Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 537

HISTORY

ANCIENT
ITS

GREECE,
AND

COLONIES,

CONQUESTS;

From

the

Earlieft Accounts

till the

Divifion

of

the

Macedonian

Empire

in the

Eaft.

By

JOHN

GILLIES,

LL.

D.

F, A.S.

EK

/*""

Toiye

Tr;;

aicayruv

TT^OJ

xa.\

TO

re^tnot

tx.

TV

POLYBIUS,

1. i.

C.

THE

SECOND

EDITION.

VOL.

III.

LONDON:

Printed

for

A.

STRAHAN;

and

T.

CADELL,

in the

Strand,

MDCCLXXXVII.

Annex

v,2"

CONTENTS
O

THIRD

VOLUME.

CHAP.

XXL
Sicfly.
"

in ofthe Athenian Misfortunes f^Onfequences


"

Confederacy againjiAthens. Naval Peculiar Rejources offreeGovernments. Battle of Miletus. of Intrigues Operations.
Formidable
" " "

Democracy fubverted. Government of the Four Hundred. Tyrannical Battle of Eretria. Democracy re-eftablijhed Naval Succefs in Athens. of the Athenians." Triumphant Return of Alcibiades. The EleuMyfteries and Plynteria. ftnian Page i
"

Alcibiades. The Athenian

."

"

"

"

"

"

CHAP.

XXII.
"

Character
"

with Cyof Lyfander. His Conference rus. He defeats the Athenian Fleet. Dif grace Jucceededby Callicraof Alcibiades. Lyfander with the Perfians with tidas. His Tranfaftions the SpartanAllies. Battle of Arginujfe. Trial Eteonicus checks a of the Athenian Admirals. Mutiny of the Peloponnefian ;"" Lyfander Troops A 2 refumes
"

-~

"

"

"

"

"

iv

CONTENTS.

refumes the
mos.
"

Command.

"

Battle
in

of Mgos
of
the

Potarender Sur-

Spartan Empire of Athens.

and Afia.-" 'Siege

-^-Humiliation

nians. Athe-

Page
CHAP. XXIII. the

52

Rapacity
"

and

Cruelty of

Spartan Government.^
"

The

Thirty Tyrants in
his

Athens.

of Perfecution

Lyjias and
Tyrants.
"

Family.

"

Theramenes

oppofesthe
"

Sanguinary Speech of
"

Critias.

Death

of

Theramenes.
"

Perfecutionand

Death
"

of

Alcithe

biades.

Thrafybulusfeizfs Phyle
"

Defeats

Tyrants.
"

Memorable
"

Speech of Thrafybulus.
not

Oath

of Amnefty

faithfully obferved. 96

CHAP.

XXIV.

Accufationof
"

Socrates.
"

"

Artificesof
"

his

Accufers.
to

His

Defence.
"

Condemnation.

Addrefs
"

the

Judges.
"

His

Converfationin Prifon
his
"

and

Death.

Tranjient Perfecution of
Cebes
the
"

Difciples."State

Writings of lofophy. Of
"

AZfcbines.
Arts.
" "

of

Phi-

Fine

Of

Literature.-"'
"

Herodotus
to

"

Thucydides
invade
"

Xenophon.

Tranjition
"

the

public TranfacJions of
Elis."The

Greece.

The

Spartans

Mejfenians
"

driven

from
War

Greece. with

Hiftoryof Cyrene
"

Of Sicily."
"

Carthage. Siege of Agrigentum.


"
.

Reign of Dionyfws
Rome.

Sicilythe firftProvince

of
127

CONTENTS.

CHAP.

XXV.
t bus.

t)eath of Darius

No

"

the SucCyrus difputes


Brother

cejjionwith
Character
his

his

elder
"

Artaxerxes."
Lower

of Cyrus.

State
"

of

Afia
and

der un-

Adminiflration.
"

His

Strength
Upper
Brother.
" "

Re-

Jources.

His the
"

Expedition
vaft Army
Death

into his

AJia.-~
Battle Grecian
with

DeJ "cries
of

of of
"

Canaxa.

Cyrus.
Their

His

Auxiliaries

victorious.
"

Treaty

Tifcian Gre-

Japhernes"
Generals.
to

Perfidious AJJaJ/ination of the


"

Artaxerxes Arms.
"

fends

to

the
on

Greeks that

demand

their

Conference

Subjeff.
CHAP. XXVI.
Greeks.
" "

Page

177

Confternation of the

Manly

Advice

of

Xenophon.
it
"

"

TheirRetreat.

Difficulties attending Perfeverance.


tains. Moun-

Surmounted

by

their

Skill and the

"Their
"

Sufferings among They traverfe


from
"

Carduchian
"

Armenia.
"

Firft

behold Colthe

the

Sea

Mount

Theches.

Defeat

the

chians. Euxine. there. Enter


"
"

Dejcription of thefouthern Shore


"

of

Tranfa5lions with
The

the
at

Greek

Colonies

Greeks

arrive

"Byzantium."

into

the Service

of

Seuthes."His

Hiftory.
and Thratheir 208

Conjunft Expeditionsof the


"

Greeks

cians.

