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Page 1 [1998] 7 MLJ 41 ARROW VISTA SDN BHD v JAWATANKUASA KERJA TANAH WILAYAH PERSEKUTUAN HIGH COURT (KUALA

LUMPUR A!MEL J ORIGINATING MOTION R"#"$#%" O& 1998 "% D'(')*'+ 1998

Civil Procedure -- Mode of commencement -- Declaration, application for -- Whether by way of originating motion -- Reliefs sought include orders of mandamus -- Non compliance with !" of Rules of the #igh Court $%&' -- Whether fatal to application -- National (and Code $%)! s *$&+$, Civil Procedure -- Parties -- -pplication for declaration -- Declaration relating to applications made by previous owner under ss $.* and .'' of the National (and Code $%)! -- Whether previous owner need to be made a party to the action Civil Procedure -- -ppeal -- /ime -- Commencement of time for appeal -- Whether appeal made out of time -- National (and Code $%)! s *$&+$, Land Law -- -dministration -- fficers -- Powers and duties -- Whether the Prime Minister is authori0ed to ma1e decisions in respect of applications under ss $.* and .'' of National (and Code $%)! Land Law -- Classification of land -- Condition of land use -- Whether approval is re2uired for purposes of constructing condominium on land which had been categori0ed for 3building3 -Meaning of 3appropriate authority3 in s $$)+$,+d, of National (and Code -- National (and Code $%)! ss $.*+$,+c, 4 $$)+$,+d, On 28 August 1995, Tunku Makmun bin Tunku Sulaiman ('the pre i!us !"ner'# ma$e appli%ati!ns ('the appli%ati!ns'# pursuant t! s 12& ('!r purp!ses !' altering the (,-'./+0 /1 2,34 56' an$ s 2(( ('!r appr! al t! surren$er part !' the lan$ '!r %!nstru%ti!n !' r!a$s# !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e 19,5 ('the )*+'# in relati!n t! a pie%e !' lan$ !"ne$ b- him ('the lan$'#. /!"e er, appli%ati!ns "ere re0e%te$ b- the Prime Minister !n 21 2ul- 199, an$ the $e%isi!n "as sent t! the pre i!us !"ner b- a letter $ate$ 25 September 199, ('the letter'#. On 1, )! ember 199,, the plainti'' as the ne" !"ner !' the lan$, appeale$ t! the 3etua Setiausaha )egara t! re%!nsi$er the appli%ati!ns but "as 'urther re0e%te$. On 1( April 1998, the plainti'' 'ile$ an !riginating m!ti!n appl-ing '!r ari!us $e%larati!ns, in !king s &18 !' the )*+. The issues "ere "hether4 (i# the plainti'' "as right in %!mmen%ing the a%ti!n b- "a- !' an !riginating m!ti!n5 (ii# the pre i!us !"ner sh!ul$ be ma$e a part- t! the a%ti!n5 (iii# the appli%ati!n "as ma$e "ithin the peri!$ stipulate$ un$er s &185 (i # the Prime Minister has the auth!rit- t! make the $e%isi!n $ate$ 21 2ul- 199,5 an$ ( # there "as a nee$ t! make an

