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UNIT 2 - Population Studies~ demographic studies done in the region.

(a) Robert George (1956) George considered the demographic transition theory in the historical context of the Caribbean society. He looked at the pattern of migration in the days of slavery and the mobility of the ex-slaves when they were emancipated. Fertility was also considered. He mentioned that the region is in its 5th stage of transition, one in which fertility is low. Noted, however, that George is of the view that fertility is lowered more so by fertility control methods than migration. (b) Jack Harewood (1976) Harewood based his studies in Trinidad and Tobago and was more so concerned about the use of contraception. He argued that fertility control was readily on its way on the Caribbean region since more women are aware of same. In 1976, he noted that almost 70% of the women in Trinidad and Tobago were aware of contraception. Not all of the women were willing to make use of this method, preferring large families. Here is a question: Has this position changed in the Caribbean? (c) George Ebanks George Ebanks studies of population is really indirectly related to the Caribbean since it is more so based on the Latin American countries such as Puerto Rico, Mexico and Dominica Republic. However, in his ECLAC report he did mention such commonwealth countries as Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados. For Ebanks, it is evident that fertility control is on its way in the region. He mentioned that the Neo-Malthusian theory of population can effectively be applied in the region since the region tends to employ its recommendations...... Please research on the recommendations proposed by the Neo Malthusians? (d) James Ferguson Ferguson did not focus much on population growth or transition. He was more so concerned about the migration of Caribbean women. He argued that in the past, migration was dominated by men but in contemporary Caribbean society, there is the emerging "feminization of migration".

Categories of the Poor 1. The elderly, women children and youth: Feminists have stated that poverty is feminized. Women are more vulnerable to poverty because they have little control over resources, the conditions under which they obtain these resources as well as the degree of responsibility that they have for the welfare of others. There is hidden poverty because women are more likely to feed others before themselves when little food is available (Barnard and Burgess). In the Caribbean women are often marginalized through sexual discrimination in the work place. This has far reaching effects not only on the women but n those who depend on them which are typically their children and the elderly. When women suffer from social injustice the effect is passed on to the children and the elderly since the Caribbean is largely characterized by female-headed households.(Mohammed 2007) As a consequence , the children may find it difficult to break from the cycle of poverty. 2. Single-parent families: One of the significant trends in the Caribbean is the single-parent female headed households. The explanation given in the section-the elderly, women, children and youth- has given a background of the effect that poverty has on the single parent household 3. Indigenous people: Contemporary Caribbean society has a number of indigenous peoples which live in various islands these include: the Garifuna, Kekci and Mopan of Belize as well as the Carib, Arekuna and Waiwai of Guyana. All of these people are marginalized in their countries since they do not have the economic and political power of the other inhabitants of their nations. They are most likely to subjected to and affected by poverty since they and their culture are thought to be inferior. The Indigenous people of the Caribbean tend to live in poverty because they tend to be isolated; lack proper amenities marry early and have large families. Few of them have access to education because it may involve travel and living expenses which may be too expensive for the family. In addition indigenous people are most often ostracized and discriminated against in their societies so they find it difficult to find jobs. The poverty cycle therefore continues (Mohammed 2007).

The Culture of Poverty The theory has two main tenets. Firstly, that people in different social classes have different patterns of beliefs and behavioral norms which are passed through socialization from one generation to the next. Secondly the theory assumes that the norms and behavioural patterns and norms of the lower class and more so the poor are incompatible with those of the society (McIntyre 2002). Oscar Lewis argued that poverty is a defense mechanism that the poor use and not due to a state of economic deficiency. It is a way of life which is passed down from generation to generation. He states that by the time children are at a particular age they have absorbed that attitudes of their subculture and are therefore not psychologically geared to take advantage of increased opportunities ,which may come their way.(Barnard and Burgess). It is this culture of poverty which facilitates the creation and perpetuation of the cycle of poverty. Most of the advocates of this theory stress that it is not just the behavioural patterns and the norms which enable poverty but the degree to which these believes are outside of the mainstream of society that makes the poor so bad (McIntyre 2002).

Defining poverty Poverty is a contested concept - there is little agreement on how it should be either defined or measured. This is particularly true of attempts to define relative poverty. Thus, contemporary attempts to investigate poverty usually fall back on official subsistence definitions, as represented by the safety-net minimum social security benefit levels. The general term for such minimum income schemes is social assistance, and at the present time in Britain the scheme is called income support. These benefits can be seen as a sort of 'official' poverty line. However, governments have been reluctant to accept the use of benefit ratesas indicators of poverty since to do so would be to acknowledge the need for far ranging and very costly remedial action. In addition, it should be noted that the more generous a government is in lowering the threshold for entitlement to benefit - allowing more people to claim, the greater the extent of poverty becomes if such entitlement is also used as an index of those people living in poverty, clearly here is an illustration of the extent of poverty beingan artefact of the definition. Another problem raised by the politically contested nature of poverty is where to draw the line between poverty and inequality. Poverty then is difficult to pin down and define in a way acceptable to everybody; it clearly has both political and moral dimensions. Absolute poverty 'An absolute standard means one defined by reference to the actual needs of the poor and not by reference to the expenditure of those who are not poor. A family is poor if it cannot afford to eat.' (Keith Joseph, 1979) Throughout the 20th century, there were proponents of the idea that it is possible to draw up an absolute minimum standard of living on what is required for physical health. It is this idea that lies behind the view that there is no poverty in Britain today. It is an extremely influential notion reflecting much public and governmental opinion. The concept of absolute poverty was developed in the 19th century by Rowntree. It was developed to counter the view that poverty was due to fecklessness, and individual failings, although it has since become associated with attempts to limit the needs of the poor. Sometimes known as subsistence poverty, it was expressed in simple absolute terms, usually as a minimum sum of money. Inherent in such an approach is a judgement of basic human needs and a calculation of the resources required to meet those needs and maintain physical health. It was therefore concerned to establish the quality and amount of food, clothing and shelter required for a healthy life. Examples of such an approach are: Booth, Life and Labour in East London. Rowntree's early studies of York, 1899, 1936, 1950. Rowntree considered that families whose income was too low to provide minimum necessities were in primary poverty, while families whose incomes were marginally above the poverty line would place themselves in secondary poverty if they budgeted unwisely. Note the moral judgment buried in the

