Plate electrodes
3) Strip electrodes

Instruction for monitoring of Earth resistance were issued from Corporate office. As per
the instruction:

E/R is to be measured every six months.
Earth resistance should be less than 0.5 for electronic
One dry season must be included in these two occasions.
For lightning prone area, it should be measured every month.
Wherever, it is beyond limits, it should be immediately brought within limits.
Procedure for laying earth resistance may be followed as prescribed in the latest
issue of EI on Protection Earthing I-001.
Reduction in card failure has been observed by improving the earth resistance.












Section-I

Chapter-6

Air Conditioning & Engine Alternator
E2E3 AC and EA, Ver1 24.08.2007 1 of 10
AIR- CONDITIONING

AIR-CONDITIONING

The Air-conditioning is an essential requirement for a telecom
installation as electronic equipments can work satisfactorily only in
controlled environmental conditions. This air-conditioning system
performs the following function:

Maintaining the air at the desired temperature.
Control moisture content of the air.
Hold contamination to an acceptable level.
Circulate the air properly

The air-conditioning system has refrigeration system, which allow
transfer of heat from the cooling space to a location where heat can be
easily discarded. The transfer of heat is facilitated by change of state,
as refrigerant needs latent heat to change state from liquid to gas at
its boiling point. The refrigerant has a much lower Boiling Point and
changing the pressure varies this Boiling Point. The examples of the
refrigerants are Ammonia, Freon -12 & Freon-22.

PROPERTIES OF REFRIGERANT

1. Latent heat of vaporization - It should be high as it will result
in smaller amount of refrigerant for a given capacity of air-
conditioning.
2. Condensing Pressure - It should be Low otherwise there will
be large expenditure on heavy construction of condenser &
piping.
3. Freezing Temperature - It should be below the evaporating
temperature otherwise there would be ice formation in the air-
conditioner.
4. Toxicity - It should be nontoxic, nonflammable and non-
corrosive. Further, the detection of leaks should be easy and it
should have very less environmental impact.

COMPONENTS OF A.C. SYSTEM :

The components of any air-conditioning systems are as under:
E2E3 AC and EA, Ver1 24.08.2007 2 of 10

A] COMPRESSOR:

Compressor compresses and discharges the refrigerant in gas
form to the condenser at a high pressure. Because of rapid
compression, the refrigerant becomes hot.

B] CONDENSER:

It is intended for cooling the hot gas and liquefying it under
pressure. It may be air-cooled or water-cooled. The refrigerant
releases heat to the condenser water through heat transfer
surface of condenser water tubes and converted in to liquid by
the principle of Latent heat of condensation.

C] EXPANSION VALVE :

Its function is to control and regulate the rate flow of liquid
Freon under pressure and allow it in to the evaporator under low
pressure.

D] EVAPORATOR :

This constitutes the cooling unit in which the liquid Freon under a
low pressure evaporates and in doing so picks up heat from the
air (Latent Heat of Evaporation) thereby cooling the medium
surrounding the cooling coil.

E2E3 AC and EA, Ver1 24.08.2007 3 of 10
TYPES OF AIR- CONDITIONING SYSTEM:

Air-conditioning system in use may be categorized in to the following
types:

1) Window Type Units
2) Split Type Units.
3) Package Type unit
4) Central Air-conditioning System

Each of these has its limitations as well as advantages and the most
suitable one should be selected taking all relevant factors into account.

(1) WINDOW TYPE AIR CONDITIONERS:

Window type air conditioners are completely self-contained units
with the compressor, condenser, evaporators, refrigerant piping and
air filters, all assembled in a very compact single unit. The motor
usually has shaft extension on both sides for air to draw the return air
from the room, pass through evaporator and send the cooled air back
into the room.

Advantages & Limitations:

No floor space required and it can be mounted on the window
side or on a hole cut in the wall.
Absence of ducting and plumbing.
Easy and quick installation.
Absence of Humidity control, fresh air control and dust control
Weak air throw
Not suitable for continuous operation.
It can be installed in a wall whose outer surface is exposed

(2) SPLIT TYPE AIR CONDITIONERS :

In split AC units, the condenser & Compressor Unit [outdoor
unit] and cooling coil unit [indoor unit] are housed in two
separate enclosures and both the indoor and outdoor units are
connected through refrigerant pipe line.

Advantages & Limitations:

Opening in wall/window is not required.
E2E3 AC and EA, Ver1 24.08.2007 4 of 10
Indoor units can be placed any where inside the room.
Effective Dust Control & less noise
The distance between Indoor and outdoor units should not be
more than 30 feet.

(3) PACKAGE TYPE A/C UNITS :

These units are also functionally very similar to the window
models but are very much bigger in size and therefore installed
on the floors. It can be installed in A/C space with or without
duct system. The control panel is conveniently located on the
unit itself.

Advantages :

Structural alterations required are negligible.
Ease of installation and removal.
Factory assembly of balanced and tested equipment.
More flexibility in operation.


(4) CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING PLANT :

Central air-conditioning plant becomes a necessity when areas to
be air-conditioned are large. This system is highly flexible and
better controls are possible.

IMPORTANT FACTORS WHICH AFFECT AC LOAD:

The important factors affecting A/C plant capacity are as under :-

Orientation and Location Of Building.
Construction Materials Used.
Number and types Of Window And Doors.
Utility Of The Space.
Physical Dimensions Of Space.
Lighting.
Occupancy.
Appliances And Equipments.
Ventilation And Infiltration.
Leakages And Heat Loss In Ducts.

E2E3 AC and EA, Ver1 24.08.2007 5 of 10

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE & CHECKS

(A) Window /Split AC-

Important Daily Checks

Check for room temperature.
Check for any abnormal sound/vibration.

Important Monthly Checks

cooling & condenser coil periodically and comb mashed
fins
Check filters and clean/ change if required
Ensure proper charging of refrigerant
Check for tripping of compressor by thermostat
Eliminate obstructions in front of condenser, if any

Important Yearly Checks

Complete Servicing and testing of Window / split AC unit.

(B) Preventive Maintenance of AC System

Important Daily Checks

Check for any vibration in AC unit equipments
Check for discharge & suction pressure
Check V-Belt tension of Blower Motor/ condenser motor.
Check for any frosting at coil
Check working of fresh air fan.

Important Monthly Checks

Micro -filter Cleaning.
Fresh Air Filter cleaning.
Check for leakage of conditioned air
Check lubrication of all bearings
Important Yearly Checks

Complete Servicing of A/C plant before onset of summer
E2E3 AC and EA, Ver1 24.08.2007 6 of 10


ENGINE & ALTERNATOR


The standby power supply commonly used in T.E buildings is from Diesel
Engine Alternator Set .In the Engine Alternator Set, the Diesel engine is
the prime mover which rotates the alternator of the engine Alternator set
and alternator in turn produces Electrical energy. In the first stage of
energy conversion, the chemical energy of fuel is converted in to the
mechanical energy at the common shaft of Engine & Alternator. This
mechanical energy is then converted into electrical energy at alternator in
the second stage of energy conversion.


PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF ENGINE

When the fuel ignites in the combustion chamber, energy in the form of
heat and gases is generated. The rapid expansion of hot gases creates
pressure in the combustion chamber which pushes the piston away. The
reciprocating motion of the piston is converted in to the circular motion by
the engine crankshaft, which is connected to the piston by the connecting
rod.


FOUR STROKE PRINCIPLE OF DIESEL ENGINES

The four stroke working principle of Diesel Engine is as under:

(i) ADMISSION STROKE

The piston draws fresh air into the cylinder on its downward travel
through the open admission valve. With turbo charged engines the
air is first compressed by a blower and admitted to the cylinder
under increased pressure.

(ii) COMPRESSION STROKE

On its upward travel the piston compress the fresh air in the cylinder
with the valves closed. The temperature of the fresh air is thus
increased to exceed the ignition temperature of the fuel. Shortly
E2E3 AC and EA, Ver1 24.08.2007 7 of 10
before the piston reaches the top dead centre, fuel is injected into
the combustion space.

(iii) POWER STROKE

The fuel injected ignites in the hot air and burns. The combustion
causes a high pressure which forces the piston down. Resulting into
reciprocating movement of the shaft.

(iv) EXHAUST STROKE

The piston moving upward forces the exhaust gas through the open
exhaust valve into the exhaust pipe. When the exhaust stroke is
terminated the exhaust valve close and the admission valve opens
for a new operation cycle.



SYSTEMS OF A DIESEL ENGINE

Various systems of diesel engine constituting the working system are as below:


E2E3 AC and EA, Ver1 24.08.2007 8 of 10
(1) LUBRICATION SYSTEM

The moving parts of the diesel engine are lubricated for their optimum operation
by this lubrication system. A dipstick in the oil sump serves to check the oil level.
The lub oil level and the lubrication oil pressure have to be checked for
satisfactory performance and long life of the engine.
(2) FUEL SYSTEM

Depending on the position of the fuel, the fuel is supplied to the distributing pipe
through fuel filter either by natural head from an elevated tank or by a fuel pump.
Fuel is supplied inside the cylinder by injection nozzles.

(3) AIR EXHAUST SYSTEM
For the combustion of fuel sufficient quantity of the filtered air is taken in the
combustion chamber. After the combustion the exhaust gases are taken away
from the engine through suitable ducting or piping. This is known as air exhaust
system.

(4) COOLING SYSTEM

Cooling System is essential for cooling the engine body, and to act as a heat
exchanger for lubricating oil. This can be either water-cooled or air cooled.

(5) STARTING SYSTEM

The Diesel Engine can be equipped with the starting system i.e. with
an electric starter with a pinion, which engages with the fly wheel of the engine.
The power to the electric starter is provided by means of a battery which is kept
in charged condition by means of a dynamo or electric rectifier.

ALTERNATOR
Alternator works on Faradays law of Electromagnetic induction. There are two
requirements for the functioning of Alternator (1) Magnetic field & (2) Rotation.
Magnetic field is produced by passing direct current through the field winding of
the Alternator and rotation is achieved by means of coupling the alternator from
engine. The Automatic Voltage regulator (AVR) is provided in the alternator for
maintaining the terminal voltage within the close limits over wide operating
condition.

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INDICATIONS OF A HEALTHY ENGINE

An engine is said to be healthy if it has:

1. Good Compression:
The temperature of the induced air when entrapped and compressed in
the combustion chamber is about 540 deg C to 560 deg C.

2. Good Combustion:
Fuel is sprayed in atomized form to ensure proper ignition of the fuel.
Burning temperature is about 1425 deg C.

3. Clean exhaust:

The exhaust system is clean and back pressure is with in permissible
limits. The general condition of the Engine can be determined by the type
of smoke it emits. This can be said as The pulse of the engine. Smoke
should be of brown colour (Barely visible haze). Any other colour of smoke
indicates some problem in the engine.

IMPORTANT MAINTENANCE CHECKS FOR ENGINE ALTERNATOR SET

Daily
1. Check Engine oil level and leakage if any.
2. Check Radiator for water level and leakage if any.
3. Check fuel level.
4. Check that battery charger is in trickle charging position.
5. Check whether insulation of the Exhaust pipe is proper.
6. Check that ventilation of the EA Room is proper.
7. Check oil pressure.
8. Check if lights and exhaust fan are working properly.
9. Check physically before start for loose connection/nut bolt.

Weekly
1. Check Air line connection and filter.
2. Check fan belt, and its tension.

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Fortnightly
1. Check Battery voltage, Terminals, Electrolyte level (Top up if necessary) .
2. Check Specific Gravity of Electrolyte.
(After the above checks, start the Engine for No Load/Connected Load and test
for 10 minutes the following)
1. Check for any abnormal noise. Shut down the E/A immediately and cause
be examined.
2. Check frequency and out put voltage.
3. Check the colour of Exhaust gas
4. Check working of the Indication Lamps.
5. Check working of the Dynamo and Auto Cut off of the Battery charger.
6. Check for any Exhaust gas restriction.
7. Check manual/ auto-changeover from commercial supply on connected
load.
8. Record various readings in the logbook.

Monthly
1. Check for tightness of connections in Engine and Control Panel.
2. Watering of earth pits and tightening of connections.
3. Check functioning of safety devices.
4. Check belt tensions.
5. Check battery charger.
6. Check for leakage of fuel line.
7. Check for leakage in exhaust pipes.
8. Inspect the manufacturers chart for due date of maintenance.

Half Yearly
1. Cleaning of bus bars & chambers and tightening of nut bolts.
2. Checking of ACB/MCCB tripping mechanism.
3. Earth testing and Meggering.
4. Relays and other protection devices are working properly.

Yearly
1. Tighten all mounting, nut and bolt.
2. Check crankshaft and float.
3. Clean injector inlet screen.
4. Clean and calibrate all injectors.
5. Check fuel pump calibration.
6. Replace fuel pump filter screen and magnet.















Section-II

Chapter-7

OFC Characteristics & Laying

E2E3 OFC Ver2 17.11.2007 1 of 9

Fiber Characteristics

The main job of optical fibers is to guide light waves with a minimum of attenuation (loss
of signal). Optical fibers are composed of fine threads of glass in layers, called the core
and cladding, that can transmit light at about two-thirds the speed of light in a vacuum.
Though admittedly an over simplification, the transmission of light in optical fiber is
commonly explained using the principle of total internal reflection. With this
phenomenon, 100 percent of light that strikes a surface is reflected. By contrast, a mirror
reflects about 90 percent of the light that strikes it.

Light is either reflected (it bounces back) or refracted (its angle is altered while passing
through a different medium) depending upon the angle of incidence (the angle at which
light strikes the interface between an optically denser and optically thinner material).
Total internal reflection happens when the following conditions are met :

Beams pass from a more dense to a less dense material. The difference between the
optical density of a given material and a vacuum is the materials refractive index.

The incident angle is more than the critical angle. The critical angle is the maximum
angle of incidence at which light stops being refracted and is instead totally reflected.

The principle of total internal reflection within a fiber core is illustrated in Figure 2-6.
The core has a higher refractive index than the cladding, allowing the beam that strikes
that surface at less than the critical angle to be reflected. The second beam does not meet
the critical angle requirement and is refracted.







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An optical fiber consists of two different types of highly pure, solid glass (silica)the
core and the claddingthat are mixed with specific elements, called dopants, to adjust
their refractive indices. The difference between the refractive indices of the two materials
causes most of the transmitted light to bounce off the cladding and stay within the core.
The critical angle requirement is met by controlling the angle at which the light is
injected into the fiber. Two or more layers of protective coating around the cladding
ensure that the glass can be handled without damage.

Multimode and Single-Mode Fiber

There are two general categories of optical fiber in use today, multimode fiber and single-
mode fiber.

Multimode, the first type of fiber to be commercialized, has a larger core than single-
mode fiber. It gets its name from the fact that numerous modes, or light rays, can be
carried simultaneously through the waveguide. Figure 2-7 shows an example of light
transmitted in the first type of multimode fiber, called step-index. Step-index refers to the
fact that there is a uniform index of refraction throughout the core; thus there is a step in
the refractive index where the core and cladding interface. Notice that the two modes
must travel different distances to arrive at their destinations. This disparity between the
times that the light rays arrive is called modal dispersion. This phenomenon results in
poor signal quality at the receiving end and ultimately limits the transmission distance.
This is why multimode fiber is not used in wide-area applications.





To compensate for the dispersion drawback of step-index multimode fiber, graded-index
fiber was invented. Graded-index refers to the fact that the refractive index of the core is
gradedit gradually decreases from the center of the core outward. The higher refraction
at the center of the core slows the speed of some light rays, allowing all the rays to reach

E2E3 OFC Ver2 17.11.2007 3 of 9
their destination at about the same time and reducing modal dispersion. The second
general type of fiber, single-mode, has a much smaller core that allows only one mode of
light at a time through the core (see Figure 2-8). As a result, the fidelity of the signal is
better retained over longer distances, and modal dispersion is greatly reduced. These
factors attribute to a higher bandwidth capacity than multimode fibers are capable of. For
its large information carrying capacity and low intrinsic loss, single-mode fibers are
preferred for longer distance and higher bandwidth application including DWDM.




Single-Mode Fiber Designs

Designs of single-mode fiber have evolved over several decades. The three principle
types and their ITU-T specifications are:

Non-dispersion-shifted fiber (NDSF), G.652
Dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF), G.653
Non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF), G.655

As discussed earlier, and shown in Figure 2-1, there are four windows within the infrared
spectrum that have been exploited for fiber transmission. The first window, near 850 nm,
was used almost exclusively for short-range, multimode applications. Non-dispersion-
shifted fibers, commonly called standard single-mode (SM) fibers, were designed for use
in the second window, near 1310 nm. To optimize the fibers performance in this
window, the fiber was designed so that chromatic dispersion would be close to zero near
the 1310-nm wavelength As optical fiber use became more common and the needs for
greater bandwidth and distance increased, a third window, near 1550 nm, was exploited
for single-mode transmission. The third window, or C band, offered two advantages: it
had much lower attenuation, and its operating frequency was the same as that of the new
erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs). However, its dispersion characteristics were
severely limiting. This was overcome to a certain extent by using narrower linewidth and
higher power lasers. But because the third window had lower attenuation than the 1310-
nm window, manufacturers came up with the dispersion-shifted fiber design, which

E2E3 OFC Ver2 17.11.2007 4 of 9
moved the zero-dispersion point to the 1550-nm region. Although this solution now
meant that the lowest optical attenuation and the zero-dispersion points coincided in the
1550-nm window, it turned out that there are destructive nonlinearities in optical fiber
near the zero-dispersion point for which there is no effective compensation. Because of
this limitation, these fibers are not suitable for DWDM applications. The third type, non-
zero dispersion-shifted fiber, is designed specifically to meet the needs of DWDM
applications. The aim of this design is to make the dispersion low in the 1550-nm region,
but not zero. This strategy effectively introduces a controlled amount of dispersion,
which counters nonlinear effects such as four-wave mixing (see the Other Nonlinear
Effects section on page 2-11) that can hinder the performance of DWDM systems.

Transmission Challenges

Transmission of light in optical fiber presents several challenges that must be dealt with.
These fall into the following three broad categories:

Attenuationdecay of signal strength, or loss of light power, as the signal
propagates through the fiber
Chromatic dispersionspreading of light pulses as they travel down the fiber
Nonlinearitiescumulative effects from the interaction of light with the material
through which it travels, resulting in changes in the lightwave and interactions
between lightwaves

Attenuation

Attenuation in optical fiber is caused by intrinsic factors, primarily scattering and
absorption, and by extrinsic factors, including stress from the manufacturing process, the
environment, and physical bending. The most common form of scattering, Rayleigh
scattering, is caused by small variations in the density of glass as it cools. These
variations are smaller than the wavelengths used and therefore act as scattering objects
(see Figure 2-9). Scattering affects short wavelengths more than long wavelengths and
limits the use of wavelengths below 800 nm.



Attenuation due to absorption is caused by the intrinsic properties of the material itself,
the impurities in the glass, and any atomic defects in the glass. These impurities absorb
the optical energy, causing the light to become dimmer (see Figure 2-10). While Rayleigh
scattering is important at shorter wavelengths, intrinsic absorption is an issue at longer

E2E3 OFC Ver2 17.11.2007 5 of 9
wavelengths and increases dramatically above 1700 nm. However, absorption due to
water peaks introduced in the fiber manufacturing process are being eliminated in some
new fiber types.


The primary factors affecting attenuation in optical fibers are the length of the fiber and
the wavelength of the light. Figure 2-11 shows the loss in decibels per kilometer (dB/km)
by wavelength from Rayleigh scattering, intrinsic absorption, and total attenuation.


Dispersion

Dispersion is the spreading of light pulses as they travel down optical fiber. Dispersion
results in distortion of the signal (see Figure 2-12), which limits the bandwidth of the
fiber.


Two general types of dispersion affect DWDM systems. One of these effects, chromatic
dispersion, is linear while the other, polarization mode dispersion (PMD), is nonlinear.

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Chromatic Dispersion

Chromatic dispersion occurs because different wavelengths propagate at different speeds.
The effect of chromatic dispersion increases as the square of the bit rate. In single-mode
fiber, chromatic dispersion has two components, material dispersion and waveguide
dispersion. Material dispersion occurs when wavelengths travel at different speeds
through the material. A light source, no matter how narrow, emits several wavelengths
within a range. Thus, when this range of wavelengths travels through a medium, each
individual wavelength arrives at a different time. The second component of chromatic
dispersion, waveguide dispersion, occurs because of the different refractive indices of the
core and the cladding of fiber. The effective refractive index varies with wavelength as
follows:

At short wavelengths, the light is confined within the core. Thus the effective
refractive index is close to the refractive index of the core.
At medium wavelengths, the light spreads slightly into the cladding. This
decreases the effective refractive index.
At long wavelengths, much of the light spreads into the cladding, bringing
effective refractive index very close to that of the cladding.

This result of the phenomenon of waveguide dispersion is a propagation delay in one or
more of the wavelengths relative to others. Total chromatic dispersion, along with its
components, is plotted by wavelength in Figure 2-13 for dispersion-shifted fiber. For
non-dispersion-shifted fiber, the zero dispersion wavelength is 1310 nm.



Though chromatic dispersion is generally not an issue at speeds below STM-16, it does
increase with higher bit rates due to the spectral width required. New types of zero-
dispersion-shifted fibers greatly reduce these effects. The phenomenon can also be
mitigated with dispersion compensators.

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Polarization Mode Dispersion

Most single-mode fibers support two perpendicular polarization modes, a vertical one and
a horizontal one. Because these polarization states are not maintained, there occurs an
interaction between the pulses that results is a smearing of the signal. Polarization mode
dispersion (PMD) is caused by ovality of the fiber shape as a result of the manufacturing
process or from external stressors. Because stress can vary over time, PMD, unlike
chromatic dispersion, is subject to change over time. PMD is generally not a problem at
speeds below STM-64.

Other Nonlinear Effects

In addition to PMD, there are other nonlinear effects. Because nonlinear effects tend to
manifest themselves when optical power is very high, they become important in DWDM.
Linear effects such as attenuation and dispersion can be compensated, but nonlinear
effects accumulate. They are the fundamental limiting mechanisms to the amount of data
that can be transmitted in optical fiber. The most important types of nonlinear effects are
stimulated Brillouin scattering, stimulated Raman scattering, self-phase modulation, and
four-wave mixing.

In DWDM, four-wave mixing is most critical of these types. Four-wave mixing is caused
by the nonlinear nature of the refractive index of the optical fiber. Nonlinear interactions
among different DWDM channels creates sidebands that can cause interchannel
interference. In Figure 2-14 three frequencies interact to product a fourth frequency
resulting in cross-talk and signal-to-noise degradation.

The effect of four-wave mixing is to limit the channel capacity of a DWDM system.
Four-wave mixing cannot be filtered out, either optically or electrically, and increases
with the length of the fiber. Due to its propensity for four-wave-mixing, DSF is
unsuitable for WDM applications. This prompted the invention of NZ-DSF, which takes
advantage of the fact that a small amount of chromatic dispersion can
be used to mitigate four-wave mixing.

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Summary

In the long-distance network, the majority of embedded fiber is standard single-mode
(G.652) with high dispersion in the 1550-nm window, which limits the distance for STM-
64 transmission. Dispersion can be mitigated to some extent, and at some cost, using
dispersion compensators. Non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber can be deployed for STM-64
transport, but higher optical power introduces nonlinear effects. In the short-haul
network, PMD and nonlinear effects are not so critical as they are in long-haul systems,
where higher speeds (STM-64 and higher) are more common. DWDM systems using
optical signals of 2.5 Gbps or less are not subject to these nonlinear effects at short
distances.

The major types of single-mode fibers and their application can be summarized as
follows:

Non-dispersion-shifted fiber (standard SM fiber)accounts for greater than 95
percent of deployed plant; suitable for TDM (single-channel) use in the 1310-nm
region or DWDM use in the 1550-nm region (with dispersion compensators). This
type of fiber can also support 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard at distances over 300
meters.

Dispersion-shifted fibersuitable for TDM use in the 1550-nm region, but
unsuitable for DWDM in this region.

Non-zero dispersion-shifted fibergood for both TDM and DWDM use in the
1550-nm region.

Newer generation fibersincludes types that allow the energy to travel further
into the cladding, creating a small amount of dispersion to counter four-wave
mixing, and dispersion-flattened fibers, which permit use of wavelengths farther
from the optimum wavelength without pulse spreading.

Note As bit rates increase to 40 Gbps and beyond, the interdependence between system
design and fiber design will become increasingly important for strategic planning.

Laying of cable

It is as per letter no DOT. 352/91 TPL(OP) dated at ND- 08-04-1992

1) soil categorization : ( for depth of trench )
(A) Rocky : Cable trench, where can not be dug without blasting
and/or chiseling.

(B) Non Rocky : Other than A above including murram and soil mixed
with stone and soft rock.

E2E3 OFC Ver2 17.11.2007 9 of 9
2) Pipes for cable laying and protection
(1) HDPE pipe 75 mm (diameter) length 5m. (approx 18 to 20 ) phase I
(2) HDPE pipe 50 mm (diameter) length 5m. (approx 18 to 20 ) phaseII
(3) PLB pipe (40 mm. outer diameter ) length 1km/200m ( town limets with rope)
phase III
(4) GI pipe for PLP 50 mm dia length 6 meter

3) Measurement of cable depth
(all depth should be measured from the top of pipe. However it is acceptable
if it is less by more then eight cms. from the specified.
(A) Cross country rout (normal soil)
above HDPE pipe 1.5 meter
trench depth 1.65 meter
in rocky area minimum depth 0.9 m ( where dug is not possible more
then 1 meter above pipe due to any obstruction should be consider) and
all cables having depth less then 1.2 meter should be protected by
RCC/GI pipes

(B) In built up area (city/town/urban area)
1. OF cable should be laid through exiting duct.
2. GI pipe or RCC pipe at the entry of duct.
3. In non duct area it should be laid through HDPE pipe/PLP pipe at dept 1.5
meter using RCC/GI pipe for protection.
4. Depth in rocky soil may be consider as 0.9 to 1.0 meter

(C) On culvert/bridge over river and nallah.
(1) At the depth of 1.5 meter below the bed throw HDPE/RCC
Pipe. Pipe length should be 2 meter extended at both ends.
(2) This should be fixed along the parapet wall/bridge wall when the river or
nalla full of water through out year, through fixed GI pipe on wall at suitable
height above the water level.
(D) Along rail bridge or crossing
Through HDPE pipe/PLP pipe protected by RCC or iron pipe as per the
prescribed by railway authority.

(E) On road crossing
At a depth of 1.5 meter through HDP pipe enclosed in RCC pipe extended by 3.0
meter to the side end of the read.
4) Indicators along route
(A) Route indicator
At every 200 m route length of showing name of route & no of indicators.
(B) Joint indicator
At every joint (Splice) generally it is placed at every 2/4 Km(Drum length)
(C) Branch (Root diversion) indicator
Provided at route diversion or branching from the main root.













Section-II

Chapter-8

OFC Test Measuring Instruments
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OFC Test Measuring Instruments

1.0 Main Tests on OFC
Cable Loss.
Splice Loss.
Connector Loss.
Fibre Length.
Continuity of Fiber.
Fault Localizations/Break Fault

2.0 Main Instruments Required

Calibrated Light Source.
Optical Power Meter.
Optical Attenuator.
Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR).

2.1 Calibrated Light Source

Generates Light signals of known power and wavelength (LED or LASER).
Wavelength variations to match Fiber's Wavelength.

2.2 Calibrated Power Source

Measures Optical Power over wide range (Typically 1 nW to 2mW/-60dBm
to + 3dBm)
It is never measured directly, but measured through Electrical conversion
using Photo Electric conversion. It is known as OPTICAL SENSOR of
known Wavelength.
The accuracy of the Optical Power meter depends upon the stability of the
Detectors power to current conversion which changes with Ageing.

2.3 Power Attenuator

TYPES:-
Fixed Attenuators.
Variable Attenuators.

APPLICATIONS:-
To Simulate the Regenerator Loss at the FDF.
To Provide Local Loop Back for Testing.
To measure the Bit Error Rate by varying the Optical Signal at the
Receiver Input.
(RECEIVER SENSITIVITY)

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2.3.1 Requirements of Attenuators

Attenuation Range.
Lowest Insertion Loss.
Independent of Wavelength.
Type of Connectors at the Input and Output


2.4 OPTICAL TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETER is used for measuring

Fiber Loss.
Splice Loss.
Connector Loss.
Fiber Length.
Continuity of Fiber.
Fault Localization.

OPERAING PRINCIPLES
One Port Operation.
Works on the Principle of Back Scattering (Raleigh Scattering).
o Scattering is the main cause of Fiber Loss
o
Scattering Coefficient=1/l
4
o An Optical Pulse is launched into one End of Fiber and Back
Scattered Signals are detected.
o These Signals are approximately 50 dB below the Transmitted
level.
Measuring conditions and Results are displayed.
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E2E3 OFC testing instruments Ver1 24.08.2007 4 of 4











Section-II

Chapter-9

SDH Overview
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SDH Introduction

SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard for telecommunications transport
formulated by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), previously called the
International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT). SDH was
first introduced into the telecommunications network in 1992 and has been deployed
at rapid rates since then. Its deployed at all levels of the network infrastructure,
including the access network and the long-distance trunk network. Its based on
overlaying a synchronous multiplexed signal onto a light stream transmitted over fiber-
optic cable. SDH is also defined for use on radio relay links, satellite links, and at
electrical interfaces between equipment. The comprehensive SDH standard is
expected to provide the transport infrastructure for worldwide telecommunications for
at least the next two or three decades. The increased configuration flexibility and
bandwidth availability of SDH provides significant advantages over the older
telecommunications system. These advantages include:

A reduction in the amount of equipment and an increase in network reliability.
The provision of overhead and payload bytes the overhead bytes permitting
management of the payload bytes on an individual basis and facilitating
centralized fault sectionalisation.
The definition of a synchronous multiplexing format for carrying lower-level
digital signals (such as 2 Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s, 140 Mbit/s) which greatly simplifies
the interface to digital switches, digital cross-connects, and add drop
multiplexers.
The availability of a set of generic standards, which enable multi-vendor
interoperability.
The definition of a flexible architecture capable of accommodating future
applications, with a variety of transmission rates.

In brief, SDH defines synchronous transport modules (STMs) for the fiber-optic
based transmission hierarchy.

Background

Before SDH, the first generations of fiber-optic systems in the public telephone
network used proprietary architectures, equipment line codes, multiplexing formats,
and maintenance procedures. The users of this equipment wanted standards so they
could mix and match equipment from different suppliers. The task of creating such a
standard was taken up in 1984 by the Exchange Carriers Standards Association
(ECSA) in the U.S. to establish a standard for connecting one fiber system to another.
In the late stages of the development, the CCITT became involved so that a single
international standard might be developed for fiber interconnect between telephone
networks of different countries. The resulting international standard is known as
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).



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Synchronization of Digital Signals

To understand correctly the concepts and details of SDH, its important to be clear
about the meaning of Synchronous, Plesiochronous, and Asynchronous. In a set of
Synchronous signals, the digital transitions in the signals occur at exactly the same
rate. There may however be a phase difference between the transitions of the two
signals, and this would lie within specified limits. These phase differences may be due
to propagation time delays, or low-frequency wander introduced in the transmission
network. In a synchronous network, all the clocks are traceable to one Primary
Reference Clock (PRC). The accuracy of the PRC is better than 1 in 1011 and is
derived from a cesium atomic standard. If two digital signals are Plesiochronous,
their transitions occur at almost the same rate, with any variation being constrained
within tight limits. These limits are set down in ITU-T recommendation G.811. For
example, if two networks need to interwork, their clocks may be derived from two
different PRCs. Although these clocks are extremely accurate, theres a small
frequency difference between one clock and the other. This is known as a
plesiochronous difference. In the case of Asynchronous signals, the transitions of the
signals dont necessarily occur at the same nominal rate. Asynchronous, in this case,
means that the difference between two clocks is much greater than a plesiochronous
difference. For example, if two clocks are derived from free-running quartz oscillators,
they could be described as asynchronous.

SDH Advantages

The primary reason for the creation of SDH was to provide a long-term solution for an
optical mid-span meet between operators; that is, to allow equipment from different
vendors to communicate with each other. This ability is referred to as multi-vendor
inter working and allows one SDH-compatible network element to communicate with
another, and to replace several network elements, which may have previously existed
solely for interface purposes.