The

Greeks

return

to

the Service
-

of

Country.

VI

CHAP.
ernes Tijfaph

XXVII.
War
on

makes
"

the Greeks
"

by Order
Cities.
"

of

Artaxerxes.

Attacks
"

the He

AZolian
is

pedition Ex-

of
"

Thimbron.

Jucceededby
"

Der-

cyllidas.His Treaty with Tijfaphernes.Agefilaus King of Sparta. Cinadon's Con/piracy.


" "

Commander Agejilaus

of
"

the

Grecian

Forces

in

Afia.
"

His
"

Succejs. TiffapbermsJucceeded by
Great
"

Tithrauftes.

Views

of Agefilaus. War
" "

rekindled in Greece.

League aga'mftSparta.
Bceotia.
"

Campaign of Lyjander in

His

Death.

Page
CHAP. Recal XXVIII.
the

241

from of Agefilaus
"

Eaft.
"

He

invades
"

Bceotia. His with

yiews

of Evagoras King of Cyprus.


Conon.
"

with Friend/hip

"

The

latter

entrufted
monians. Lacede-

the Perfian Fleet.


"

He

the defeats
"

Battle

of

Coron"ea.

The and

Corinthian Harbours

War.

"

Conon
"

rebuilds

the Walls and

of
"

Athens. Peace

Conquefts of Conon

Thrafybulus.
275

of Antalcidas.
CHAP. XXIX.
Peace
"

Reflections upon
Views

the

of

Antalcidas.

"

bitious Am"

of Sparta.
"

State

of

Arcadia.

Siege of
The

Mantinxa. make

Olynthian Confederacy.
"

"

Spartans

War
"

on

Olynthus. Sub"

miffion of

that

Republic.
"

Pella

becomes

the

Capital of

Macedon.

Pbabidas

feizes the Theban

CONTENTS.

va

Ian
laus.

Citadel,
"

"

'The Meafure
the

approved by AgejiExiles.
"

Conjpiracyof

'Theban

The

Theban

Democracy reftored.
CHAP.

Page

309

XXX.

The

Bofotian

War.

"

Attempt of SphoUnfuccefsful
Pir^us.
"

drias

againft the
invades
"

Xenophon'sAccount
laus 'Thebans, Naval Peace

of
"

that

concerning TranfaEfion. Ageft"

Doubts

Bceotia.

Military Succefs of
the

the
"

Succefs of
under
^

Athenians.

Congrefsfor
taxerxes.
"

the Mediation

of

Ar"

Epaminondas
invades

Deputy from Thebes.


"

Cleombrotus
"

Eceotia.
"

Battle

of Leuflra.
"

-State

of
and

Greece. Views.

Jafon of TheJJaly. His


"

Character

in AJfaJfinated
-

the

midft
343

of his Projetts.
C Tumults
nla.
"

P.

XXXI.
"

in the

Peloponnefus. Invajion of Laco"

Epaminondas rebuilds MeJJene.


Archidamus of Megalopolis."

tion Founda-

refloresthe

Fortune

of Sparta.
"

Affairs of Thejfaly and


"

The Pre"Negotiationsfor Peace. tenfiojis of Thebes rejected. Epaminondas invades Achaia."~ the in Peloponnefus. Revolutions

Macedon.

"

"

Speech of

Archidamus
"

in the

Spartan Council.

"

Difcancer ted by Athens." Dejigns of Thebes. dians Pelopidas's Expedition into Thejfaly. The ArcaJelze the Olympic Treajure. Battle of into Egypt. Mantin"sa. Expedition Agefilaus's
" "

"

388

CONTENTS.

CHAP.

XXXII.

State

of

Greece

after

the Council.

Battle

of

The

AmpbiSfyonic
of
"

"

Returning
its

Projpement. Govern-

rity

Athens.
"

Vices

rejultingfrom judiciary
of
the the Grecian Athenians.
"

Abujes
"

of

the

Power.
"

-Of

the treme ExVices

'Theatre.

Degeneracy of
him
War
"

Mujic."
The

Profligacy
of
"

Chares The

render Social

Idol

of

the

Multitude.
Timotheus the War.

Banijhment IJJue

of
of

and

Iphicrates.
"

"

Difgraceful
Statuary.

"Philofophy.
Cnidian Zeuxis.
"

Praxiteles.

The

Venus.
"

Painting.

Pampbilus,
His

Nicias,

Literature.

Xenophon.
and

Military
Retreat.

Expeditions.
Lyfias. Jetties
in

Religious
Plato.

Literary
His His

Ifocrates.
the

Travels.
Views.

He

Academy.

great

Theology.
the Human State
rafter.

Cofmogony.

Doftrine The

of

Ideas.

Of
tues. Vir-

Under/landing.
of
Retribution.

Pajfions.
Genius,
and

Cha-

Page

465

"

HISTORY

GREECE.

CHAP. the Athenian

XXI.