concept of secondary poverty - an approach that is still very much a part of New Right condemnations of behaviour. Rowntree changed and upgraded his assessments in later investigations, realising that poverty is a concept that has social dimensions because it is socially constructed. Poverty as a concept makes no sense if confined to definitions of physical well-being. Thus, Rowntree came to include cultural needs. A more recent example of such an approach is that of Drewnowski and Scott, Level of living Index. The application of the subsistence/absolute approach has obvious implications for social policy. If society can provide everyone with an income to meet subsistence needs then poverty can be abolished. It is possible to trace the practical application of the subsistence definition from the poor law, through the Beveridge system of social insurance to the present levels of income support. Although the amounts paid have risen because of inflation the rationale remains the same, the subsistence standard originally worked out by Rowntree in 1899 and updated by Beveridge in 1942. One reason for this that will feature again later is that of incentive; people must not be allowed to enjoy life if they don't work, so benefit rates are set at minimum levels. Criticisms 1. The search for an objective measure of poverty is impossible, no absolute criteria are available. 'There are some people who would want to make poverty entirely objective by seeking a measure of it outside people's heads and outside people's expectations and outside society's norms. And they sometimes think that death might do the trick for them. But it is not like that. Because of course the expectations that people have of how long they will live will always depend upon their expectations of others. It will depend on a socially created idea of life and death. And so even the use of mortality statistics is itself an essentially relative approach to poverty.' (A.H. Halsey, quoted in Mack & Lansley, 1985) 2. Rowntree too had found that when drawing-up a poverty line based on health that it was impossible to exclude society's norms and customs. Translating a minimum diet in terms of calories into actual food purchases cannot ignore the fact that food may be bought not because of calorific value but because of custom, for example tea. However, if tea, and coffee are allowed why not books? 3. The approach is too simplistic and inflexible. The assumption that there are basic needs for all people in all societies is questionable. Needs vary within and between societies. The needs of occupational groups vary, as does the need for water supply and flushing loos, for example. 4. When the concept of absolute poverty is widened to include cultural needs it becomes even more difficult to establish an agreed poverty line. Definitions of adequate provision are constantly being updated, and cross-cultural comparison becomes impossible, for example, the ownership of a T.V. 5. The subsistence definition ignores the fact that diet as well as lifestyles in general are determined by social convention rather than expert judgment. Thus, the subsistence approach tends towards a condescending approach to the poor by proposing a style of life for them, which is significantly different from the rest of society.

6. The subsistence definition of poverty is simply inadequate and benefit rates calculated on this definition are inadequate. 'The living standards of families on SB, particularly those on the ordinary rate of benefit, is harsh: the food is short on calories and even that is only achieved with the most determined of self-control in purchasing only the cheapest items and avoiding all waste.' (Bradshaw et al, 1987) 'Life on SB is a bleak struggle to make ends meet.' (Beltram, 1984) Despite these criticisms, the DHSS reaffirmed its commitment to this approach in 1985. 7. A study by Oldfield and Yu (1993) undertaken for the Child Poverty Action Group concluded that even with a basic, low-cost budget income support, scales were inadequate. That is that income support does not lift those at risk out of poverty, but simply sustains those who are poor in poverty. Advantages Absolute poverty corresponds to a 'commonsense' or 'lay' view of what it means to be poor. Absolute poverty is easier to measure, and therefore easier to research. Absolute poverty is seen as objective in that it measures in terms of level of income and calorific requirements of diet. Sen (1982) argues that looking at the world as a whole - there is still a need for an absolute concept of poverty linked to malnutrition. 'While it can hardly be denied that malnutrition captures only one aspect of our idea of poverty, it is an important aspect, and one that is particularly important for many developing countries. It seems clear that malnutrition must have a central place in the conception of poverty.' Relative poverty 'To have one bowl of rice in a society where all other people have half a bowl may well be a sign of achievement and intelligence... To have five bowls of rice in a society where the majority have a decent, balanced diet is a tragedy.' (Harrington, 1962, The Other America) 'Our needs and enjoyments spring from society; we measure them, therefore by society and not by the objects of their satisfaction. Because they are of a social nature, they are of a relative nature'. (Karl Marx, Selected Works) The concept of relative poverty has largely replaced the older idea of absolute poverty in sociological research. Relative poverty is measured in terms of judgements by members of a particular society of what is considered a reasonable and acceptable standard of living. Thus, this definition can never be fixed; it moves in response to changing social expectations and living standards. So, luxuries become necessities. 'Individuals, families and groups in the population can be said to be in poverty when they lack the resources to obtain the types of diets, participate in the activities and have the living conditions which are customary, or at least widely encouraged and approved, in the societies to which they belong.' (Townsend, 1979, Poverty in the United Kingdom)

The implication of adopting a relative standard of poverty is that in those societies with high levels of social stratification the eradication of poverty is impossible. Adapted from: Developments in Sociology, Volume 7, A. Walker, 1990.

CAPE Question - Unit 2 Discuss the view that the Caribbean today is underdeveloped and dependent. [25 marks]