The second major advantage of SDH is the fact that its synchronous.
Currently, most fiber and multiplex systems are plesiochronous. This means that the
timing may vary from equipment to equipment because they are synchronized from
different network clocks. In order to multiplex this type of signal, a process known as
bit stuffing is used. Bit stuffing adds extra bits to bring all input signals up to some
common bit-rate, thereby requiring multi-stage multiplexing and demultiplexing.
Because SDH is synchronous, it allows single- stage multiplexing and demultiplexing.
This single stage multiplexing eliminates hardware complexity, thus decreasing the
cost of equipment while improving signal quality. In plesiochronous networks, an entire
signal had to be demultiplexed in order to access a particular channel; then the non-
accessed channels had to be re-multiplexed back together in order to be sent further
along the network to their proper destination. In SDH format, only those channels that
are required at a particular point are demultiplexed, thereby eliminating the need for
back to-back multiplexing. In other words, SDH makes individual channels visible
and they can easily be added and dropped.
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Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)

Traditionally, digital transmission systems and hierarchies have been based on
multiplexing signals, which are plesiochronous (running at almost the same speed).
Also, various parts of the world use different hierarchies which lead to problems of
international inter working; for example, between those countries using 1.544 Mbit/s
systems (U.S.A. and Japan) and those using the 2.048 Mbit/s system. To recover a 64
kbit/s channel from a 140 Mbit/s PDH signal, its necessary to demultiplex the signal
all the way down to the 2 Mbit/s level before the location of the 64 kbit/s channel can
be identified. PDH requires steps (140-34, 34-8, 8-2 demultiplex; 2-8, 8-34, 34- 140
multiplex) to drop out or add an individual speech or data channel (see Figure 1). This
is due to the bit stuffing
used at each level.

Demultiplex
Demultiplex
Multiplex
Multiplex
Multiplex
Electric/
optical
A D M
2Mbit/s (Electric signal)
SDH
Optical/
electric
155Mbit/s 155Mbit/s
140/34Mbit/s
Optical
interface
2Mbit/s (Electric signal)
34/8Mbit/s
8/34Mbit/s
34/140Mbit/s
8/2Mbit/s 2/8Mbit/s
PDH
Optical/
electric
Demultiplex
Demultiplex
Optical
interface


Figure 1. Comparison between the adding/dropping signals of SDH and those
of PDH
Limitations of PDH Network

The main limitations of PDH are:

Inability to identify individual channels in a higher order bit stream.
Insufficient capacity for network management;
Most PDH network management is proprietary.
Theres no standardized definition of PDH bit rates greater than 140 Mbit/s.
There are different hierarchies in use around the world. Specialized interface
equipment is required to interwork the two hierarchies.
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Basic SDH Signal

The basic format of an SDH signal allows it to carry many different services in its
Virtual Container (VC) because it is bandwidth-flexible. This capability allows for such
things as the transmission of high-speed packet-switched services, ATM, contribution
video, and distribution video. However, SDH still permits transport and networking at
the 2 Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s, and 140 Mbit/s levels, accommodating the existing digital
hierarchy signals. In addition, SDH supports the transport of signals based on the 1.5
Mbit/s hierarchy.

SDH Frame Structure

SDH transmission is in the unit of byte and its frame structure is a rectangular massive
one based on the byte structure, including 270 N columns and 9-row bytes, each of
which has 8 bits. The rectangular frames of SDH are transmitted row by row on optical
fibers after parallel/serial conversion at the optical transmitting end and are recovered
into rectangular massive ones for processing after serial/parallel conversion at the
optical receiving end. The bytes in an SDH frame are transmitted row by row from left
to right, beginning with the first byte at the left top of the figure. This transmission row
by row continues until 9 270 N bytes are all transmitted. Then it is time for the next
frame to be transmitted. Thus, one frame after another is transmitted. 8,000 frames
with the constant frame length being 125s can be transmitted. The frame frequency
of SDH is 8,000 frames/second. That is, a specific byte in a signal frame is transmitted
8,000 times per second and the bit rate of this byte is 8,000 8bit=64kbit/s, namely,
the transmission rate of 1-channel digital telephone. Take for example the STM-1
level, whose rate is 270 (270 columns/frame) 9 (altogether 9 rows) 64kbit/s
(64kbits for each byte) =155520kbit/s =155. 520Mbit/s.
It can be seen in Fig.2 that the frame structure of STM-N is made up of three parts:
section overhead, including Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH) and Multiplex
Section Overhead (MSOH), Information Payload (Payload) and Administrative Unit
Pointer (AU-PTR).

1. Section Overhead (SOH) area
SOH means the additional bytes in the STM-N frame structure needed for normal and
flexible transmission of information payload and these bytes are mainly used for the
running, management and maintenance of the network. In the 1~ 9 N columns of the
SDH frame, 1~3 rows and 5~9 rows are allocated to the SOH. SOH can be further
categorized as RSOH and MSOH}. 1~3 rows are allocated to RSOH and 5~9 rows to
MSOH. RSOH can be accessed either at the regenerator to at the terminal equipment.
However, MSOH passes a regenerator transparently and is terminated at the terminal
equipment.

2. Payload (Payload) area
Information payload area is the place where information about various services is
stored in the SDH frame structure. Horizontal columns 10 N~270 N, and vertical
rows 1~9 belong to the information payload area. In it, there are still some Path
Overhead (POH) bytes transmitted as part of the payload in a network and these
E2E3 SDH Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 5 of 9
bytes are mainly used for the monitor, management and control of the path
performance.

3. Administrative Unit Pointer (AU-PTR) area

AU PTR is a kind of indicator, mainly used to indicate the accurate position of the first
byte of information payload in the STM-N frame, so that the information can be
correctly decomposed at the receiving end. It is located at the fourth row of 1~9 N
columns in the STM-N frame structure. The adoption of the pointer mode is an
innovation of SDH. It can perform multiplex synchronization and STM-N signal frame
locating in the quasi-synchronization environment.

Regenerator
section overhead
(RSOH)
Administrative unit
pointer
(AU-PTR)
Multiplex section
overhead
(MSOH)
STM-1 Payload (Payload)
9 x N Column (Byte)
261 x N Column (Byte)
270 x N Column
9 Row
Transmission
direction
125 s
1
3
5
9
4

Figure 2. SDH frame structure
Logic composition of SDH equipment

SDH transmission network is made up of different types of NEs connected via optical
cable lines and performs the transmission function of an SDH network via different
NEs. These functions are add/drop services, cross-connection services, network fault
self-healing, etc. Among the commonly seen NEs in an SDH network are Terminal
Multiplexer (TM), Add-drop Multiplexer (ADM), Regenerator (REG) and Digital Cross-
connection System (DXC).
Terminal Multiplexer (TM)
A TM is used at a network terminal node, as shown in Fig. 3
TM
2
M
b
i
t
/
s
3
4
M
b
i
t
/
s
S
T
M
-
M
1
4
0
M
b
i
t
/
s
STM-N

Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of model of a TM
E2E3 SDH Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 6 of 9
The function of a TM is to multiplex the low-speed signals of a tributary port to high-
speed signal STM-N of a line port or to de-multiplex low-speed tributary signals from
STM-N signals. 1-channel STM-N signals are input/output to its line port while multi-
channel low-speed tributary signals can be output/input at a tributary port. When low-
speed tributary signals are multiplexed into the STM-N frame of line signals, the
locations of tributary signals in the line signals STM-N can be specified arbitrarily.

Add-Drop Multiplexer (ADM)

ADM is used at the transfer site of an SDH transmission network, such as the middle
node of a link or a node in a ring, and is the most important NE used most frequently
in an SDH network, as shown in Fig. 4
ADM
2
M
b
i
t
/
s
3
4
M
b
i
t
/
s
S
T
M
-
M
1
4
0
M
b
i
t
/
s
STM-N STM-N

Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of model of an ADM
ADM has two line ports and one tributary port. The two line ports are connected with
optical cables on their respective sides (two trans-receiving optical fibers on each
side). For the sake of description, we specify them as the West (W) line port and East
(E) line port. The function of ADM is to multiplex low-speed tributary signals to lines
(line singles) in cross-connection mode or de-multiplex low-speed tributary signals
from the line signals received from line ports. In addition, cross-connection of the
STM-N signals on Eastward/ westward line sides can be implemented. ADM is the
most important NE in an SDH network and can be equivalent to other NEs, i.e., it can
perform the functions of other NEs. For example, ADM may be equivalent to two TMs.

Regenerator

There are two kinds of regenerators in an optical transmission network. One is the
pure optical regenerator, mainly used to amplify optical power so as to extend the
optical transmission distance. The other is an electric regenerator used for pulse
regeneration shaping and it can achieve the goal of accumulating no line noise and
ensuring complete waveforms of transmission signals by means of Optical/electric
(O/E) conversion, sampling of electric signals, decision, regeneration shaping,
Electric/optical and other processing. Described here is the latter one, which has only
two line ports, as shown in Fig. 5.
REG
STM-N STM-N

Fig 5. Schematic diagram of model of a regenerator
E2E3 SDH Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 7 of 9
The function of REG is to send the received optical signals from the offside after O/E,
sampling, decision, regeneration shaping and E/O. An REG in a real sense only needs
to process RSOH in the STM-N frame and needs no cross-connection function.
However, ADM and TM need to process both RSOH and MSOH because they are to
insert low-speed tributary signals into STM-N. In addition, both ADM and TM have the
cross-connection function.

Digital Cross-connection System (DXC)

The DXC is mainly responsible for the cross-connection of STM-N signals and is
actually equivalent to a cross-connect matrix, which implements the cross-connection
of various signals, as shown in Fig. 6.
DXC
M
channel
N
channel

Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of model of DXC
DXC can implement cross-connection of the input M-channel STM-N signals to the
output N-channel STM-N signals. The core of DXC is a cross-connect matrix and the
powerful DXC can implement the low priority cross-connection of high-speed signals
in a cross-connect matrix. Usually, DXC m/n is used to represent the type and
performance of a DXC (mn). m represents the maximum rate level which can be
accessed to DXC and n does the minimum rate level of a cross-connection which can
be implemented in a cross-connect matrix. The greater m is, the higher bearer
capacity a DXC has. The smaller n is, the more flexible cross-connection DXC has.
The meanings of corresponding values of m and n are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. DXC m/n value rate correspondence table

m or n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Correspond
ent rate
64 kbit/s 2Mbit/s; 2Mbit/s; 2Mbit/s;
2Mbit/s;
2Mbit/s;
2Mbit/s; 2. 5Gbit/s


Physical topology of an SDH transmission network

Network physical topology generally refers to the shape of a network, namely,
geometric arrangement of network nodes and transmission lines, and reflects physical
connectivity of network nodes. The effectiveness, reliability and economy of a network
depend to a great extent on the specific network architecture. There are 5 simple
kinds of network physical topology structures, as shown in Fig. 7.



E2E3 SDH Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 8 of 9
(a) Line topology

If all nodes in a communication network are cascaded with the first and last nodes
open, a line topology is formed. In this topology structure, all nodes between two non-
adjacent nodes should be connected so as to implement the connection between non-
adjacent nodes. Line topology is an economical form of network topology used in an
early SDH.

(b) Star topology (junction)

If a special node is connected with all the other nodes, and there is no direct
connection between them, a star topology is formed. In this topology structure, any
two nodes except the junction nodes are connected with each other via a junction
node, which implements the routing and connection function for passing information
stream. In this network topology, the nodes at a junction center station can connect
multiple optical fiber terminals to form a unified network, which implements integrated
bandwidth management.

(c) Tree topology

If the ending node of a point-to-point topology unit is connected with several special
nodes, a tree topology is formed. Tree topology can be considered as the combination
of line topology and star topology. This topology structure is applicable to broadcast
services, but not to bi-directional communication services because there exist such
problems as bottleneck and restriction on optical power budget.


(d) Ring topology

If all the nodes in a communication network are cascaded with no node open, a ring
network is formed. If the first and last open nodes of a line network are connected, a
ring network is formed. In a ring network, To connect two nodes, all the nodes
between them should be connected. The best advantage of this network topology is its
strong survivability, which is of vital importance to a modern high-capacity optical fiber
network. Therefore, special importance is attached to a ring network in an SDH
network.


(e) Mesh topology

If many nodes in a communication network are directly interconnected, a mesh
topology is formed. If all the nodes are directly interconnected, such mesh topology is
called an ideal one. In a non-ideal mesh topology, any two nodes not connected
directly with each other can be connected via the connection function of other nodes.
The mesh structure is not influenced by the problems of node bottleneck and failure
and there are multiple optional routes between two nodes. It has a high reliability, but
a complex structure and high costs. Therefore, it is applicable to a backbone network
with heavy traffic.
E2E3 SDH Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 9 of 9

In a word, all these topology structures have their own features and can be applied in
a network to different degrees. What network topology to be selected depends on
many factors. For instance, a network should be of high survivability and easy to
configure, and the net architecture should be suitable for the introducing of new
services. The different parts of an actual network are applicable to different topology
structures. For instance, ring topology and star topology structures are very applicable
to a local network (namely, an access network or user network), with a line topology
structure sometimes used. Ring topology and line topology are very applicable to a
local interchange relay network while a toll network may demand mesh topology.


(a) Line
topology
(b) Star
topology
(c) Tree
topology
(d) Ring
topology
(e) Mesh
topology
TM
TM
TM
TM
TM TM TM
TM
TM
TM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
DXC/ADM
DXC/ADM
DXC/ADM
DXC/ADM
DXC/ADM
DXC/ADM
TM


Fig. 7. Physical topology of an SDH network











Section-II

Chapter-10

SDH Protection Schemes
E2E3 SDH Protection, Ver1 24.08.2007 1 of 9
SDH Network Survivability

Network survivability

Modern society relies more and more on communication and the survivability of a
communication network has become a design index of vital importance. The so-called
self-healing network means that a network can automatically recover the carried
services from a failure fault in a very short period of time without making users be
aware of any network fault. Its basic principles are to enable a network to find faults
and reestablish communication. A self-healing network involves no repairing and
replacement of a specific faulty component or part but the reestablishment of
communication. The former case still demands manual interference.

Different Protection scheme applicable in network

1.Linear Protection

There are three different protection scheme in Linear Protection

a. 1+1 protection scheme ( 1+1 configuration )

The simplest from of Protection is known as 1+1 APS. Here, each working line is
protected by one protection line. The same signal is transmitted on both lines. If a
failure or degradation occur, the network elements switch the connection over to the
Protection line at the receive end






b. 1:1 Protection scheme (1:1 configuration )

. A protection line is used to directly replace the working line when it fails.
The protection path can only be used if a switchover takes place at both the transmitting end
and the receiving end. Switching at the far end is initiated by a return message in the backward
channel.











W
P
W
P
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c. 1:N Protection scheme
A 1:N configuration represents a more cost- effective solution than the other two
mechanisms describe above. N working channels are protected by one protection channel. If
there are no defects in the network, this protection channel can be used to transport low-
priority traffic






Sub Network Connection (SNC) Protection:
Sub network connection protection is a dedicated protection mechanism that can be
used on any physically structure (i.e. meshed ring, or mixed). It may be applied in any path in a
layered network.. it can be used to protect a portion of a path ( e.g. that where two separate
path segments are available), or the full end to end path. It switches on server failures (using
inherent monitoring) or it switch using client layer information (using non intrusive
monitoring). It need not be used on all VCs within al multiplex section. SNC protection
operates in a single- ended manner.

SDH Rings

Ring: A collection of nodes forming al-closed loop whereby each node is connected to two
adjacent nodes via a duplex communication facility. A ring provides redundant bandwidth or
redundant network equipment, or both; so distributed services can be automatically restored
following a failure or degradation in the network. Thus a ring can be self-healing.
SDH is normally configured as ring architecture. This is done to create loop diversity
for uninterrupted service protection purposes in case of link or equipment failures. The SDH
ring are commonly called self-healing ring, since the traffic flowing along a certain path can
automatically be switched to an alternate or standby path following failure or degradation or
link failure.

The important features SDH rings,
There can be either two or four fibers running between the nodes on a ring.

The operating signals can travel either clockwise only (unidirectional ring) or in
both directions around the ring (bi-directional ring)

Protection switching can be performed either via a line- switching or a path-
switching scheme.

Upon link failure or degradation, line switching moves all single channels of an entire STM-N
channel to al protection fiber. Conversely, path switching can move individual payload
channels within an STM-N channel to another path.

the following two ring architectures have become popular for SDH network

Two fiber unidirectional, self healing ring (USHR)
W
W
P
E2E3 SDH Protection, Ver1 24.08.2007 3 of 9

Two-fiber or four-fiber, bi-directional, line- switching ring (two-fiber or four-fiber
BSHR)
They are also referred to as unidirectional or bi-directional self_ healing ring
(USHR or BSHR) respectively.

Figure show below a two-fiber unidirectional self-healing ring network By convention, in a
unidirectional ring the normal working traffic travels clockwise around the ring, on the primary
path. For example, the connection from node 1 to node 3 uses links 1 and 2, whereas the traffic
from node 3 to node 1 traverses link 3 and 4. Thus two communicating nodes use a specific
bandwidth capacity around the entire perimeter of the ring. If nodes 1 and 3 exchange
information at an STM-1 rate in an STM-4 ring then they use one -quarter of the capacity
around the ring on all the primary rings. In a unidirectional ring the counter-clockwise path is
used as an alternate route for protection against link or node failures. This protection path
(links 5-8) is indicated by dashed lines. To achieve protection, the signal from a transmitting
node is dual-fed into both the primary and protection fibers. The receiver normally selects the
signal from the primary path. However, it continuously compares the fidelity of each signal
and chooses the alternate signal in case of severe degradation or loss of primary signal.

Primary path
1



4 5 7 2


6

3

Figure (a)


FEATURES OF USHR:

This scheme offers less information regarding operating system. In normal condition
the traffic flows in clockwise directions in one fiber. In failure condition the traffic in counter
clockwise directions path is used as alternate path for protection against ring or node failure.
The USHR mechanism is itself does not aware which fiber is carrying traffic. In case traffic is
switched over alternate path, the traffic returned on normal path after restoration. But it protect
positively. It offers cost effective solution for low level of capacity network.

Two-fiber or four-fiber, bi-directional, line- switching ring (two-fiber or four-fiber
BSHR):



Node 1
Node 3

Node 2

Node 4

8
Protection path
E2E3 SDH Protection, Ver1 24.08.2007 4 of 9
FEATURE OF BSHR:

The scheme requires a APS protocol to make operative. The traffic flows from node 1
to node 3 in clockwise direction along links 1p and 3p. but in return path the the traffic flows
from node 1 to node 3 in counter clockwise direction along links 7p and 8p Thus the
information exchange between nodes 1 and 3 does not tie up any of the primary channel
bandwidth in the other half of the ring

1p


8p

4p 5p 7p 2p


6p

3p


MS shared protection rings

MS shared protection ring can be categorized into types: two fiber and
four fiber. The ring APS protocol accommodates both types.

For MS shared protection rings, the working channels carry service to be
protected while the protection channels are reserved for protection of this service.
Working traffic is transported bi-directional over spans: an incoming tributary travels in
one direction the working channels while its associated outgoing tributary travels in the
opposite direction but over the same spans.

Depending upon the tributary pattern, the maximum load that can be
placed on a (bi-directional) MS shared protection ring can exceed the maximum load
that can be placed on the equivalent type of unidirectional ring (e.g. MS dedicated a
capacity advantage over unidirectional ring, except whenever the tributaries are all
destined for only one node on the ring, in which case they are equivalent.

One advantage of MS shared protection ring is that service can be routed on the ring
in either one of the two different directions, the long way around the ring or the short
way. All through the short way will usually be preferred, occasionally routing service
over the long way permits some load balancing capabilities.

When the protection channels are not being used to restore the working channels,
they can be used to carry extra traffic. In the event of a protection switch, the working
traffic on the working channels will access the protection channels causing any extra
traffic to be removed form the protection channels.

Node 1
Node 3

Node 2

Node 4

E2E3 SDH Protection, Ver1 24.08.2007 5 of 9
During a ring switch, working channels transmitted toward the failed span are switched at one
switching node to the protection channels transmitted in the opposite direction ( away from the
failure). This bridged traffic travels the long way around the ring on the protection channels to
the other switching node where the protection channels are switched back onto the working
channels. In the other direction, the working channels are bridged and switched in the same
manner. Figure 6-2 illustrates a ring switch in response to a cable cut.

During a ring switch, the fails span is effectively replaced with the protection channels
between the switching nodes, traveling the ling way around the ring. Since the protection
channels along each soon (except the failed span) are used for recovery, the protection capacity
is effectively shared by all spans.


The pair of tributaries (incoming and outgoing) only uses capacity along the spans between the
nodes where the pair is added and dropped. Thus, as shown in following figure the pattern that
these pairs of tributaries are placed on the ring impacts the maximum load that can be placed
on MS shared protection rings. The sum of the tributaries that traverse a span cannot exceed
the maximum capacity of that particular span.

The switching protocol shall be able to accommodate up to 16 node on a
ring excluding regenerators

TX- 1 Faculty
ALTTC, Ghaziabad
Node A
Node D
Node B
Node C
Two-fibre STM-16 ring
2 AU-4s
8 AU-4s
6 AU-4s 16 AU-4s total
Spare between
Nodes A & B and
Nodes A & D are
at capacity
Centralized Traffic Pattern
8 AU-4s
6 AU-4s
2 AU-4s
Two fiber STM-16 ring

Note- since all the traffic is destined for Node A, and the span between Node A and B
is full, traffic form Node C routes through Node D, leaving the span between Node B and Node
C vacant.

(a) All traffic destined for one node, Node A


E2E3 SDH Protection, Ver1 24.08.2007 6 of 9
Node A
Node D
Node B
Node C
Two-fibre STM-16 ring
8 AU-4s
8 AU-4s
8 AU-4s
8 AU-4s
32 AU-4s
total
All spare are
at capacity
Purely Distributed Traffic Pattern
8 AU- 4s
8 AU-4s
8 AU-4s

(a) All traffic destined for adjacent nodes only.

Node A
Node D Node C
Two-fibre STM-16 ring
4 AU-4s
2 AU-4s
8 AU-4s
5 AU-4s
22 AU-4s
total
All spare are
at capacity
Node B
4 AU-4s
3 AU-4s
3 AU-4s
T1516760-94d11
Mixed Traffic Pattern
3 AU_4s
3 AU-4s
2 AU-4s
1 AU-4s
4 AU-4s
4 AU-4s

(c) Mixed traffic pattern
Effect of demand pattern on capacity of bi-directional MS shared protection ring .

Application architecture:

(a) Two fiber MS shared protection rings

Two fiber MS switched ring require only tow fibers for each span of the ring. Each fiber
carries both working channels and protection channels. On each fiber, half the channels are
defined as working channels and half are defined as protection channels. The working channels
in one fiber are protected by the protect on channels traveling in the opposite direction around
E2E3 SDH Protection, Ver1 24.08.2007 7 of 9
the ring. This permits the bi-directional transport of working traffic. Only one set of overhead
channels is used on each fiber.















Fiber (arrow indicates transmission direction)

Note Each fiber carries both working and protection traffic, as shown in the exploded view.

(b) Four- fiber MS shared protection rings.

Four fiber MS shared protection ring require four fiber for each span of the ring. Working
and protection channels are carried over different fiber: two multiplex section transmitting in
opposite directions carry the working channels while two multiplex sections also transmitting
in opposite directions, carry the protection channels. This permits the bi-directional transport of
working traffic. The multiplex section overhead is dedicated to either working or protection
channels since working and protection channels are not transported over the same fibers.
















Fiber carrying working traffic (arrow indicates transmission direction)
Fiber carrying protection traffic (arrow indicates transmission direction)

Node 1
Node 3

Node 2

Node 4


Node 1

Node 3


Node 2


Node 4

E2E3 SDH Protection, Ver1 24.08.2007 8 of 9

Algorithm of Application architecture:

The AU groups that traverse the span between any two adjacent nodes are divided into working
channels and protection channels. In the vase of the two fiver ring, the STM-N can be viewed
as a multiplex of N AU-4s, where the AU-4 are numbered from 1 to N according to the order
that they appear in the multiplex. AU-4s numbered from 1 to N/2 shall be assigned as working
channels, and AU-4s numbered from (N/2)+1 to N shall be assigned as protection channels
further more working channels m is protected by protection channels (N/2) +m. for example,
an STM-16 can be considered a multiplex of sixteen channels and multiplex of sixteen AU-4s.
One to eight would be assigned as working channels and nine to sixteen would be assigned as
protection channels. This assignment applies to both direction of transmission and to all spans.

The ring APS protocol shall be carried on bytes K1 and K2 in the multiplex section overhead.
In the case of the four-fiber ring, the APS protocol is only active on the fiber carrying
protection channels. Functions that are required in real time and required to make al protection
switch are defined in the ring APS Protocol using bytes K1 and K2 Other operations channels,
including the regenerator section and multiplex section Data communication Channels, may
also provide protection switching function that are not tome critical (for example, function that
need not be completed within 50 milliseconds).


Each node on the ring shall be assigned an ID that is a number from zero to fifteen, allowing a
maximum of sixteen nodes on the ring. Each node has a ring map that is maintained by local
craft or by an OS and contains information abut the assignment of channels that the node
handles.
Procedure of loading MS-spring.
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
RX TX
TX RX
Master Station
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
S6 S1
S6 S1
S6
S6
S6
S6
S1
S6 S1
S1
S1
S1
S1
S6
S6
S1
S6
S1
S6
S1
S6
S1
S6
S1
S6
S1
S6
S1
S6
S1


E2E3 SDH Protection, Ver1 24.08.2007 9 of 9
Preparation of MS Spring Node
Map Editor
14 0 15
13 15 14
12 14 13
11 13 12
10 12 11
9 11 10
8 10 9
7 9 8
6 8 7
5 7 6
4 6 5
3 5 4
2 4 3
1 3 2
0 2 1
15 1 0
Slot No. 06 Slot No. 06 Slot No. 1 Slot No. 1 Node ID Node ID

Example of circuit routing in failure state for a ring switch
Node A
Circuit Q
Node B Node C
Node F Node E Node D
Working
Protection
Circuit Transporting Service
Normal Traffic In MS-Spring
Node a
Node b
Node c
Node d
Node e
Node f
working
protection
Ckt transporting service
Normal state


`
Node A
Circuit Q
Node B Node C
Node F Node E Node D
Working
Protection
Circuit Transporting Service
Protected Traffic In MS-Spring
working
protection
Ckt transporting service
Node a
Node b
Node c
Node d
Node e
Node f
Failed state












Section-II

Chapter-11

Synchronization
E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 1 of 13
Introduction to Synchronization

Network synchronization is one important part in network planning, especially so for an
SDH network on the basis of synchronous transmission. Only when network synchronization is
reasonably planned can the optimal synchronization effects be achieved between NEs. Different
equipment provides the synchronization plane based on SSM information. Synchronization Status
Messaging (SSM) can be used to ensure that an NE selects an effective timing source of the best
synchronization quality, prevent timing from forming loop and guarantee the timing
synchronization performance of a network.

Synchronization

Traditionally, transmission systems have been asynchronous, with each terminal in the
network running on its own recovered clock timing. In digital transmission, timing is one of the
most fundamental operations. Since these clocks are not Synchronized, large variations can occur
in the clock rate and thus the signal bit rate.

For example, an E3 signal specified at 34 Mbit/s 20 ppm (parts per million) can produce a
timing difference of up to 1789 bit/s between one incoming E3 signal and another. Asynchronous
multiplexing uses multiple stages. Signals such as asynchronous E1s (2 Mbit/s) are multiplexed
(bit-interleaving), extra bits are added (bit-stuffing) to account for the timing variations of each
individual stream and are combined with other bits (framing bits) to form an E2 (8 Mbit/s) stream.
Bit-interleaving and bit-stuffing is used again to multiplex up to E3 (34 Mbit/s). The E1s are
neither visible nor accessible within an E3 frame. E3s are multiplexed up to higher rates in the
same manner. At the higher synchronous rate, they cannot be accessed without de-multiplexing. In
a synchronous system, such as SDH, the average frequency of all clocks in the system is the same.
Every slave clock can be traced back to a highly stable reference clock. Thus, the STM-1 rate
remains at a nominal 155.52 Mbit/s, allowing many synchronous STM-1 signals to be multiplexed
without any bit stuffing. Thus, the STM-1s are easily accessed at a higher STM-N rate.

Low-speed synchronous virtual container (VC) signals are also simple to interleave and
transport at higher rates. At low speeds, 2.048 Mbit/s E1 signals are transported within
synchronous VC-12 signals, which run at a constant rate of 2.304 Mbit/s. Single-step multiplexing
up to STM-1 requires no bit stuffing and VCs are easily accessed. A mechanism known as
pointers, operating in conjunction with buffers, accommodates differences in the reference
source frequencies and phase wander, and so prevents data loss during synchronization failures.

Synchronization Hierarchy
Digital switches and digital cross-connect systems are commonly employed in the digital
network synchronization hierarchy. The network is organized with a master slave relationship with
clocks of the higher-level nodes feeding timing signals to clocks of the lower-level nodes. All
nodes can be traced up to a Primary Reference Clock (PRC).

Synchronizing SDH

The internal clock of an SDH terminal may derive its timing signal from a Synchronization
Supply Unit (SSU) used by switching systems and other equipment. Thus, this terminal can serve
as a master for other SDH nodes, providing timing on its outgoing STM-N signal. Other SDH
nodes will operate in a slave mode with their internal clocks timed by the incoming STM-N signal.
Present standards specify that an SDH network must ultimately be able to derive its timing from a
PRC.
E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 2 of 13

SSM function of an SDH interface

The service add/drop and rerouting capabilities of an SDH network enable a network to be
applied with unprecedented flexibility and high survivability and makes selection of network
synchronization timing more complex. In an SDH network, the timing reference allocation
between nodes is made by means of a great number of low-level SDH network clocks, therefore
the quality of the timing reference must be labeled by some means. SSM is right used to display
the information of the timing reference quality. SSM is transferred by the 5
th
~8
th
bits of S1 byte in
an SDH multiplex section overhead, as shown in Fig. 1

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8
SSM

Fig. 1. Contents of S1 byte
These four bits have 16 different kinds of codes representing 16 different synchronization quality
grades, as shown in table.1
Table 1. SSM Code

S1 (b5~b8) Descriptions of SDH
synchronization quality grades


0000 Unknown synchronization quality
(existing synchronization network)
0001 Reserved
0010 G. 811 clock signal
0011 Reserved
0100 G. 812 transit exchange clock
signal
0101 Reserved
0110 Reserved
0111 Reserved
1000 G. 812 local exchange clock signal
1001 Reserved
1010 Reserved
1011 Synchronous Equipment Timing
Source (SETS)
1100 Reserved
1101 Reserved
1110 Reserved
1111 Not to be used as synchronization

In an SDH network, the timing reference allocation between nodes is made by means of a
great number of low-level SDH network clocks. With the increase in NEs on the synchronization
links, the quality of timing reference signals degrade gradually. Therefore, when there are multiple
optional synchronization paths of the same quality grade in an NE, selection of the synchronization
path passing the smallest number of NEs helps improve the timing performance of an SDH
E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 3 of 13
network. In an SDH network, the selection of clock source of SDH NE is made mainly based on
S1 byte and the following principle should be followed:

When there are multiple optional effective clock sources in an NE, the NE first selects the
clock of the highest quality grade based on the quality grade information of clock source. If the
clock sources are of the same quality grade, the NE will select the one passing the smallest number
of NEs based on the number of NEs a clock source transmission path passes.

Evolution of Timing and Synchronization

This is a time of great change for Timing and Synchronization in the network and there are
many challenges for operators and suppliers and many issues to resolve:

Synchronization networks are changing with the introduction of SDH; the historical PDH-based
sync network will be replaced by an SDH-based architecture.

New equipment, network timing, and sync standards have been developed.

Transport networks are evolving and hybrid SDH/PDH has specific problems due to the
quantisation of network phase variation as pointer justifications.

New services such as video and ATM depend on excellent timing and network
Sync to deliver good Quality of Service.

Jitter/Wander measurement technology is changing from analogue to digital,
Leading to dramatically new instrument capabilities.

New test equipment standards are being developed.

Proposed BSNL Draft Synchronization Plan

Introduction:

Whether in a fixed telephone network or in the field of mobile telephony (with the new 3G
systems), traffic in the network is constantly increasing. More and more information is being
transported at higher and higher data speeds. Synchronization of the traffic in the networks is
becoming increasingly important. Telecommunications reliability is based on the data signals
being synchronized and clocked using the same clock everywhere in the network.