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appli%ati!n un$er s 12& !' the )*+ '!r purp!ses !' %!nstru%ting %!n$!minium !n the lan$ "hi%h ha$ been %ateg!ri6e$ '!r use !' 'buil$ing'. $%%& 5 M(6 *$ at *. H'247 $ismissing the appli%ati!n4 1) 7hile the a%ti!n %!ul$ be pr!perl- taken b- "a- !' an !riginating m!ti!n, the relie's that the $e'en$ant applie$ '!r "ere n!t %!n'ine$ !nl- t! a $e%larati!n but als! '!r !r$ers !' man$amus 88 paras (%# an$ ($# !' the pra-ers. This triggers the re9uirement t! %!mpl- "ith O 5: !' the ;ules !' the /igh +!urt 198(. <n the present appli%ati!n, su%h pr!%e$ures ha$ n!t been %!mplie$ "ith an$ the plainti'''s a%ti!n sh!ul$ be stru%k !'' (see p &,=8/#. The pre i!us !"ner nee$ n!t be ma$e a part- t! the a%ti!n. /e is n! l!nger an intereste$ part- as all his rights an$ interests in respe%t !' the lan$ ha$ been trans'erre$ t! the plainti'' (see p &,=#. The pr!$u%ti!n !' the letter b- the plainti'' "hen appealing t! the 3etua Setiausaha )egara !n 1, )! ember 199, sh!"e$ %learl- that the plainti'' as !' that $ate ha$ kn!"le$ge !' the $e%isi!n re0e%ting its appli%ati!ns an$ as su%h, the peri!$ !' three m!nths stipulate$ un$er s &18(1# sh!ul$ begin 'r!m that $ate. The plainti'' !nl- began its a%ti!n !n 1( April 1998 an$ thus the three m!nths peri!$ ha$ alrea$- passe$ (see p &1>, ?#. The Prime Minister is the number !ne a$ministrati e hea$ %!n%erning lan$ matters in the ?e$eral Territ!r-. 7hate er auth!rit- that has been gi en spe%i'i%all- t! the *an$ =@e%uti e +!mmittee is als! la"'ull- grante$ t! the Prime Minister. Thus, $e%isi!ns in respe%t !' the appli%ati!n un$er ss 12& an$ 2(( !' the )*+ "as "ithin the p!"ers la"'ull- grante$ t! the Prime Minister (see p &8A8=#. Se%ti!n 12&(1#(%# rea$ t!gether "ith s 11,(1#($# !' the )*+ %learl- sh!"s that a lan$!"ner $!es n!t ha e an aut!mati% p!"er t! %!mmen%e %!nstru%ti!n !' %!n$!minium !n the lan$ 88 e en th!ugh it is un$er the %ateg!r- !' 'buil$ing' 88 "ith!ut !btaining pri!r appr! al 'r!m the $e'en$ant (see p &9A#.

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O*8-'+9 <t "as in%umbent up!n the plainti'' !r the pre i!us !"ner !' the lan$ t! in'!rm the $e'en$ant in "riting !' the %hange !' !"nership in respe%t !' the appli%ati!n un$er ss 12& an$ 2(( !' the )*+, espe%iall- '!r purp!ses !' %!mmuni%ati!n. ?ailure t! in'!rm the $e'en$ant !' the %hange !' !"nership gi es the $e'en$ant the right t! %!mmuni%ate t! the pre i!us !"ner !' the lan$ (see p &1A8=#.
B,:,6, M,2,068, 65)),+0

Page : Pa$a 28 Og!s 1995, Tunku Makmun bin Tunku Sulaiman ('pemilik ter$ahulu'# telah membuat perm!h!nan ('perm!h!nan tersebut'# mengikut ss 12& $an 2(( 3anun Tanah )egara 19,5 berhubungan $engan sebi$ang tanah -ang $imiliki !lehn-a ('tanah tersebut'#. $%%& 5 M(6 *$ at *" >agaimanapun, perm!h!nan tersebut telah $it!lak !leh Per$ana Menteri pa$a 21 2ulai 199, $an keputusan tersebut telah $ihantar kepa$a pemilik ter$ahulu $engan surat -ang bertarikh 25 September 199, ('surat tersebut'#. Pa$a 1, )! ember 199,, plainti' sebagai pemilik baru tanah tersebut telah mera-u kepa$a 3etua Setiausaha untuk mempertimbangkan semula perm!h!nan tersebut tetapi telah selan0utn-a $it!lak. Pa$a 1( April 1998, plainti' telah mem'ailkan suatu usul pemula mem!h!n untuk pelbagai $eklarasi, menggunakan s &18 3anun Tanah )egara 19,5 ('3T)'#. <su8isu a$alah sama a$a4 (i# plainti' a$alah betul $alam memulakan tin$akan tersebut $engan %ara satu usul pemula5 (ii# pemilik ter$ahulu patut $i0a$ikan satu pihak kepa$a tin$akan ini5 (iii# perm!h!nan tersebut telah $ibuat $alam temp!h masa -ang $iperuntukkan $i ba"ah s &185 (i # Per$ana Menteri mempun-ai kuasa untuk membuat keputusan bertarikh 21 2ulai 199,5 $an ( # ter$apat satu keperluan untuk membuat perm!h!nan $i ba"ah s 12& 3T) untuk tu0uan membina k!n$!minium $i atas tanah tersebut -ang telah $ikateg!rikan untuk kegunaan 'bangunan'. D8;5-56<,37 men!lak perm!h!nan4