The concept of economic underdevelopment was popularised from the late 1960s by Andre Gunder Frank, who studied the effects of imperialism in Latin America, and Walter Rodney, who wrote How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. When one speaks of underdevelopment, it suggests the state of a country that has not reached its maturity. For both Frank and Rodney, underdevelopment in countries is caused by rich or industrialized countries which have actively blocked or deformed the economies of these countries in an effort of them remaining the global power and having the superior position in world trade. It is argued that these countries are deprived of their resources at cheap prices and remain dependent on these wealthy countries for trade. For most Caribbean sociologists, it is argued that the Caribbean region is both underdeveloped and dependent. It is argued that the region has had a long history of exploitation, first at the hands of Britain and other European states, and now by the United States and to some extent Canada. The region is therefore trapped between these massive countries and is dependent upon them for trade and loans. The Dependency theory provides the notion that the people of the less developed countries are not responsible for the failure of their societies to develop. Instead, Andre Gunder Frank, the leading dependency theorists, suggests that lack of development is because western nations have deliberately under-developed them. Frank believes that there is a growing global system of capitalism where large developed countries as the United States and the United Kingdom exploit the poor countries. These poor countries grew dependent on these large states for markets, for their cheap labour, and goods. Historically, this was seen in colonization and slavery. Larger states benefitted from slavery and colonization. In contemporary society, international trade is based on a legacy of colonization. Most colonies tend to be politically independent but still have to depend on the market of the West for their cash crops. The Western demands therefore control the growth of these countries. Caribbean sociologists have argued that the region have depended significantly on the markets of developed nations and are therefore exploited. Caribbean nations such as Haiti and Jamaica have a tendency of burrowing excessively, or seek investments, from developed countries such as Britain and Canada. Frank argues that multinational companies use their investments to exploit other nations for cheap labour, cheap raw materials and new markets. These multinational companies would expand globally and dominate the capitalist world. These companies do not invest in these countries because they want to build the region; they only see the profits to be made. Overtime, when these small

Caribbean countries cannot repay these countries, it results in serious debts. A debt leads to more dependency. For this reason, it is argued that there is the need for isolation from developed nations. Most Caribbean sociologists have ignored the idea that the region is underdeveloped. With the exclusion of Haiti, it is argued that the region is more so undeveloped than underdeveloped. For these sociologists there is an important line between being underdeveloped and undeveloped. Being under-developed suggest that the region is prevented from being developed by richer countries, where as being undeveloped means that the region is not yet developed but there is no reason why it should not do so in the future. Sociologists have argued that there is no evidence that the Caribbean is underdeveloped. Being underdeveloped implies that the region would have low economic growth, rely excessively on cash crops for raw materials to export, is experiencing famine and malnutrition, have high levels of diseases and high mortality rate and have little or no avenues of communication. It is argued that most, if not all, of the Caribbean have little problem with these areas. There is evidence of industrialization, improved literacy rates and increased medical facilities which led to higher literacy rates. It means therefore that the region is not underdeveloped as it does not possess the characters of an underdeveloped society. Sociologists are more so willing to call the region developing as opposed to under-developed. It may be agreed upon that the Caribbean region is very much dependent on developed nations. Jamaica, for example, imports most of its resources rather than catering for them at home. Most sociologists have argued that this dependency is good for the region, as in that they are able to be more developed by adopting the modernization methods of the developed nations [The Modernization Theory]. The region is dependent, but not underdeveloped.

U2 CAPE 2006 Using appropriate examples, explain the basic assumptions of the Interactionists perspective of deviance. [25 marks]

The Interactionists perspective focuses upon the interactions between the deviants and those who define them as deviant. Thus, it differs from other approaches as it doesnt focus exclusively on the deviant, and the external forces supposedly forcing them to react in a certain way. What can be agreed upon, however, is that the Interactionists provide an important avenue for sociologists to examine acts of deviance and those who commit such acts. The Interactionists D.J. West argues that deviances and crimes are due to inadequate socialization and poor parenting. This goes hand in hand, with the writings of Cohen. For both West and Cohen, criminals are criminals because their parents have failed to equip them with the right skills required to succeed in education. Hence the family is to be blamed. In D.J. West investigation of his assumption, he found that one-fifths of his respondents were delinquents because of broken homes and poverty. Interactionist Charles Murray (1990) blames the emergence of poor class (welfare dependent underclass) which subscribes to a deviant value or culture. For most parts, his theory is not widely accepted. Many have argued that he is blaming the poor for the effects of structural constraints such as economic recessions which are well beyond their control. Hence, he is negatively labelling a section of the poor for their poverty. Furthermore, he had no empirical evidence for the existence of an underclass that subscribe to fundamentally different values. Perhaps, one of the most influential Interactionists theories of crime and deviance is that of Howard Becker. Beckers labelling theory asserts that when an individual is labelled as a criminal or a deviant, he/she in turns would more than likely become a deviant. Becker believes that there is no such thing as a deviant act - an act is only deviant when an audience sees it as such. For example, sticking a needle with drugs in ones arm isnt deviant it is considered to be when a teenager injects himself with heroin in a park, but not when a nurse injects medicine into a patients arm. He believes that people are therefore labelled in a certain way and these labels define them, for example, people are labelled as homosexuals and this may overshadow the fact that they may also be parents, teachers or neighbours. Hence, labels seem to colour over the other statuses of people He argues that the persons who are labelled as deviant would therefore see themselves in such labels and the negative characteristics associated with them. The person would soon identify himself as that label [in this case as a deviant] if he is perceived as such. Beckers labelling theory is one of extreme importance in the sociological world. For one, it

shows that defining deviance is not a simple process. When a person is tagged with a label, for example, it means not that he is a deviant. Adding to this point, it has highlighted the consequences of labelling people, and has shown that definitions of deviance originate in power differences. In that, the person who labels the individual has the power to make that person be perceived as a deviant by others. And it requires the effort of the individual who is labelled to remove this label from himself through his actions. It has been argued, however, that the act of deviance is always important than the reaction. People who commit deviant acts know full well what they are doing- self awareness of their deviant activities does not suddenly result from having a label slapped on them. Ackers, for example, suggests Beckers labelling theory places too much emphasis on societal reaction some actions e.g. murder, child abuse, will always be deviant and therefore societal reaction is less important than the act. And as a consequent, the theory underestimates the degree of choice that deviants may have. Edwin Sutherland offers the Differential Association theory. He proposes that through interaction with other individuals criminal behaviour comes. Criminal behaviour in his view is a learnt process. In that, a person does not become a robber over night. Sutherland believes that in order for that person to become a robber, he would associate himself with other robbers. Hence, People may respond differently to situation based on how they prepare or associate themselves to the problem. This theory has been criticized. It is argued that it does not concern itself with why people become criminals in the first place. And furthermore, the theory ignores the fact that they are other ways in which people can become criminals - they can be labelled as Becker so soundly puts it, there is the possibility of poverty, and for the Marxists, they may be responding to Capitalism. The Interactionists perspective is one of the few attempts of explaining deviance within society. This perspective is unique in that it gives an insight on the relations between deviants. Though, it may be argued that it has sometimes failed to really examine the manners in which people become deviants, this perspective have offered a possible approve as to understanding the thinking process of deviants.