The basic clock in the SDH networks is called E1, and it must be exactly 2.048 MHz. In a
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) network, there is a cesium clock (2.048 MHz) that functions
as a "master clock" or primary reference clock (PRC). The PRC is distributed throughout the
network using the transmission backbone comprising of DWDM and SDH transport network. The
clock is regenerated in the networks nodes in slave clocks called as synchronization supply
units (SSUs). The SSUs regenerate and distribute the signal recieved after a chain of SECs (SDH
equipment clocks). The SSUs can also temporarily be used as a PRCs if the input connection from
the master clock is interrupted. The SECs are the clocks in the network elements (see Figure 1).

This clock regeneration is never completely perfect; rather, each regenerated clock will
have variations in frequency and phase. The more nodes passed "en route", the less stable the clock
will be. The same is shown as given below.

E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 4 of 13

Figure-I

Standards:

The following is the ITU-T specification for the timing resources.



SPEC AREA DESCRIPTION

G.811 PRS Timing Characteristics of Primary Reference Source
G.812 SSU Timing Requirements for Slave Clocks for use as Node
Clocks in Synchronized Networks
G.813 Sync Timing Characteristics of SDH Equipment Slave Clocks
G.810 Sync Definitions and Terminology for Synchronized Networks


Current Sync status:

At present, the master clock for BSNL transmission network is drawn from VSNL at
Mumbai. The backup PRC clock is drawn from MTNL, Delhi. BSNL network does not have its
own Primary Reference Clock ( PRC ). Approximately, 50 number of Synchronous Supply Units
are installed in the BSNL network. The installation plan for these 50 SSUs is issued on 25.10.2002
by the TX branch and the same is implemented.

E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 5 of 13
The total number of telephones have increased to 4 crores in the BSNL network. The
transmission network has also grown very big. Large number of STM-16/STM-4 rings are working
in the backbone network connecting all the SSA head quarters. Huge number of STM-1 systems
are also working in the network providing connectivity in the Access area. The connectivity is
provided to 37,000 number of exchanges/TAX stations. Many RSUs, RLCs DLCs and WLL sites
are connected by the SDH network. More than 7000 number of BSNL GSM sites are connected by
the SDH/PDH systems. Large number of data customers are also connected on the SDH network.

In 2005-06, TX cell had rolled out large number of SDH systems into the network. 770
number of STM-16 equipment, 2279 no of STM-4 equipment and 7200 no of STM-1 systems into
the network. Much larger quantity of the equipment is planned on 2006-07.

The quality of service is directly related to the synchronization of this huge SDH
infrastructure. The current fifty number of SSUs, functioning as Stratum 2 clocks, are not capable
of catering to the needs of this SDH network. Some circles have reported that the ports of the SSUs
are exhausted already and more cards are required for carrying out the synchronization of the
network elements. There is an immediate need for having the master clocks and good number of
SSUs delivering the synchronized clock to the SDH network elements, the switch elements and the
access elements.

The synchronization committee constituted by BSNL CO vide 27-3/2003-ML/754 dated
23.10.2003 submitted its report. Committee has suggested both long term and short term measures.
As part of long term measures the committee has suggested for four PRCs to be owned by BSNL.
The committee has requested to urgently review the synchronization strategy and implement the
same urgently.

The committee has also suggested that three SSUs are required in each of the metros Delhi,
Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.

PRCs and the SSUs

With reference to the above observations, the following proposal is made.

It is proposed have Primary Reference Clocks with G.811 standard at the locations shown
in the map. All these geographically spread out clocks shall provide uniform high precision clock
to the respective regions.

For the Primary Reference Clock and the Synchronous Supply clock, there are two
technological choices. The first and the most reliable technology is based on the cesium atomic
clock. The energy difference is specific to a particular quantum transition in the cesium-133 atom,
whose unperturbed frequency has been defined as 9,192,631,770 Hz. When the defined number of
cycles transpire for the electromagnetic signal associated with the photon either being given off or
absorbed by this quantum transition, we have one official second.

The second technology is the derivative of the first technology deployed thorough the
satellites system and also called as the Global Positioning System ( GPS ). The atomic clock in the
satellites is transmitted to the GPS receivers on earth. Even though is available everywhere and
also reliable, but the entire system is controlled by the United States of America. In case of the first
technology, BSNL shall be owning the PRC clock. Hence the Cesium atomic clock technology is
preferable to the GPS receiver technology.

E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 6 of 13

Figure - II
The sync committee has suggested that four PRCs may be planned at NewDelhi, Mumbai,
Kolkata and Chennai. As per the TEC GR (old GR) a PRC is supposed to have four Cesium clocks
inside. TEC has been requested to revise the GR by removing the engineering details in the GR. It
is now proposed to have one Cesium clock in a PRC as Cesium tube, which is guaranteed for 12
years at least. Hence keeping four Cesium at one place shall result in excessive redundancy. This
shall also add to the cost of the equipment. The PRC GR is revised by TEC recently incorporating
the suggestion of TX cell for geographically distributed Cesium.


Apart from the above, by using only four PRCs, the remotest element in the network may
not be reached within the ITU-T norm of 60 nodes. Please refer the figure II. After every 20
nodes one SSU is required as the MTIE and TDEV parameters cross the ITU-T standard mask. A
lesser no of nodes (less than 20) may be preferable in BSNL network as the geographical distance
which cause higher phase deviations are more.

This method requires that every SSU in the network needs to have GPS as the backup
solution. This not only adds to the cost of the synchronization equipment but also increases the
dependency on the US controlled GPS network. In order to reduce such dependence and to have a
strategic reliance on own resources, it is preferable to have more number of Cesium located
throughout the network, instead of concentrating them in a few cities.

Apart from this keeping all the Cesium at one place shall be catastrophic in case of any
disaster and natural calamity. Hence it is preferred to have robust redundancy through
geographical diversity. As per the NM cell suggestion two Cesiums tubes are proposed in one PRC.


SS
U
K=1
PRS
SSU
SSU
Rule 1
K < 10 SSUs
N < 60 SECs
SEC (NE with SONET/SDH Equipment Clock)
Rule 2
N < 20 SECs
K=2
K=3
SSU
Co-located PRS & TSG
SSU K=1
PRS
1
20
1 2
0 PRS
1
2
0
SSU K=1
1
2
0
1
20
20
1
2
0
1
1
20
SSU K=2
E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 7 of 13
Core Synchronisation Plan

Considering all the problems above, a Core Synchronization plan has been made as under,
for synchronizing the core transmission and switching elements. It is proposed 21 number of
PRCs with two cesium tubes are suggested at the following places for geographical diversity and
for ensuring the minimum nodes compliance. It is proposed to have the PRCs at all the Level 1
TAXs. However, in view of the requirement for the orderly distribution of the PRC clock
throughout the transmission network, it is proposed to locate the SSUs at the convergent nodes of
the existing backbone DWDM rings. Overlapping with DWDM network enables us to transport
the clock on a number of SDH rings to as many district head quarters, where SSUs are proposed to
be located. Most of these nodes are collocated with the Level I TAX stations. A total of no of L-
I TAXs are covered. are proposed to overlap with the existing DWDM terminal stations in most of
the cases. Thus these 21 PRCs are expected to supply clock for all the Transmission. Switching
and Access elements in the transmission geographic area, also called as the PRC timing Island.

1. NewDelhi
2. Jammu
3. Jaipur
4. Lucknow
5. Ahmadabad
6. Mumbai
7. Nagpur
8. Bhopal
9. Hyderabad
10. Belgaum
11. Bangalore
12. Chennai
13. Ernakulam
14. Visakhapatnam
15. Sambalpur
16. Ranchi
17. Kolkata
18. Patna
19. Guwahati
20. Agartala
21. Portblair

Thus there will be 21 PRC timing islands in the network. Sample timing islands for PRCs
located at a few places is shown below in figure -III.

The synchronization plan for the network is suggested now as under.

One Synchronous Supply Unit ( SSU ) with G.812 standard, which are primarily the
Stratum 2 clocks, are proposed at all the 21 Level-I TAX stations. These SSUs are proposed with
transit node clock standard are only proposed and the SSUs with local node clock standard are not
proposed to be deployed. Please ref Figure-I. The primary difference between the Transit node
clock standard and the local node clock standard is that the clock hold over capability of the former
is much higher and is almost 15 days while that of the later is only one day. The SSUs with transit
node clock standard having the Rubidium oscillator are only proposed to be deployed.

Since there are two Level-I TAXs in each L-I locations, to ensure the clock distribution
redundancy in line with the TAX policy, one SSU each is planned in each L-I TAX. One SSU is
E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 8 of 13
planned in the Maintenance regions transmission room, where the PRC is also proposed. This
enables the distribution of the clock to the L1 TAXs and also to long distance transmission links
over which the clock shall be distributed throughout the PRC timing island. Most of these L1 cities
have large number of DELs. Hence it is in line with the proposed policy to have three SSU in very
big cities. Thus 63 no of SSU are required. However at places such as Chennai there are three L-I
TAXs in same city. Accordingly, additional SSUs may be planned in all the L-I TAXs. At all the
Level-II TAX stations one SSU each is proposed.

Of the 301 level II TAX stations. already 50 no of SSUs are working in the network. The
actual number of SSUs existing and their locations may be ascertained during the preparation of
the final sync plan. The proposed place for shifting these SSUs may also be planned. Additional
cards may be required in all the existing SSUs. The balance SSUs required shall be 272 no.
Similarly at every GSM MSC and CDMA MSC, which is not collocated with a L-I TAX or L-II
TAX or the transmission centres ( where already one SSU is installed) one additional SSU is
proposed. These SSUs shall draw the primary clock from the nearest PRC.

Figure-III



































E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 9 of 13

The DWDM network is as shown below in Figure IV.


Figure-IV


The proposed PRC locations are shown as given below in Figure-V.


E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 10 of 13



Figure-V

An SSU at a PRC location is fed with the master clock from the co located PRC. This SSU
is also supplied with three of the surrounding PRC clocks as stand by for the Co located PRC.
Thus minimum four inputs are required for an SSU. Apart from these four clock inputs, an in built
GPS in the SSU shall be the final standby. Only an SSU, which is collocated with the PRC shall
have the inbuilt GPS module. All other SSUs located throughout the network shall not have any
other GPS module. Thus the GPS timing island coincides with the PRC timing island for the
respective PRC. Due to the geographical limitation Agartala has only one standby PRC input from
Guwahati apart from the GPS. However alternate inputs from Kolkata and Patna can also be
extended in alternate paths. In case of Portblair, GPS shall be the standby clock input.

With this kind of synchronization network, not only the quality of service improves
immensely, but also BSNL shall become the nation wide sync provider for all other agencies also.
This kind of networking enable BSNL to assume the role of carrier of carriers.
Portblair
E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 11 of 13

Figure-VI


The SSU at the PRC location depends on the PRC itself for the first master clock input. In
case of failure or deterioration of the PRC, the SSU depends on the other three PRC clock inputs
received from the nearest three PRCs. In the event of complete failure of the PRC inputs or in the
event of the deterioration of clock quality all the PRCs below the GPS standard, the SSU draws the
clock from the GPS clock, which shall be in-built in SSU.

The clock generated by the PRC shall be fed to an SSU co-located in PRC location.
It is proposed to place atleast one SSU at each of the SSA Headquarter. Thus atleast 322 SSUs
shall be required for distributing the clock. In all the cities, where more than 3 lakh DELs are
available atleast 3 SSUs are proposed in the same city for distributing the clock across the city
network. Similarly in all the cities with more than one Lakh DELs but less than 3 Lakh DELs two
SSUs are proposed in the same city for distributing the clock.

In general, the number of equipment rings/linear systems in region transmission room shall
be of the order of 30no in a bigger city. I.e. all the equipment needs to be fed with the clock
directly. At present due to lack of port outputs, the clock output of one equipment is fed to another
equipment, which shall not result in desired clock quality in the daisy chained equipment.

Apart from the transmission equipment in the region transmission room, equal number or
more equipment needs to be supplied with clock for the transmission equipment of the circle in the
same city. The SSU needs to supply clock to all the SDCAs and all the telephone exchanges,
MSCs, BSCs, in the same district. Hence more output ports are required. Hence the project circles
may also requested to assess the average requirement of ports in the SSU. In some equipment 2
MHz clock input is required while 2 Mb/s is required in other equipment. It is proposed to use
existing SSUs in smaller districts for distributing the traffic.

outputs
outputs
outputs
Remote
PRC-1
PR
CC
SSU with
4 inputs
360
outputs
Remote
PRC-2
SSU with
360
outputs
SSU with
360
outputs
SSU with
360
outputs
Remote
PRC-3
E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 12 of 13
Disaster management:


The proposed redundancy clocks for the SSU at every PRC is mentioned as given below.


Sl
No
First input
Choice
Of SSU in
PRC Location

Second
Input
Third
Input
Fourth
Input
Fifth input
1 New Delhi Jaipur Lucknow Bhopal GPS Delhi
2 Jammu NewDelhi Jaipur Lucknow GPS Jammu
3 Jaipur New Delhi Ahmadabad Bhopal GPSJaipur
4 Lucknow Patna Bhopal NewDelhi GPS Lucknow
5 Ahmadabad Jaipur Mumbai Bhopal GPS
Ahmadabad
6 Mumbai Ahmadabad Belgaum Nagpur GPS Mumbai
7 Nagpur Bhopal Hyderabad Sambalpur GPS Nagpur
8 Bhopal Nagpur Ahmadabad Jaipur GPS Bhopal
9 Hyderabad Belgaum Visakhapatnam Nagpur GPS Hyderabad
10 Belgaum Bangalore Hyderabad Mumbai GPS Belgaum
11 Bangalore Hyderabad Belgaum Chennai GPS Bangalore
12 Chennai Bangalore Visakhapatnam Hyderabad GPS Chennai
13 Ernakulam Chennai Bangalore Belgaum GPS Ernakulam
14 Visakhapatnam Hyderabad Chennai Sambalpur GPS
Visakhapatnam
15 Sambalpur Visakhaptnam Ranchi Nagpur GPS Sambalpur
16 Ranchi Sambalpur Patna Kolkata GPS Ranchi
17 Kolkata Ranchi Patna Visakhapatnam GPS Kolkata
18 Patna Kolkata Lucknow Ranchi GPS Patna
19 Guwahati Kolkata Patna Agrtala GPS Guwahati
20 Agartala Guwahati GPS Agartala
21 Portblair GPS Portblair


Table-I

In the event of the disaster such as complete clock deterioration at the SSU in the PRC
location, and other input failures due to the failure of transmission links and also with the GPS
failure, atleast three field SSUs of this PRC timing Island located nearer to the Remote PRCs,
surrounding this timing island may be allowed to have a direct clock input from these three remote
PRCs which are backing the timing island in question. Thus these three SSUs shall start supplying
the master clock to the current PRC timing island and three smaller islands are formed.


E2E3 Synchronization, Ver1 24.08.2007 13 of 13
Timing Loops:

The primary problem in the synchronisation networking is the formation of timing loops.
The timing loops are generally formed when an ADM supplying the master clock, received from
the PRC directly at the external input, to the ring in the east direction, also receives the same clock
input from the west direction on the Line aggregate.






Since the West line aggregate is synchronised with PRC clock, the clock quality of the
aggregate shall be comparable to that of the PRC. Accordingly, the ADM receiving the external
PRC input and the line aggregate shall start flipping among these clocks and thus the timing loops
are formed. This situation can happen in every ADM which is in the Sync chain or the Main trail
of the clock and passing the clock upto the last node. Thus clock trail for every station in the Sync
map must be drawn individually and analysed to avoid these timing loops.

ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
PRC
East
West




Section-III

Chapter-12

Overview of
Mobile Communication & Cellular Concepts





E2E3 Mobile concepts, Ver2 28.02.2008 1 of 6
Mobile communications: Basic concepts
From ancient to modern times, mankind has been looking for means of long distance
communications. For centuries, letters proofed to be the most reliable way to transmit
information. Fire, flags, horns, etc. were used to transmit information faster. Technical
improvements in the 19
th
century simplified long distance communications: Telegraphy,
and later on telephony. Both techniques were wireline. In 1873, J. C. Maxwell laid the
foundation of the electro-magnetic theory by summarising empirical results in four
equations, which are still valid today. It would however be several decades before
Marconi made economic use of this theory by developing devices for wireless
transmission of Morse signals (about 1895). Already 6 years later, the first transatlantic
wireless transmission of Morse signals took place. Voice was transmitted the first time in
1906 (R. Fesseden), and one of the first radio broadcast transmission 1909 in New York.


The economically most successful wireless application in the first half of the 20
th
century was radio broadcast. There is one transmitter, the so-called radio station.
Information, such as news, music, etc. is transmitted from the radio station to the
receiver equipment, the radio device. This type of one-way transmission is called
simplex transmission. The transmission takes place only in one direction, from
the transmitter to the receiver.
E2E3 Mobile concepts, Ver2 28.02.2008 2 of 6
The first commercial wireless car phone telephony service started in the late 1940
in St. Louise, Missouri (USA). It was a car phone service, because at that time,
the mobile phone equipment was bulky and heavy. Actually, in the start-up, it
filled the whole back of the car. But it was a real full duplex transmission
solution. In the 50ies, several vehicle radio systems were also installed in Europe.
These systems are nowadays called single cell systems. The user data
transmission takes place between the mobile phone and the base station (BS). A
base station transmits and receives user data. While a mobile phone is only
responsible for its users data transmission and reception, a base station is capable
to handle the calls of several subscribers simultaneously. The transmission of user
data from the base station to the mobile phone is called downlink (DL), the
transmission from the mobile phone to the base station uplink (UL) direction.
The area, where the wireless transmission between mobile phones and the base
station can take place, is the base stations supply area, called cell. For
conversation, a technical solution is required, where the information flow can take
place in two directions. This type of transmission is called duplex transmission.
Walky-talky was already available the early 30ies. This system already allowed a
transmission of user data in two directions, but there was a limitation: The users
were not allowed to transmit at the same time. In other words, you could only
receive or transmit user information. This type of transmission is therefore often
called semi-duplex transmission. For telephony services, a technical solutions is
required, where subscribers have the impression, that they can speak (transmit)
and hear (receive) simultaneously. This type of transmission solution is regarded
as full duplex transmission.
E2E3 Mobile concepts, Ver2 28.02.2008 3 of 6

Single cell systems are quite limited. The more and more distant the subscriber is from
the base station, the lower the quality of the radio link. If the subscriber is leaving the
supply area of the cell, no communication is possible any more. In other words, the
mobile communication service was only available within the cell. In order to overcome
this limitation, cellular systems were introduced. A cellular mobile communication
system consists of several cells, which can overlap. By doing so, a whole geographical
area can be supported with the mobile communication service.

But what happens, when a subscriber moves during a call from one cell to another cell? It
would be very annoying, if the call is dropped. If the subscriber is leaving a cell, and in
parallel is entering a new cell, then the system makes new radio resources available in the
E2E3 Mobile concepts, Ver2 28.02.2008 4 of 6
neighbouring cell, and then the call is handed over from on cell to the next one. By doing
so, service continuation is guaranteed, even when the subscriber is moving. The process
is called handover (HO).

A handover takes place during a call, i.e. when the mobile phone is in active (dedicated)
mode. A mobile phone can also be in idle mode. In this case, the mobile phone is
switched on, but no resources are allocated to it to allow user data transmission. In this
mode, the mobile phone is still listening to information, broadcasted by the base station.
Why? Imagine, there is a mobile terminated call. The mobile phone is then paged in the
cell. This means the phone receives information that there is a mobile terminated call. A
cellular system may consist of hundreds of cells. If the mobile network does not know, in
which cell the mobile phone is located, it must be paged in all of them. To reduce load on
networks, paging in is done in small parts of a mobile an operators network. Mobile
network operators group cells in administrative units called location areas (LA). A
mobile phone is paged in only one location area.
But how does the cellular system know, in which location area the mobile phone is
located? And how does the mobile phone know? In every cell, system information is
continuously transmitted. The system information includes the location area information.
In the idle mode, the mobile phone is listening to this system information. If the
subscriber moves hereby from one cell to the next cell, and the new cell belongs to the
same location area, the mobile stays idle. If the new cell belongs to a new location area,
then the mobile phone has to become active. It starts a communication with the network,
informing it about it new location. This is stored in databases within the mobile network,
and if there is a mobile terminated call, the network knows where to page the subscriber.
E2E3 Mobile concepts, Ver2 28.02.2008 5 of 6
The process, where the mobile phone informs the network about its new location is called
Location Update Procedure (LUP).


With the introduction of cellular mobile communication systems, we
refer to generations. First generation prominent mobile communication systems were
TACS (Total Access Communications System)
NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony)
AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service)
C450
All of them were commercially launched in the 80s of the last century. The 1
st
generation
mobile communication systems often offered national wide coverage. But there were
limitations: Most of them did not support roaming. Roaming is the ability to use an other
operators network infrastructure. International roaming is the ability to go even to
another country and use the local operators infrastructure.
Most 1
st
generation mobile communication systems only supported
speech transmission, but not data transmission, such as fax. Supplementary services, such
as number indication and call forwarding, when busy. The transmission takes place
unprotected via the radio interface as a consequence, eavesdropping is possible. Also
the radio interface was the main bottleneck in terms of capacity. Improved solutions were
urgently required. This led to the inauguration of the 2
nd
generation mobile
communication systems, one of which is GSM.
E2E3 Mobile concepts, Ver2 28.02.2008 6 of 6
GSM Frequency Bands
GSM-900 uses 890915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the
base station (uplink) and 935960 MHz for the other direction (downlink),
providing 124 RF channels (channel numbers 1 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz.
Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is used.
In some countries the GSM-900 band has been extended to cover a larger
frequency range. This 'extended GSM', E-GSM, uses 880915 MHz (uplink) and
925960 MHz (downlink), adding 50 channels to the original GSM-900 band.
The GSM specifications also describe 'railways GSM', GSM-R, which uses
876915 MHz (uplink) and 921960 MHz (downlink). GSM-R provides
additional channels and specialized services for use by railway personnel.
All these variants are included in the GSM-900 specification.
GSM-1800 uses 17101785 MHz to send information from the mobile station to
the base tranceiver station (uplink) and 18051880 MHz for the other direction
(downlink), Duplex spacing is 95 MHz.
GSM-850 uses 824849 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the
base station (uplink) and 869894 MHz for the other direction (downlink).
GSM-1900 uses 18501910 MHz to send information from the mobile station to
the base station (uplink) and 19301990 MHz for the other direction (downlink).
GSM Handsets
Today, most telephones support multiple bands as used in different countries. These are
typically referred to as multi-band phones. Dual-band phones can cover GSM networks
in pairs such as 900 and 1800 MHz frequencies or 850 and 1900. European tri-band
phones typically cover the 900, 1800 and 1900 bands giving good coverage in Europe
and allowing limited use in North America, while North American tri-band phones utilize
850, 1800 and 1900 for wide-spread North American service but limited world-wide use.
A new addition has been the quad-band phone, supporting all four major GSM bands,
allowing for global use.









Section-III

Chapter-13

GSM Architecture







E2E3 GSM Architecture, Ver2 28.02.2008 1 of 5

GSM Introduction


GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a 2
nd
Generation (2G), an
open, digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data
services. GSM differs from first generation wireless systems in that it uses digital
technology and time division multiple access transmission methods. GSM is a
circuit-switched system that divides each 200kHz channel into eight 25kHz time-
slots. GSM operates in the 900MHz and 1.8GHz bands in Europe and the
1.9GHz and 850MHz bands in the US. The 850MHz band is also used for GSM
and 3GSM in Australia, Canada and many South American countries. GSM
supports data transfer speeds of up to 9.6 kbit/s, allowing the transmission of
basic data services such as SMS (Short Message Service). Another major
benefit is its international roaming capability, allowing users to access the same
services when travelling abroad as at home. This gives consumers seamless and
same number connectivity in more than 210 countries. GSM satellite roaming
has also extended service access to areas where terrestrial coverage is not
available.

GSM Architecture


Above figure shows the functional blocks at macro level. These are briefly
explained in this handout.

MS
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1.0 Mobile Station (MS)

In GSM, the mobile phone is called Mobile Station (MS). The MS is a
combination of terminal equipment and subscriber data. The terminal equipment
as such is called ME (Mobile Equipment) and the subscriber's data is stored in a
separate module called SIM (Subscriber Identity Module).

Therefore, ME + SIM = MS.

From the users point of view, the SIM is certainly the best-known database used
in a GSM network. The SIM is a small memory device mounted on a card and
contains user-specific identification. The SIM card can be taken out of one mobile
equipment and inserted into another. In the GSM network, the SIM card identifies
the user just like a traveller uses a passport to identify himself.

The SIM card contains the identification numbers of the user and a list of
available networks. The SIM card also contains tools needed for authentication
and ciphering. Depending on the type of the card, there is also storage space for
messages, such as phone numbers. A home operator issues a SIM card when
the user joins the network by making a service subscription. The home operator
of the subscriber can be anywhere in the world, but for practical reasons the
subscriber chooses one of the operators in the country where he/she spends
most of the time.


2.0 Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)

The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) contains the network elements MSC,
GMSC, VLR, HLR, AC and EIR.

The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)
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The main functions of NSS are:
Call control: This identifies the subscriber, establishes a call, and clears the
connection after the conversation is over.
Charging: This collects the charging information about a call (the numbers of the
caller and the called subscriber, the time and type of the transaction, etc.) and
transfers it to the Billing Centre.
Mobility management: This maintains information about the subscriber's
location.
Signalling: This applies to interfaces with the BSS and PSTN.
Subscriber data handling: This is the permanent data storage in the HLR and
temporary storage of relevant data in the VLR.

2.1 Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC): The MSC is responsible for
controlling calls in the mobile network. It identifies the origin and
destination of a call (mobile station or fixed telephone), as well as the type
of a call.
The MSC is responsible for several important tasks, such as the following.
Call control: MSC identifies the type of call, the destination, and the origin
of a call. It also sets up, supervises, and clears connections.
Initiation of paging: Paging is the process of locating a particular mobile
station in case of a mobile terminated call (a call to a mobile station).

2.2 Gateway Mobile services Switching Centre (GMSC): The GMSC is
responsible for the same tasks as the MSC, except for paging. It is
needed in case of mobile terminated calls. In fixed networks, a call is
established to the local exchange, to which the telephone is connected to.
But in GSM, the MSC, which is serving the MS, changes with the
subscribers mobility. Therefore, in a mobile terminated call, the call is set
up to a well defined exchange in the subscribers home PLMN. This
exchange is called GMSC. The GMSC than interacts with a database
called Home Location Register, which holds the information about the
MSC, which is currently serving the MS. The process of requesting
location information from the HLR is called HLR Interrogation. Given the
information about the serving MSC, the GMSC then continues the call
establishment process. In many real life implementations, the MSC
functionality and the GMSC functionality are implemented in the same
equipment, which is then just called MSC. Many operators use GMSCs for
breakout to external networks such as PSTNs.

2.3 Visitor Location Register (VLR): VLR is a database, which contains
information about subscribers currently being in the service area of the
MSC/VLR, such as:
Identification numbers of the subscribers
Security information for authentication of the SIM card and for
ciphering

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The VLR carries out location registrations and updates. When a mobile
station comes to a new MSC/VLR serving area, it must register itself in the
VLR, in other words perform a location update. Please note that a mobile
subscriber must always be registered in a VLR in order to use the services
of the network. Also the mobile stations located in the own network is
always registered in a VLR.
The VLR database is temporary, in the sense that the data is held as long
as the subscriber is within its service area. It also contains the address to
every subscriber's Home Location Register, which is the next network
element to be discussed.

2.4 Home Location Register (HLR): HLR maintains a permanent register of
the subscribers. For instance the subscriber identity numbers and the
subscribed services can be found here. In addition to the fixed data, the
HLR also keeps track of the current location of its customers. As you will
see later, the GMSC asks for routing information from the HLR if a call is
to be set up to a mobile station (mobile terminated call).

2.5 Authentication Centre (AC): The Authentication Centre provides security
information to the network, so that we can verify the SIM cards
(authentication between the mobile station and the VLR, and cipher the
information transmitted in the air interface (between the MS and the Base
Transceiver Station)). The Authentication Centre supports the VLR's work
by issuing so-called authentication triplets upon request.

2.6 Equipment Identity Register (EIR): As for AC, the Equipment Identity
Register is used for security reasons. But while the AC provides
information for verifying the SIM cards, the EIR is responsible for IMEI
checking (checking the validity of the mobile equipment). When this
optional network element is in use, the mobile station is requested to
provide the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number. The
EIR contains three lists:
A mobile equipment in the white list is allowed to operate normally.
If we suspect that a mobile equipment is faulty, we can monitor the use
of it. It is then placed in the grey list.
If the mobile equipment is reported stolen, or it is otherwise not allowed
to operate in the network, it is placed in the black list.
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3.0 Base Station Subsystem (BSS): The Base Station Subsystem is
responsible for managing the radio network, and it is controlled by an
MSC. Typically, one MSC contains several BSSs. A BSS itself may cover
a considerably large geographical area consisting of many cells (a cell
refers to an area covered by one or more frequency resources). The BSS
consists of the following elements:
BSC Base Station Controller
BTS Base Transceiver Station
TRAU Transcoder and Rate Adaptation Unit (often referred to as TC
(Transcoder))



Radio path control: In the GSM network, the Base Station Subsystem (BSS) is
the part of the network taking care of radio resources, that is, radio channel
allocation and quality of the radio connection.

Synchronisation: The BSS uses hierarchical synchronisation, which means that
the MSC synchronises the BSC, and the BSC further synchronises the BTSs
associated with that particular BSC. Inside the BSS, synchronisation is controlled
by the BSC. Synchronisation is a critical issue in the GSM network due to the
nature of the information transferred. If the synchronisation chain is not working
correctly, calls may be cut or the call quality may not be the best possible.
Ultimately, it may even be impossible to establish a call.

Air- and A-interface signalling: In order to establish a call, the MS must have a
connection through the BSS. The BSS is located between two interfaces, the air-
and the A-interface. The MS must have a connection through these two
interfaces before a call can be established. Generally speaking, this connection
may be either a signalling connection or a traffic (speech, data) connection.

Mobility management and speech transcoding: BSS mobility management
mainly covers the different cases of handovers.














Section-III

Chapter-14


Overview of GPRS & EDGE
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Overview of GPRS

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is the world's most ubiquitous wireless
data service, available now with almost every GSM network. GSM system (2G)
with GPRS capability is sometimes also known as 2.5G. GPRS is a connectivity
solution based on Internet Protocols that supports a wide range of enterprise and
consumer applications.

Theoretical maximum speeds of up to 171.2 kilobits per second (kbps) are
achievable with GPRS using all eight timeslots at the same time. This is about
three times as fast as the data transmission speeds possible over today's fixed
telecommunications networks and ten times as fast as current Circuit Switched
Data services on GSM networks. Practically with throughput rates of up to 40
kbit/s, users have a similar access speed to a dial-up modem, but with the
convenience of being able to connect from anywhere. GPRS customers enjoy
advanced, feature-rich data services such as colour Internet browsing, e-mail on
the move, powerful visual communications such as video streaming, multimedia
messages and location-based services.

To use GPRS, users specifically need:
a mobile phone or terminal that supports GPRS (existing GSM phone
may NOT support GPRS);
a subscription to a mobile telephone network that supports GPRS;
Configuring mobile phone with the operator specific details.
Knowledge of how to configure handset is required. Many operators
provide configuration support through SMS.
Knowledge of how to send and/or receive GPRS information using their
specific model of mobile phone, including software and hardware
configuration
a destination to send or receive information through GPRS. Whereas
with SMS this was often another mobile phone, in the case of GPRS, it
is likely to be an Internet address, since GPRS is designed to make the
Internet fully available to mobile users for the first time. From day
one, GPRS users can access any web page or other Internet
applications- providing an immediate critical mass of uses;

GPRS standardization

The ETSI (European Telecommunications Standardization Institute) does the
standardisation work for GPRS.



E2E3 GPRS & Edge, Ver2 28.02.2008 2 of 6
Key points

GPRS uses a packet-based switching technique, which will enhance GSM data
services significantly, especially for bursty Internet/intranet traffic.
Some application examples:
Bus, train, airline real-time information
Locating restaurants and other entertainment venues based on current
Location
Lottery
E-commerce
Banking
E-mail
Web browsing
The main advantages of GPRS for users:
Instant access to data as if connected to an office LAN
Charging based on amount of data transferred (not the time connected)
Higher transmission speeds
The main advantages for operators:
Fast network roll-out with minimum investment
Excess voice capacity used for GPRS data
Smooth path to 3G services

In circuit switching, each time a connection is required between two points, a link
between the two points is established and the needed resources are reserved for
the use of that single call for the complete duration of the call.