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2) 2)

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7alaupun tin$akan tersebut b!leh $imulakan $engan usul pemula, reli'8reli' -ang $ip!h!n !leh $e'en$an a$alah ti$ak terbatas semata8mata kepa$a $eklarasi tetapi 0uga untuk perintah8perintah man$amus 88 perenggan (%# $an ($# $alam tuntutan tersebut. <ni men%etuskan keperluan untuk mematuhi A 5: 3ae$ah83ae$ah Mahkamah Tinggi 198(. Aalam perm!h!nan ini, pr!se$ur8 pr!se$ur -ang tersebut telah ti$ak $ipatuhi $an tin$akan plainti' seharusn-a $ibatalkan lihat ms &,=8/#. Pemilik -ang ter$ahulu ti$ak perlu $i0a$ikan satu pihak kepa$a tin$akan tersebut. >eliau ti$ak lagi merupakan satu pihak berkepentingan kerana kesemua hak8hak $an kepentingan8kepentingann-a berkenaan $engan tanah tersebut telah $ipin$ahmilik kepa$a plainti' (lihat ms &,=#. Oleh kerana pengemukaan surat tersebut !leh plainti' semasa mera-u kepa$a 3etua Setiausaha )egara pa$a 1, )! ember 199, menun0ukkan $engan 0elas baha"a plainti' pa$a tarikh tersebut mempun-ai pengetahuan tentang keputusan men!lak perm!h!nann-a, temp!h masa tiga bulan -ang $iperuntukkan $i ba"ah s &18(1# seharusn-a bermula $ari tarikh tersebut. Plainti' han-a memulakan tin$akann-a pa$a 1( April 1998 $an !leh itu, temp!h masa tiga bulan tersebut telahpun berlalu (lihat ms &1>, ?#. Per$ana Menteri merupakan ketua penta$biran -ang pertama berkenaan $engan hal8hal tanah $alam 7ila-ah Persekutuan. Apa8apa kuasa -ang telah $iberikan se%ara khusus kepa$a 2a"atankuasa =ksekuti' Tanah a$alah 0uga se%ara sah $iberikan kepa$a Per$ana Menteri. Oleh itu, keputusan berkenaan $engan perm!h!nan $i ba"ah ss 12& $an 2(( 3T) a$alah $alam $%%& 5 M(6 *$ at ** lingkungan kuasa -ang $iberikan se%ara sah kepa$a Per$ana Menteri (lihat ms &8A8=#. Seks-en 12&(1#(%# $iba%a bersama $engan s 11,(1#($# 3T) menun0ukkan $engan 0elas baha"a se!rang pemilik tanah ti$ak mempun-ai kuasa aut!matik untuk memulakan pembinaan k!n$!minium atas tanah tersebut 88 "alaupun ia a$alah $i ba"ah kateg!ri 'bangunan'88tanpa memper!lehi pengesahan ter$ahulu $aripa$a $e'en$an (lihat ms &9A#.

O*8-'+9 A$alah "a0ib ke atas plainti' atau pemilik ter$ahulu tanah tersebut untuk memberitahu $e'en$an se%ara bertulis tentang pertukaran pemilikan berkenaan $engan perm!h!nan $i ba"ah ss 12& $an 2(( 3T), terutaman-a untuk tu0uan k!munikasi. 3egagalan untuk memberitahu $e'en$an tentang pertukaran pemilikan memberi kepa$a $e'en$an hak untuk berk!munikasi kepa$a pemilik ter$ahulu tanah tersebut (lihat ms &1A8=#.B N/-'6 ?!r %ases !n m!$e !' %!mmen%ement !' appli%ati!n '!r $e%larati!n, see 2(1# Mallal's Aigest (&th =$, 1998 ;eissue# paras :1:(8:1:&.