CAPE U2 2004 CAPE 2004 Critically evaluate explanations of juvenile delinquency in any named Caribbean society that are offered by the theories of youth culture and subculture. [25 marks]

Most Caribbean researchers and social writers have argued that there has been an increased in juvenile delinquency in the region. Juvenile delinquency involves young adults under the age of consent committing petty and sometimes serious crimes around different communities. It is evident that in such Caribbean states as Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica, there have been more and more reported cases of juvenile delinquency. It moves sociologists to critically examine this mode of social problem. Lifestyle of youths Caribbean sociologists have argued that crime is influenced more so by lifestyle than age. The young may find themselves, because of their lifestyle, in situations where they are exposed to criminal forms of behaviour (especially violence and petty crime and so forth). Thus, it may be that criminal behaviour has no clear-cut, causal, relationship with age (that is, people do not commit more crime just because of their age). Rather, the fact that young people may be involved in public drinking, night-clubbing and the likes, may simply mean that they are more likely than, for example, an old age pensioner, to find themselves in an environment conducive to criminal behaviour. The Interactionists perspective After studying juvenile delinquency, the Interactionists Cohen asserts those working class boys commit juvenile delinquency because of two reasons. For one, their parents have failed to equip them with the right skills required to succeed in education. Cohen therefore blames the family. The family, he argues, have failed to instill within young boys the need to pursue educational goals, and they in turn become delinquents. Furthermore, argues Cohen, society encourages its members to acquire status through educational success, jobs and materialism, however, due to working class boys lack of skills, schools and teachers deny them this status. It is evident that most juvenile delinquency within the Caribbean can be explained based on this perspective. For most parts, it is the home that fails to instill specific values through socialization. Caribbean sociologists such as Edith Clarke have argued that this may be the case due to the lack of fathers in the home. In Jamaica, for example, it is evident that in the urban areas more homes have a Matrifocal structure. Relative Deprivation Left Realists, Jock Young and John Lea, under their theory of relative deprivation, argue that juvenile delinquency is more so an issue among lower class members of society. They argue that these young people feel that they are marginalized, as they are deprived from such rewards as other members of the same age group in different classes. As they lack both the power and

wealth as their richer counterparts, they are more so willing to be delinquents. The main aim is to deprive others of what they have. Most sociologists have criticize this theory as it is not a good explanation of white collar crimes, which are committed by those individuals who are normally wealthy The Marxists Perspective The Marxist David Gordon argues that deviant act is an inevitable product of capitalism and the inequalities it generates. Hence, juvenile delinquency is due to inequality within society. He argues that inequalities in wealth and income create poverty and homelessness; and crime is a rational response to these problems. Gordon suggests capitalism encourages values such as greed and materialism which are conducive to all classes committing crime. Inequalities in wealth and power lead to frustration, hostility and envy. In the Caribbean society, this may be the case. Numerous writings from the region have suggested that deviant acts affect more so the working class than those who owns the means of production. Hirschis view of juvenile delinquency Sociologist Hirschi believes that older people in the middle class or upper class have too much to commit crimes. They have jobs, homes, families and reputation that cannot be corrupted. As the lower class lacks all of these, they are more willing to commit crimes. He therefore believes that juvenile delinquency occurs among people of the lower class. As these people lack wealth and reputations, they are more so willing to commit crimes. Delinquency and opportunity Perhaps the most important explanation of juvenile delinquency comes from Cloward and Ohlins delinquency and opportunity theory. Cloward and Ohlin believe that young people, especially of the working class, are more prone to be delinquents because often times they are provided with the opportunities to be delinquents. They spoke about illegitimate opportunity structure i.e. just as there are opportunities to be successful by legitimate means, so do opportunities arise for illegitimate means. E.g. there might be a thriving criminal subculture in one area already thus the adolescent has plenty of chances to jump aboard. In their view young people will join different subcultures that promote delinquency: either these subcultures be criminal, conflict or retreatist in nature.

UNIT 2 Assess the extent to which population control policies are essential to a society's national development plan. Support your response by referring to any two population control policies and two related national development strategies in a named Caribbean society. Appropriate sociological approaches must be used.

Answer Plan (i) Define Population Control. (ii) Why is Population control important for National development? (iii) Is there evidence of population control in the Caribbean? If so, illustrate? (iv) What policies have been implemented in the Caribbean that targets population control? (v) Is population control the only means of ensuring development? Explain. What is Population control? Population control is the means by which human beings take active steps, normally in relations to social policies and morals, to limit the number of children they have. There are numerous means of population control including delayed marriages, contraception, abortions, sterilization and abstinence. Of importance is that population control policies tend to be relative. By this, while some may be acceptable in some societies, some are not in other societies. In the Caribbean, for example, abortion is not relatively appreciated and is often frowned upon. The Importance of Population Control Population Control can assist in National development in the following ways: (i) It ensures that women are able to control their reproductive right. Population control thus goes hand in hand with the development of women. (ii) The less people in society means that the less resources are being used by that society. Population control therefore ensures that limited resources such as food, housing and health care are not being strained (Anderson and Taylor, 2003). (iii) Population control ensures that less people are dependent on the government (ECLAC, 2002) (iv) The HDR 2011 argue that such Caribbean countries as St. Kitts, Trinidad and