In packet switching, the data to be transferred is divided up into packets, which
are then sent through the network and re-assembled at the receiving end.


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The GPRS network acts in parallel with the GSM network, providing packet
switched connections to the external networks. The requirements of a GPRS
network are the following:

The GPRS network must use as much of the existing GSM infrastructure
with the smallest number of modifications to it.
Since a GPRS user may be on more than one data session, GPRS should
be able to support one or more packet switched connections.
To support the budgets of various GPRS users, it must be able to support
different Quality of Service (QoS) subscriptions of the user.
The GPRS network architecture has to be compatible with future 3rd and
4th generation mobile communication systems.
It should be able to support both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint data
connections.
It should provide secure access to external networks.



Figure shows the architecture of a GPRS network. The GPRS system
brings some new network elements to an existing GSM network. These elements
are:
Packet Control Unit (PCU)
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN): the MSC of the GPRS network
Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN): gateway to external networks
Border Gateway (BG): a gateway to other PLMN
Intra-PLMN backbone: an IP based network inter-connecting all the
GPRS elements
Charging Gateway (CG)
Legal Interception Gateway (LIG)
Domain Name System (DNS)
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Firewalls: used wherever a connection to an external network is required.

Not all of the network elements are compulsory for every GPRS network.

Packet Control Unit (PCU)
The PCU separates the circuit switched and packet switched traffic from the user
and sends them to the GSM and GPRS networks respectively. It also performs
most of the radio resource management functions of the GPRS network. The
PCU can be either located in the BTS, BSC, or some other point between the MS
and the MSC. There will be at least one PCU that serves a cell in which GPRS
services will be available. Frame Relay technology is being used at present to
interconnect the PCU to the GPRS core.

Channel Codec Unit (CCU)
The CCU is realised in the BTS to perform the Channel Coding (including the
coding scheme algorithms), power control and timing advance procedures.

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)

The SGSN is the most important element of the GPRS network. The SGSN of
the GPRS network is equivalent to the MSC of the GSM network. There must at
least one SGSN in a GPRS network. There is a coverage area associated with a
SGSN. As the network expands and the number of subscribers increases, there
may be more than one SGSN in a network. The SGSN has the following
functions:

Protocol conversion (for example IP to FR)
Ciphering of GPRS data between the MS and SGSN
Data compression is used to minimise the size of transmitted data units
Authentication of GPRS users
Mobility management as the subscriber moves from one area to another,
and possibly one SGSN to another
Routing of data to the relevant GGSN when a connection to an external
network is required
Interaction with the NSS (that is, MSC/VLR, HLR, EIR) via the SS7
network in order to retrieve subscription information
Collection of charging data pertaining to the use of GPRS users
Traffic statistics collections for network management purposes.

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

The GGSN is the gateway to external networks. Every connection to a fixed
external data etwork has to go through a GGSN. The GGSN acts as the anchor
point in a GPRS data connection even when the subscriber moves to another
SGSN during roaming. The GGSN may accept connection request from SGSN
that is in another PLMN. Hence, the concept of coverage area does not apply to
E2E3 GPRS & Edge, Ver2 28.02.2008 5 of 6
GGSN. There are usually two or more GGSNs in a network for redundancy
purposes, and they back up each other up in case of failure. The functions of a
GGSN are given below:

Routing mobile-destined packets coming from external networks to the
relevant SGSN
Routing packets originating from a mobile to the correct external network
Interfaces to external IP networks and deals with security issues
Collects charging data and traffic statistics
Allocates dynamic or static IP addresses to mobiles either by itself or with
the help of a DHCP or a RADIUS server
Involved in the establishment of tunnels with the SGSN and with other
external networks and VPN.

From the external network's point of view, the GGSN is simply a router to an IP
sub-network. This is shown below. When the GGSN receives data addressed to
a specific user in the mobile network, it first checks if the address is active. If it is,
the GGSN forwards the data to the SGSN serving the mobile. If the address is
inactive, the data is discarded. The GGSN also routes mobile originated packets
to the correct external network.

GPRS MS (Mobile Station/Handset)
Different GPRS MS classes were introduced to cope with the different needs of
future subscribers. The mobiles differ in their capabilities.

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What is EDGE?
Further enhancements to GSM networks are provided by Enhanced Data rates
for GSM Evolution (EDGE) technology. EDGE provides up to three times the
data capacity of GPRS. Using EDGE, operators can handle three times more
subscribers than GPRS; triple their data rate per subscriber, or add extra
capacity to their voice communications. EDGE uses the same TDMA (Time
Division Multiple Access) frame structure, logic channel and 200kHz carrier
bandwidth as today's GSM networks, which allows it to be overlaid directly onto
an existing GSM network. Some people classify the GSM network with EDGE
capability as 2.75G.

EDGE allows the delivery of advanced mobile services such as the downloading
of video and music clips, full multimedia messaging, high-speed colour Internet
access and e-mail on the move.

Although EDGE requires no hardware or software changes to be made in GSM
core networks, base stations must be modified. EDGE compatible transceiver
units must be installed and the base station subsystem (BSS) needs to be
upgraded to support EDGE. New mobile terminal hardware and software is also
required to decode/encode the new modulation and coding schemes and carry
the higher user data rates to implement new services.

Due to the very small incremental cost of including EDGE capability in GSM
network deployment, virtually all new GSM infrastructure deployments are also
EDGE capable and nearly all new mid- to high-level GSM devices also include
EDGE radio technology. The Global mobile Suppliers Association (GSA) states
that, as of May 2007, there were 223 commercial GSM/EDGE networks in 113
countries, from a total of 287 mobile network operator commitments in 142
countries (source: www.gsacom.com).

















Section-III

Chapter-15

GSM Services




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INTRODUCTION
The primary objective of a mobile telephony system is to allow mobile subscribers to
communicate effectively. GSM systems provide this by offering a number of different
basic telecommunications services.

The service functionality of GSM system improves with each system release.
Technical specifications are continuously being developed in order to incorporate new
and improved functions into the system.

SERVICE CATEGORIES

There are two main types of telecommunications services:

Basic services: These are available to all subscribers to a mobile network.
For example, the ability to make voice telephone calls is a basic service.
Basic telecommunication services can be divided into two main categories:

Teleservices: A teleservice allows the subscriber to communicate
(usually via voice, fax, data or SMS) with another subscriber. It is a
complete system including necessary terminal equipment.
Bearer services: A bearer service transports speech and data as digital
information within the network between user interfaces. A bearer
service is the capability to transfer information and does not include
the end-user equipment. Every teleservice is associated with a bearer
service. For example, a bearer service associated with the speech
telephony teleservice is the timeslot assigned to a call on a TDMA
frame over the air interface.

Supplementary services: These are additional services that are available by
subscription only. Call forwarding is an example of a supplementary
service.

GSM systems are also designed to enable operators to differentiate their services from
their competitors services using a technique based on Mobile Intelligent Network
(MIN) solutions.

BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES

1.0 BEARER SERVICES

GSM systems offer a wide range of bearer services. The DTI supports data
services offered by the system. Rates up to 48 kbits/s are possible.

1.1 Traffic to PSTN: for data traffic external to PLMN such as internetworking
with ISDN or directly to PSTN, the system selects a suitable modem in the DTI.

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1.2 Traffic to ISDN: an entire set of data communication services with ISDN
terminals is available. Unrestricted digital information is transferred and no
modem is necessary.

1.3 Traffic to Packet Switched Public Data Network (PSPDN): Packet service
supports synchronous data transfers with the PSPDN with rates from 1.2 to 48
kbits/s. With synchronous data transfers a packet mode terminal can be directly
connected to the MS. Synchronous data communication between an MS and a
packet switched network is possible via the packet Assembler-Disassembler
(PAD) facility. Rates between 300 and 9600 bits/s are supported.

Figure 1 Data call in GSM to PSPDN

1.4 Traffic to Circuit Switched Public Data Network (CSPDN): Data
communications with a CSPDN is possible via the PSTN or ISDN, depending
on the CSPDN-transit network interface.

1.5 Traffic to Internet: traditionally, an MSC accessed Internet nodes via existing
networks such as the PSTN. However, the direct access function enables an
MSC to communicate directly with Internet nodes, thus reducing call set-up
time.

1.6 ISDN Primary Rate Access (PRA): this function enables an MSC to provide
PRA services to subscribers. For example, a network operator can offer PABX
connection services through the PLMN. In this way the operator can compete
directly with PSTN operators for ISDN business subscribers. PRA provides a
data rate of up to 2 Mbits/s.

MSC/VLR
PAD
PST
N
PAD
PST
N
BSC
IPNetwork
PSPDN
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2.0 TELESERVICES

This section describes the major teleservices supported by GSM systems.

2.1 Speech: This is normal telephony (two-way voice communication) with the
ability to make and receive calls to/from fixed and mobile subscribers
worldwide. This is the most fundamental service offered.

2.2 Emergency calls: The emergency call function enables a subscriber to make an
emergency call by pressing a predefined button or by using the emergency
number. With an emergency area origin identifier, the call is automatically
routed to the emergency center nearest to the subscriber. Emergency calls can
be made with the phone itself, without a valid SIM-card, overriding locked
phone and pin codes.

2.3 Facsimile group 3: GSM supports International
Telecommunications Union (ITU) group 3 facsimile. Standard fax machines
are designed to be connected to a telephone using analog signals, a special fax
converter is connected to the exchange. This enables a connected fax to
communicate with any analog fax in the fixed network.

2.4 Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF): This is a tone signaling facility which
is often used for various control purposes, such as remote control of answering
machines and interacting with automated telephone services.

2.5 Alternative Speech/Fax: This service allows the subscriber to alternate
between speech and fax within one call setup. The subscriber can start the call
either with speech or fax and then alternate between the two call types. The
subscriber can switch several times within the same call.

2.6 Short Message Services (SMS): This service allows simple text messages
consisting of a maximum of 160 alphanumeric characters to be sent to or from
an MS.

If the MS is switched off, or has left the coverage area, the message is stored in
a Short Message Service Center (SMS-C). When the mobile is switched on
again or has re-entered the network coverage area, the subscriber is informed
that there is a message. This function guarantees that messages are delivered.


2.7 SMS Cell Broadcast (SMSCB): The cell broadcast facility is a variation of the
short message service. A text message with a maximum length of 93 characters
can be broadcast to all mobiles within a certain geographic area. Typical
applications are traffic congestion warnings and accident reports, and in the
future, possibly advertisements.

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2.8 Voice mail: This service is an answering machine within the network that is
controlled by the subscriber. Calls can be forwarded to the subscribers voice
mailbox. The subscriber accesses the mailbox using a personal security code.

2.9 Fax mail: This service allows the subscriber to receive fax messages at any fax
machine via the MS. Fax messages are stored in a network service center. The
subscriber accesses the fax mail via a personal security code and the fax is then
sent to the desired fax number.

3.0 SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES

This section describes the main supplementary services supported by GSM
systems.

3.1 Call forwarding: This service provides the subscriber with the ability to
forward incoming calls to another telephone number in the following situations:

Call forwarding on MS not reachable
Call forwarding on MS busy
Call forwarding on no reply
Call forwarding, unconditional

3.2 Barring of outgoing calls: The subscriber can activate or deactivate this service
from the MS with a variety of options for barring outgoing calls. For example,
the subscriber can:
Bar all outgoing calls
Bar all outgoing international calls
Bar all outgoing international calls except those directed to
the home PLMN

3.3 Barring of incoming calls: With this function, the subscriber can prevent
incoming calls. This is desirable because in some cases the called mobile
subscriber is charged for parts of an incoming call (e.g. during international
roaming).

There are two incoming call barring options:

Barring of all incoming calls
Barring of incoming calls when outside home PLMN

3.4 Advice of Charge: The advice of Charge (AoC) service provides the MS with
information needed to calculate the charge of a call. This information is
provided at call set-up.

Charges are indicated for the call in progress when mobile originated. For a
mobile terminated call, AoC only offers information on the roaming leg.
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3.5 Account Codes: This service enables a subscriber, e.g. a business, to identify
an account number, which is to be charged for particular call components.
Account codes can be identified on a per call basis.

3.6 Call waiting: This service notifies the mobile subscriber, usually by an audible
tone, for incoming call. The call can then be answered, rejected or ignored.
The incoming call can be any type of basic service including speech, data or
fax. There is no notification in the case of an emergency call or SMS.

3.7 Call hold: This supplementary service enables the subscriber to put the basic
normal telephony service on hold in order to set up a new call or accept a
waiting call. Communication with the original call can then be re-established.

3.8 Multiparty service: The multiparty service enables a mobile subscriber to
establish a multiparty conversation, that is, a simultaneous conversation
between up to six subscribers. This service can only be used with basic speech
telephony.

3.9 Calling line identification services:
These supplementary services cover both the presentation and restriction of the
calling line identity. The presentation part of the service supplies the called
party with the ISDN or MSISDN number of the calling party. The restriction
service enables calling parties to restrict the presentation of their numbers on the
MSs of called parties. Restriction overrides presentation

3.10 Connected line identification presentation/restriction:
These supplementary services supply the calling party with the ISDN number
of the connected (called) party. The restriction enables the connected party to
restrict the presentation. Restriction overrides presentation. This service is
useful when the call is forwarded or when it is connected via a switchboard.

3.11 Closed User Group (CUG):
The CUG service enables subscribers connected to the PLMN/ISDN and
possibl0y other networks, to form groups in which access is restricted. For
example, members of a specific CUG can communicate with each other, but
generally not with users outside the group.

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4.0 INNOVATIVE SERVICES

Innovative features offer a level of service beyond the basic network standards.
New features are developed on an ongoing basic as customer demands and
competition increase. Some features are described in this section.

Single personal number: The single personal number service allows a
subscriber to arrange call forwarding to other networks when the mobile is not
reached in the subscribers primary network. With this feature, one directory
number can reach the subscriber even though the subscriber may have
subscriptions in several different networks.

Dual numbering: This feature allows the subscriber to have two different
directory numbers connected to the same subscription and the same mobile
equipment. In this way different accounts can be connected to the different
directory numbers. For example, the subscriber may want one business account
and one private account connected to the same subscription. Support for this
feature is required in the MS.

Immediate call itemization: This feature is also called Hot billing. It is used
when it is necessary to have immediate call charging data output (e.g. to bill a
third party for use of a telephone, which is rented).

Regional call itemization: These features allow subscribers to subscribe
to a service in a specified geographical area. Requests for service outside the
area are rejected with the exception of emergency calls and SMS. For local
subscriptions, the geographical area consists of a number of cells, and for
regional subscriptions, the area consists of LAs. The cells or LAs do not need
to be adjacent but can be spread out over the PLMN. For regional
subscriptions, LAs in other PLMNs in other countries may be included.
Handovers are not influenced.

Geographically differentiated charging: This feature enables the GSM PLMN
area to be divided into different tariff regions. A tariff region is defined as a set
of cells. A subscriber may be offered cheaper calls within certain areas. This
feature can be combined with the service regional subscription.


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5.0 LOCATION BASED SERVICES

A location Based service (LBS) can be described as an application that is
dependent on a certain location. Two broad categories of LBS can be defined as
triggered and user requested. In a user requested scenario, the user is retrieving
the position once and uses it on subsequent requests for location dependent
information. This type of service usually involves either personal location (i.e.
finding where you are) or service location (i.e. where is the nearest). Examples
of this type of LBS are navigation (usually involving a map) and direction
(routing information). A triggered LBS by contrast relies on a condition set up
in advance that, once fulfilled, retrieves the position of a given device. An
example is when the user passes across the boundaries of the cells in a mobile
network. Another example is in emergency center triggers an automatic location
request from the mobile network.

5.1 GSM Cellular Locations

Due to the cellular nature of the GSM mobile telephone network, it is possible
to determine the location of a regular GSM mobile telephone. The basic
system of cell ID, described below, is somewhat crude but techniques are
available to provide increased accuracy. This section describes one method of
increasing the accuracy of cell ID but others also exit. The advantage of
cellular positioning over GPS is that the signal is much stronger and therefore
will operate indoors; it is also unaffected by the urban canyon effect (subject to
GSM coverage).

5.1.1 Cell lD

Cell ID is the most basic form of cellular location and works simply by
detection the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) with which the telephone is
registered. At any moment in time, the mobile telephone/Station (MS) is
registered to a BTS. This is usually the nearest BTS but may occasionally be
the BTS of a neighbouring cell due to terrain, cell overlap or if the nearest
BTS is congested. Cells vary in size depending on terrain and the anticipated
number of users; hence in city centers cells are much smaller than in rural
location. This difference in cell size greatly affects the accuracy of a position
fix since the location reported is in fact the location of the BTS and the MS
may be anywhere within the boundary of the cell. Typically the extent of
error in urban locations may be around 500 metres but in rural locations this
can increase up to about 15 kms. Each base-station will have multiple
antennae, each covering a sector of the cell. So a BTS with there antennae
will produce a cell with there 120
0
sectors. By detecting the antenna with
which the MS is registered, the location of the MS can be narrowed down to
somewhere within a sector of the cell with the BTS at its apex.

E2E3 GSM services Ver2 28.02.2008 8 of 9
5.2 Applications

Service providers hope that location services will stimulate demand for
wireless data services. Location information may be used by an application
provider to personalize the service, or to improve the user interface by
reducing the need to interact with a small device while on the move. This
section aims to give a brief insight into a range of likely applications of
location based services.

5.2.1 Communication
Some LBS applications with self-contained user device obtain a position
using one of the methods described above, perform some processing and then
present the resulting data back to the user. Many other applications will require
the position to be sent to a server either for display to other parties, processing
or referencing against additional content. Consumer applications will often use
SMS text messaging because it is simple to use and familiar to most mobile
users. The disadvantage of SMS is that it is limited to text-based data (although
the impending Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) will allow still images,
audio and video to be transmitted). WAP may be considered as an alternative
communications channel that provides more data capacity and reduces the end-
to-end delay. SMS is also rather expensive as a data carrier and so may not be
cost effective for some applications where position reports need to be
transmitted at 5 minutes intervals though out the day, for example. GPRS may
be a more appropriate bearer for some applications as only the data transmitted
will be charged for and the high data rates would allow for large position and
telemetry logs to be downloaded at the end of the day if required. All of the
communications channels discussed so far have relied on the GSM network but
for safety critical applications or for tracking of devices in remote areas GSM
may not be appropriate. A satellite network, such as Inmarsat C or D+ may be
preferable if global coverage is required, although there will be an obvious trade
off with cost per position report and the hardware is likely to be more bulky and
demand more power.

5.2.2 Fleet Management
The purpose of a fleet management application is to allow a company to keep
track of its mobile assets in near real time and to be able to use that information
not only to increase performance and utilization but also decrease operating
costs. As an example, consider the case of a delivery company. By having its
fleet of delivery vans reporting their position at regular intervals throughout the
day, if an urgent collection is required the company knows which is the nearest
van and can calculate the travel time required, therefore optimizing the
distribution of tasks. If the vehicle is also reporting telemetry data about engine
performance and driving habits (acceleration, breaking etc.) the company can
also detect mechanical problems before they cause damage and encourage their
drivers to adopt a more fuel efficient driving behavior. Geographic boundaries,
known as geofences, could be configured that trigger alerts when the object
E2E3 GSM services Ver2 28.02.2008 9 of 9
being traced crosses the geofences perimeter. These could be defined so that
when the lorry arrives within 5 miles of the depot an alert is triggered to
forewarn the loading day crew of the vans arrival. Location data could also be
viewed by customers to get information about the location of their deliveries
and expected delivery time.

5.2.3 Routing
Navigation is another increasingly common implantation of location based
services and the benefits in terms of optimized routing, avoidance of traffic
congestion and early warning of diversions, accidents and road works are
easy to recognize. Apart from detailed turn-by-turn directions, there is
growing demand for Wheres my nearest? Type applications where an end
user requests the nearest business of a particular type relative to their current
location. For example, Wheres my nearest Italian restaurant? .To date,
there applications have relied on self positioning by the user where the user
has to define their location manually either by entering a street name, town
name, postcode or some other reference. This is because until now it has not
been possible for a third party application provider to determine roll-out of
APls to the networks Cell ID data will provide a significant boost to these
services.

5.2.4 Safety and Security
An emerging application of location-based services is in the area of workforce
safety. By equipping their workforce with a small electronic device that
enables location determination and transmission into a service center, a
company can monitor the condition of lone workers and those in high-risk
areas. Status updates may be requested at regular intervals and the device may
have a panic button to allow the user to request for assistance to be
dispatched to their precise location in the event of an emergency. Vehicles can
now be equipped with covertly installed tracking devices to allow their safe
recovery in the event of theft. Many of these systems are so successful that
motor insurance companies now offer discounts to the insurance premiums of
those that choose to have the relevant devices installed.

5.2.5 Entertainment
The limited availability of low-cost, mass market positioning devices has so
far been a barrier to location based services entering the entertainment arena
because they require specialized GPS hardware. However, the combination
of the ever-decreasing price of GPS technology and the imminent
availability of GSM Cell ID, positing has contributed to the appearance of
some innovative entertainment applications. Location-based directory
services are using either a WAP or SMS interfaces. Examples for this type
of applications are DJ requests, voting, competitions are dating services.
Many applications within the entertainment sector will be enhanced by the
MMS application.









Section-III

Chapter-16

Overview of CDMA Technology
E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 1 of 14
OVERVIEW OF CDMA


1. INTRODUCTION
Access Network, the network between local exchange and subscriber, in the Telecom
Network accounts for a major portion of resources both in terms of capital and manpower. So far,
the subscriber loop has remained in the domain of the copper cable providing cost effective
solution in the past. Quick deployment of subscriber loop, coverage of inaccessible and remote
locations coupled with modern technology have led to the emergence of new Access
Technologies. The various technological options available are as follows:

1. Multi Access Radio Relay
2. Wireless In Local Loop
3. Fibre In the Local Loop

2. WIRELESS IN LOCAL LOOP (WILL).
Fixed Wireless telephony in the subscriber access network also known as Wireless in
Local Loop (WILL) is one of the hottest emerging market segments in global
telecommunications today. WILL is generally used as the last mile solution to deliver basic
phone service expeditiously where none has existed before. Flexibility and expediency are
becoming the key driving factors behind the deployment of WILL.

Different technologies have been developed by the different countries, like, CT2 from
France, PHS from Japan, DECT from Europe, and DAMPS & CDMA from USA. Let us
discuss CDMA technology in WILL application as it has a potential ability to tolerate a fair
amount of interference as compared to other conventional radios. This leads to a considerable
advantage from a system point of view.

3. SPREAD SPECTRUM PRINCIPLE
Originally Spread spectrum radio technology was developed for military use to counter the
interference by hostile jamming. The broad spectrum of the transmitted signal gives rise to
Spread Spectrum. A Spread Spectrum signal is generated by modulating the radio frequency
(RF) signal with a code consisting of different pseudo random binary sequences, which is
inherently resistant to noisy signal environment.
A number of Spread spectrum RF signals thus generated share the same frequency spectrum
and thus the entire bandwidth available in the band is used by each of the users using same
frequency at the same time.

On the receive side only the signal energy with the selected binary sequence code is accepted
and original information content (data) is recovered. The other users signals, whose codes do not
match contribute only to the noise and are not de-spread back in bandwidth (Figure-I).This
transmission and reception of signals differentiated by codes using the same frequency
simultaneously by a number of users is known as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
Technique as opposed to conventional method of Frequency Division Multiple Access and Time
Division Multiple Access.
E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 2 of 14
1.25MHz 1.25MHz

10KHz
CDMA ACCESS -A CONCEPT
Wideband Spectrum
Transmitted
Other CELL
Interference
Other Users Noise
10KHz
DATA
(9.6Kbp)
ENCODING
CARRIER
PN
SOURCE
DATA
DECODER
CARRIER
FILTER
1.25MHz 1.25MHz
PN
SOURCE
Background Noise
Wideband Spectrum
Received
Despread original
data&other noise
DATA to be transmitted
External
interference

Figure-1
In figure -1 it has been tried to explain that how the base band signal of 9.6 Kbps is spread using
a Pseudo-random Noise(PN) source to occupy entire bandwidth of 1.25 Mhz. At the receiving
end this signal will have interference from signals of other users of the same cell, users of
different cells and interference from other noise sources. All these signals get combined with the
desired signal but using a correct PN code the original data can be reproduced back. CDMA
channel in the trans and receive direction is a FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) channel. The
salient features of a typical CDMA system are as follows:

Frequency of operation: 824-849 Mhz and 869-894 Mhz
Duplexing Method: Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)
Access Channel per carrier: Maximum 61Channels
RF Spacing: 1.25 Mhz
Coverage: 5 Km with hand held telephones and approx. 20 Km
with fixed units.

The different types of codes used for identification of traffic channels and users identification etc.
are as follows:

4. DIFFERENT CODES
4.1. Walsh Code: In CDMA the forward traffic channels are separated by unique Walsh code.
All such codes are orthogonal to each other. The individual subscriber can start communication
using one of these codes. These codes are traffic channel codes and are used for orthogonal
spreading of the information in the entire bandwidth. Orthogonality provides nearly perfect
isolation between the multiple signals transmitted by the base station
E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 3 of 14
The basic concept behind creation of the code is as follows:
(a) Repeat the function right
(b) Repeat the function below
(c) Invert the function diagonally

Seed 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0

4.2. Long Code: The long pseudo random noise (PN) sequence is based on 2
42
characteristic
polynomial. Reverse traffic channels (Mobile to Base) are separated by this long code and the
data in the forward direction (Base to Mobile) is scrambled. The PN codes are generated using
linear shift registers. The long code is unique for the subscribers and is known as users address
mask. It repeats every 41 days (at a clock rate of 1.2288 Mcps)

PN offset (Masking)
- Masking will cause the generator to produce the same sequence but offset in time.
- Masking provides the shift in time for PN codes.
- Different masks correspond to different time shifts.
- ESN are used as masks for users on the traffic channels.
4.3. Short Code: The short pseudo random noise (PN) sequence is based on 2
15
characteristic
polynomial. This short code differentiates the cells & the sectors in a cell. It also consists of
codes for I & Q channel feeding the modulator. Each cell uses different PN offsets. It repeats
every 26.67 msec (at a clock rate of 1.2288 Mcps)

5.0 CDMA Channels
Forward Link Channels
Pilot Channel
Sync Channel
Paging Channels
Traffic Channels
Reverse Link Channels
Access Channels
Traffic Channels

Pilot channel (W0)
The pilot is used by the subs unit to obtain initial system synchronization and to distinguish cell
sites. Every sector of every cell site has a unique pilot channel.
Transmitted constantly.
Allows the mobile to acquire the system.
Provides mobile with signal strength comparison.
Approximately 20% of the radiated power is in the pilot.
Has unique PN Offset for each cell or sector.

E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 4 of 14
Sync channel (W32)
Used during system Acquisition stage. Sync channel provides the subscriber unit with network
information related to cell site identification, pilot transmit power & cell site PN offset.
Used by mobile to synchronize with the system
Transmits sync message with
- Pilot PN offset - System time
- Long PN code - System ID
- Network ID - Paging channel data rate
Tx at 1200 bps
PAGING CHLS (W1-W7)
On this channel base station can page the subs unit and it can send call set-up and traffic
channel assignment information.
Means of communication between base to mobile station.
Paging CHL data Rates can be 2.4,4.8 or 9.6 Kbps.
CDMA assignment has 7 paging channel.
Each paging CHL supports 180 pages per second.
Total pages/ CDMA RF channel = 1260
Provides mobile with
- System Parameter message - Neighbour list
- Access Parameter list - CDMA Channel list
Used by base station to :
- Page mobile - Transmit overhead information
- Assign mobile to traffic channel
Traffic Channels (W8-W31 & W33-W63)
The traffic channel carries the actual call. That is, the voice and control information between
the subs unit & base station.
TX up to 9.6kbps on rate set 1 and up to 14.4kbps on rate set 2.

Access Channel.
(a) Provides communication from Mobile to base station when mobile is not using traffic
Channel. The access channel is used for call origination & for response to pages, orders &
registration requests. It is paired with corresponding paging channel.
(b) Each Access CHL use long PN code.
(c) Base station responds to transmission on a particular Access Channel.
(d) Mobile responds to base station message by emitting on Access Channel.
(e) Transmits at 4800bps.







E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 5 of 14


It is clear from the figure that in the forward direction both the rate sets are supported and the
data rate after convolution encoding will be 19.2 Ksps. Then using the PN code the signal is
scrambled. In which each symbol coming out of block interleaver is exclusively-ORed with one
symbol of scrambling sequence. Power control bits are then punctured at appropriate places.
Then this signal is orthogonally spread using one of the walsh codes. At this place the data rate
increases to 1.2288 Mcps, which is sent on I & Q channel. All the information is sent on both the
quadrature channels and the each quadrature is spread using short PN code. These short PN
codes are second layer of coding used to isolate one sector from another. Now this signal is
transmitted which will be received and demodulated at the mobile end.

Rake receiver
CDMA mobiles use rake receivers. The rake receiver essentially a set of four or more receivers
(or fingers). One of the receivers constantly searches for different multipaths and helps to direct
the other three fingers to lock onto strong multipath signals.
Allows combined reception of up to three different paths.
Provides searcher receiver to identify changes in path characteristics/new cells.
Provides both path diversity and frequency diversity.
Forward Traffic Channel Generation
9600 bps
4800 bps
2400 bps
1200 bps
Rate set 1
I PN
Convolutional
Encoder &
Repetition
Block
interleaver
Long
Code PN

decimator decimator

User
Address
Mask
(ESN)
O PN
Power
Control
bit
19.2 ksps

1.2288


19.2
ksps

R=1/2

Mcps
800bps

Rate set 2
14400 bps
7200 bps
3600 bps
1800 bps

R=3/4
Wt
1.2288
Mcps
64:1 24:1
E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 6 of 14


In this process also both the rate sets are supported. After convolutional encoding the rates will
be 28.8 Ksps. In this case orthogonal modulation is followed by a data burst randomizer that
determines when to turn off the mobile transmitter to reduce average transmit power. In order to
Reverse Traffic Channel Generation
9600 bps
4800 bps
2400 bps
1200 bps
Rate set 1
I PN
Convolutional
Encoder &

Block
interleav
Long
Code PN



User
Address
Mask
(ESN)
O PN

28.8 ksps
1.2288


19.2
ksps

R=1/3

Mcps

Rate set 2
14400 bps
7200 bps
3600 bps
1800 bps

R=1/2

1.2288
Mcps
Data
Burst
Rand.
Orthogonal
Modulation
307.2
KHz
Correlator 1
Correlator 2
Correlator 3
Searcher Correlator
C
O
M
B
I
N
E
R

CDMA mobile rake receiver

E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 7 of 14
take advantage of reduced speech activity the vocoder reduces its data rate allowing the
transmission of the signal at a lower average level of power. The mobile uses full rates when it
transmits, but when redundant information is produced by symbol repetition scheme the data
burst randomizer turns off the transmitter pseudo randomly reducing the average transmission
power. Then the signal is direct sequence spread using long code and occupies the entire
bandwidth. The signal is then sent on I and Q channels and short PN codes are used for spreading
the signal, the quadrature branch is delayed by bit to produce OQPSK modulation.Which is
sent to base station for reception and demodulation.

5. ADVANTAGES :
CDMA wireless access provides the following unique advantages:
5.1. Larger Capacity: Let us discuss this issue with the help of Shannons Theorem. It states
that the channel capacity is related to product of available band width and S/N ratio.
C = W log
2
(1+S/N)

Where C = channel capacity
W = Band width available
S/N = Signal to noise ratio

It is clear that even if we improve S/N to a great extent the advantage that we are expected to get
in terms of channel capacity will not be proportionally increased. But instead if we increase the
bandwidth (W), we can achieve more channel capacity even at a lower S/N. That forms the basis
of CDMA approach, wherein increased channel capacity is obtained by increasing both W &
S/N. The S/N can be increased by devising proper power control methods.