Page & ?!r a %ase !n parties in appli%ati!n '!r $e%larati!n, see 2(2# Mallal's Aigest (&th =$, 1998 ;eissue# :2&8. ?!r %ases !n p!"ers an$ $uties !' a$ministrati!n !''i%ers, see 8 Mallal's Aigest (&th =$, 199, ;eissue# paras 1:2(81::2. ?!r %ases !n %!n$iti!n !' lan$ use, see 8 Mallal's Aigest (&th =$, 199, ;eissue# paras 151(81511. C,6'6 +'1'++'4 -/ (ondon Passenger /ransport 7oard v Moscrop [19&2B A+ ::2 (re'$# L'.862,-8/3 +'1'++'4 -/ ?e$eral +!nstituti!n arts :9 &: &:A 12& 2(( &18(1# ?e$eral Territ!r- (M!$i'i%ati!n !' )ati!nal *an$ +!$e# 191& )ati!nal *an$ +!$e 19,5 ss 11,(1#($# Perintah Menteri8Menteri 3era0aan Persekutuan 1995 ;ules !' the /igh +!urt 198( O 5: rr 1, : Michael 8/ Chow +(ogan 9abapathy 4 Co, '!r the plainti''. -sma 7ee +9enior :ederal Counsel, '!r the $e'en$ant. A!MEL J9 The plainti'' in this %ase ha$ applie$ b- "a- !' an !riginating m!ti!n '!r the '!ll!"ing !r$ers4

1a)

1b)

1c)

1d)

1e)

a $e%larati!n that the $e%isi!n !' the $e'en$ant (2a"atankuasa 3er0a Tanah 7ila-ah Persekutuan# as emb!$ie$ in its letter $ate$ $%%& 5 M(6 *$ at *! 1& 2anuar- 1998 purp!rting t! re0e%t an$C!r re'use appr! al t! the appli%ati!ns ma$e un$er ss 12& an$ 2(( !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e 19,5 in relati!n t! the lan$ hel$ un$er /S (A# :21(, PT )! 881 Mukim an$ Aistri%t !' 3uala *umpur ('the sai$ lan$'# is null an$ !i$ an$ !' n! e''e%t an$C!r %!nse9uentl- hereb- set asi$e pursuant t! the pr! isi!ns !' s &18 !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e 19,55 a $e%larati!n that in all the %ir%umstan%es !' the %ase there is n! ne%essit- '!r an appli%ati!n un$er s 12& !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e 19,5 t! be ma$e '!r an$ in respe%t !' the sai$ lan$ "hether pursuant t! the $e el!pment !r$er $ate$ 11 )! ember 1995 issue$ b- Aatuk >an$ar 3uala *umpur !r !ther"ise5 an !r$er '!r spe%i'i% relie' against the $e'en$ant $ire%ting the $e'en$ant t! '!rth"ith pr!%ess an$ appr! e the pen$ing !r !ther appli%ati!ns ma$e in respe%t !' the sai$ lan$ un$er ss 12& an$C!r 2(( !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e 19,5 up!n su%h terms an$C!r $ire%ti!ns as this /!n!urable +!urt $eems 'it in the %ir%umstan%es !' the %ase5 su%h 'urther relie' !r !ther !r$ers an$C!r $ire%ti!ns be ma$e !r gi en as this h!n!urable %!urt $eems 'it in the %ir%umstan%es !' the %ase in%lu$ing, i' ne%essar-, a $e%larati!n that the $e'en$ant's letter !' 25 September 199, "as in truth an$ substan%e n!t a ali$ !r pr!per $e%isi!n !' the $e'en$ant in relati!n t! 28 August 1995 appli%ati!ns ma$e b- Tunku Makmun bin Tunku Sulaiman un$er ss 12& an$ 2(( !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e 19,5 !n the sai$ lan$. %!sts !' an$ !%%asi!ne$ b- these pr!%ee$ings be pr! i$e$ '!r in 'a !ur !' the plainti''.