Tobago and Jamaica can only reduce poverty by controlling and limiting their population. Consider the Neo-Malthusian and Malthusian theory that argue that overpopulation would lead to the out-stripping of resources. Evidence of Population Control in the Region - Population control is relatively accepted in the Caribbean. Studies by Harewood (1975), Abdullah (1971) and Yeboah (2000) have showed that Caribbean women are appreciative of contraception and are more willing to pursue educational opportunities than to have children at an early age. Abdullah noted that almost 90% of women in T&T were aware of contraception through government policies. - Yeboah (2000) noted that Caribbean governments have appealed to international organizations such as the International Planned Parenthood Federation for loans to implement family planning policies. - Harewood noted, however, that some women in the Caribbean rather large families because of religious reasons and poverty. What policies have been implemented in the Caribbean that targets population control? - Numerous policies have been implemented in the Caribbean most of them revolving around family planning and education. - There is evidence that Caribbean government have ensured greater equity in schools so that women can get a better education. Reddock (1998), Harewood (1975) and Barriteau (1998) have all argued that population control and womens education goes hand in hand. - Numerous campaigns have been televised about parenting In Jamaica for example, the slogan plan for two, its the smart thing to do appeal to middle class people and encouraged them to have only two children or limit the number of children they have. Other means of development: - Industrialization Consider Arthur Lewiss Industrialization by Invitation Proposal - Improving education Numerous Caribbean sociologists have argued that true development of the Caribbean region can only be achieved by the development of the human resources. The human resources are infact the main resources of the region, hence, developing this important commodity means an overall development of other

aspects of Caribbean society. Hence, provisions must be made to improve health organizations, educational institutions, religious branches and recreational institutions. Susan George, a major critic of fertility control, agreed with this notion, and contended that population will decline automatically as people become better educated, health care improves and poverty is attacked. Though not in his line of arguments, Warren S. Thompson agree that this may be a possibility; people would soon or later see children as burden. He believes that people generally tend to have as many children has they can support or afford. Furthermore, it does help should the government start to make good technological advances within the country. Arthur Lewis, a Caribbean economist and sociologists, in his theory of Industrialization by Invitation, asserts that the Caribbean region needs to accept aid from developed countries in order for them to become industrialized. He argues that with industrialization and therefore technological improvements comes development in the Caribbean region. There is little need to remind Caribbean sociologists that reducing the population of a country is important as it helps to stabilize the countrys economy and in doing so reduce the dependency ratio of the people on the limited resources of the region. However, most Caribbean sociologists have accepted the notion that fertility control is not the key ingredient for development. Even if it should be that fertility control is necessary for development, it cannot exist solely without improving the human resources, distributing resources properly and gaining technological assistance in an effort to be industrialized. These are true keys in become developed.

CAPE Unit 2 - Should the Caribbean have its own theory of Crime?

Crime is deviant behaviour which is against the criminal law. Such behaviour is controlled through the use of public sanctions which are enforced by agencies of social control such as the police, magistrates, prison and judiciary. Despite the legal definition of crime, defining crime is not a straightforward task because there is no universal agreement in society as to what is criminal. Sociologists argue that crime is socially constructed, that is, the definitions of crime often depend on how society interprets particular actions. The Marxist Croall (1998) points out that there is often a very narrow borderline between what is regarded as criminal and normal, legal or illegal, e.g. many people borrow items from work and frequently break the speed limit but would not define themselves as criminals. Among Caribbean sociologists, there is the question of whether the region needs its own theory of crime. While some sociologists have accepted this notion, most have refuted the idea. Arguments supporting that the Caribbean should have its own theory of crime (a) Croall argues that there is a historical separation among countries in the manner in which they view crimes. She argues that as in the United Kingdom abortion, homosexuality and blasphemy have all been defined as crimes in the past. It means therefore that what was once considered crimes in developed countries are no longer viewed as such. As most theories of crime were written to support the developed world, it means that the Caribbean region lags behind. The Caribbean has been shaped significantly after its Post Independence Era. Most of the things that are now legal in the metropole are not in the Caribbean. (b) There is always this belief that crimes are culturally defined. In that most societies would probably see the same crimes, but they are interpreted and treated differently because of the culture of that particular society. As crimes are therefore culturally defined, the Caribbean should have its own theories of crime. (c) It is evident that most theories of crime offer explanation as to the motives of crime. As crimes are socially constructed, Croall provides that crimes will be

caused for different reasons within different societies. It is evident that poverty is one of main reasons for crime and violence in the Caribbean societies, as opposed to reasons of minority, labelling (discrimination) or capitalism as in developed countries. Arguments against the notion that the Caribbean should have its own theory of crime Caribbean sociologists have used mainstream theories to examine the Caribbean region, and though there are some cultural and social differences, the theories have applied perfectly well. Hence, there is the argument that the Caribbean should not have its own theory of crime: (a) Caribbean sociologists may argue that though there have been some changes in the laws and patterns of crime in the metropolitan countries, the Caribbean regions were indeed deeply influence by their metropolitan counterparts. It means therefore that it needs not creating our own theories of crime, but rather amending our laws to suit our crimes. (b) For most parts, the theories of crime merely offer reasons why people would commit crimes. As there are unique reasons in the Caribbean due to our culture and economic problems, it means not that prominent theories of crime cannot be used to explain such outbreaks of crime. For example, Mertons theory of crime provides Caribbean sociologists with an understanding of the expectations of society and its failure to provide provisions for people to achieve such expectations. This goes hand in hand with poverty. Furthermore, even if we were to develop our own theory, we would still use the work of prominent sociologists. Hence, it is a waste of time. (c) Croall (1998) provides the notion that crime is a relative concept. She adds that though this is true, major crimes normally have universal agreement. Hence, murder in Barbados, is murder in Jamaica as it is murder in India and murder in Australia. It goes then to show that no society necessary needs its own theory of crime. If there should be any difference pertaining to crimes in different countries, this difference would be seen in the pattern of crime, rather than the type of crimes or the motives of crime.

Assess the extent to which population control policies are essential to a society's national development plan. Support your response by referring to any two population control policies and two related national development strategies in a named Caribbean society. Appropriate sociological approaches must be used.

Answer Plan (i) Define Population Control. (ii) Why is Population control important for National development? (iii) Is there evidence of population control in the Caribbean? If so, illustrate? (iv) What policies have been implemented in the Caribbean that targets population control? (v) Is population control the only means of ensuring development? Explain.