5.1.1 Vocoder and variable data rates: As the telephone quality speech is band limited to 4
Khz, when it is digitized with PCM its bit rate rises to 64 Kb/s. Vocoding compress it to a lower
bit rate to reduce bandwidth. The transmitting vocoder takes voice samples and generates an
encoded speech/packet for transmission to the receiving vocoder. The receiving vocoder decodes
the received speech packet into voice samples. One of the important features of the variable rate
vocoder is the use of adaptive threshold to determine the required data rate. Vocoders are
variable rate vocoders. By operating the vocoder at half rate on some of the frames the capacity
of the system can be enhanced without noticeable degradation in the quality of the speech. This
phenomenon helps to absorb the occasional heavy requirement of traffic apart from suppression
of background noise. Thus the capacity advantage makes spread spectrum an ideal choice for use
in areas where the frequency spectrum is congested.

5.2. Less (Optimum) Power per cell:
Power Control Methods: As we have already seen that in CDMA the entire bandwidth
of 1.25 MHz, is used by all the subscribers served in that area. Hence they all will be transmitting
on the same frequency using the entire bandwidth but separated by different codes. At the
receiving end the noise contributed by all the subscribers is added up. To minimize the level of
interfering signals in CDMA, very powerful power control methods have been devised and are
listed below:

E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 8 of 14
1. Reverse link open loop power control
2. Reverse link closed loop power control
3. Forward link power control

The objective of open loop power control in the reverse link (Mobile to Base) is that
the mobile station should adjust its transmit power according to the changes in its received power
from the base. Open loop power control attempts to ensure that the received signal strength at the
base station from different mobile stations, irrespective of their distances from the base station,
should be same.

In Closed loop power control in reverse link, the base station provides rapid corrections
to the mobile stations open loop estimates to maintain optimum transmit power by the mobile
stations. The base station measures the received signal strength from the mobile connected to it
and compares it with a threshold value and a decision is taken by the base every 1.25ms to either
increase or decrease the power of the mobile.

In forward link power control (Base to Mobile) the cell(base) adjusts its power in the
forward link for each subscriber, in response to measurements provided by the mobile station so
as to provide more power to the mobile who is relatively far away from the base or is in a
location experiencing more difficult environment.

These power control methods attempt to have an environment which permits high quality
communication (good S/N) and at the same time the interference to other mobile stations sharing
the same CDMA channel is minimum. Thus more numbers of mobile stations are able to use the
system without degradation in the performance. Apart from the capacity advantage thus gained,
power control extends the life of the battery used in portables and minimizes the concern of ill
effects of RF radiation on the human body.

5.3. Seamless Hand-off: CDMA provides soft hand-off feature for the mobile crossing from one
cell to another cell by combining the signals from both the cells in the transition areas. This
improves the performance of the network at the boundaries of the cells, virtually eliminating the
dropped calls.

5.4. No Frequency Planning: A CDMA system requires no frequency planning as the adjacent
cells use the same common frequency. A typical cellular system with a repetition rate of 7 and a
CDMA system is shown in the following figures which clearly indicates that in a CDMA
network no frequency planning is required.

E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 9 of 14
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
CDMA Frequency Reuse




F 7
F 6
F 2
F 1
F 5
F 3 A
F 4 F 1
F r e q u e n c e y R e u s e o f 7



5.5. High Tolerance to Interference: The primary advantage of spread spectrum is its ability to
tolerate a fair amount of interfering signals as compared to other conventional systems. This
factor provides a considerable advantage from a system point of view.

5.6. Multiple Diversity: Diversity techniques are often employed to counter the effect of fading.
The greater the number of diversity techniques employed, the better the performance of the
system in a difficult propagation environment.

CDMA has a vastly improved performance as it employs all the three diversity techniques in the
form of the following:
A. Frequency Diversity: A wide band RF signal of 1.25 Mhz being used.
B. Space Diversity: Employed by way of multipath rake receiver.
C. Time Diversity: Employed by way of symbol interleaving, error detection
and correction coding.

6. CAPACITY CONSIDERATIONS
Let us discuss a typical CDMA wireless in local loop system consisting of a single base
station located at the telephone exchange itself, serving a single cell. In order to increase the
E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 10 of 14
number of subscribers served the cell is further divided into sectors. These sectors are served
by directional antennas.


CDMA Capacity

W/R 1 1
N= -------*-----*--------*n *g
Eb/Io d 1+f
Where
N= calls per sector
W= Spread spectrum Bandwidth (1.25 MHz)
R= data rate (9.6 kbps or 14.4 kbps)
Eb/Io= Bit energy/ other user interference density (7dB)
d= Voice activity factor (0.4)
f= other interference/ same interference (0.6)
n= loading factor (0.8)
g= reduction for variable power (0.85)

N= 27 users per sector for R=9.6Kbps
18 users per sector for R=14.4Kbps

Evolution of CDMA Networks





















First deployment of CDMA in commercial cellular systems was in 1994-95 only with IS-95 A as
air-interface standard and IS-41 in core network; the complete network known as cdmaOne. Next
evolutionary step was use of IS-95B air interface standard which supported maximum data rate
up-to 64 kbps to a user. Further in CDMA 2000 1x version many of the limitations of earlier IS-
Data only 2.4 Mbps
RF backward compatible
Voice, 14.4k Voice, 64k
Voice, 9.6k
Data only 10-60k
Voice, 128k/384k
GSM
(Europe)
CDMA
CDMA2000 1x IS-95A
GPRS
EDGE
WCDMA
CDMA2000 1xEV-DO
IS-95B
E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 11 of 14
95 standard were overcome and new features were added. As a result CDMA 2000 1x has a
higher voice capacity and better handling of packet data services.

Salient Features of CDMA 2000 1x

Backward Compatibility with IS-95A & IS-95B
Support for High data rates on same 1x Carrier
Support for Simple IP and Mobile IP functionality for seamless mobility for data services.
Higher capacity for voice communication
Increased battery life
Faster forward Power control (relative to IS-95)
New Radio Configuration to support high data rates and more voice capacity.

Architecture of CDMA 2000 1x Network:

























CDMA 2000 1x Network Architecture is divided in to three parts.



CS-CN (Circuit Switched Core Network)
PS-CN (Packet Switched Core Network)
RAN (Radio Access Network)



E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 12 of 14

Circuit Switched Core Network: This section is dedicated for voice communication and also
for wireless authentication. This section includes four parts
MSC (Mobile Switching Center)
HLR (Home Location Register)
VLR (Visitor Location Register)
AUC (Authentication Center)

MSC (Mobile Switching Center): It is responsible for setting up, managing and clearing
connections as well as routing the calls to the proper user & provides the network interfaces, the
charging function and the function of processing the signaling. MSC get data for call handling
from 3 databases: VLR/HLR/AUC.

HLR (Home Location Register): It is a static database. When a user applies for mobile service,
all data about this subscriber will be stored in HLR. It have information of a subscriber like ESN,
MDN, IMSI, MIN, service information and valid term. It also stores the mobile subscriber
location (MSC/VLR address), to set up the call.

VLR (Visitor Location Register): VLR is a dynamic database used by MSC for information
index. It stores all related information of mobile subscribers that enter its coverage area, which
enables MSC to set up incoming and outgoing calls. It stores the subscriber parameters which
includes subscriber number, location area identity (LAI), users status, services which subscriber
can use and so on. When the subscriber leaves this area, it should register in another VLR, and
the previous VLR will delete all the data about this subscriber. VLR can be built together with
the MSC or set separately.

AUC (Authentication Center): It is an entity to prevent illegal subscribers from accessing
CDMA network. It can generate the parameter to confirm the subscribers identity. At the same
time it can encrypt users data according to users request. AUC can be built separately or
together with HLR

Packet Switched Core Network: To provide better connectivity to the internet a new core
network i.e. PS-CN is introduced to the CDMA 2000 1x network. This section includes four
parts
PDSN (Packet Data Serving Node)
AAA Server
Home Agent/ Foreign Agent Server

PDSN (Packet Data Serving Node): Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) provides the function
of routing of data between Radio Access Network (RAN) and internet.

AAA Server: PS-CN also has the responsibility to authenticate, authorise and account for the
CDMA 2000 subscribers wishing to obtain packet data services & to fulfil these task PDSN
requires support of AAA server.
Authenticate: verifying that the user is valid & allowed to use packet data services.
E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 13 of 14
Authorization: subscription to the service being offered is valid.
Accounting: Accounting for the service used.

Home Agent/ Foreign Agent Server: HA & FA server is used when mobile IP services are
supported by CDMA 2000 PDSN. HA can be considered analogous to HLR and FA with VLR.

RAN (Radio Access Network): As in IS-95 RAN is composed of number of BSCs & BTSs
The CDMA 2000 1x RAN is enhanced to support a higher no. of users on air interface or in other
words it has a better spectral efficiency relative to IS-95. It is also modified to support the new
packet data services on same 1.25 Mhz channel. This is achieved by software up-gradation at
BTS and BSC and addition of a new hardware unit called Packet Control Function (PCF) at
BSC. The CDMA 2000 1x air interface is very different from IS-95 but still maintains the
backward compatibility with IS-95.

CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO:

Although IS-2000 is already capable of meeting the 3G data rate requirement of 2 Mbps (By
using 3x option) Qualcomm proposed a new standard 1xEV-DO (1x Evolution for Data
Optimized) in March of 2000 as another option that supports high-rate data services.
EVDO is optimized for delivering high speed IP wireless data to many mobile and stationary
terminals running multiple applications. EVDO is designed for an always on user experience.

In a classical CDMA 2000 system base station controls its power by using the power control
algorithms to provide the mobile a constant data rate and a quality of service for voice
applications


Power



Data Rate




But in EV-DO networks the base station transmits at a fixed power at all the times and controls
the rate of data transmission given a constant transmit power.

Power


Data Rate

Distance from the Base Station
Mobile Received Power
P
o
w
e
r
Distance from the Base Station
E2E3 CDMA Overview, Ver1 24.08.2007 14 of 14

Since EV-DO is specially designed for packet data services therefore EV-DO designs its air
interface to takes advantage of the characteristics of some data services, which are
Data rates are mostly asymmetrical: Data rate requirements downstream (on the forward link)
are usually higher than those upstream (on the reverse link).
Latency can be tolerated: Data services, unlike voice services, can withstand delays of up to
seconds.
Transmissions are bursty in nature: A burst of data transmission is often followed by a period
of inactivity.



Salient features of EV-DO

EV-DO uses both CDMA and TDMA.
Uses its own dedicated 1.25 Mhz carrier.
It can support a maximum data rate of 2.4 Mbps in forward link.
It can support a maximum data rate of 153.6 Mbps in reverse link.
No power control on forward link is required.
RF system components may be shared with 1xRTT.










Section-4

Chapter-17

Broadband Wire line Access Technologies
E2E3 Broadband Wireline, Ver2 28.02.2008 1 of 7
Broadband Wire line Access Technologies

Introduction:

There is always increasing demand for higher capacity systems and more
bandwidth for new generation, hence new various types of access technologies for
broadband have to be found for this exponential growth. Broadband service commonly
is high-speed Internet related services more than 256 kbps to several mbps. There are
many different broadband technologies both wired and wireless. This article describes
various types of broadband access technologies and BSNLs access network of
broadband.
High-speed Internet access (sometimes loosely referred to as broadband
internet access or simply broadband) allows users to access the Internet and internet-
related services at significantly higher speeds than traditional modems. High-speed
Internet access makes the data processing capabilities necessary to use the Internet
available via several devices or high-speed transmission technologies.

Learning Objective:

At the end of this topic you will be able to know- .
a) What is broadband? Type of Internet services.
b) Advantages of Broadband. Multiple Broadband Technologies.
c) How Does Broadband Work.
d) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), DSLAM, Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
(SDSL), Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), ISDN Digital Subscriber
Line (IDSL). DSL compared to ISDN.
e) BSNLS Broadband Access Technology and Objectives.
f) Differences between DSL and CM Service.
g) Getting DSL or CM service and Installation at the premises of customer.

1.0 Narrowband Service category:
Dial up Internet Service (PSTN + ISDN)
Direct Internet Access Service (DIAS)
CLI based Account less Internet Service
Internet Leased Line Service

1.1 What is Broadband?
As per TRAI:
Broadband is an An always-on data connection that is able to support
interactive services and has the capability of minimum download speed of 256
kbps
Note: This definition for throughput may undergo upward changes in the future.
E2E3 Broadband Wireline, Ver2 28.02.2008 2 of 7
1.2 Advantages of Broadband
Always on (Not on shared media)
Fast (speed ranging from 256 kbps to 2 Mbps)
No disconnection
No additional access charge
Telephone and Data simultaneously
Fat pipe has to be continuously supplemented with value added applications
to enjoy the advantage.

1.3 Multiple Broadband Technologies
There are many different types of broadband access technologies, such as cable, DSL,
power line, satellite and wireless. Each of these technologies can compete to provide
similar services to consumers and businesses.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
Cable Modem (CM)
Wireless Access WIMAX and WIFI
Satellite Access
Fiber technology
Power Line Broadband
There are many advantages of high-speed Internet access:
The connection is always on, which means users can access the Internet without
the need to dial up Internet service provider over a telephone line.
Information can be download into your computer at significantly higher speeds
than traditional modem.
Users can go online without tying up their telephone lines.
Business can use broadband networks for videoconferencing, and to let
employees telecommute.
Users can tap into an expand number of entertainment resources.
An always-on data connection that is able to support interactive services
including Internet access and has the capability of the minimum download speed
of 256 kbps to an individual subscriber from the Point of presence (POP) of the
service provider intending to provide Broadband service where multiple such
individual Broadband connections are aggregated and the subscriber is able to
access these interactive services including the internet through this POP. The
interactive services will exclude any services for which a separate license is
specifically required, for example, real-time voice transmission, except to the
extent that it is presently permitted under ISP license with Internet Telephony.

1.4 How Does Broadband Work?
High speed Internet access makes the data processing capabilities necessary
to use the Internet available via one of several high-speed transmission
technologies. These data processing capabilities are digital in nature, meaning that
they compress vast amounts of voice, video and data information that are broken
down into what are called bts. These bits become words, pictures, etc. on our
computer screens. The transmission technologies that make high speed Internet
access possible move these bits much more quickly than do traditional telephone or
wireless connections.
E2E3 Broadband Wireline, Ver2 28.02.2008 3 of 7

2.0 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
Digital Subscriber line (DSL) is a wireline transmission technology that brings
data and information faster over copper telephone lines already installed in
homes and business. Traditional phone service connects your home or business
to a telephone company office via copper wires. A DSL modem accesses the
local telephone companys central office where a DSL Access DSLAM then
transmits the signal from the copper telephone line onto a network backbone,
and eventually to the Internet. With high-speed Internet access that uses DSL
transmission technology, there is no need to dial in to a traditional modem. This
service allows consumers and business to have an always-on dedicated
connection to the Internet.

2.1 DSLAM
DSLAM is the equipment located at a phone companys central office (CO) that
links many customer DSL connections over exiting copper telephone lines to a
single high-speed ATM line. When the phone company receives a DSL signal, an
ADSL modem with a POTS splitter detects voice calls and data. The DSLAM
intermixes voice-frequency signals and high-speed DSL data traffic into a
customers DSL line. It also separates incoming phone and data signals and
directs them onto the appropriate carriers network.
Voice calls are sent to the PSTN, and data are sent to the DSLAM, where it
passes through the ATM to the Internet, then back through the DSLAM and
ADSL modem before returning to the customers PC. More DSLAM channels a
phone company has the more customers it can support.
The DSLAM is the cornerstone of the DSL system and routes traffic to and from
the customer via a business or home telephone line to provide high-speed DSL
access to multimedia services such a Internet, fast data transfer, video
conferencing, pay per-view TV or video-on-demand and broadcast video.
There are more than 40 million copper loops in the country available with BSNL
and MTNL out of which 14 millions loops are in rural areas. Copper cable
network of these operators is a combination of old and new cables and this
makes provisioning of Broadband on the entire available copper loop technically
unfit. Therefore around 25 to 30% of the remaining 26 million loops i.e.
approximately 7 million loops can be leveraged for broadband service by BSNL
and MNTL taking into account the condition/ life of copper cable and demand
potential. Management of BSNL and MTNL has decided to provide 1.5 million
connections by the end of 2005. The estimated growth for Broadband and
internet subscribers in the country envisaged through various technologies is as
follows.

Year Ending Internet Subscribers Broadband Subscribers
2005 6 million 3 million
2007 18 million 9 million
2010 40 million 20 million

E2E3 Broadband Wireline, Ver2 28.02.2008 4 of 7
The following are types of DSL transmission technologies that may be used to
provide high-speed Internet access:
Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL): It is used typically for business
applications such as video conferencing. The traffic from the user to the network
is upstream traffic, and from the network to the user is downstream traffic. When
the data rate in both directions is equal, it is called a symmetric service.
Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL): It is used primarily by
residential users who receive a lot do data but do not send much, such as
Internet surfers. ADSL provides faster speed in a downstream direction (from the
telephone central office to the customers premises) than upstream (from
customers premise to the telephone central office). When the upstream data rate
is lower than the downstream rate, it is called an asymmetric service.
Isdn Digital Subscriber Line (IDSL): It provides symmetrical connection with
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and is designed to extend DSL to
locations with a long distance to a telephone central office.
High-data-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL): it provides fixed symmetrical
high-speed access at T1 rate (1.5 mbps), and is designed for business purposes.
Very high-data-rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL): it provides both symmetrical
and asymmetrical access with very high bit rate over the copper line. Deployment
is very limited at this time.

2.2 DSL Compared to ISDN
ISDN is an affordable way to have rapid access to the Internet. It is digital
technology that is widely available and is an option for business located in areas
not yet served by DSL.
DSL and ISDN are different transmission technologies, yet both offer
many of the same higher speed benefits to consumers. DSL offers potentially
higher transmission speeds as well as a choice of connection speeds. ISDN is
presently more widely available than DSL. DSL is an always-on service while
ISDN requires dialing into a service providers network. If DSL transmission
technology is not available in your area, ISDN may serve as an acceptable
substitute for use in providing high-speed Internet access.

3.0 BSNLS Broadband Access Technology
BSNL has commissioned broadband, a world class, multi-gigabit, multi-protocol,
convergent IP infrastructure through National Internet Backbone II (NIB-II), that
will provide convergent services through the same backbone and broadband
access network. The Broadband service will be available on DSL technology (on
the same copper cable that is used for connecting telephone). On a countrywide
basis spanning 198 cities.
With the NIB-II project, BSNL has planned to roll Broadband services in a big
way across the country. However, with the current plans under the NIB-II project,
BSNL will still be in a position to become the number one player in the segment
in the country with its nation-wide rollout. Broadband Services proposed to be
rolled out include the following:

E2E3 Broadband Wireline, Ver2 28.02.2008 5 of 7
High Speed Internet Access
1. 1 mbps Upstream
2. 8 mbps Downstream
3. Video Streaming
4. Video-on-Demand
5. Video Conferencing
6. Interactive Gaming
7. Point-to-Point Data Network on IP

3.1 BSNLs Objectives
BSNL has undertaken this project with the following objectives:
To utilize to the maximum BSNLs exiting infrastructure
40 million BSNL customers on CU
Large scale deployed Fibres in Access & core network
Deployed DLC system on Fibre.
To increase the footprint across the country to provide Access Country-wide.
To provide Value Added Services (Video, Broadband Data in addition to Voice)
to accelerate development and growth.
BSNL has envisioned that the Broadband services rolled as part of the ambitions
NIB-II project will be used for high speed Internet connectivity and shall be the
primary source of Internet bandwidth and used for connecting broadband
customers to the MPLS/VPN through the BRAS. Also will be used for connecting
dial VPN customers to the MPLS VPN through the Narrowband RAS.
The BSNLs broadband network cosisits of core routers located at Mumbai, New
Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Bangalore connected in mesh topology with STM 16
links, with cities in India classified as A1, A2, A3, A4 and other cities..
The network connectivity consists of DSLAM, TIER 2 Switch, Tier 1 Switch, Bras,
Core Router and CPE (Customer Premises equipment) consists of Splitter and
ADSL modem.

4.0 Cable Modem (CM)
Cable TV connection as last mile infrastructure reaches more people than even
the telephone copper infrastructure and can be leveraged in providing cable
operators a new business model while giving a stimulus to Broadband
penetration. Therefore cable TV network can be used as franchisee network of
the service provider for provisioning Broadband services. However all
responsibilities for ensuring compliance of terms & conditions of the licensee
shall vest with the Licensee. The terms of franchise agreement between
Licensee and his franchise shall be settled mutually by negotiation between the
two parties involved. Cable Modem (CM) is a device that enables cable operators
to provide high-speed Internet access using the coaxial cables used for cable TV.
Today, most CMs are external devices that connect to the computer. They will
typically have two connections, one to the cable wall outlet and the other to a
computer. CMs are attached to the same Cable TV company lines that deliver
pictures and sound to yout TV set.
High-speed Internet access using CM offers both always-on capability and
speed. With this service, users never have to dial up using telephone lines and
their cable viewing is not hampered while on line. Speeds for this service vary
E2E3 Broadband Wireline, Ver2 28.02.2008 6 of 7
depending on the type of cable modem, cable network and traffic load, but are
generally faster than those offered by traditional dial-up Internet access.

4.1 Differences between DSL and CM Service
High-speed Internet access that uses CM offers shared bandwidth or speed
among neighbours on the same cable system. Speed is asymmetric and will vary
depending on the number of people on the network. With high-speed Internet
access that uses DSL service, you have a dedicated connection to your home. In
most cases, however, the performance of DSL based service depends on the
distance between end user and phone company central office.
Today, high-speed Internet access provided using either DSL or CM typically is
offered with a pricing plan that allows without incurring additional usage charges.
Many phone and cable companies are offering bundled packages of various
services (such as telephone, cable and high-speed Internet access) to lower
costs to consumers.
High-speed Internet access using CM is targeted towards residential use while
DSL-based service is targeted towards residential and business uses.

4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of having DSL or CM
High-speed Internet access provided using DSL and cable modems is much
faster than dial-up modems, however their speeds differ. The distance between
the users premises and the phone companys central office is a primary factor in
deciding if DSL-based Internet access service is available and its speeds. In
contrast, the speed of CM-based Internet access service does not depend on the
distance from Cable Company to end-user. Because DSL transmission
technology office, competitive providers using DSL technology must coordinate
with local phone companies to provide service. Because both versions of high-
speed Internet access (DSL and CM) are always on, you may want to check with
the provider about security precautions. DSL and CM equipments are generally
based on standard specifications and required certification, however, the best
advice is to check with the service provider prior to purchase of such equipment.
Different varieties of DSL transmission technology provide different maximum
speeds, from twice as fast as analog modems to higher than 100 times faster.

4.3 Getting DSL or CM service
Contact a provider in your geographical area. For booking of Broadband service
of BSNL there is online register form available on website www.bsnl.co.in,
otherwise contact directly to value added services section or nearest customer
service center. The provider may be your local telephone service provider or one
of its competitors (for DSL-based Internet access), or your local cable company
(for CM-based Internet access). There are different high-speed Internet access
service available, and the equipment of one provider may not be interoperable in
another area or with another provider. Check with your service provider for
technical compatibility. Compatible modem may be purchased otherwise service
may be affected.

E2E3 Broadband Wireline, Ver2 28.02.2008 7 of 7
Customer Premises Installation




















Section-4

Chapter-18


Broadband Wire less Access Technologies
E2E3 Broadband Wireless Ver2 28.02.2008 1 of 5
Broadband Wireless Access Technologies

Introduction:

Broadband wireless access technologies offer effective, economic & secure high-
speed wireless communications solutions to telecom service providers, internet
service providers, governments, institutes , healthcare & enterprises. It eliminates the
need for costly wire line infrastructure, bringing voice & high-speed data services to
every user within the range of base station. It offers huge benefits in terms of fast,
easy & cost effective, unsurpassed flexibility & reduced cost of ownership. The
solutions are scalable & offers broadband capacity in city & in remote rural locations.

Learning objective :

After going through this topic, the participants will be able to understand:
1) Wireless internet access.
2) Hotspots.
3) Wireless access technologies like Wi-Fi (for LAN) & WiMAX (for MAN).
4) Blue tooth technologies used in PAN.
5) Internet access via satellite.

1.0 Wireless internet access

Wireless access providers connect homes and businesses to the Internet using
wireless or radio connection technology, rather than using technologies such as
coaxial cable (CM) or twisted copper paired telephone lines (DSL). Wireless providers
can use mobile or fixed wireless technologies.
Generally, with fixed wireless technology, a computer, or network of computers,
employ a radio link from the customers location to the service provider. This radio link
is usually established between rooftop antennae in direct line of sight. These rooftop
antennae are usually dish shaped with a very narrow beam of connectivity to prevent
interference. The antenna at the customers location is connected by a cable to the
local transmitting and receiving radio equipment. This terminal base station equipment
is then connected to the local computer network.



E2E3 Broadband Wireless Ver2 28.02.2008 2 of 5


















1.1 Features of wireless access
Fixed wireless access customers can be located between 2 and 35 miles from the
wireless providers network base station. Fixed wireless provides Internet-access at
speeds ranging from one up to 155 mbps. Of course the fixed wireless radio access is
dependent on the radio connection and the quality of the radio connection will
determine the ultimate quality of service to the customer. 3G technologies provide
internet access up to 2 mbps on appropriate digital / cellular phones. Multimedia types
of services are available on 3G mobile phones

1.2 Hotspots
There are thousands of commercial locations across the country, such as restaurants,
hotels, airports, bookstores, convention centers, city parks and squares, where
customers can use laptop computers, handheld devices and other portable computing
devices with special wireless modem cards to connect to the Internet wirelessly.
These locations are called hotspots. Inside the hotspots they can get Internet access
on their devices at speed of up to 11 mbps. Also, some wireless providers offer
customers packages where they can get wireless Internet access at a collection of
different hotspots. The technology that enables the wireless access in hotspots is
called Wi-Fi. This technology was originally developed as a home networking
technology to network home computers wirelessly. There are currently efforts in the
industry to develop solutions to extend this technology for longer distances where Wi-
Fi can be used as the last-mile solution for Internet access.

Internal Access
Point with hub
Ethernet
Radio Link
Customer Premise
(Home, business or hotspot)
Subscriber Station
With High-Gain Antenna
Internet
Base station /Access Point
Wireless Internet Access
E2E3 Broadband Wireless Ver2 28.02.2008 3 of 5
1.3 Wi-Fi
Short name for Wireless Fidelity and is meant to be used generically when referring to
any type of 802.11 network, whether 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, etc. The term is
promulgated by the Wi-Fi Alliance.
Any products tested and approved as Wi-Fi Certified (a registered trademark)
by the Wi-Fi Alliance are certified as interoperable with each other, even if they are
from different manufactures. A user with Wi-Fi Certified product can use any brand of
access point with any other brand of client hardware that also is certified. Typically,
however, any WiFi product using the same radio frequency (for example, 2.4 GHz for
802.11b or 802.11g, 5 GHz for 802.11a) will work with any other, even if not WiFi
Certified.

1.4 Wireless IEEE / Ethernet Standards
IEEE 802.11 is the initial release of the standard capable of transmissions of 1 to
2 Mbps and operates in 2.4 Ghz band. It was introduced by IEEE in June 1997. IEEE
802.11a is capable of transmission up to 54 mbps and operates in 5 Ghz band. IEEE
802.11b is capable of transmission up to 11 mbps and operates in 2.4 Ghz band.
IEEE 802.11g is capable of transmission up to 54 mbps and operates in 2.4 Ghz
band.

1.5 Wi-Fi in outdoor access
Network operators have developed two approaches for using Wi-Fi in outdoor:
1) Wi-Fi with directional antenna or Wi-Fi single hop &
2) Wi-Fi with a mesh-network topology. or Wi-Fi multihop. In this approach the access
points also called nodes are omni direction broadcaster. Each AP acts as a simple
router. Meshing allows wireless connectivity between access points. Coverage is
over 10 km.

1.6 WiMAX
WiMax (World-wide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is the IEEE 802.16
standards-based wireless technology that provides MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
broadband connectivity. WiMax is an Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless
Access Systems, also known as the IEEE Wireless-MAN air interface. WiMax-based
systems can be used to transmit signals to as far as 30 miles. So far, WiMax can offer
a solution to what is normally called the last-mile problem by connecting individual
homes and business offices communications.
WiMax covers a couple of different frequency ranges. Basically, the IEEE 802.16
standard addresses frequencies from 10 GHz to 66 GHz. The 802.16a specification,
which is an extension of IEEE 802.16, covers bands in the 2 GHz to 11 GHz range.
WiMax has a range of up to 30 miles with typical cell radius of 6 to 4 miles.
WiMax supports ATM, Ipv4, Ipv6, Ethernet and VLAN services. So it can provide
a rich choice of service possibilities to voice and data network service providers.
WiMAX uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM is a spread-
spectrum technology that bundles data over narrowband carriers transmitted in
parallel at different frequencies.
E2E3 Broadband Wireless Ver2 28.02.2008 4 of 5
In addition, WiMax provides an ideal wireless backhaul technology to connect
802.11 wireless LANs and commercial hotspots with the Internet.
The WiMax-based solution is set up and deployed like cellular systems using
base stations that service a radius of several miles / kilometers. The most typical
WiMax-based architecture includes a base station mounted on a building and is
responsible for communicating on a point to multi-point basis with subscriber stations
located in business offices and homes. The customer Premise Equipment (CPE) will
connect the base station to a customer as well; the signal of voice and data is then
routed through standard Ethernet cable either directly to a single computer, or to an
802.11 hot spot or a wired Ethernet LAN.

1.7 WiMax Connectivity and Solutions

WiMax allows equipment vendors to create many different types of IEEE 802.16
based products, including various configurations of base stations and customer
premise Equipment (CPE). WiMax also allows the services provider to deliver many
types of wireless access services. WiMax can be used on a variety of wireless
broadband connections and solutions:
Last Mile Broadband Access Solution-Metropolitan-Area Network (MAN) connections
to home and business office, especially in those areas that were not served by cable
or DSL or in areas where the local telephone company may need a long time to
deploy broadband service. The WiMax-based wireless solution makes it possible for
the service levels in short times with client request.
Backhaul network for cellular base stations, bypassing the public Switched Telephone
Network (PSTN); the cellular service providers can look to wireless backhaul as a
more cost-effective alternative. The robust WiMax technology makes it a nice choice
for backhaul for hotspots as well as point-to-point backhaul solutions.
Backhaul enterprise connections to the Internet for WiFi hotspots. It will allow users to
connect to a wireless Internet service provider even when they roam outside their
home or business office.
A variety of new business services by wireless Internet service provider.
Unlike WiFi, WiMaxs range is typically measured in miles rather than feet. The main
distinction of the difference between the two standards means that WiFi is focused on
a local Area Network (LAN) technology and that WiMax is a MAN technology.
WiMax-based solutions include many other advantages, such as robust
security features, good QoS (Quality of Service), and mesh and smart antenna
technology that will allow better utilization of the spectrum resources. Also, the WiMax-
based voice service can work on either traditional Time Division Multiplexed (TDM)
voice or IP-based Voice, also known as Voice over IP (VoIP).
The WiMAX standard enables system vendors to create many different types of
WiMAX-based products, including various configurations of base stations and
Customer Premise Equipment (CPE). WiMAX supports a variety of wireless
broadband connections such as:

High-bandwidth Metropolitan-Area Networks (MANs) to home and small-
business users, replacing DSL and cable modems.
E2E3 Broadband Wireless Ver2 28.02.2008 5 of 5
Backhaul networks for cellular base stations, bypassing the public switched
telephone network.
Backhaul connections to the Internet for WiFi hotspots.

1.8 Blue tooth, WPAN, IEEE 802.15
Blue tooth is a short range (PAN) wireless technology. It is an IEEE 802.15
standard technology. It is designed for:
- Interconnecting computer and peripherals.
- Interconnecting various handhelds.

1.9 WWAN
IEEE 802.20 is the wireless standard for wide area network.

2.0 Internet access via satellite
Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) & Direct-To-Home (DTH) provide broadband
& internet services via satellite. The customer premises equipment / devices required
are (1) two to three feet dish antenna often called base station.(2) a satellite internet
modem with the condition that the line of sight is clear between the base station &
providers satellite.

2.1 Advantage & disadvantages
Advantage: It can serve remote & inaccessible areas.
Disadvantages:
- It is based on line of sight technology.
- It is affected by weather.
- It is costly.
-Transmission delay is higher than other alternatives.