The 'a%ts !' the %ase %an be summarise$ as '!ll!"s. On 28 August 1995, Tunku Makmun bin Tunku Sulaiman ('pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$'# ma$e appli%ati!ns un$er s 12& !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e 19,5 '!r purp!ses !' altering the (,-'./+0 /1 2,34 56' !' the sai$ lan$ an$ als! un$er s 2(( !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e '!r appr! al t! surren$er part !' the sai$ lan$ '!r %!nstru%ti!n !' r!a$s.

Page 5 On 21 2ul- 199,, the Prime Minister in his %apa%it- as the Minister resp!nsible '!r lan$ in the ?e$eral Territ!rma$e a $e%isi!n t! re0e%t the appli%ati!ns b- the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$. The sai$ $e%isi!n "as sent t! the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$ b- "a- !' a letter $ate$ 25 September 199,. )! ne" appli%ati!ns "ere subse9uentl- ma$e b- the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$ !r b- the plainti''. On 1, )! ember 199,, the plainti'' as the ne" !"ner !' the sai$ lan$ ma$e an a$ministrati e appeal t! the 3etua Setiausaha )egara re9uesting him t! re%!nsi$er the appli%ati!ns ma$e un$er ss 12& an$ 2(( !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e ma$e b- the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$. /!"e er, this appeal "as re0e%te$ b- the 3etua Setiausaha )egara i$e letter t! the plainti'' $ate$ 1& 2anuar- 1998 an$ : Mar%h 1998. Subse9uent t! that !n 1( April 1998, the plainti'' 'ile$ this a%ti!n in %!urt b- "a- !' an !riginating m!ti!n b- in !king s &18 !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e. $%%& 5 M(6 *$ at *) The 'irst issue that nee$ t! be %!nsi$ere$ is "hether the plainti'' "as right in bringing this a%ti!n b- "a- !' an !riginating m!ti!n un$er s &18 !' )ati!nal *an$ +!$e. Se%ti!n &18 rea$s as '!ll!"s4
Appeals t! the +!urt

(1# An- pers!n !r b!$- aggrie e$ b- an- $e%isi!n un$er this A%t !' the State Aire%t!r, the ;egistrar !r an*an$ A$ministrat!r ma-, at an- time "ithin the peri!$ !' three m!nths beginning "ith the $ate !n "hi%h it "as %!mmuni%ate$ t! him, appeal there'r!m t! the +!urt. (2# su%h appeal shall be ma$e in a%%!r$an%e "ith the pr! isi!ns !' an- "ritten la" '!r the time being in '!r%e relating t! %i il pr!%e$ure5 an$ the +!urt shall make !r$er there!' as it %!nsi$ers 0ust. (:# <n this se%ti!n '$e%isi!n' in%lu$es an- a%t, !missi!n, re'usal, $ire%ti!n !r !r$er.