What is Population control? Population control is the means by which human beings take active steps, normally in relations to social policies and morals, to limit the number of children they have. There are numerous means of population control including delayed marriages, contraception, abortions, sterilization and abstinence. Of importance is that population control policies tend to be relative. By this, while some may be acceptable in some societies, some are not in other societies. In the Caribbean, for example, abortion is not relatively appreciated and is often frowned upon. The Importance of Population Control Population Control can assist in National development in the following ways: (i) It ensures that women are able to control their reproductive right. Population control thus goes hand in hand with the development of women. (ii) The less people in society means that the less resources are being used by that society. Population control therefore ensures that limited resources such as food, housing and health care are not being strained (Anderson and Taylor, 2003). (iii) Population control ensures that less people are dependent on the government (ECLAC, 2002) (iv) The HDR 2011 argue that such Caribbean countries as St. Kitts, Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica can only reduce poverty by controlling and limiting their population. Consider the NeoMalthusian and Malthusian theory that argue that overpopulation would lead to the out-stripping of resources. Evidence of Population Control in the Region - Population control is relatively accepted in the Caribbean. Studies by Harewood (1975),

Abdullah (1971) and Yeboah (2000) have showed that Caribbean women are appreciative of contraception and are more willing to pursue educational opportunities than to have children at an early age. Abdullah noted that almost 90% of women in T&T were aware of contraception through government policies. - Yeboah (2000) noted that Caribbean governments have appealed to international organizations such as the International Planned Parenthood Federation for loans to implement family planning policies. - Harewood noted, however, that some women in the Caribbean rather large families because of religious reasons and poverty. What policies have been implemented in the Caribbean that targets population control? - Numerous policies have been implemented in the Caribbean most of them revolving around family planning and education. - There is evidence that Caribbean government have ensured greater equity in schools so that women can get a better education. Reddock (1998), Harewood (1975) and Barriteau (1998) have all argued that population control and womens education goes hand in hand. - Numerous campaigns have been televised about parenting In Jamaica for example, the slogan plan for two, its the smart thing to do appeal to middle class people and encouraged them to have only two children or limit the number of children they have. Other means of development: - Industrialization Consider Arthur Lewiss Industrialization by Invitation Proposal - Improving education Numerous Caribbean sociologists have argued that true development of the Caribbean region can only be achieved by the development of the human resources. The human resources are infact the main resources of the region, hence, developing this important commodity means an overall development of other aspects of Caribbean society. Hence, provisions must be made to improve health organizations, educational institutions, religious branches and recreational institutions. Susan George, a major critic of fertility control, agreed with this notion, and contended that population will decline automatically as people become better educated, health care improves and poverty is attacked. Though not in his line of arguments, Warren S. Thompson agree that this may be a possibility; people would soon or later see children as burden. He believes that people generally tend to have as many children has they can support or afford. Furthermore, it does help should the government start to make good technological advances within the country. Arthur Lewis, a Caribbean economist and sociologists, in his theory of Industrialization by Invitation, asserts that the Caribbean region needs to accept aid from developed countries in order for them to become industrialized. He argues that with industrialization and therefore technological improvements comes development in the Caribbean region. There is little need to remind Caribbean sociologists that reducing the population of a country is important as it helps to stabilize the countrys economy and in doing so reduce the dependency ratio of the people on the limited resources of the region. However, most Caribbean sociologists have accepted the notion that fertility control is not the key ingredient for development. Even

if it should be that fertility control is necessary for development, it cannot exist solely without improving the human resources, distributing resources properly and gaining technological assistance in an effort to be industrialized. These are true keys in become developed.

Unit 2 Assess strengths and limits of Neo Malthusian theory of population in explaining population issues in Caribbean societies.

Most sociologists have viewed the Neo- Malthusian theory of population growth as a mixture of the Malthusian theory with some aspects of the Marxists theory of population. It is agreed upon that this theory have combined a significant amount of the two theories, but have also ignored some notions of the theories altogether. In that the Neo- Malthusian theory have accepted Malthuss argument that the worlds population would surpass food supply and have also agreed with Marxs view that developed nations are the true cause of contemporary poverty as they consume almost four-fifths of the shared worlds resources. For most parts, should the Neo- Malthusian theory be applied to the Caribbean, there would be both strengths and limitations in explaining the population issues confronting the region: Strengths (a) Most Caribbean theorists would agree on the fact that the Neo- Malthusian theory offers a better and new approach to look at population growth and changes within the region, as it have combined two leading population theories; that of Malthus and Marx. While the Malthusian theory has only spoken of population exposition, the Neo-Malthusian theory has taken in consideration the prospects of developed countries exploiting underdeveloped countries, thus reducing their resources. (b) For most parts, the Neo- Malthusians have incorporated into their theory the use of the Modernization theory. P. Ehrlich, a Neo- Malthusian, argues that rapid population growth in less developed regions as the Caribbean is an obstacle for development. The Neo- Malthusians have offered more realistic means of preventing population growth as opposed to the Marxists or the Malthusian theory. P. Ehrlich agree with the Modernization theory that there are three solutions to high population: - Family-planning policies (limiting the number of children in families) - Official- aid from the west should be used to finance birth-control programmes - Promote the use of contraception through the aiding of health education and media programmes (c) The Neo- Malthusian theory of population came at a time when there have been significant changes in the worlds population. It means therefore that unlike the Malthusian and Marxist theories of population, they have used time, to change and correct theories. For example, while they agree with the Malthuss notion that the worlds population would exceed food supplies, they have gone a step further to add natural resources. It means therefore that the theory may be applied to the Caribbean region. While it is true that we have not exceed our food supplies, most

Caribbean governments are now faced with the problem of reducing the unnecessary use of natural resources. Hence, there may be a possibility that the region would jeopardize its resource security. Evidently, the Caribbean region imports most of its natural resources. Limitations (a) Like the Malthusian theory, the Neo- Malthusian theory has failed to predict the growth of agricultural sectors across the globe. The Caribbean region has not seen much of an increase in its population, so much so as to exceed neither its food supplies nor its resources. As such, many Caribbean sociologists have argued that just like the Malthusian theory, it has failed to predict the future. (b) Most sociologists have argued that the Neo- Malthusian theory have painted a picture of doom for population growth. For instance, one of its disciples, P Ehrlich predicted that food production had been outstripped by population increase in two-thirds of the developing countries between 1978 and 1989. The anti-Malthusian school criticized the Neo - Malthusian perspective of overpopulation. Julian Simon, an American economist pointed out that both the Malthusian and Neo Malthusian theories overlooked the factor of human ingenuity to prevent population growth and increase food productions. (a) Susan George, one disciple of the Anti- Malthusian theory, vehemently attached attempts by the neo-Malthusians to tackle the problems of developing countries primarily in terms of population control. In that, they offered no other avenue to reduce population explosion in underdeveloped countries except for the use of contraceptions, condoms and family planning. Susan George, a major critic of reduction of fertility as a mode of population control, contended that population will decline automatically as people become better educated, health care improves and poverty is attacked. The Neo- Malthusian theory has failed to mention these.