Summary
Wireless in the last / first mile is suitable in areas not served by cable or DSL &
where deployment of wired line needs a long time. Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) is the wireless
standard for LAN. Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15) is the wireless standard for PAN. WiMAX
(IEEE 802.16) is the wireless standard for MAN. Hotspots uses Wi-Fi technology. Any
product tested & approved by Wi-Fi alliance is termed as Wi-Fi certified. VSAT & DTH
provide internet access via satellite.

Reference:
1. Wi-Max and Wi-Fi wireless mobility online document www.wifi-org and
www.wimax.org
2. www.broadband.org
3. Broadband policy 2004 online document www.dotindia.com
4. http://www.thestandard.com/movabletype/datadigest/archives/003203.php
5. http://standards:ieee.org.









Section-4

Chapter-19


8roodbond Core Mefwork
E2E3 Broadband core network, Ver3 28.02.2008 1 of 3
8roodbond Core Mefwork

Core of BSNLs Broadband service is National Internet Backbone (NIB). NIB is a mission to
build world-class infrastructure to help accelerate the Internet revolution in India. It has
following features:
1. It provides a diversified range of Internet access services including support for VPN
(Layer-2, Layer-3 and Dialup and Broadband services)
2. It also offers SLA Reports including security, QoS (quality of service) and any to any
connectivity.
3. Offers fully managed services to customers.
4. It offers services like bandwidth on demand etc. over the same network.
5. The network is capable of on-line measurement and monitoring of network parameters
such as latency, packet loss, jitter and availability so as to support SLAs with customers
6. The routers support value added services such as VPNs, Web and content hosting,
Voice over IP, Multicast etc.
7. Value Added Services
a. Encryption Services
b. Firewall Services
c. Multicast Services
d. Network Address Translation (NAT) Service that will enable private users to
access public networks
8. Messaging Services
9. Internet Data Centre Services at Bangalore, Delhi and Mumbai.
10. Broad Band Services
a. Broadcast TV using IP Multicasting service
b. Multicast video streaming services
c. Interactive Distant learning using IP multicasting Services
d. Video on demand
e. Interactive gaming service
NIB-II has been implemented in four projects

Nume of progect Description
Projecf I
MPLS based IP Infrastructure (The backbone consisting of Core & Edge
Routers)
Projecf Z.I
Narrowband Access (Dialup Remote Access)
Projecf Z.Z
Broadband Access (DSL Access)
Projecf 3
Messaging, Storage, Provisioning, Billing, Security, Order Management,
Enterprise Management, AAA, Help Desk and Inventory Management.

Network Architecture

The cities in India have been classified in six types namely A1, A2, A3, A4, B1, B2. Important
aspects are given below:
1. A1 5 Core cities
a. Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkatta
2. A2/A3 9 next level core cities
a. Pune, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Ernakulam, Lucknow, Jaipur, Indore, Jullundur,
Patna
E2E3 Broadband core network, Ver3 28.02.2008 2 of 3
3. A4 10 Major cities
4. B1, B2 47 other cities
5. A1 city core routers are fully meshed between locations on STM-16
6. IGW International Gateway Router Connectivity to Internet is through this router
7. IXP Internet Exchange Point ISPs connect each other through this router
8. IDC Internet Data Center for connecting to BSNL Data Centers
9. B1 and B2 cities have only EDGE routers.
10. All Core locations also have edge routers
11. Primary Network Operating center at Bangalore and Disaster Recovery is at Pune
NIB2 Expansion and Year 2 Order Overview
1. 29 locations added which makes the total to 100
2. Core backbone is getting aligned to BSNL Transmission (DWDM) network
3. 24 City core network increased to 29
4. All 29 city core network links are STM-16 (ie STM1 connectivity of A4 cities will be
upgraded to STM16)
5. New 5 Cities are Belgaum, Dehradun, Rajkot, Jodhpur, Jabalpur
Components of Broad Band Access Network
1. Broad band Remote Access Server (BBRAS)
2. Gigabit and Fast Ethernet Aggregation Switches (LAN Switches).
3. Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexers (DSLAMs)
4. SSSS/SSSC (Subscriber Service Selection System/ Centre)
5. Servers for AAA, LDAP at NOC.
6. Provisioning and configuration management at NOC.
7. DSL CPEs (MODEM)
8. The DSLAMs will in general be collocated with existing PSTN exchanges, which
provide last mile access to customers over copper wire up to average span lengths of 3
kms.
9. All DSLAMs will be aggregated through a FE interface except 480 port DSLAM,
which will be aggregated through Gigabit Ethernet Interface.
10. The 240 ports DSLAM will have two number of FE interface.
11. The FX or GBIC module in DSLAM and LAN switch capable of driving upto 10km on
a single mode fibre.
12. The SX or GBIC module in LAN Switch used for connecting Tier2 to Tier1. In bigger
cities like A1, A2, A3 and A4, one BBRAS per city will be deployed initially.
14. There will be no BBRAS at B1 and B2 cities.
15. The DSLAMs in B1.B2 and other lower hierarchical cities will be aggregated through
Layer 2 switches, and will be connected to the nearest BBRAS of A cities on Ethernet
over SDH.
16. The BRAS shall terminate the PPP sessions initiated by the customer and extend the
connection further to MPLS VPN/ Internet as desired by the customer.
BBRAS: A Broadband Remote Access Server (BBRAS) routes traffic to and from the digital
subscriber line access multiplexers (DSLAM) on an Internet service.
DSLAM: Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer. Specifically, a device that takes a
number of ADSL subscriber line and concentrates these to a single ATM line.
CPE: Customer Premises Equipment - Any equipment provided by the customer at their
premises.
GBIC: Gigabit Interface Converter; a Fiber Channel optical or copper transceiver that is easily
swapped to offer a flexible choice of copper or fiber optic media.
E2E3 Broadband core network, Ver3 28.02.2008 3 of 3


Starting NIB connectivity diagram. Expansion is a continuous process hence many new sites
keep getting added.


8Iock Schemofic of 8roodbond Access Mefwork








Section-4

Chapter-20

LAN, TCP/IP and IP Addressing
E2E3 LAN/TCP/IP Ver3 28.02.2008 1 of 10
LAM & Infer working Devices

Mefworking meons inferconnecfion of compufers. These compufers con be Iinked fogefher for
differenf purposes ond using o voriefy of differenf cobIing fypes.
The bosic reosons why compufers need fo be nefworked ore:
To shore resources (fiIes, prinfers, modems, fox mochines, sforoge efc.)
To shore oppIicofions (MS Office, Adobe PubIisher, OrocIe efc.)
Increose producfivify (mokes if eosier fo shore dofo omongsf users)
Toke for exompIe o fypicoI office scenorio where o number of users require occess fo some
common informofion. As Iong os oII user compufers ore connecfed vio o nefwork, fhey con
shore fheir fiIes, exchonge moiI, scheduIe meefings, send foxes ond prinf documenfs oII from
ony poinf of fhe nefwork. SmoII nefworks ore offen coIIed LocoI Areo Mefworks (LAM). A LAM
is o nefwork oIIowing eosy occess fo ofher compufers or peripheroIs. The fypicoI
chorocferisfics of o LAM ore:
PhysicoIIy Iimifed disfonce ( Zkm)
High bondwidfh ( Imbps)
Inexpensive cobIe medio (coox or fwisfed poir)
Dofo ond hordwore shoring befween users
Owned by fhe user
The focfors fhof defermine fhe nofure of o LAM ore:
TopoIogy
Tronsmission medium
Medium occess confroI fechnique

LAN Architecture
The Ioyered profocoI concepf con be empIoyed fo describe fhe orchifecfure of o LAM, wherein
eoch Ioyer represenfs fhe bosic funcfions of o LAM.

LAN TopoIogies
The common fopoIogies for LAMs ore bus, free, ring, ond sfor. The bus is o specioI cose of fhe
free, wifh onIy one frunk ond no bronches.

us und Tree TopoIogies
8us ond Tree fopoIogies ore chorocferi;ed by fhe use of o muIfi-poinf medium. For fhe bus oII
sfofions offoch, fhrough oppropriofe hordwore inferfoces known os o Tup, direcfIy fo o Iineor
fronsmission medium, or bus. FuII-dupIex operofion befween fhe sfofion ond fhe fop permifs
dofo fo be fronsmiffed onfo fhe bus ond received from fhe bus.








Fig. 3 (a) Bus
Tap
Flow of data
Station
Terminating
Resistance
E2E3 LAN/TCP/IP Ver3 28.02.2008 2 of 10













The free fopoIogy is o generoIi;ofion of fhe bus fopoIogy. The fronsmission medium is o
bronched cobIe wifh no cIosed Ioops. The free Ioyouf begins of o poinf known os fhe heod-end,
where one or more cobIe sforf, ond eoch of fhese moy hove bronches. The bronches in furn
moy hove oddifionoI bronches.

Ring TopoIogy
In fhe ring fopoIogy, fhe nefwork consisfs of o sef of repeofers joined by poinf-fo poinf Iinks
in o cIosed Ioop. The repeofer is o comporofiveIy simpIe device, copobIe of receiving dofo on
one Iink ond fronsmiffing fhem, bif by bif, on fhe ofher Iink os quickIy os fhey ore received,
wifh no buffering of fhe repeofer. The Iinks ore unidirecfionoI, i.e. dofo is fronsmiffed in one
direcfion (cIockwise or counfer-cIockwise).
Eoch sfofion is offoched fo fhe nefwork of o repeofer ond con fronsmif dofo onfo fhe nefwork
fhrough fhof repeofer.






Stur TopoIogy
In fhe Sfor fype fopoIogy, eoch sfofion is direcfIy connecfed fo o common cenfroI node.
TypicoIIy, eoch sfofion offoches fo o cenfroI node, referred fo os fhe sfor coupIer, vio fwo
poinf-fo poinf Iinks, one for fronsmission in eoch direcfion.









Fig. 3 (b) Tree
Central Hub,
Switch/
Repeater

Ring
E2E3 LAN/TCP/IP Ver3 28.02.2008 3 of 10

Medium Access ControI
AII LAMs consisf of o coIIecfion of devices fhof hove fo shore fhe nefwork's fronsmission
copocify. Some meons of confroIIing occess fo fhe fronsmission medium is needed fo provide
for on orderIy ond efficienf use of fhof copocify. This is fhe funcfion of medium occess
confroI (MAC) profocoI.
The key poromefers in ony medium occess confroI fechnique ore-where ond how. Where refers
fo whefher confroI is in o cenfroIi;ed or disfribufed foshion.

ASIC NETWORk COMPONENTS
There ore o number of componenfs, which ore used fo buiId nefworks. An undersfonding of
fhese is essenfioI in order fo supporf nefworks.

Network Adupter Curds {NIC}: A nefwork odopfer cord pIugs info fhe worksfofion, providing
fhe connecfion fo fhe nefwork. Adopfer cords come from mony differenf monufocfurers, ond
supporf o wide voriefy of cobIe medio ond bus fypes such os - ISA, MCA, EISA, PCI, ond
PCMCIA. Mew cords ore soffwore configurobIe, using o soffwore progroms fo configure fhe
resources used by fhe cord. Ofher cords ore PMP (pIug ond PIoy), which oufomoficoIIy
configure fheir resources when insfoIIed in fhe compufer, simpIifying fhe insfoIIofion.

CubIing: CobIes ore used fo inferconnecf compufers ond nefwork componenfs fogefher. There
ore 3 moin cobIe fypes used fodoy:
Twisfed poir
Coox
Fiber opfic
The choice of cobIe depends upon o number of focfors Iike cosf, disfonce, number of
compufers invoIved, speed, bondwidfh i.e. how fosf dofo is fo be fronsferred efc.

REPEATERS
Pepeofers exfend fhe nefwork segmenfs. They ompIify fhe incoming signoI received from one
segmenf ond send if on fo oII ofher offoched segmenfs. This oIIows fhe disfonce Iimifofions of
nefwork cobIing fo be exfended. There ore Iimifs on fhe number of repeofers fhof con be
used.







Fig, Use of Repeuters in u Network


Repeater
Main Network Segment
Workstation
E2E3 LAN/TCP/IP Ver3 28.02.2008 4 of 10
Summury of Repeuter feutures:
Increoses froffic on segmenfs
Hove disfonce Iimifofions
Limifofions on fhe number of repeofers fhof con be used
Propogofe errors in fhe nefwork
Connof be odminisfered or confroIIed vio remofe occess
Connof Ioop bock fo ifseIf (musf be unique singIe pofhs)
Mo froffic isoIofion or fiIfering is possibIe

RIDSES: 8ridges inferconnecf Efhernef segmenfs. The IEEE 80Z.ID specificofion is fhe
sfondord for bridges. The bridge buiIds up o fobIe fhof idenfifies fhe segmenf fo which fhe
device is Iocofed on. This infernoI fobIe is fhen used fo defermine which segmenf incoming
fromes shouId be forworded fo. The si;e of fhis fobIe is imporfonf, especioIIy if fhe nefwork
hos o Iorge number of worksfofions/ servers.








Fig, Use of ridge in u Network

The udvuntuges of bridges ure
Increose fhe number of offoched worksfofions ond nefwork segmenfs
Since bridges buffer fromes, if is possibIe fo inferconnecf differenf segmenfs which
use differenf MAC profocoIs
Since bridges work of fhe MAC Ioyer, fhey ore fronsporenf fo higher IeveI profocoIs
8y subdividing fhe LAM info smoIIer segmenfs, overoII reIiobiIify is increosed ond fhe
nefwork becomes eosier fo moinfoin
Used for non roufobIe profocoIs Iike MET8EUI which musf be bridged
HeIp in IocoIi;ing fhe nefwork froffic by onIy forwording dofo onfo ofher segmenfs os
required (unIike repeofers)

ROUTERS: In on environmenf consisfing of severoI nefwork segmenfs wifh differing
profocoIs ond orchifecfures, o bridge moy nof be odequofe for ensuring fosf communicofion
omong oII of fhe segmenfs. A nefwork fhis compIex needs o device, which nof onIy knows fhe
oddress of eoch segmenf, buf oIso defermines fhe besf pofh for sending dofo ond fiIfering
broodcosf froffic fo fhe IocoI segmenf. Such o device is coIIed o roufer. Poufers con swifch
ond roufe pockefs ocross muIfipIe nefworks. They do fhis by exchonging profocoI-specific
informofion befween seporofe nefworks. A roufer uses o fobIe fo defermine fhe desfinofion
oddress for incoming dofo. The fobIe Iisfs fhe foIIowing informofion:





BRIDGE
Network Segment A Network Segment B
E2E3 LAN/TCP/IP Ver3 28.02.2008 5 of 10

AII known nefwork oddresses
How fo connecf fo ofher nefworks
The possibIe pofh befween fhose roufers
The cosf of sending dofo over fhose pofhs
The roufer seIecfs fhe besf roufe for fhe dofo bosed on cosf ond ovoiIobIe pofhs.
Poufers con provide fhe foIIowing funcfions of o bridge:
FiIfering ond isoIofing froffic
Connecfing nefwork segmenfs

HUS: There ore mony fypes of hubs. Possive hubs ore simpIe spIiffers or combiners fhof
group worksfofions info o singIe segmenf, whereos ocfive hubs incIude o repeofer funcfion ond
ore fhus copobIe of supporfing mony more connecfions.

Ethernet: Efhernef is o fomiIy of frome-bosed compufer nefworking fechnoIogies for IocoI
oreo nefworks (LAMs). The nome comes from fhe physicoI concepf of fhe efher. If defines o
number of wiring ond signoIing sfondords for fhe physicoI Ioyer, fhrough meons of nefwork
occess of fhe Medio Access ConfroI (MAC)/Dofo Link Loyer, ond o common oddressing formof.
Efhernef is sfondordi;ed os IEEE 80Z.3. Efhernef foIIows o simpIe sef of ruIes fhof govern ifs
bosic operofion. To beffer undersfond fhese ruIes, if is imporfonf fo undersfond fhe bosics of
Efhernef ferminoIogy.
Medium - Efhernef devices offoch fo o common medium fhof provides o pofh oIong which
fhe eIecfronic signoIs wiII froveI. HisforicoIIy, fhis medium hos been cooxioI copper cobIe,
buf fodoy if is more commonIy o fwisfed poir or fiber opfic cobIing.
Segment - We refer fo o singIe shored medium os on Efhernef segmenf.
Node - Devices fhof offoch fo fhof segmenf ore sfofions or nodes.
Frume - The nodes communicofe in shorf messoges coIIed fromes, which ore voriobIy si;ed
chunks of informofion.
Fromes ore onoIogous fo senfences in humon Ionguoge. In EngIish, we hove ruIes for
consfrucfing our senfences: We know fhof eoch senfence musf confoin o subjecf ond o
predicofe. The Ethernet protocoI specifies o sef of ruIes for consfrucfing fromes. There ore
expIicif minimum ond moximum Iengfhs for fromes, ond o sef of required pieces of informofion
fhof musf oppeor in fhe frome. Eoch frome musf incIude, for exompIe, bofh o destinution
uddress ond o source uddress, which idenfify fhe recipienf ond fhe sender of fhe messoge.
The oddress uniqueIy idenfifies fhe node, jusf os o nome idenfifies o porficuIor person. Mo fwo
Efhernef devices shouId ever hove fhe some oddress.
E2E3 LAN/TCP/IP Ver3 28.02.2008 6 of 10
The 7 Luyers of the OSI ModeI
The OSI, or Open Sysfem Inferconnecfion, modeI defines o nefworking fromework for
impIemenfing profocoIs in seven Ioyers. ConfroI is possed from one Ioyer fo fhe nexf, sforfing
of fhe oppIicofion Ioyer in one sfofion, proceeding fo fhe boffom Ioyer, over fhe chonneI fo fhe
nexf sfofion ond bock up fhe hierorchy.
A
p
p
I
i
c
u
t
i
o
n

{
L
u
y
e
r

7
}

This Ioyer supporfs oppIicofion ond end-user processes. Communicofion
porfners ore idenfified, quoIify of service is idenfified, user oufhenficofion
ond privocy ore considered, ond ony consfroinfs on dofo synfox ore idenfified.
Everyfhing of fhis Ioyer is oppIicofion-specific. This Ioyer provides oppIicofion
services for fiIe fronsfers, e-moiI, ond ofher nefwork soffwore services.
TeInef ond FTP ore oppIicofions fhof exisf enfireIy in fhe oppIicofion IeveI.
Tiered oppIicofion orchifecfures ore porf of fhis Ioyer.
P
r
e
s
e
n
t
u
t
i
o
n

{
L
u
y
e
r

}

This Ioyer provides independence from differences in dofo represenfofion
(e.g., encrypfion) by fronsIofing from oppIicofion fo nefwork formof, ond vice
verso. The presenfofion Ioyer works fo fronsform dofo info fhe form fhof fhe
oppIicofion Ioyer con occepf. This Ioyer formofs ond encrypfs dofo fo be senf
ocross o nefwork, providing freedom from compofibiIify probIems. If is
somefimes coIIed fhe synfox Ioyer.
S
e
s
s
i
o
n

{
L
u
y
e
r

}

This Ioyer esfobIishes, monoges ond ferminofes connecfions befween
oppIicofions. The session Ioyer sefs up, coordinofes, ond ferminofes
conversofions, exchonges, ond dioIogues befween fhe oppIicofions of eoch end.
If deoIs wifh session ond connecfion coordinofion.
T
r
u
n
s
p
o
r
t

{
L
u
y
e
r

4
}

This Ioyer provides fronsporenf fronsfer of dofo befween end sysfems, or
hosfs, ond is responsibIe for end-fo-end error recovery ond fIow confroI. If
ensures compIefe dofo fronsfer.
N
e
t
w
o
r
k

{
L
u
y
e
r

3
}

This Ioyer provides swifching ond roufing fechnoIogies, creofing IogicoI pofhs,
known os virfuoI circuifs, for fronsmiffing dofo from node fo node. Poufing ond
forwording ore funcfions of fhis Ioyer, os weII os oddressing, infernefworking,
error hondIing, congesfion confroI ond pockef sequencing.
D
u
t
u

L
i
n
k

{
L
u
y
e
r

Z
}

Af fhis Ioyer, dofo pockefs ore encoded ond decoded info bifs. If furnishes
fronsmission profocoI knowIedge ond monogemenf ond hondIes errors in fhe
physicoI Ioyer, fIow confroI ond frome synchroni;ofion. The dofo Iink Ioyer is
divided info fwo subIoyers: The Medio Access ConfroI (MAC) Ioyer ond fhe
LogicoI Link ConfroI (LLC) Ioyer. The MAC subIoyer confroIs how o compufer on
fhe nefwork goins occess fo fhe dofo ond permission fo fronsmif if. The LLC
Ioyer confroIs frome synchroni;ofion, fIow confroI ond error checking.
P
h
y
s
i
c
u
I

{
L
u
y
e
r

1
}

This Ioyer conveys fhe bif sfreom - eIecfricoI impuIse, Iighf or rodio signoI --
fhrough fhe nefwork of fhe eIecfricoI ond mechonicoI IeveI. If provides fhe
hordwore meons of sending ond receiving dofo on o corrier, incIuding defining
cobIes, cords ond physicoI ospecfs. Fosf Efhernef, PSZ3Z, ond ATM ore
profocoIs wifh physicoI Ioyer componenfs.
E2E3 LAN/TCP/IP Ver3 28.02.2008 7 of 10
TubIe beIow iIIusfrofes oII fhe mojor TCP/IP Infernef profocoIs ond ossociofes o Ioyer of fhe
orchifecfure wifh eoch. AppIicofion-Ioyer profocoIs ore divided info fwo groups, firsf, fhose
use TCP second use UDP.

Luyer
No,
Luyer ProtocoIs
I AppIicofion ProfocoIs Using TCP of Loyer 4: FTP, SMTP, TELMET, HTTP
ProfocoIs Using UDP of Loyer 4: TFTP, SMMP, MFS, DMS
Z Tronsporf TCP (PeIiobIe & Connecfion Orienfed), UDP (UnreIiobIe & ConnecfionIess
3 Mefwork IP, APP, PAPP, ICMP, I0MP
4 Dofo
b PhysicoI
ProfocoIs defined by underIying nefworks

User Service AppIicution
User service oppIicofions incIude fhe foIIowing.
TELEMET - provides o remofe Iogon copobiIify
FiIe fronsfer profocoI (FTP) - provides o reIiobIe fiIe fronsfer copobiIify
User Service AppIicution
User service oppIicofions incIude fhe foIIowing.
o TELEMET - provides o remofe Iogon copobiIify.
o FiIe fronsfer profocoI (FTP) - provides o reIiobIe fiIe fronsfer copobiIify
o X window sysfem - provides o grophicoI inferfoce fo oppIicofions.
o TrivioI fiIe fronsfer profocoI (TFTP) - provides on unreIiobIe, simpIe fiIe fronsfer
copobiIify.
o Mefwork fiIe sysfem (MFS) - provides remofe virfuoI sforoge copobiIify.
o SimpIe messoge fronsfer profocoI (SMTP) - provides eIecfronic moiI copobiIify.
UtiIity AppIicutions
UfiIify oppIicofions incIude fhe foIIowing.
I. SimpIe nefwork monogemenf profocoI (SMMP) - provides nefwork monogemenf
informofion.
Z. 8oof profocoI (8OOTP) - provides remofe Iooding copobiIify for diskIess worksfofions.
3. Domoin nome service (DMS) - provides direcfory ossisfonce for Infernef oddresses using
IocoI nomes.
4. Address resoIufion profocoI (APP) - provides o physicoI oddress from on IP oddress.
b. Peverse oddress resoIufion profocoI (PAPP) - provides on IP oddress from o physicoI
device oddress.
In fheory, oII oppIicofion profocoIs couId use eifher fhe UDP or fhe TCP. The reIiobiIify
requiremenfs of fhe oppIicofion dicfofes, which fronsporf Ioyer profocoI is used. For exompIe,
some oppIicofions, such os fhe domoin nome service (DMS), moy eifher UDP or TCP. The UDP
provides on unreIiobIe, connecfionIess fronsporf service, whiIe fhe TCP provides o reIiobIe, in-
sequence, ond connecfion-orienfed service. 8ecouse fhe UDP is unreIiobIe, mony of fhe
oppIicofion Ioyer profocoIs onIy use TCP, for exompIe, FTP ond TELMET. For fhe oppIicofion
Ioyer profocoIs fhof do nof require o reIiobIe service, fhey use onIy UDP, for exompIe, TFTP,
SMMP, VoIP efc.


E2E3 LAN/TCP/IP Ver3 28.02.2008 8 of 10
Trunsport Luyer ProtocoIs
This session provides o descripfion of fhe fronsporf Ioyer profocoIs, user dofogrom profocoI
(UDP), ond fronsmission confroI profocoI (TCP). The seIecfion by on oppIicofions progrom fo
use eifher UDP or TCP is bosed primoriIy on fhe requiremenf for reIiobiIify.

USER DATASRAM PROTOCOL {UDP}
The UDP provides oppIicofion progroms wifh o fronsocfion orienfed, singIe-shof dofogrom fype
service. The service is simiIor fo fhe IP in fhof if is connecfionIess ond unreIiobIe. The UDP is
simpIe, efficienf ond ideoI for oppIicofion progroms such os TFTP ond DMS. An IP oddress is
used fo direcf fhe user dofogrom fo o porficuIor mochine, ond fhe desfinofion porf number in
fhe UDP heoder is used fo direcf fhe UDP dofogrom (or user dofogrom) fo o specific
oppIicofion process (queue) Iocofed of fhe IP oddress. The UDP heoder oIso confoins o source
porf number fhof oIIows fhe receiving process fo know how fo respond fo fhe user dofogrom.
There is no ocknowIedgemenf, fIow confroI, messoge confinuofion, or ofher sophisficofed
offribufes offered by fhe TCP.
The UDP operofes of fhe fronsporf Ioyer ond hos o unique profocoI number in fhe IP heoder
(number I7). This enobIes fhe nefwork Ioyer IP soffwore fo poss fhe dofo porfion of fhe IP
dofogrom fo fhe UDP soffwore. The UDP uses fhe desfinofion porf number fo direcf fhe from
fhe IP dofogrom (user dofogrom) fo fhe oppropriofe process queue. Since fhere is no sequence
number or fIow confroI mechonism, fhe user of UDP musf eifher nof need reIiobiIify or seIf-
service.

TRANSMISSION CONTORL PROTOCOL {TCP}
TCP provides frodifionoI circuif-orienfed dofo communicofions service fo progroms. TCP
provides o virfuoI circuif for progroms, which is coIIed o connecfion. The communicofion on o
connecfion is osynchronous in fhof o segmenf senf does nof hove fo be ocknowIedged before
sending fhe nexf segmenf. UnIike progroms fhof use UDP, fhose using TCP enjoy o connecfion
service befween fhe coIIed ond coIIing progrom, error checking, fIow confroI, ond inferrupf
copobiIify. A connecfion con be inifiofed simuIfoneousIy of bofh ends ond hove fhe window si;e
for fIow confroI dynomicoIIy odjusfed during fhe connecfion.

TCP Connection
The source ond desfinofion porf numbers in TCP heoder idenfify fhe oppIicofion progroms of
eoch end of fhe TCP connecfion. The IP oddress in fhe IP dofogrom is used fo deIiver fhe TCP
segmenf fo fhe correcf mochine. The profocoI number in fhe IP dofogrom direcfs fhe segmenf
fo TCP. The source ond desfinofion porf numbers in fhe TCP heoder ore used fo direcf fhe
segmenf dofo fo fhe oppropriofe oppIicofion Ioyer enfify (soffwore progrom). Since fhe porf
number in fhe TCP heoder is o Io-bif fieId, fhere couId be, fheoreficoIIy, up fo obb3o

connecfions befween fwo peer TCP Ioyers using fhe some sef of IP oddresses.
Source/Destinution Port Numbers
Eoch porf number is on unsigned infeger occupying Io bifs.

INTERNET CONTROL MESSASE PROTOCOL {ICMP}
The Infernef is on oufonomous sysfem wifhouf cenfroI confroI. The ICMP provides o vehicIe
for fhe soffwore of infermediofe gofewoys ond hosfs fo communicofion. The communicofion is
used fo reguIofe froffic, correcf roufing fobIes, ond checks fhe ovoiIobiIify of o hosf.
E2E3 LAN/TCP/IP Ver3 28.02.2008 9 of 10
IP Addressing
Introduction
We oII know fhof eoch feIephone, be if IondIine or mobiIe hos fo hove o unique number. In Indio
we hove o fen digifs numbering scheme, which impIies fhof mobiIe os weII os IondIine number
(incIuding STD code) wiII be of fen digifs. For exompIe II Z34bo789 is o number of DeIhi.
InfernofionoIIy, fhis number wiII be known os 9I II Z34bo789 i.e. ISD code needs fo be
prefixed. Therefore in fhe worId eoch such number is unique. Any phone con reoch ony ofher
if ofhers number is known. We oII remember fhe doys when feIephone numbers were of b
digifs. Digifs were odded fo occommodofe more numbers. On fhe some Iines, in Infernef we
need fo hove unique oddress for eoch PC connecfed fo if. IP oddressing is fhe scheme fo
ochieve if.
IP Addressing
Eoch hosf on fhe Infernef is ossigned on officioIIy soncfioned 3Z-bif infeger oddress
coIIed ifs Infernef Address or IP oddress. This oddressing scheme is oIso known os Ipv4 i.e.
Infernef ProfocoI version 4. The IP oddress consisfs of fwo porfs nefwork porf ond hosf porf.
The combinofion is unique: no fwo mochines con hove fhe some IP oddress. The oddress is
coded fo oIIow o voriobIe oIIocofion of bifs fo specify nefwork ond hosf.
The IP oddress scheme is fo breok up fhe binory number info pieces ond represenf eoch piece
os o decimoI number. A nofuroI si;e for binory pieces is 8 bifs, which is fhe fomiIior byfe or
ocfef (ocfef is fhe feIecommunicofion ferm, buf fwo words con be used inferchongeobIy). So
Ief's foke our binory number, wrife if using groups of 8 bifs, ond fhen represenf eoch group os
o decimoI number:
EumpIe 1: I40.I79.ZZ0.Z00
If is somefimes usefuI fo view fhe voIues in fheir binory form.
I40 .I79 .ZZ0 .Z00
I000II00.I0II00II.II0III00.II00I000
Every IP oddress consisfs of fwo porfs, one idenfifying fhe nefwork ond one idenfifying fhe
hosf. The CIoss of fhe oddress ond fhe subnef mosk defermine which porf beIongs fo fhe
nefwork oddress ond which porf beIongs fo fhe hosf oddress.
I0IIII00 000II0I0 000IIIII0 00IIII00
Ibo Zo 30 o0
We con use o dof os o seporofor. Mow our IP oddress hos fhe form
EumpIe Z: Ibo.Zo.30.o0 fhof is referred fo os fhe doffed decimoI nofofion.
IP Address shouId be hierurchicuI
For o profocoI fo be roufobIe, ifs oddress sfrucfure musf be hierorchicoI, meoning fhof fhe
oddress musf confoin of Ieosf fwo porfs: fhe nefwork porfion ond fhe hosf porfion. A hosf is
on end sfofion such os o compufer worksfofion, o roufer or o prinfer, whereos o nefwork
consisfs of one or more hosfs.
Address CIusses: This encoding provides fIexibiIify in ossigning oddresses fo hosf ond oIIows
o mix of nefwork si;es on on Infernef. In porficuIor, fhe fhree nefwork cIosses ore besf
suifed fo fhe foIIowing condifions:
CIoss A: Few nefworks, eoch wifh mony hosfs. If oIIows for up fo IZo nefworks wifh Io
miIIion hosfs eoch.
CIoss 8: Medium number of nefworks, eoch wifh o medium number of hosfs. If oIIows for up
fo Io,3Z8 nefworks wifh up fo o4I hosfs eoch,
E2E3 LAN/TCP/IP Ver3 28.02.2008 10 of 10
CIoss C: Mony nefworks, eoch wifh o few hosfs. If oIIows for up fo Z miIIions nefworks wifh
up fo Zb4 hosfs eoch,
CIoss D: Peserved for IP MuIficosfing.
CIoss E: Peserved for fufure use. Addresses beginning wifh IIII ore reserved for fufure
use.
The FoIIowing fobIe Iisfs fhe copobiIifies for cIoss A, 8 ond C oddresses.
CIoss Mefworks Hosfs
A IZo Io,777,ZI4
8 Io,384 ob,b34
C Z,097,IbZ Zb4
More ubout IP uddress CIusses
Addresses beginning wifh 01111111, or 1Z7 decimoI, ore reserved for Ioopbock ond for
infernoI fesfing on o IocoI mochine. [You con fesf fhis: you shouId oIwoys be obIe fo ping
1Z7,0,0,1, which poinfs fo yourseIf] CIoss D oddresses ore reserved for muIficosfing. CIoss E
oddresses ore reserved for fufure use. They shouId nof be used for hosf oddresses.
In fhe exompIe, I40.I79.ZZ0.Z00 is o CIoss 8 oddress so by defouIf fhe Mefwork porf of fhe
oddress (oIso known os fhe Mefwork Address) is defined by fhe firsf fwo ocfefs (I40.I79.x.x)
ond fhe hosf porf is defined by fhe Iosf Z ocfefs (x.x.ZZ0.Z00).
In order fo specify fhe nefwork oddress for o given IP oddress, fhe hosf secfion is sef fo oII
"0"s. In our exompIe, I40.I79.0.0 specifies fhe nefwork oddress for I40.I79.ZZ0.Z00. When
fhe hosf secfion is sef fo oII "I"s, if specifies o broodcosf fhof is senf fo oII hosfs on fhe
nefwork. I40.I79.Zbb.Zbb specifies fhe exompIe broodcosf oddress. Mofe fhof fhis is frue
regordIess of fhe Iengfh of fhe hosf secfion.
Privute Subnets: There ore fhree IP nefwork oddresses reserved for privofe nefworks. The
oddresses ore I0.0.0.0/8, I7Z.Io.0.0/IZ, ond I9Z.Io8.0.0/Io. They con be used by onyone
seffing up infernoI IP nefworks, such os o Iob or home LAM behind o Poufer performing MAT
(Mefwork Address TronsIofion) or proxy server.
Subnetting: Subneffing on IP Mefwork con be done for o voriefy of reosons, incIuding
orgoni;ofion, use of differenf physicoI medio (such os Efhernef, FDDI, WAM, efc.),
preservofion of oddress spoce, ond securify. The mosf common reoson is fo confroI nefwork
froffic.
Ipv: The heovy use of PCs connecfed on Infernef hos sofurofed fhe oddress spoce ovoiIobIe
in IPv4 oddress formof. A new oddress scheme known os Ipvo hos been infroduced. This
oddress Iengfh is IZ8 bifs. The formof of oddress is
Z14:00D:ZF3:0000:0000:00FF:EF00:9F3
Pemoving ;eros con oIso reduce fhe IPvo oddress. Zeros con be removed when fhey ore
Ieoding in ond wifhin ony Io-bif bIock. These removed ;eros ore indicofed by :: sign in fhe
oddress. The oddress from fhe previous exompIe couId be reduced using fhis fo fhe foIIowing
represenfofion. Mofe fhof in fhe exompIe fhe bIock of EF00 does nof Iose ifs ;eros becouse
fhey ore of fhe end of fhe bIock.
IPv Address with Leuding Zeros Removed: Z14:D:ZF3:0:0:FF:EF00:9F3
IPvo Address wifh Compressed ond Pemoved Zeros: ZI4b:Db:ZF38::FF:EF00:98F3











Secfion-4

Chopfer-ZI

IP routing, RIP and OSPF
E2E3 IP, RIP,OSPF Ver3 28.02.2008 1 of 3
IP Poufing, PIP ond OSPF
Whof is IP roufing7

When several networks are joined together by hosts that are connected to more than one network,
hosts on one network may want to communicate with hosts on another network. To do so, the
messages between them must pass through several (i.e. more than one) networks on the way. This
is accomplished by turning some hosts with connections to more than one network into routers,
which forward messages to the networks they can reach (to which they are connected).
Each router has a routing table, which specifies where that router should send a message it
receives. In IP routing, the routing table will usually consist of a network address (and a subnet
mask) and the address of the "next hop", which is the target to which the message should be
forwarded if the destination's IP address matches the subnet mask of the network address. The
next hop can be a local network to which the router is connected physically, or the IP address of
another router on the network, which will then continue forwarding that message according to its
own routing table. If the routers are set up correctly and the network is healthy, eventually the
message will reach its destination.