<t "as allege$ b- the $e'en$ant that the plainti'' in taking this a%ti!n un$er s &18 !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e '!r pra-ers un$er paras (a#, (b#, (%# an$ ($# b- "a- !' an !riginating m!ti!n "as pr!%e$urall- impr!per. The $e'en$ant %!nten$e$ that '!r a relie' !' a $e%larati!n it is essential that the part- reall- intereste$ in the a%ti!n be ma$e a part- t! the a%ti!n 'ailing "hi%h the $e%larati!n sh!ul$ n!t be grante$ (see (ondon Passenger /ransport 7oard v Moscrop# [19&2B A+ ::2#. This appli%ati!n "as %!mmen%e$ b- the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$, -et he "as n!t ma$e a part- t! this a%ti!n. < am !' the ie" that the $e'en$ant's argument %ann!t be sustaine$. The pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$ "as n! l!nger an intereste$ part- as all his rights an$ interests in respe%t !' the sai$ lan$ ha$ been trans'erre$ t! the plainti'' "h! ha$ pur%hase$ the sai$ lan$ 'r!m him. As su%h he nee$ n!t be ma$e a part- t! this a%ti!n an-m!re. 7hile < "!ul$ n!t $isagree that this a%ti!n be pr!perl- taken b- "a- !' an !riginating m!ti!n, the relie's that the $e'en$ant applie$ '!r "ere n!t %!n'ine$ !nl- t! $e%larati!n but als! '!r !r$ers !' man$amus as state$ in paras (%# an$ ($# !' the pra-ers. <n 'a%t, the pra-er applie$ un$er para (a# is m!re in the nature !' an !r$er !' %erti!rari $isguise$ as a $e%larat!r- !r$er. As the relie' re9ueste$ un$er para (%# is in 'a%t a re9uest '!r an !r$er !' man$amus, it triggers the re9uirement t! %!mpl- "ith the pr! isi!ns !' O 5: !' the ;ules !' the /igh +!urt 198(. One !' the essential re9uirements that the plainti'' ha$ t! %!mpl- is t! !btain lea e !' the %!urt un$er O 5: r 1 be'!re taking this a%ti!n, an$ be'!re !btaining lea e, n!ti%e !' su%h appli%ati!n t!gether "ith the %ause papers "ill ha e t! be ser e$ !n the Att!rne- Deneral as re9uire$ un$er O 5: r :. <n this appli%ati!n, su%h pr!%e$ures ha$ n!t been %!mplie$ "ith b- the plainti''. As su%h, < am !' the ie" that !n this gr!un$ al!ne, the plainti'''s a%ti!n sh!ul$ be stru%k !''. The se%!n$ issue $eals "ith the 9uesti!n !' "hether this appli%ati!n "as ma$e "ithin the peri!$ as stipulate$ un$er s &18 !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e. Se%ti!n &18(1# states that su%h appeal must be ma$e at an- time "ithin three m!nths 'r!m the $ate the $e%isi!n "as %!mmuni%ate$ t! the plainti''. The 9uesti!n is "hen "as su%h $e%isi!n %!mmuni%ate$ t! the plainti''. As ha$ been menti!ne$ ab! e, the appli%ati!n un$er ss 12& an$ 2(( !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e "as ma$e b- the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ $%%& 5 M(6 *$ at *5 lan$ !n 28 August 1995. The $e%isi!n t! re0e%t it "as ma$e b- the Prime Minister !n 21 2ul- 199, an$ su%h $e%isi!n "as sent b- letter t! the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$ !n 25 September 199,. /!"e er, n! e i$en%e !' ser i%e !' the letter e''e%te$ t! the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$ "as pr!$u%e$. Eet, !n 1, )! ember 199,,