CAPE 2005 - Unit 2 Poverty Economic factors are the main contribution to the cause and persistence of poverty in the Caribbean. Discuss. [25 marks]

It is evident that poverty is a continuous issue that is present in almost all Caribbean society. For most sociologists, it is the economic factors that are present in the region that have contributed to the cause and persistence of poverty. It is argued that poverty in the Caribbean results from low wages in the informal sector, low labour returns to rural self-employment activities, underemployment, and, in some cases, protracted periods of unemployment. For the Weberians, poverty is caused by weak market position where groups have few skills to sell. It therefore results in a poor distribution of wealth, as those groups with the skills to sell will receive more of the wealth. Hence, it is argued that the main solution to poverty is for better distribution of wealth. For most parts, Weber is criticized. It is argued that he ignores the power of capitalists to control ideas and wealth and therefore blames the victim of poverty for poverty. Furthermore, it is argued that the redistribution of income has not worked as a strategy. The Marxists do not blame the poor for their poverty nor do they blame their culture. Ralph Miliband writes: "The basic fact is that the poor are an integral part of the working class - its poorest and most disadvantaged stratum. They need to be seen as such, as part of a continuum, the more so as many workers who are not deprived in the official sense live in permanent danger of entering the ranks of the deprived; and that they share...many of the disadvantages which afflict the deprived..." Marxists look for explanations in the structure of the society in question, in the economic arrangements present and in the functions that poverty performs for capitalism and the capitalist class. To put it simply the reason for poverty and inequality lies in the market based capitalist economy and the fluctuation that all such economies periodically go through. Poverty is therefore caused by capitalism. Capitalism concentrates wealth in the hands of the oligarchy. The Marxists argue that poverty tends to continue because the rich have no interest in ending poverty. Some sociologists have argued that the Marxists theory of poverty doesnt explain why some social groups are more vulnerable to poverty than others. The Class-based explanation of the cause of the persistence of poverty asserts that poverty is the result of some people's marginality in relation to the process of economic production, which limits their life-chances. Numerous theories presented by sociologists have moved away from the economic factors to explain the cause and persistence of poverty in the Caribbean society. It means therefore that the

economic factors are not necessarily the main factors accountable for the issue. The Individualistic theory provides that the cause of poverty and inequality is rooted in the individuals failings. The Individual deserves to be poor and so he is poor. It is the laziness of people that causes poverty. This theory relives on the theory of Social Darwinism by Herbert Spenser to explain its notion. Spencer argued that the strongest would survive, in that the wealthy are strong and the poor are weak. Pertaining to the poor, Spenser believed that the poor should be given no help at all. In his eyes, help those who helped themselves. They were after all engaged in an immoral style of life he argued so why should they be helped. This theory is criticized deeply as it is argued that most studies have found that the poor are more than willing to work, and even so, many of those in work can also be said to be in poverty. Blaming the poor for their poverty is like blaming the homeless on being homeless, rather illogical. Poor people no more want to be in poverty than homeless people want to sleep on freezing cold streets. Oscar Lewis has argued that people are in poverty mainly because of their culture. In that, their culture (their beliefs, values, attitudes and general patterns of behaviour and language) are what causes their poverty, or at least, what helps to keep them in their poverty. Lewis proposed that people held an attitude of fatality (they believed that it was hopeless to try and improve their situation). People in poor families show attitudes of resignation (there is not much you can do about your situation so why bother trying to change it) and fatalism (fate has decreed that you were meant to be poor, why fight it, it was meant to be). Therefore, if this is true, people in poverty will do little about their situation because they believe there is little point. This culture is then passed on to children and their children so that it becomes endemic. It is often times argued that this theory fail to see that poor peoples culture is not the cause of their poverty but rather a representation of it. And in most cases, those in poverty share the same cultural patterns as those in the upper classes For most parts, it is impossible to ignore the economic factors that have plunge people into poverty across the Caribbean region. It is also impossible to ignore other theories that target the poors lifestyle and culture. Though, economic factors have caused poverty, other factors cannot be ignored for an understanding of the causes and persistence of poverty, in any given society.

CAPE 2008 - UNIT 2 Module 3 The key to the development of the Caribbean lies in the investment in employment and education. Discuss this view with reference to the experiences of a named Caribbean society. [25 marks]

Sociologists often times associate development with cultural, political, economic and social change in society. Generally the term development is used by Western sociologists to mean industrialization, economic growth and the living standards associated with prosperity such as an increased life expectancy, health care and free education. Hence, it will take a great deal for the Caribbean to become developed. It cannot be denied that it is necessary for the region to invest in both employment and education. When a country should have a high unemployment rate, it means that the dependency rate within the country is high, and furthermore useful human resources are being wasted. Caribbean governments have implemented numerous strategies to increase employment especially with the formation of new industries and improving the agricultural sectors. As with education, it leads to a better qualified country, as almost everyone within the country would have had the appropriate skills to appeal to employers. In most Caribbean schools, the curricula have been changed to emphasis technical/ vocational subjects such as welding, auto mechanics, electrical installation, beauty culture, agricultural science and plumbing. In an effort, students are able to leave schools, even with the prospects of becoming self-employed. For most Caribbean sociologists, the key to the development of the Caribbean cannot lie only within the investment in employment and education. While it is important to develop the human resources within the country, it is also of vital importance to ensure economic and cultural growth. For one, it is argued that provisions must be made to help reduce the excessively increasing population within Caribbean society. The Modernization theory argues that most countries are undeveloped mainly because of population explosion. Caribbean Governments are therefore willing to promote family planning strategies within the region. Additionally, there is the need to provide provisions for health security. It may be argued that a healthy population is a productive one. There have been the erection of new health facilities throughout Caribbean societies, and medicines have been more readily available. For the Modernization theory, the key to development lies within becoming industrialized. The Modernization theory is largely based on the view that to develop means to become modern by adopting Western Cultural values and social institutions. It is suggested that undeveloped societies subscribe to value systems and institutions that hinder the development process. Bill Rostow believes that development should be seen as an evolutionary process in which countries