Stutic routing
In relatively small networks, or in networks where the network topology rarely changes, setting
up the routing tables can be done manually. This means that in the event of a malfunction in one
of the routers or of a network, the other routers will not know about the problem and will not
circumvent it until someone, usually the network administrator, will reconfigure each and every
one of them with the new settings. While this might turn out to be an impossible task for most
networks, static routing is still a viable solution in some cases.

Dynumic routing
Things get complicated when the conditions aren't ideal, and they rarely are. Networks tend to
grow, evolve and change, hardware usually isn't impregnable, and errors tend to occur on
computer networks, especially large ones, in such high frequencies that manually reconfiguring
everything every time can be quite impossible. This is where dynamic routing comes into play.
In dynamic routing, the routers themselves, by communicating with one another, learn the
topology of the network by themselves. By running the same dynamic routing protocol they can
get that information and build their routing tables automatically, and respond to changes in the
network much faster than a manual update ever could.

In dynamic routing protocols, routers communicate with neighboring routers, i.e. routers that are
connected to the same networks that they are. The protocol dictates what information they
exchange and when, how the information will be saved on each router, and how the routing table
can be constructed from it. These are of two types:
1. Distance Vector Routing Protocols
Example: RIP; IGRP
2. Link State Routing Protocols
Example: OSPF; IS-IS

Routing Information Protocol
Designed for smaller networks
Uses Hop Count as metric
RIP has an administrative distance of 120

E2E3 IP, RIP,OSPF Ver3 28.02.2008 2 of 3
RIP Common Churucteristics

Neighbors
Routers sharing a common data link.
Periodically send routing updates to all neighbors by broadcasting their entire routing
tables.
Periodic Updates
A period of time after which entire routing table updates will be transmitted (30 seconds)
Neighbors receiving these updates glean the information they need and discard
everything else
Routes are advertised as vectors of distance and direction:
Distance is defined in terms of a metric
Direction is defined in terms of the next hop router
Each router learns routes from its neighbor routers perspective
Each router then advertises the routes from its own perspective
This routing is also referred to as Routing by Rumor as each router depends on its neighbors for
information which the neighbor in turn might have learned from their neighbor and so on

Open Shortest Puth First {OSPF}
The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is a hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP)
for routing in Internet Protocol, using a link-state in the individual areas that make up the
hierarchy. The current version, Version 3, defined in RFC 2740 (OSPFv3 1999), supports IPv6 as
well as IPv4, has various internal enhancements, and is backwards compatible with the earlier
version, (OSPFv2 1998)
.

OSPF Operation
A link state database (LSDB) is constructed as a tree-image of the network topology, and
identical copies of the LSDB are periodically updated on all routers in each OSPF-aware
area (region of the network included in an OSPF area type - see "Area types" below).
An OSPF router, when switched on, maintains an interface data structure for each OSPF
enabled interface
OSPF-speaking routers send Hello packets out OSPF-enabled interfaces
Two routers sharing a common link, if agreed on certain parameters specified in their
respective Hello packets, become neighbors
Adjacencies are formed between some neighboring routers and depends upon:
o Type of routers exchanging hellos
o Type of network
Link State Advertisements (LSAs) i.e. routers links and their state, are exchanged
between adjacent routers
Each router receiving an LSA from a neighbor records the LSA in Link State Database
and sends a copy of the LSA to all of its other neighbors.
LSAs are exchanged, until all the routers build identical Link State Databases i.e. the link
state databases have been synchronized
In contrast to the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) or the Border Gateway Protocol
(BGP), OSPF does not use TCP or UDP but uses IP directly, via IP protocol 89. OSPF
handles its own error detection and correction, therefore negating the need for TCP or
UDP functions.

Pofh Preference
OSPF uses path cost as its basic routing metric, which was defined by the standard not to equate
to any standard value such as speed, so the network designer could pick a metric important to the
design. In practice, it is determined by the speed (bandwidth) of the interface addressing the given
route, although that tends to need network-specific scaling factors now that links faster than 100
E2E3 IP, RIP,OSPF Ver3 28.02.2008 3 of 3
Mbit/s are common. Metrics, however, are only directly comparable when of the same type.
There are four types of metrics, with the most preferred type listed in order below. An intra-area
route is always preferred to an inter-area route regardless of metric, and so on for the other types.
Intra-area
Inter-area
External Type 1, which includes both the external path cost and the sum of
internal path costs to the ASBR that advertises the route,
External Type 2, the value of which is solely that of the external path cost
OSPF-Troffic Engineering
OSPF-TE is an extension to OSPF extending the idea of route preference to include traffic
engineering. The Traffic Engineering extensions to OSPF add dynamic properties to the route
calculation algorithm. The properties are:
Maximum Reservable bandwidth
Unreserved bandwidth
Available bandwidth
OSPF roufer fypes
OSPF defines the following router types:
Area border router (ABR)
Autonomous system border router (ASBR)
Internal router (IR)
Backbone router (BR)
The router types are attributes of an OSPF process. A given physical router may have one or more
OSPF processes.
Areo border roufer: An ABR is a router that connects one or more OSPF areas to the main
backbone network. It is considered a member of all areas it is connected to. An ABR keeps
multiple copies of the link-state database in memory, one for each area to which that router is
connected.
Aufonomous sysfem border roufer (AS8P) : An ASBR is a router that is connected to
more than one AS and that exchanges routing information with routers in other ASs. ASBRs
typically also run a non-IGP routing protocol (e.g., BGP), or use static routes, or both. An ASBR
is used to distribute routes received from other ASs throughout its own AS.
InfernoI roufer
An IR is a router that has only OSPF neighbor relationships with routers in the same area.
8ockbone roufer
Backbone Routers: These are routers that are part of the OSPF backbone. By definition, this
includes all area border routers, since those routers pass routing information between areas.
However, a backbone router may also be a router that connects only to other backbone (or area
border) routers, and is therefore not part of any area (other than Area 0).
To summarize: an area border router is always also a backbone router, but a backbone router is
not necessarily an area border router.
Designofed "roufer"
A designated router (DR) is the router interface elected among all routers on a particular multi-
access network segment, generally assumed to be broadcast multi-access. Do not confuse the DR
with an OSPF router type. A given physical router can have some interfaces that are designated,
others that are backup designated (BDR), and others that are non-designated.
8ockup designofed roufer
A backup designated router (BDR) is a router that becomes the designated router if the current
designated router has a problem or fails. The BDR is the OSPF router with second highest
priority at the time of the last election.











Secfion-4

Chopfer-ZZ

MPLS- VPN

E2E3 MPLS VPN Ver3 28.02.2008 1 of 7
Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)

What is MPLS?
Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a data-carrying mechanism in packet-switched
networks and it operates at a TCP/IP layer that is generally considered to lie between
traditional definitions of Layer 2 (data link layer) and Layer 3 (network layer or IP Layer),
and thus is often referred to as a "Layer 2.5" protocol. It was designed to provide a unified
data-carrying service for both circuit-based clients and packet-switching clients, which
provide a datagram service model. It can be used to carry many different kinds of traffic,
including IP packets, as well as native ATM, SONET, and Ethernet frames. The Internet
has emerged as the network for providing converged, differentiated classed of services to
user with optimal use of resources and also to address the issues related to Class of service
(CoS) and Quality of Service (QoS). MPLS is the technology that addresses all the issues in
the most efficient manner.
MPLS is a packet-forwarding technology that uses labels to make data forwarding
decisions. With MPLS, the Layer 3 header analysis (IP header) is done just once (when the
packet enters the MPLS domain).

What is a MPLS header?
MPLS works by prefixing packets with an MPLS header, containing one or more 'labels'.
This is called a label stack. Each label stack entry contains four fields:
- 20-bit label value (This is MPLS Label)
- 3-bit Experimental field used normally for providing for QoS (Quality of Service)
- 1-bit bottom of stack flag. If this is 1, signifies that the current label is the last in the
stack.
- 8-bit TTL (time to live) field.

Various functions & Routers in MPLS
Label A label identifies the path a packet should traverse and is carried or encapsulated in a
Layer-2 header along with the packet. The receiving router examines the packet for its label
content to determine the next hop. Once a packet has been labelled, the rest of the journey
of the packet through the backbone is based on label switching.
Label Creation Every entry in routing table (build by the IGP) is assigned a unique 20-bit
label either per platform basis or per interface basis.
SWAP: The Incoming label is replaced by a new Outgoing label and the packet is
forwarded along the path associated with the new label.
PUSH A new label is pushed on top of the packet, effectively "encapsulating" the packet in
a layer of MPLS.
POP The label is removed from the packet effectively "de-encapsulating". If the popped
label was the last on the label stack, the packet "leaves" the MPLS tunnel.
LER A router that operates at the edge of the access network and MPLS network LER
performs the PUSH and POP functions and is also the interface between access and MPLS
network, commonly know as Edge router.
LSR An LSR is a high-speed router device in the core of an MPLS network, normally
called Core routers. These routers perform swapping functions and participate in the
establishment of LSP.
Ingress / Egress Routers: The routers receiving the incoming traffic or performing the first
PUSH function are ingress routers and routers receiving the terminating traffic or
performing the POP function are Egress routers. The same router performs both
functionality i.e. Ingress and Egress. The routers performing these functions are LER.
FEC The forward equivalence class (FEC) is a representation of a group of packets that
share the same requirements for their transport. All packets in such a group are provided the

E2E3 MPLS VPN Ver3 28.02.2008 2 of 7
same treatment en route to the destination. As opposed to conventional IP forwarding, in
MPLS, the assignment of a particular packet to a particular FEC is done just once, as the
packet enters the network at the edge router.

MPLS performs the following functions:
1. Specifies mechanisms to manage traffic flow of various granularities, such as flows
between different hardware, machines, or even flows between different applications.
2. Remains independent of the Layer-2 & layer-3 protocols.
3. Provides a means to map IP addresses to simple, fixed-length labels used by different
packet-forwarding and packet-switching technologies
4. Interfaces to existing routing protocols such as resource reservation protocol (RSVP)
and open shortest path first (OSPF).
5. Supports the IP, ATM, and frame- relay Layer-2 protocols.

Label Distribution Protocol (LDP): The LDP is a protocol for the distribution of label
information to LSRs in a MPLS networks. It is used to map FECs to labels, which, in turn,
create LSP. LDP sessions are established between LDP peers in the MPLS network (not
necessarily adjacent). The peers exchange the following types of LDP messages:
Discovery messages announce and maintain the presence of an LSR in a network
Session messages establish, maintain, and terminate sessions between LDP peers
Advertisement messages create, change, and delete label mappings for FECs.
Notification messages provide advisory information and signal error information

Traffic Engineering
Traffic engineering is a process that enhances overall network utilization by attempting to
create a uniform or differentiated distribution of traffic throughout the network. An
important result of this process is the avoidance of congestion on any one path. It is
important to note that traffic engineering does not necessarily select the shortest path
between two devices. It is possible that, for two packet data flows, the packets may traverse
completely different paths even though their exposed or less used network segments can be
used and differentiated services can be provided.

MPLS Operation : The following steps must be taken for a data packet to travel through
an MPLS domain. Label creation and distribution, Table creation at each router, Label-
switched path creation, Label insertion/table lookup and Packet forwarding. The source
sends its data to the destination. In an MPLS domain, not all of the source traffic is
necessarily transported through the same path. Depending on the traffic characteristics,
different LSPs could be created for packets with different CoS requirements.
In Figure 1, LER1 is the ingress and LER4 is the egress router.










Figure 1, LSP Creution und Pucket Forwurding though un MPLS Domuin
Destination

LER2
LSR1 LER1
LER3
LSR3
LSR2
LER4
Label request
Label distribution
Data flow

E2E3 MPLS VPN Ver3 28.02.2008 3 of 7

Tunnelling in MPLS
A unique feature of MPLS is that it can control the entire path of a packet without explicitly
specifying the intermediate routers. It does this by creating tunnels through the intermediary
routers that can span multiple segments. This concept is used for provisioning MPLS
based VPNs.

MPLS Applications
MPLS addresses todays network backbone requirements effectively by providing a
standards-based solution that accomplishes the following:
1. Improves packet-forwarding performance in the network
2. MPLS enhances and simplifies packet forwarding through routers using Layer-2 switching
paradigms.
3. MPLS is simple which allows for easy implementation.
4. MPLS increases network performance because it enables routing by switching at wireline
speeds.
5. Supports QoS and CoS for service differentiation
6. MPLS uses traffic-engineered path setup and helps achieve service-level guarantees.
7. MPLS incorporates provisions for constraint-based and explicit path setup.
8. Supports network scalability
9. MPLS can be used to avoid the N2 overlay problem associated with meshed IP ATM
networks.
10. Integrates IP and ATM in the network
11. MPLS provides a bridge between access IP and core ATM.
12. MPLS can reuse existing router/ATM switch hardware, effectively joining the two disparate
networks.
13. Builds interoperable networks
14. MPLS is a standards-based solution that achieves synergy between IP and ATM networks.
15. MPLS facilitates IP over synchronous optical network (SONET) integration in optical
switching.
16. MPLS helps build scalable VPNs with traffic-engineering capability.

MPLS VPN
MPLS technology is being widely adopted by service providers worldwide to implement
VPNs to connect geographically separated customer sites. VPNs were originally introduced
to enable service providers to use common physical infrastructure to implement emulated
point-to-point links between customer sites. A customer network implemented with any
VPN technology would contain distinct regions under the customer's control called the
customer sites connected to each other via the service provider (SP) network. In traditional
router-based networks, different sites belonging to the same customer were connected to
each other using dedicated point-to-point links. The cost of implementation depended on
the number of customer sites to be connected with these dedicated links. A full mesh of
connected sites would consequently imply an exponential increase in the cost associated.
Frame Relay and ATM were the first technologies widely adopted to implement VPNs.
These networks consisted of various devices, belonging to either the customer or the service
provider, that were components of the VPN solution. Generically, the VPN realm would
consist of the following regions:

Customer network Consisted of the routers at the various customer sites. The routers
connecting individual customers' sites to the service provider network were called customer
edge (CE) routers.

E2E3 MPLS VPN Ver3 28.02.2008 4 of 7
Provider network Used by the service provider to offer dedicated point-to-point links
over infrastructure owned by the service provider. Service provider devices to which the CE
routers were directly attached were called provider edge (PE) routers. In addition, the
service provider network might consist of devices used for forwarding data in the SP
backbone called provider (P) routers.
Depending on the service provider's participation in customer routing, the VPN
implementations can be classified broadly into one of the following:
Overlay model
Peer-to-peer model

Overlay model
1. Service provider doesnt participate in customers routing, only provides transport to
customer data using virtual point-to-point links. As a result, the service provider
would only provide customers with virtual circuit connectivity at Layer 2.
2. If the virtual circuit was permanent or available for use by the customer at all times,
it was called a permanent virtual circuit (PVC).
3. If the circuit was established by the provider on-demand, it was called a switched
virtual circuit (SVC).
4. The primary drawback of an Overlay model was the full mesh of virtual circuits
between all customer sites for optimal connectivity.
Overlay VPNs were initially implemented by the SP by providing either Layer 1 (physical
layer) connectivity or a Layer 2 transport circuit between customer sites. In the Layer 1
implementation, the SP would provide physical layer connectivity between customer sites,
and the customer was responsible for all other layers. In the Layer 2 implementation, the SP
was responsible for transportation of Layer 2 frames (or cells) between customer sites,
which was traditionally implemented using either Frame Relay or ATM switches as PE
devices. Therefore, the service provider was not aware of customer routing or routes. Later,
overlay VPNs were also implemented using VPN services over IP (Layer 3) with tunneling
protocols like L2TP, GRE, and IPSec to interconnect customer sites. In all cases, the SP
network was transparent to the customer, and the routing protocols were run directly
between customer routers.

Peer-to-peer model
The peer-to-peer model was developed to overcome the drawbacks of the Overlay model
and provide customers with optimal data transport via the SP backbone. Hence, the service
provider would actively participate in customer routing. In the peer-to-peer model, routing
information is exchanged between the customer routers and the service provider routers,
and customer data is transported across the service provider's core, optimally. Customer
routing information is carried between routers in the provider network (P and PE routers)
and customer network (CE routers). The peer-to-peer model, consequently, does not require
the creation of virtual circuits. The CE routers exchange routes with the connected PE
routers in the SP domain. Customer routing information is propagated across the SP
backbone between PE and P routers and identifies the optimal path from one customer site
to another.

Dial VPN Service
Mobile users of a corporate customer need to access their Corporate Network from remote
sites. Dial VPN service enables to provide secure remote access to the mobile users of the
Corporate. Dial VPN service, eliminates the burden of owning and maintaining remote
access servers, modems, and phone lines at the Corporate Customer side. Currently
accessible from PSTN (127233) & ISDN (27225) also from Broadband.

E2E3 MPLS VPN Ver3 28.02.2008 5 of 7
MPLS VPN Architecture and Terminology

In the MPLS VPN architecture, the edge routers carry customer routing information,
providing optimal routing for traffic belonging to the customer for inter-site traffic. The
MPLS-based VPN model also accommodates customers using overlapping address spaces,
unlike the traditional peer-to-peer model in which optimal routing of customer traffic
required the provider to assign IP addresses to each of its customers (or the customer to
implement NAT) to avoid overlapping address spaces. MPLS VPN is an implementation of
the peer-to-peer model; the MPLS VPN backbone and customer sites exchange Layer 3
customer routing information, and data is forwarded between customer sites using the
MPLS-enabled SP IP backbone.
The MPLS VPN domain, like the traditional VPN, consists of the customer network and the
provider network. The MPLS VPN model is very similar to the dedicated PE router model
in a peer-to-peer VPN implementation. However, instead of deploying a dedicated PE
router per customer, customer traffic is isolated on the same PE router that provides
connectivity into the service provider's network for multiple customers. The components of
an MPLS VPN shown in Figure are highlighted next.



Figure MPLS VPN Network Architecture

The main components of MPLS VPN architecture are:
Customer network, which is usually a customer-controlled domain consisting of devices
or routers spanning multiple sites belonging to the customer. In Figure, the customer
network for Customer A consists of the routers CE1-A and CE2-A along with devices in the
Customer A sites 1 and 2.

CE routers, which are routers in the customer network that interface with the service
provider network. In Figure , the CE routers for Customer A are CE1-A and CE2-A, and the
CE routers for Customer B are CE1-B and CE2-B. Provider network, which is the provider-
controlled domain consisting of provider edge and provider core routers that connect sites
belonging to the customer on a shared infrastructure. The provider network controls the
traffic routing between sites belonging to a customer along with customer traffic isolation.
In Figure, the provider network consists of the routers PE1, PE2, P1, P2, P3, and P4.

PE routers, which are routers in the provider network that interface or connect to the
customer edge routers in the customer network. PE1 and PE2 are the provider edge routers
in the MPLS VPN domain for customers A and B.
P routers, which are routers in the core of the provider network that interface with either
other provider core routers or provider edge routers. Routers P1, P2, P3, and P4 are the
provider routers.

E2E3 MPLS VPN Ver3 28.02.2008 6 of 7

Advantages of MPLS over other technologies
BSNL's primary objectives in setting up the BGP/MPLS VPN network are:
1. Provide a diversified range of services (Layer 2, Layer 3 and Dial up VPNs) to meet the
requirements of the entire spectrum of customers from Small and Medium to Large
business enterprises and financial institutions.
2. Make the service very simple for customers to use even if they lack experience in IP
routing.
3. Make the service very scalable and flexible to facilitate large-scale deployment.
4. Provide a reliable and amenable service, offering SLA to customers.
5. Capable of meeting a wide range of customer requirements, including security, quality
of Service (QOS) and any-to-any connectivity.
6. Capable of offering fully managed services to customers.
7. Allow BSNL to introduce additional services such as bandwidth on demand etc over the
same network.
Tariff

Service
64
Kbps
128
Kbps
192
Kbps
256
Kbps
384
Kbps
512
Kbps
768
Kbps
1
Mbps
2
Mbps
8 Mbps
34
Mbps
45
Mbps
Gold 63000 105000 138000 178000 221000 301000 368000 423000 610000 2134000 3902000 4389000
Silver 52000 88000 116000 149000 185000 249000 306000 353000 487000 1706000 3119000 3509000
Bronze 43000 72000 95000 122000 162000 219000 267000 305000 355000 1242000 2272000 2556000
IP VPN 35000 60000 79000 102000 137000 186000 229000 263000 294000 1028000 1880000 2115000

1. Committed Data Rate in Bronze category - The bandwidth of Bronze category would be
restricted to 50% of bandwidth. However, the minimum B/W of 25% B/W will be
committed to Bronze customers
2. Discount on MPLS VPN ports - It has been decided to give multiple port discounts on
the total number of ports hired across the country as given below. It may be noted that
multiple ports are not required to be located in a city for offering this discount:
3. Discount Rates
No. of Ports
Existed discount on VPN
Ports on Graded basis
Revised discount on VPN
Ports on Non-graded
basis
1 to 4 ports 0% 0%
5 to 25 ports 10% 5%
26 to 50 ports 15% 10%
51 to 100 ports 20% 10%
101 to 150 ports 20% 15%
More than 150 ports 20% 20%

4. Volume based discount on MPLS VPN Service - Annual volume based discount on
graded basis may be given to all customers as under:

Annual Revenue( in Rs.) on MPLS VPN
Service per annum
Volume based Discount on Graded basis
Upto Rs.50 lakhs No discount
Rs.50 lakhs to 1 Crore 5%
Rs.1 Crore to 2 Crore 7.5%
Rs.2 Crore to 5 Crore 10%
More than Rs.5 Crore 15%

E2E3 MPLS VPN Ver3 28.02.2008 7 of 7

5. Shifting charges of MPLS VPN & IP VPN Port - Rs.2000/- per port.
6. Minimum hiring period for MPLS VPN and IP VPN ports - One year.
7. Upgradation of port to higher Bandwidth No charges to be levied for up-gradation
to higher bandwidth. The rent for the lower BW port to be adjusted on pro-rata
basis.
8. Provision of last mile on R&G/ Special construction basis - The charges to be levied
as per prevalent R&G/ Special construction terms.
9. Local Lead charges: Included in Port Charges, if these are within Local Area of
Telephone system of a City/Town (Virtual Nodes).
10. All charges are exclusive of Service Tax.

Virtual Nodes

VPN Service based on MPLS technology was launched on 24th May 2003. The VPN
infrastructure consists of ten physical Point of Presence (POP) at Delhi, Kolkatta, Chennai,
Mumbai, Bangalore, Pune, Hyderabad, Ahemdabad, Lucknow and Ernakulem. These ten
POPs cater for the VPN requirement throughout India.

In view of competitive scenario, the cities where MLLN VMUX are existing were declared
as Virtual Nodes (For calculation of Local Lead Charges). There are currently 290 cities
declared as virtual nodes and also BSNL felt that flexibility towards dynamic expansion of
Virtual Nodes of MPLS VPN will help boost the customer base of MPLS VPN segment
hence the power to declare a city as a virtual node (condition MLLN VMUX should exist)
has been delegated to CGM vide letter no: No.112-3/2006-Comml Dated: 2nd April,
2007.

The charges (in addition to port charges) are to be calculated as below:
While Calculating the Leased Line charges for Connecting the VPN site to the
MPLS Node, the distance from the VPN site to the nearest MPLS Virtual Node or
MPLS Node, which ever is less, is only to be taken into account. This will be in
addition to the local Lead charges.









Section-4

Chapter-23


roudbund MuItipIuy
E2E3 Multiplay, Ver2 28.02.2008 1 of 4
ROADAND MULTIPLAY
Leorning Objecfive
1. What is broadband Triple Play / Multiplay
2. Service offered in Broadband Triple play
3. Components of broadband triple play
4. What is IPTV
5. What is VoIP

Whut is broudbund tripIe pIuy / MuItipIuy
The triple play service means providing the following service to the customer: -
1. Data (Internet)
2. Voice (VoIP and not the PSTN which is already provided on broadband also)
3. Video (IPTV, VoD or in general live broadcast and stored broadcasting using video
streaming protocols)
If the above services are offered on mobile or wireless access network, the same services are
termed as broadband Multiplay services.

Components of roudbund MuItipIuy
Mefwork Archifecfure of 8roodbond MuIfipIoy

The BSNLs Broadband multiplay network consists of the following components: -
a. L3PE (MCR / PE Router of NIB-2 Project 1 Supplied by HCL)
b. BNG Broadband Network Gateway
i. Connects Multiplay Network to NIB2 Backbone (Project 1) through L3PE
c. RPR Tier-1 Switch
i. Provides connectivity from BNG to Tier 2 network
d. RPR Tier-2 Switch
e. OC LAN Tier-2 Switch
f. DSLAM
g. ADSL CPE
h. DSL Tester
E2E3 Multiplay, Ver2 28.02.2008 2 of 4
Chunges in roudbund MuItipIuy viz-u-viz broudbund
1. T1 & T2 changed from star topology to RPR ring topology High reliability
2. IP-DSLAM connected on GE interface as compared to FE interface.
3. BNG behaves as customer edge router whereas BRAS was a PE Router.
4. BRAS were present at 23 A locations only whereas BNG is present upto B type cities.

Services: Video
o. IPTV or TVoIP


1. IPTV or TVoIP delivers television programming to households via broadband
connection using Internet protocols.
2. It requires a subscription and IPTV set-top box (STB), this box will connect to the
home DSL line and is responsible for reassembling the packets into a video stream and
then decoding the contents
3. IPTV is typically bundled with other services like Video on Demand (VOD), Voice
Over IP (VOIP) or digital Phone, and Web access.
4. IPTV viewers will have full control over functionality such as rewind, fast-forward,
pause, and so on.
5. If you've ever watched a video clip on your computer, you've used an IPTV system in
its broadest sense.
6. The video stream is broken up into IP packets and dumped into the core network, which
is a massive IP network that handles all sorts of other traffic (data, voice, etc.)

b. VOD {Video on Demund)
Video on Demand service allows the user the luxury of watching the movie of his / her
choice at his / her convenience.

Difference between VOD on roudbund und DTH {e,g, Dish TV/Tutu sky}
In DTH, as it is broadcasting and not communication so the request for VOD has to be
registered through some other mean than the Set top Box say can be through phone call, SMS
or Internet and the same four to five movies are broadcasted and the viewers have to choose
among them only and at predefined timings.
In true VOD, as offered by BSNL, the set-top box behaves just like a DVD player and
viewer can select a movie from the boutique, view it at his / her desired time and day, pause it,
E2E3 Multiplay, Ver2 28.02.2008 3 of 4
rewind it, forward it or can have the exactly same experience has viewing from a personalized
DVD player. This is only possible because of the two-way communication between the set-top
box and the server. In BSNL one has a choice of selecting from hundreds of movies while
VOD offered by DTH providers may have only few movies to offer.

Set-top o
The set-top box is a smart solid-state device that acts as the gateway to a host of
services offered on the BSNL Multiplay network. On one side the set-top box interfaces with
the television using the 3-RCA or the S-Video ports, and on the other side it is connected to
broadband ADSL modem via the Ethernet port.
BSNL franchisee in Pune has named the set-top box as WICE Box (Window for Information,
Communication and Entertainment) and supports all sorts of inputs like audio, video, tablet
data, text data, pointer devices etc. it has a USB port and a microphone and headphone jack in
addition to essential ports. In future, it will be possible to connect keyboard, mouse, web cams,
pen-drives and other such devices for various applications that will be provided on the box.
The WICE box is fully upgradeable through the network. This means, any new application
launched will be directly uploaded into WICE box without getting the box to service center.
All software upgrade will be handled this way.

WICE. 8ox Opfion-I (Oufrighf Purchose)
S/No. Item Charges
1. Installation and Activation Charges (Non-Refundable) Rs. 600
2. WICE. Box sale Rs. 3950
WICE. 8ox Opfion-II (PenfoI)
1. Installation and Activation Charges (Non-Refundable) Rs. 600
2. Security Deposit for WICE. Box (Refundable) Rs. 1500
3. Fixed Monthly Charge for WICE. Box Rs. 99
Service and other taxes will be charged separately as applicable

Service Chorges
S/No. Service Name Scheme Charges Remarks
1. Digital TV Rs. 150*
All major TV channels
Any two movies free from a list of movies
2. Plan 2 Rs. 325*
All major TV channels
Movies worth Rs 220/- free
* Sorv1oo and othor taxos oxtra Sorv1oo and othor taxos oxtra Sorv1oo and othor taxos oxtra Sorv1oo and othor taxos oxtra

Services: - Voice
VoIP (Voice over IP)
1. The technology used to transmit voice conversations over a data network using the Internet
Protocol.
2. A category of hardware and software that enables people to use the Internet as the transmission
medium for telephone calls.
3. VoIP works through sending voice information in digital form in packets,
4. VoIP also is referred to as Internet telephony, IP telephony, or Voice over the Internet (VOI)
E2E3 Multiplay, Ver2 28.02.2008 4 of 4

8enefifs of VoIP
1. Cost reduction
a. Toll by-pass
b. WAN Cost Reduction
2. Operational Improvement
a. Common network infrastructure
b. Simplification of Routing Administration
3. Business Tool Integration
a. Voice mail, email and fax mail integration
b. Web + Call
c. Mobility using IP

SNL PIuns:
BSNL has planned to roll out this service in 898 cities progressively.
The service is being provided at Pune, Chennai, Bangalore, Kolkatta, Hyderabad and Ahemdabad.
This service is being provided through franchisees. Many cities already have franchisees for
broadband content and they can offer this service. A pool of private IP addresses will be
allotted by BSNL to the said franchisee, which will be used for allotting IP address to the IPTV
customer.