Page , the plainti'' in making an a$ministrati e appeal t! the 3etua Setiausaha )egara pr!$u%e$ a %!p- !' the sai$ letter !' re0e%ti!n in its appeal appli%ati!n. <n m- ie" the pr!$u%ti!n !' that letter sh!"e$ %learl- that the plainti'' as !' that $ate ha$ kn!"le$ge !' the $e%isi!n !' the $e'en$ant an$ as su%h, the peri!$ !' three m!nths sh!ul$ begin 'r!m that $ate. )! am!unt !' $enial b- the plainti'', in%lu$ing that the letter being a$$resse$ t! the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$, "!ul$ help t! argue that the plainti'' ha$ n! kn!"le$ge !' the $e%isi!n. <n 'a%t it "as 9uite legitimate '!r the $e'en$ant t! sen$ the letter t! the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$ be%ause the !riginal appli%ati!ns un$er ss 12& an$ 2(( !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e "ere ma$e b- the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$. An$ there "as n! e i$en%e a$$u%e$ that the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$ !r the plainti'' ha$ in'!rme$ the $e'en$ant !' the %hange !' !"nership t! the plainti''. T! argue that the %hange !' !"nership ha$ been registere$ in the register !' title an$ as su%h, $e'en$ant sh!ul$ there'!re ha e kn!"le$ge is $e !i$ !' anmerit. <t "as in%umbent up!n the plainti'' !r the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$ t! in'!rm the $e'en$ant in "riting !' the %hange !' !"nership in respe%t !' the appli%ati!n un$er ss 12& an$ 2(( !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e, espe%iall- '!r purp!ses !' %!mmuni%ati!n. ?ailure t! in'!rm the $e'en$ant !' the %hange !' !"nership gi es the $e'en$ant the right t! make %!mmuni%ati!n t! the pre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$. <n the %ir%umstan%es, < am 'ull- satis'ie$ that the $e%isi!n !' the $e'en$ant $ate$ 25 September 1995 ha$ been %!mmuni%ate$ t! the plainti'' !n !r be'!re 1, )! ember 199,. /en%e, '!r purp!ses !' taking an- a%ti!n un$er s &18(1# !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e the peri!$ !' three m!nths sh!ul$ %!mmen%e !n 1, )! ember 199,. >ut the plainti'' !nl- began this a%ti!n in %!urt un$er s &18 !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e !n 1( April 1998. <t ha$ %ertainl- passe$ the three m!nths peri!$, b- alm!st 11 m!nths. The plainti'' ha$ there'!re 'aile$ t! %!mpl- "ith the re9uirement !' s &18(1# !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e. <n its appli%ati!n the plainti'' ha$ ne er applie$ '!r ane@tensi!n !' time t! 'ile this a%ti!n. As n! su%h appli%ati!n '!r e@tensi!n !' time being ma$e b- the plainti'', the 9uesti!n !' granting an- e@tensi!n !' time $!es n!t arise. /en%e, this appli%ati!n sh!ul$ be stru%k !'' '!r "ant !' %!mplian%e "ith the pr! isi!n !' s &18(1# !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e. The thir$ issue %!n%erns the ali$it- !' the $e%isi!n $ate$ 21 2ul- 199, ma$e b- the Prime Minister. <t "as argue$ b- the plainti'' that the Prime Minister "as n!t auth!ri6e$ t! make the $e%isi!n un$er ss 12& an$ 2(( !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e. The ?e$eral Territ!r- (M!$i'i%ati!n !' )ati!nal *an$ +!$e# Or$er 191& ha$ $elegate$ the auth!rit- t! $eal "ith lan$ matters in the ?e$eral Territ!r- t! the *an$ =@e%uti e +!mmittee '!r the ?e$eral Territ!r- an$ as su%h n! !ther pers!ns sh!ul$ be auth!ri6e$ t! $eal "ith su%h matters. There'!re, the Prime Minister "as n!t an auth!ri6e$ pers!n t! make su%h $e%isi!n. < am !' the ie" that there is n! merit in this $%%& 5 M(6 *$ at *& argument. Ministers in%lu$ing the Prime Minister $eri e their p!"ers un$er art :9 !' the ?e$eral +!nstituti!n. Arti%le :9 rea$s4
=@e%uti e Auth!rit- !' ?e$erati!n The e@e%uti e auth!rit- !' the ?e$erati!n shall be este$ in the Eang $i8Pertuan Ag!ng an$ e@er%isable, sub0e%t t! the pr! isi!ns !' an- 'e$eral la" an$ !' the Se%!n$ S%he$ule, b- him !r b- the +abinet !r an- Minister auth!ri6e$ b- the +abinet, but Parliament ma- b- la" %!n'er e@e%uti e 'un%ti!ns !n !ther pers!ns.