progress up a development ladder of five (5) stages: (a) Undeveloped societies are, traditional societies dominated by institutions such as families, tribes and clans, within which roles are ascribed rather than achieved. Production is mostly seen in agriculture. (b) The Pre- conditions for take-off stage involve the introduction of material factors such as capital and technology from the West in the form of capital and investment by Western companies. (c) The take off stage in which traditional attitudes and social institutions are replaced by their western equivalent. Achievement replaces ascription, and nuclear families replace extended families. (d) The drive to maternity stage which is marked by export of manufactured goods to the west as the country takes its place in the international trading system. (e) Development is achieved in the stage Rostow calls, the age of high mass consumption. The people of the country enjoy better lives. Life expectancy is raised and more citizens receive free health care and education. Arthur Lewis would agree with the notion that modernization is important for the Caribbean. In his theory, Industrialization by Invitation he proposes that Caribbean nations invite developed countries to invest within their economies, especially their industrial sectors. Further studies have suggested that one of the most important means of increasing development is to reduce dependency. Frank believes that this may be achieved by: (a) Promotion of domestic industry and manufactured goods: By subsidizing and protecting industries within the periphery nation, these third-world countries can produce their own products rather than simply export raw materials. (b) Import limitations: By limiting the importation of both luxury goods and manufactured goods that can be produced within the country, supposedly, the country can reduce the amount of its capital and resources that are siphoned off. (c) Forbidding foreign investment: Some governments took steps to keep foreign companies and individuals from owning or operating property that draws on the resources of the country. (d) Nationalization: Some governments have forcibly taken over foreign-owned companies on behalf of the state, in order to keep profits within the country. While it is imperative that the Governments of the Caribbean increase development through the investing in employment schemes and education, it is also of vital importance to consider health, industrialization, poverty reduction schemes, reducing dependency rate and controlling the population. Development can only be achieved when social, cultural, political and economical problems are addressed.

CAPE 2003 - U2 M3 Poverty - Discuss the problems that may arise with the definition and measurement of poverty in a named Caribbean society. [25 marks]

It is evident that quite a number of Caribbean people are living in poverty. Poverty is deprivation, a denial of access to those things which a person believes necessary for their life to be worth living: not only food, shelter and safe drinking water, but also education and the opportunity to engage with other human beings from a position of dignity. It is argued that the highest rate of poverty in the region is seen in Haiti. However, numerous Caribbean territories have fallen short of providing for their people. There is always a problem of defining poverty, especially within the Caribbean region. It has been argued that due to the fact that there is no single definition of poverty, most people who are in poverty are not recognized by the government as people in poverty. Hence, in defining poverty, sociologists cannot focus on economic terms only, but must consider also social and political arrangements. As in any society, there are two types of poverty - Absolute poverty and Relative poverty. Sociologists have argued that there are still problems with the definitions offered for the two. Absolute poverty is a situation in which a person lacks those things that help to sustain human life e.g. food, shelter and clothing. This definition is widely criticized because, on its face, every person is born in absolute poverty (babies have no education or information), and based on this definition every person who lived before the mid-19th century lived in absolute poverty (no reliable access to safe drinking water or modern sanitation facilities). Relative poverty refers to a situation in which a person lacks the resources to enable them to participate in the normal and desirable patterns of life that exist within a given time. Measures of relative poverty are almost the same as measuring inequality: If a society gets a more equal income distribution, relative poverty will fall. Following this, some argue that the term 'Relative Poverty' is itself misleading and that 'Inequality' should be used instead. The phrase relative poverty can also be used in a different sense to mean "moderate poverty" for example, a standard of living or level of income that is high enough to satisfy basic needs (like water, food, clothing, shelter, and basic health care), but still significantly lower than that of the majority of the population under consideration. In measuring poverty, sociologists have argued that it is necessary to consider: the relevance of welfare measures and the poverty line as indicators of poverty. The poverty line is the minimum level of income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living. The line is useful as an economic tool with which to measure such people and consider socio-economic reforms such as welfare, and unemployment insurance to reduce poverty. Determining the poverty line is usually done by finding the total cost of all the essential

resources that an average human adult consumes in one year. This approach is needs-based in that an assessment is made of the minimum expenditure needed to maintain a tolerable life. Individual factors are often used to account for various circumstances, such as whether one is a parent, elderly, a child, married, etc. The poverty threshold is adjusted each year. Most sociologists have argued that the poverty line is not an effective means of measuring poverty within Caribbean society. Hence, using this as a means of measuring poverty poses numerous problems: (a)Using a poverty threshold is problematic because having an income marginally above it is not substantially different from having an income marginally below it: the negative effects of poverty tend to be continuous rather than discrete, and the same low income affects different people in different ways. To overcome this problem, poverty indices are sometimes used instead; see income inequality metrics. (b)A poverty threshold relies on a quantitative or purely numbers-based measure of income. If other human development-indicators like health and education are used, they must be quantified, which is not a simple (if even achievable) task. (c)Public and private charitable gifts are not counted when calculating a poverty threshold. For example, if a parent pays the rent on an apartment for an adult daughter, that money does not count as income to the daughter. If a church or non-profit organization gives food to an elderly person that also does not count as income. (d)The official poverty measure counts only monetary income. It considers antipoverty programs such as food stamps, housing assistance, the Earned Income Tax Credit, Medicaid and school lunches, among others, "in-kind benefits" -- and hence not income. So, despite everything these programs do to relieve poverty, they aren't counted as income when the country measures the poverty rate. There is an idea of what it means to be in poverty in almost all countries in the Caribbean. Though it is often difficult to define and measure poverty in a Caribbean context, it is evident that the issue of poverty have increased significantly.