Section-V

Chapter-24

BSNL Application Packages
E2E3 BSNL Application Packages, Ver1 24.08.2007 1 of 12

DOTSOFT

1.0 DOTSOFT is an Integrated Telecom Database System comprising of :-
Commercial
TRA (Billing & Accounting)
Directory Enquiry
Fault Repair Service
Running on a Wide Area Network

2.0 INTRODUCTION

DOTSOFT is an integrated telecom database system comprising commercial,
billing, accounting, fault repair service and directory enquiry services
It can run not only on a wide area network (WAN) spanning an entire district
but also on a local LAN in the offline mode.
DOTSOFT is based on the latest software technologies running on a WAN
and is the first of its kind in BSNL in the field of information technology.
It has been conceptualised, designed and developed entirely by the core group
of the Software Development Centre of the Andhra Pradesh Telecom Circle,
Hyderabad.
It has been successfully implemented in all the districts in AP Circle. It has
been also successfully implemented in many circles in BSNL.

2.1 Concise description of DOTSOFT

DOTSOFT is an enterprise wide telecom database system that revolutionizes
the operation and supervision of customer services by enabling all the
personnel to work online.
The central server contains the complete database to which all the nodes
anywhere in the district log in. The database is accessed using application
software residing in the nodes which have GUI interface.
The nodes in the customer service centre service all the subscriber requests
which flow to the commercial and accounts sections as the case may be.
After validation and approval from the the concerned sections the work orders
flow to the different field units depending on the activity
After the completion of the work orders the commercial and billing data of the
subscriber gets updated.
Bill generation is absolutely easy and totally secure.
Payments are faster and completely hassle free for the customer and the
counter personnel because of the use of bill scanners.
Revenue accounting and ledger reports are available immediately at the end of
the month.
The system can generate any kind of detailed as well as statistical reports.
Online enquiry is available for supervision and queries
E2E3 BSNL Application Packages, Ver1 24.08.2007 2 of 12


2.2 IMPORTANT FEATURES OF DOTSOFT

Every subscriber is identified by an identification number which shall be
unique all over the country (CCCSSAYYYYMMXXXXX).
All-India shift and closure cases are processed immediately.
Database security is implemented through database grants and dynamically
changing menus.
System is highly scalable and can run on a wide variety of operating system
platforms.
The system can run on both client-server or host based systems or web based
intranet without any change in the software.
All the parameters of the system are table driven.
State of the art technology used in the designing of the wide area network.
Central control of the WAN using a robust network management software

2.3 UTILITY OF DOTSOFT

DOTSOFT is one of the first steps towards the bold and ultimate goal of E-
Governance and paperless offices.
All the work is done online which results in excellent customer service, non
duplication of work, total supervision, complete transparency, better planning
and with a facility of instant reports.
Single window concept introduced for the first time.
Concept of request registration number introduced through which the status of
the request can be tracked and inquired.
Signature warehousing to be included for online verification purpose.
Instant electronic flow of data between the offices and field units with facility
to print wherever required.
Various intimation letters to subscribers automatically generated.
Priority execution of advice notes.
Messaging system between CO and Field units.
DOTSOFT mail system between all users.
Complete history of subscribers activities available online.
Details of subscriber records & requests, bills, demand notes,
wait list, payments and work orders available online.
Variable billing cycle, ISDN billing.
Centrex and WLL billing U/D.
NPC advice notes once completed online are billed in the next schedule.
Un-addressed bills are generated when a DEL is working but the NPC advice
note has not been completed in the system.
Finalization of closed connections are settled immediately and a summary of
outstanding OR refund order is generated.
Uncollected deposits can be billed in the regular bills and the accounting is
taken care of automatically.
E2E3 BSNL Application Packages, Ver1 24.08.2007 3 of 12

Supplementary bills can be issued for any uncovered amount.
Outstanding details can be taken for any month on any given date.
Debit charges and credits generated by the system and hence remove any
requirement of manual entry.
Voluntary deposits incorporated.
Outstanding surcharge if any, will be transferred to the next bill, which
reduces the number of outstanding bills.
Automatic generation of ringing/disconnection list, which can be ported to an
interactive voice response system to alert the subscriber.
Directory Enquiry shows the status at the moment of enquiry. It can query on
any of the subscribers details in part or in full.
Complete managerial supervision is possible about the activities happening
anywhere in the district.
Statistical data is generated to find out activity, usage and payment patterns to
facilitate better customer service.
Online help facility covering all rules and regulations is provided.
User manual is provided in the .html format.

2.4 Security features in DOTSOFT

Blocking of User access to DOTSOFT menu if user password violating
password rules.
Allotment of Dynamic Roles at the time of login through DOTSOFT Menu as
a security measure (Blocking of SQL ACCESS to DOTSOFT MENU users
and all DOTSOFT Modules will work only through DOTSOFT Menu.)
Blocking of user access from unauthorized IP address.
Restricting SQL access with product user profile.
Provision for profile creation/allotment.
Enabling log in triggers to block unauthorized module Developers other than
DBA.
Designed security policy for oracle DBMS and placed on DOTSOFT site.



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E2E3 BSNL Application Packages, Ver1 24.08.2007 6 of 12




E2E3 BSNL Application Packages, Ver1 24.08.2007 7 of 12

BSNL HR Package

1.0 About HR Package

It is an in-house package developed by the employees of BSNL for usage by
BSNL. The design and development of the package started initially at Telecom
Factory as a part of their effort of internal computerization, and the Employee
master was developed. Since the HR requirements of all the employees of BSNL
are more or less same, the same package was adopted for entire BSNL and the
development was taken over by IT Project Circle. The initial development was
done in Forms and was launched for a trial run at Maharashtra circle, Kolhapur
SSA and Telecom Factory Mumbai.

Since the Forms are heavy for deployment over a network, the development at
ITPC was continued in PHP/JAVA, and even the initial development was
converted and was launched on All-India Level on 16
th
Aug 2005.

The further development is continuing at ITPC, to cover all other areas of HR,
like transfers, promotions, training, quarter allotment, leaves, attendance, medical
schemes, nominations and Pay Roll.

2.0 Platforms used

OS --- Linux

Data Base --- Oracle 9i/10g

Application Server --- 9iAS/ 10g AS

Front end --- JAVA/ PHP

3.0 Who can access the package?

All the employees are envisaged to be the users of the package ultimately as all
the leaves, all the advances and other personal claims are proposed to be applied
on-line by the employee for sanction and payment on line. A provision is made
for the supervisor of the employee to make all these applications on behalf of the
illiterate sub ordinate employees.

The transactions on the package are to be done only by the authorized users.An
employee with a system generated staff number, generated by the system on
entering certain mandatory data of an employee, only can be made an authorized
user. Go through the instructions on links below to know more about this.

After the staff number is generated, the employee can be made as a user by the
concerned SA (System Administrator). The employee will be given as the user
E2E3 BSNL Application Packages, Ver1 24.08.2007 8 of 12

name( the employees staff no.) and a pass word initially. But on first log on the,
system will force the change of pass word by the user. The user name can not be
changed. Please note that the changed pass word is case sensitive.

4.0 How to access the package?

The authorized user has to log into intranet site, and click the HR Package link
available there in. This activity opens a page asking options for the type of
network connection used, ie. either MPLS VPN or an internet connection. This
page also has one other link for getting the details about HR Package, and
another link for sending a request for issue of user name and pass words or any
other clarification.

Choosing and clicking the appropriate option will open the log in page of the HR
Package. The user name and password for HR package will allow the bonafide
user to access the HR package.

Creating the system administrators and Use of One Time User Name and Pass
Word by the System Administrator

1. The SA has to be created for each of the main offices ie the corporate office,
circles and SSAs.

A One Time user name and password for the SA will be mailed to mail address of
the SA or to the address from which the request is received.

Using this One Time details, the HR package can be accessed. The system will open
the employee master page to the SA.

The SA will have to enter his details in the staff master and submit the page. The
system will generate a new staff no. for the SA. The system will also make the SA as
a user automatically with the newly generated staff no. as the username and
password.

Only on the generation of the new staff no., the one time user name and pass word
will become invalid. If the staff no. is not generated for any reason, the one time UN
& PW will continue to be valid.

The SA can log in with his new staff no. as the user name and pass word and will be
forced by the system to change the PW on first log in.

There after the SA can enter the details of any no. of employees and generate new
staff nos. for them. He can also make them the USERS for data entry purpose. The
initial user name and pass word for the employee will be will be the staff no. of the
employee generated by the system and the pass word will have to be changed by the
user on first log in.
E2E3 BSNL Application Packages, Ver1 24.08.2007 9 of 12


5.0 Concept of the Location (Based on organizational structure, address and the type
of service provided by the office concerned)

Through the LOCATION we are trying to define the organizational structure of
BSNL. Organization helps in governance at each level by way of decentralization.

Organisational structure is the most important part of the BSNL, in fact, for any
organization. Generally organizations are defined in different layers depending on
the functions to be carried out. The reporting/relational structure between the
layers also is well defined. The layers can one below the other, one parallel to the
other, or any other way as the organization defines.

Each layer of the organization is manned by certain number of employees. The
reporting structure among the employees in a layer also well defined by way of
grades in which the employee is placed. Hence organizational structure has no
relation with the grades and the number of the employees in that layer of the
organization. The number of employees and the grades of those employees in
each layer depends on the functionality, responsibility and other parameters
assigned to the layer by the organization.
As many posts, in different grades, as may be required are created in each
location for discharging the assigned work.

Traditionally BSNL (DOT) was having the following structure.

a). DOT(Ministry) ---- analogous to the Corporate Office of BSNL (Ministry
remains today also but as far as the BSNL is concerned , Ministry is not a part of
its structure).

This was/ is the top most layer. (Headed by DG/ CMD )

b). Circles ---- There are many Circles and are discharging different functions
like, Territorial and Metro Districts for telecom operations , Project Crcles,
Maintenance Regions, Production, QA, T&D, Training, Civil Wing, Electrical
Wing, Architectural Wings etc.

Names of all the circles are already entered in the system.

This is the second layer. (Headed by CGM). They normally report to the
Corporate Office

c). SSA ---- This layer came into the being in 1980s. Earlier there were Divisions
, Sub- Divisions.( They still exist).

Names of all the SSAs for the relevant circles are already entered in the system.

E2E3 BSNL Application Packages, Ver1 24.08.2007 10 of 12


This is the third layer. ( It is headed by officer in an appropriate grade).

We had, in the past, a defined structure at next levels called Divisions and Sub-
Divisions under the Circles before SSAs came into being. But after SSAs came
into being, the structure under each SSA has been different to suit its needs.
There is a general similarity in all the structures below the SSA, but it is not the
same for all the SSAs.

The corporate office, the circles, the SSAs are referred to as main offices only
for the purpose of understanding the location concept.

d). Units ----

Units are to be created by the Sys. Admn. of the relevant main office. Before
creating the units in the system it is highly recommended that the structure is
made on the paper and after confirming the correctness, the same may be entered
in the system.

Unit is defined based on the following.

a) Name the unit
b) Address of the unit --- postal address
c) Service rendered by the unit --- operation, civil, electrical, production etc.

5.1 Each of the main offices i.e. Corporate office, Circle, SSA can have units under
them based on the above criterion. For eg.

a) BSNL corporate office has its office at Statesman building. If some of the
employees in the corporate office are located at Sanchar Bhavan and at other
addresses like Jan path hotel, then Sanchar Bhavan will be one of the units of the
Corporate office and Jan path hotel will be another unit of the corporate office.
Here name of the office is same but the address is different.
b) Maharashtra Circle has its office at Fountain building, and another office at Juhu
in Mumbai. Juhu office will be a unit under Maharashtra circle.
c) There are number of circles which do not have SSAs under them like QA, T&D,
TFs etc. Each office under their direct control will be a separate unit and one unit
can be reporting to the parent office or to another unit of the parent unit. For eg.

i) QA circle has its main office at Bangalore. There are many offices in
India which are directly reporting to QA office at Bangalore. Each will
be a unit, say unit 1 at Mumbai, unit 2 at Kolkatta with reporting office
as Circle office.
ii) There are many other offices of QA like QA of TF Mumbai ,QA of
Pune say unit 3, unit 4 respectively which report to unit 1 of QA
iii) This process will continue till all the offices of QA are covered.
E2E3 BSNL Application Packages, Ver1 24.08.2007 11 of 12

iv) Same procedure will be followed in all the main offices.
v) In case of civil wing, electrical wing, etc. the reporting structure has to
be defined. If the civil wing is reporting to the circle office/SSA then it
will be treated as a unit of the circle/SSA. If the civil wing is a treated
as a separate circle, then a separate civil circle has to be created and all
the offices reporting to the civil circle will be treated as units of this
civil structure with service type as civil. Same logic is applicable to
electrical wing with electrical as the service type and to Telecom
Factories with service type as production.
d) Service type is defined as Operation for all telecom circles including CMTS, QA,
T&D etc.; training for training institutes; production for Telecom Factories etc.

PLEASE NOTE THAT THE LEVEL OFFICER HEADING THE LOCATION IS NOT AT
ALL MENTIONED IN THE ABOVE DISCUSSION
.
Each of the main offices and each of the units is known as a location and the existing
BSNL structure is mapped into the package.

Every employee is assigned to a location in the structure. By doing so the details of the
employee relating to the office in which he/she is working, the address of the office and
the service he/she is rendering to BSNL are identified. For eg.

-if we ask an employee where he/she is working the reply would be that I am
working in the Juhu office of Maharashtra circle, rendering the service of Telecom
operations to BSNL.

Whenever a new office is created, say for eg. a new circle is created like UP(E), then a
new location has to be created and employees have to be reallocated to the new
office/unit. Even if a new building is to be used, a new location in the form of a new unit
has to be created and employees have to reallocated to it.

The reallocation can be done through the transfer module, which will be taking some
time to be introduced till such a time the changes have to be done manually.

SA for the UNITS created by the respective SA of the main office.

As and when a new unit is created, the system, by default creates and inserts a ONE
TIME user name and PW for that unit. The format for both of them is Short Description
of the unit _ TRG. For eg if a unit of QA is created in Pune with short description as
QA_PUNE then both the one time UN & PW for this unit will be
QA_PUNE_TRG.

This can be given to any employee of QA Pune for following the above instructions.

While creating a SA of a unit, the level of the officers have to be kept in view, as
prescribed in BSNL instructions.
E2E3 BSNL Application Packages, Ver1 24.08.2007 12 of 12


Using this one time user name and password, the same procedure as above for creating
the SA will have to be followed for creating users in the units.

The data entry into the employee master will be only in capitals. System automatically
does it. So the one time PW & UN are in capitals only. But the changed PW by the
user on first log in is case sensitive.
System requirements at the users end

The package can be best operated on any computer with the following configuration..

1. Pentium P-III or above version.
2. Widows 98, XP, 2000, but not the server versions
3. Minimum 128 MB RAM
4. Best viewed in Internet explorer-6 or above.
5. Network connectivity.
6. Pop ups should not be blocked.
















Section-V

Chapter-25

NOS & RDBMS



E2E3 NOS & RDBMS, Ver1 24.08.2007 1 of 4


Network Operating System

Operating System

An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a
computer. An operating system processes raw system data and user input, and responds by
allocating and managing tasks and internal system resources as a service to users and programs of the
system. At the foundation of all system software, an operating system performs basic tasks
such as controlling and allocating memory, prioritizing system requests, controlling input and
output devices, facilitating networking and managing file systems. Most operating systems come
with an application that provides a user interface for managing the operating system, such as a
command line interpreter or graphical user interface. The operating system forms a platform for
other system software and for application software. Mac OS, Windows, and Linux are some of the
most popular OSes.

Network Operating System

Network Operating System (NOS) is an operating system that includes special functions for
connecting computers and devices into a local-area network (LAN) or Inter-networking. Some
popular NOSs for DOS and Windows systems include Novell Netware, Windows NT, 2000,
2003, RHEL, IBM AIX and Sun Solaris etc.. The Cisco IOS (Internet Operating System) is also
a Network Operating System with a focus on the Internetworking capabilities of network devices.
A NOS controls a network and its message (e.g. packet) traffic and queues, controls access by
multiple users to network resources such as files, and provides for certain administrative functions,
including security. A network operating system is most frequently used with local area networks and
wide area networks, but could also have application to larger network systems. The upper 5 layers
of the OSI Reference Model provide the foundation upon which many network operating
systems are based.

Features of NOS
Some of the features of Network Operating System are:
Provide basic operating system features such as support for processors, protocols,
automatic hardware detection and support multi-processing of applications.
Security features such as authentication, authorization, logon restrictions and access
control
Provide name and directory services
Provide file, print, web services, back-up and replication services
Support Internetworking such as routing and WAN ports
User management and support for logon and logoff, remote access; system management,
administration and auditing tools with graphic interfaces

Services offered by NOS
Network services are the foundation of a networked computing environment. Generally
network services are installed on one or more servers to provide shared resources to client
computers. Network services are configured on corporate LANs to ensure security and user friendly
operation. They help the LAN run smoothly and efficiently.

E2E3 NOS & RDBMS, Ver1 24.08.2007 2 of 4


Authentication Service
Authentication service provides authentication service to users or other systems.
Users and other servers authenticate to such a server, and receive cryptographic tickets. These
tickets are then exchanged with one another to verify identity. Authentication is used as
the basis for authorization, privacy, and non-repudiation. The major authentication algorithms
utilized are passwords, Kerberos, and public key encryption.

Directory Service

A directory service (DS) is a software application that stores and organizes information about a
computer network's users and network resources, and that allows network administrators to manage
users' access to the resources. Additionally, directory services act as an abstraction layer between
users and shared resources.

DHCP Service

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a set of rules used by communications
devices such as a computer, router or network adapter to allow the device to request and obtain an IP
address from a server which has a list of addresses available for assignment. DHCP is a protocol used
by networked computers (clients) to obtain IP addresses and other parameters such as the default
gateway, subnet mask, and IP addresses of DNS servers from a DHCP server. The DHCP server
ensures that all IP addresses are unique, Thus IP address pool management is done by the server.

DNS
Domain Name System is used for transalating human readable names for machines (Servers,
Domains, Clients) to IP addresses and vice versa. It also stores other information such as the list
of mail exchange servers that accept email for a given domain. In providing a worldwide
keyword-based redirection service, the Domain Name System is an essential component of
contemporary Internet use.

e-Mail Service
Electronic mail is a store and forward method of composing, sending, storing, and receiving
messages over electronic communication systems. The term "e-mail" applies both to the Internet e-
mail system based on the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and to intranet systems allowing
users within one organization to e-mail each other. Often these workgroup collaboration
organizations may use the Internet protocols for internal e-mail service.

Network Print Service
Print service is a facility that is extended to the users so that printer service is available
to all users through the network and no individual printer is required on the client machine.

Network File Service
network file system is any computer file system that supports sharing of files, printers and other
resources as persistent storage over a computer network. The Network File System (NFS) which
became the first widely used distributed file system. Other notable distributed file systems are
Andrew File System (AFS) and Server Message Block SMB, also known as CIFS
E2E3 NOS & RDBMS, Ver1 24.08.2007 3 of 4


RDBMS

Short for relational database management system and pronounced as separate letters, a type of
database management system (DBMS) that stores data in the form of related tables. Relational
databases are powerful because they require few assumptions about how data is related or how it
will be extracted from the database. As a result, the same database can be viewed in many
different ways. An important feature of relational systems is that a single database can be spread
across several tables. This differs from flat-file databases, in which each database is self-
contained in a single table. Almost all full-scale database systems are RDBMS's. Small database
systems, however, use other designs that provide less flexibility in posing queries.
Database

A group of tables with related data in them is called a Database
Coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning, designed, built and populated
for a specific purpose.

DBMS and RDBMS
Software designed to manage data in database is DBMS.
In relational databases, data is organised into tables and tables are closely related.

Designing Relational Database
Analyze the situation to gather information about the purpose.
Decide on columns, data types and the lengths of data.
Create the database and tables.
Populate the tables

Normalizing the Data
Normalizing is the process of organizing data into related tables.
Purpose - Eliminate Redundant Data

Rules for Normalizing
FNF
Columns cant contain multiple values
SNF
Every non-key column must depend upon the entire key and not just a part of primary
key.
TNF
All non-key elements must not depend upon any other non-key columns

Relational Database Objects
Tables
Columns
Data types
Stored Procedures
Functions
Triggers
Views
Indexes

E2E3 NOS & RDBMS, Ver1 24.08.2007 4 of 4

Concept of Keys
Primary Keys to enforce uniqueness and Not-NULL among the rows
Foreign Keys are one or more columns that reference the primary keys or unique
constraints of other table.
Constraints are server-based system implemented data integrity enforcement
mechanism.
Rules/checks

Managing Data Integrity
Data integrity means data in a database adheres to business rules
Application Code
Database triggers
Declarative Integrity constraints
Database triggers: Programs that are executed when an event, such as insert or
update on a column, occurs in a table.
Types of Constraints
NOT NULL
UNIQUE
PRIMARY KEY
FOREIGN KEY
CHECK
Concept of Schema
A schema is a logical grouping of database objects based on the user who owns them
SQL
IBM invented SEQUEL(structured English query language) for data queries
Over the data it has been added now it can not only query but fully build and manage
databases
SQL sentences are
DDL (data definition language)
DML (data manipulation language)
DCL (data control language)
Processing of SQL statement
SQL statement is received as strings and broken into Oracle verbs and oracle objects
Oracle verbs are then compared with verbs available in Pursing Tree (appropriate and
correct position check)
Then check for availability of Database objects(refers data dictionary)
Check for permissions to the user who has fired the statement (refers data dictionary)
Opening of Cursor(area where data is to stored)

Steps of SQL statement Processing
1.Open the area in memory and maintain a pointer to that location
2.Parse the SQL statement
3.Bind the select list columns to the cursor columns
4.Define variables to fetch the data from the cursor variables
5.Execute the query
6.Fetch data one row at a time
7.Perform required processing
8.Close the opened cursor













Section-V

Chapter-26

IT Security
E2E3 IT Security, Ver2 28.02.2008 1 of 3


Information Security

ABSTRACT
In the age of Information Revolution, the management of information and its
security is the key concern for all organisations and nations. For sharing of
information among the intended users, the systems have to be networked. With this
networking the risk of unauthorized use and attacks have taken major attention of
Managers.
Networks and Information are subject to various types of attacks and various
products are available in the market for securing the systems. But it needs the
thorough understanding of the various issues involved and proper implementation.

Need of Securing Information
Information is most important asset for any organization especially for a telecom
operator. All our revenue comes from some information only. Besides revenue if there is
loss of information all our processes can come to a stand still and it will result in
interruptions. It takes lot of efforts to build up information, but the small negligence at
any level can result in loss of information. The good aspect of information is that now it
is easy to move and easy to alter and this aspect has added insecurity dimension to
information during security incidents besides revenue, the image of the company is also
at stake.
So it a high time that we have a security policy endorsed by the higher management and
get it implemented. Implementation of security policy is just not putting up data security
devices and having a tight access control mechanism, it is an on going process. The
security mechanism is to be continued reviewed against the failures and new threats and
risks. The risks are to be analyzed and managed accordingly. The management of risk
involves its acceptance, mitigation or transfer. The most important aspect is to have a
security organizational set up which will do all these activities.

Information Security ensures

Availability,
Integrity and
Confidentially of information
The information security set-up of any organisation has to think of security of
individuals and file-level data objects and to protect the network from being launching
pad of attacks by hackers. The general solution to security design problems lies in
authentication and authorisation model, which is collectively known as access control.
However access control does not provide enough security because it ignores the potential
threat from insiders. Accountability steps in where access control leaves off.

A lot can be observed by just watching. Pay attention to what you can see and measure.
How is it to be done? Answer lies in intercepting all transactions that involve files. Think
of it as event detection. The event records are filtered and correlated at the time of
E2E3 IT Security, Ver2 28.02.2008 2 of 3
capture to distinguish between OS and application activities from user-initiated data use.
The audit trail is to be compressed and made temper proof and archived. Because this
capture occurs in real time, the reaction can be in real time. The reaction should be risk-
appropriate and may range from issuing an alarm to change in authorisation policy. The
point is that you should have the event log and monitor it.

Various Types of Attacks and their Counter Measures
Security Incidents are mainly due to:
Malicious Code Attacks
Known Vulnerabilities
Configuration Errors
Indications of Infection

A system infected with malicious codes will have following symptom(s):
1. Poor System Performance
2. Abnormal System Behavior
3. Unknown Services are running
4. Crashing of Applications
5. Change in file extension or contents
6. Hard Disk is Busy
There can be various types of malicious codes like Virus, Worms, Trojan Horses, Bots,
Key Loggers, Spyware, Adware etc. The solution against these is to have good anti-virus
software. The anti-virus software should be updated in routine so that it is effective
against new malicious codes.

The Configurations of the systems are Vulnerable because of
1. Default Accounts
2. Default Passwords
3. Un-necessary Services
4. Remote Access
5. Logging and Audit Disabled
6. Access Controls on Files

Monitoring Security of Network

Monitor for any changes in Configuration of High risk Devices
Monitor Failed Login Attempts, Unusual Traffic, Changes to the Firewall, Access
Grants tom Firewall, Connection setups through Firewalls
Monitor Server Logs

Security has to implemented at all levels i.e. Network, NOS, Application and
RDBMS.

Security of Network
Firewalls are used for Perimeter Defence of Networks. Using Firewall Access Control
Policy is implemented. It controls all internal and external traffic.
E2E3 IT Security, Ver2 28.02.2008 3 of 3

Security of OS/NOS

Keep up-to-date Security Patches and update releases for OS
Install up-to-date Antivirus Software
Harden OS by turning off unnecessary clients, Services and features

Security of Application

Keep up-to-date Security Patches and update releases for Application Package
Dont Install Programs of unknown origin
Precautions with Emails
Protection from Phishing attacks
Securing Web Browsers

Security of RDBMS
For securing data the following are needed:
1. User Management
2. Password Management
3. Managing Allocation of Resources to Users
4. Backup and Recovery
5. Auditing
Summary of Action Items
1. Secure Physical Access
2. Remove Unnecessary Services
3. Secure Perimeter
4. Properly Administer Network
5. Apply Patches in Time
6. Install Antivirus Software
7. Backup Data
8. Encrypt Sensitive Data
9. Install IDS
10. Proper Monitoring

Conclusion:
Caution is the word when it comes to Information Security. In an era, when information
is the power and wealth for an organisation, one cannot expect taking chances with it.
Therefore, it is advisable not only to secure the physical access to the information, but
also to install antivirus software, wherever required. Prevention is better than cure- goes
strong in case of Information Security also, if we want to create competitiveness.
Moreover Security is a continuous process, the preparedness of yesterday may not be
sufficient for today. We have to review periodically to find the gaps and immediate
action.














Section-VI

Chapter-27

Sample Questions
E2E3 Technical sample questions 1 of 3

Part-I Objective type-70 marks

This section will have a combination of multiple choices, true/false and match the
following type questions (maximum 50 questions). Few sample questions are given
below:

1.
Two main factors responsible for guiding the light waves in optical fibers are:
(a) Incident angle and Reflection. (b) Critical angle and total internal reflection
(c) reflection and air to glass refraction. (d) None
2.
SDH rings are commonly called as
(a) Self healing Ring. (b) Asynchronous ring (c) Dedicated Ring (d) Path switched
3.
Max no. of EI can be mapped in STM-1 frame.
(a) 63 (b) 65 (c) 60 (d) 61
4. For synchronization, N/W synchronization exists at
(a) Bit level (b) Byte level (c) Frame level (d) At all three level
5. Which is main meter used in OFC testing
(a) DTA (b) OTDR (c) Power meter (d) ANT-30
6. What is the basic service unit of cellular telephony?
(a) location area (b) cell (c) PLMN service area (d) MSC/VLR service area
7. Paging is done in
(a) Cell (b) Location area (c) Handover area (d) Routing area
8.
Which of the following is not part of the mobile Switching System?
(a) EIR (b) BSC (c) HLR (d) VLR
9. EIR checks
(a) IMSI (b) TMSI (c) IMEI (d) MSRN
10. Which of the following MS can simultaneously handle voice and data call
(a) Class A (b) Class B (c) Class C (d) None of these
11. The minimum speed of BSNL broadband connection is:
(a) 128kbps (b) 256 kbps (c) 512kbps (d) 1Mbps
12.
The HR Package has been developed by:
a. ITPC , Pune b. BSNL HQ c. ALTTC d. AP Circle
13.
To secure the network, the following should be used.

(a) Antivirus (b) Firewall (c) Upgradation of software (d) all of them
14. Number of time slots in 2Mbps PCM are
(a) 26 (b) 30 (c) 31 (d) 32
E2E3 Technical sample questions 2 of 3
15. Type of signaling used in modern telecom network is
(a) MF (b) Decadic (c) CCS no 7 (d) IP based
16. IAM in CCS 7 stands for
(a) Identity authentication message (b) Initial address message
(c) International address message (d) Interconnect address message
17. NGN stands for
(a) New Generation Network (b) Next Generation Network
(c) National Gateway Network (d) Notional Gateway Network
18. In packet switching, path of packets:
(a) is fixed (b) may be different (c) Generally same (d) combination
19. In sampling theorem sampling frequency Fs is related to highest signal frequency fh
(a) Fs >= 2fh (b) Fs > 2fh (c) Fs < 2fh (d) Fs =< 2fh
20. SCCP stands for
(a) Signalling Connection control point (b) Subscriber Charging control program
(c) Special Customer care portal (d) Signalling Channel control point
21.
The following protocols is used to distribute labels in MPLS-VPN:-

a) (a) RSVP (b) LDP (c) BGP (d) OSPF
22 Match the following (4 marks)
1. UMTS (a) Mobility management
2. MS (b) Grey list
3. Mobile Switching equipment (c) SIM
4. EIR (d) 3G
23. Match the following (4 marks)
(a) FPH (1) 0900xx
(b) VCC (2) 1902xx
(c) PRM (3) 1800xx
(d) Televoting local (4) 1802xx
24
Match the following (4 marks)

(a) Foreign Key 1. SQL Statement
(b) DML 2. Constraint
(c) Trigger 3. Eliminate redundant data
(d) Normalisation 4. Object
25
State True/False (Each question carries one mark)

1.The function of splitter in DSLAM and subs-premises is different.
2.The maximum distance of ADSL is 2 km.
3.The core routers in MPLS are not having any routing table.
4.The incoming packet to a router in MPLS will have the labels announced by
its immediate neighbor / peer.

E2E3 Technical sample questions 3 of 3

Part-II

Subjective: Total marks-30

This section will have questions seeking 5-10 line answer and may ask to draw general
block diagrams. The questions may offer choice and can be from any of the topics. Few
sample questions are given below:

1 Write two main advantages of GPRS for operators and users respectively.

2 Draw block schematic of GSM architecture showing its main units.


3 What is the format of HRMS no (HR Staff No)?

4 List two types of threats to computer systems. What counter measures can
be taken to minimize the risk?


5 Write down any four daily maintenance checks for engine alternator

6 Write down any four monthly maintenance checks for window/split AC.

7 Define NGN and write any four features of NGN.

8 What is Intelligent Network? Briefly explain any four IN services of BSNL

9 What are VPN's? List the different types of VPN provided by BSNL and
explain briefly any one of them?


10 Write down any three advantages of MPLS VPN.

11 What are the factors responsible for attenuation in the OF cable ?

12 Write any three limitation of PDH network and three advantage of SDH
over PDH.