<n a%%!r$an%e "ith the Perintah Menteri8Menteri 3era0aan Persekutuan 1995 ma$e b- irtue !' arts &: an$ &:A !' the ?e$eral +!nstituti!n b- the Eang $i8Pertuan Ag!ng, Prime Minister "as entruste$ "ith a list !' $uties an$ resp!nsibilities as state$ in the ab! esai$ Perintah. One !' the se eral resp!nsibilities !' the Prime Minister is t! take %are !' the Pe0abat Tanah 7ila-ah Persekutuan in matters pertaining t! 'Penta$biran 2abatan82abatan Tanah $an Dalian 7ila-ah Persekutuan 3uala *umpur $an *abuan' an$ 'Tanah Perl!mb!ngan $an Tanah ;i6ab Mela-u $i 7ila-ah Persekutuan 3uala *umpur $an *abuan.' ?!r all intent an$ purp!ses, the )! 1 a$ministrati e hea$ %!n%erning lan$ matters in the ?e$eral Territ!r- is the Prime Minister. All the rest, in%lu$ing the *an$ =@e%uti e +!mmittee, are his sub!r$inates. There sh!ul$ n!t be an- $!ubt "hats!e er that making $e%isi!n in respe%t !' appli%ati!n un$er ss 12& an$ 2(( !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e "hi%h "as applie$ b- the plainti''Cpre i!us !"ner !' the sai$ lan$ "as "ithin the p!"ers la"'ull- grante$ t! the Prime Minister. As < ha e remarke$ ab! e, the *an$ =@e%uti e +!mmittee !' the ?e$eral Territ!r- is an auth!rit- sub!r$inate t! the Prime Minister !n matters $ealing "ith lan$ in the ?e$eral Territ!r-. 7hate er auth!rit- has been gi en spe%i'i%all- t! the *an$ =@e%uti e +!mmittee !' the ?e$eral Territ!r-, su%h auth!rit- is als! la"'ull- grante$ t! the Prime Minister as the Minister in %harge !' the ?e$eral Territ!r-. As an anal!g-, "hate er auth!rit- has been gi en t! the 0u$ge !' the sessi!ns %!urt, the +hie' 2usti%e !' the ?e$eral +!urt "h! is in %harge !' all %!urts in Mala-sia "ill als! ha e auth!rit-, an$ i' he s! "ishes, the +hie' 2usti%e has the p!"er t! hear an$ $e%i$e %ases in the sessi!ns %!urt.

Page 1 On the issue "hether, '!r purp!ses !' %!nstru%ting %!n$!minium !n the sai$ lan$ "hi%h ha$ alrea$- been %ateg!ri6e$ '!r use !' 'buil$ing', there "!ul$ still be a nee$ t! make an appli%ati!n un$er s 12& !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e, < %!mpletel- agree "ith the submissi!n !' the Seni!r ?e$eral +!unsel that s 12& rea$ t!gether "ith s 11, !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e sh!"s %learl- that su%h appli%ati!n has t! be ma$e an$ the appr! al !btaine$ be'!re su%h "!rks %an %!mmen%e. Se%ti!n 11, $eals "ith implie$ %!n$iti!ns a''e%ting lan$ sub0e%t t! the %ateg!r- 'buil$ing'. Fn$er sub8s 1($# it sa-s4
that n! su%h buil$ing shall be $em!lishe$, altere$ !r e@ten$e$ "ith!ut the pri!r %!nsent in "riting !' the appr!priate auth!rit-.

The term 'appr!priate auth!rit-' in this se%ti!n re'ers n!t t! the Ae"an >an$ara-a 3uala *umpur but t! the $e'en$ant. $%%& 5 M(6 *$ at *% /en%e, 12&(1#(%# rea$ t!gether "ith s 11,(1#($# !' the )ati!nal *an$ +!$e %learl- sh!"s that a lan$!"ner $!es n!t ha e aut!mati% p!"er t! %!mmen%e %!nstru%ti!n !' %!n$!minium !n the sai$ lan$ e en th!ugh it is un$er %ateg!r- 'buil$ing' "ith!ut !btaining pri!r appr! al 'r!m the $e'en$ant. < there'!re hel$ that the plainti'''s %!ntenti!n !n this issue %ann!t be sustaine$. A'ter ha ing %!nsi$ere$ all the %ir%umstan%es !' this %ase, < rule$ that the $e%isi!n !' the Prime Minister ha$ been ali$l- e@e%ute$, an$ his reas!ns '!r re0e%ting the appli%ati!n "ere 'air an$ 0ust. < "as unable t! 'in$ anreas!n "h- that $e%isi!n sh!ul$ be $isturbe$. <n the %ir%umstan%es an$ '!r the reas!ns as < ha e state$ ab! e, the appli%ati!n "as $ismisse$ "ith %!sts. -pplication dismissed with costs;

;ep!rte$ b- Tan 3ah >ee