Conferences of
"

Misfortunes in Sicily.
Athens."
"

Formidable Peculiar

Confederacy,againft
Battle The

Refourcesoffree Governments.
"

Naval

Operations.
Alcibiades.
"
"

of Miletus.

"

Intrigues of
Hundred.

Athenian

Democracy fubver ted. of


the Four

tyrannical
Battle

Government
"

"

of
"

Eretria.

Democracy re-eftablifoed
the
"

in Athens.

Naval
Return
"

Succejsof
and

Athenians." The Eleu-

triumphant

of Alcibiades.

finian Myfteries

Plynteria.
extenfive

IN
affeded VOL.

the

populous Europe,

and the

kingdoms
of

of

p.

modern

revolutions the humble

public

X^L^I
of

affairs feldom

difturb

of obfcurity of Greece

Extent

privatelifej but
involved
the

the national

tranfaftions

intereft of every

family,and.
every

Sa^iSf" deeply f"rg"c"j


dual.

the fortune and

of happinefs B

indivi-

III.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

CHAP.
xx
i_
r

dual.
r

Had

the

arms

of the Athenians
citizen would

proved
have

fuc-

each '_" cefsful in Sicily,

derived

from
as

that
as

event

an

immediate and and have

accefllon

of wealth,

well

of power,

felt

increafe of honour

fecurity.But

proportional their proud

in the harbour of Syracufe. for ever hopes perifhed difafters fhook the foundation The to fucceeding rafh enterprife the fabric of their empire. In one

prudence of the their experiencedgenerals, and flourifhing difafters! vigourof their manly youth1 Irreparable they
loft their army,
"

their fleet, the

which of

difabled totally

them

to

refiftthe

confederacy

reinforced by the refentment of Peloponnefus, While and powerfulenemy. monian Lacedaea a new invefted their city,they had reafon army dread that a Syracufan fleet fhould affault the to Piraeus; that Athens muft finally yield to thefe combined citizens attacks,and her once profperous by the fword, or dragged into captivity, deftroyed atone by their death or difgracefor the cruelties which they had recentlyinflided on the wretched of Melos and Scione. republics
The
news

The

dreadful alternative of

vi"ory

and

defeat,
fhould
have

ren(krs Athens"0
Olymp.
vet
^

it littlefurprifmg that the Athenians

have

which rejected intelligence,


*"^

they muft
*

A.

C.

received
413.

with horror.
were

The with

firftmeftengers of fuch

fad

news

treated

contempt:
farther.

but

it

was

Thucyclid.

1. vii. p. 557.

Cicero

goes

Hie

primum

opes boc fa"um

illius civitatis vidz,

portu

Athenienfium

depreflxque funt : in nobilitatis, imperij, glorias nairfragium


v.

comrainutas,

exifttmatur.

Cicer. in Verrem,

37.

impofnble

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

with-hold belief from the CHAP. to long impofTible whofe miferable fugitives, fqualidand dejected -^-' ji attefted the publiccalamity. too countenances faithfully
2
.

Such

evidence

could

not

be

refufedj the
the whole

arrogance of

abafhed, and was incredulity

into confternation, or feized with thrown republic pagus of the Areodefpair.The venerable members of filent forrowj but the majefty exprefied mile cries of woe extended many the piercing a the Piraeus to the walls which joined along the lofty and the licentious populace raged with unbridled city ; the diviners and orators, whofe furyagainft and ambitious had blind predictions, harangues, fatal to their eternally promoted an expedition

country 3.
The

diflrefs of the Athenians


of

was

too

great

to

CombinaGreece

admit the comfort

capableof that melancholy confolation. The tidings expect, fo afflicting to them joy to their gave unfpeakable feared, moil hated, and all neighbours ; many envied minion a people who had long ufurped the doof Greece.
The Athenian

but had they been fyinpathy; receiving, they had little reafon to

rather allies, or

fcattered over fubjects,


*

fo many

coafts and

iflands,

The

calamitywas
to

fo great that the boldeft


its exiftence.

imaginationhad
minds

never

dared

conceive the
fuv

Their

being

thus

unprepared,
xon

Athenians,
r^st-ua-Tut

TO"?

mx.vv

fays Thucydides, dilbelieved ti;awry iJtawifevyocri" in igyu


from this

even

thofe

foldiers who

efcaped
in

melancholy bufinefs*
"c.
may

The

(lories of Plutarch

Nicia, of Athenseus,
are

be

as fafelycondemned fidions, fince they Thucydides's narrative. *

inconfiftent with

Thucydid.

1. viii. p.

558,

"

feqq.
2

prepared

4
CHAP,
^

THE
to prepared

HISTORY
aflert

OF

GREECE.
,

their

_'_. federates of Sparta, among

the conindependence ; the Syracufans whom

aflumed the firft rank, were juftly and longed for revenge : victory, which of
a

unfatisfied with
even

thofe the
to

munities, com-

had

hitherto

declined

danger
become

doubtful conteft,meanly folicited


a

in parties terminate
Abetted

war,

which

theyexpected muft
of Athens
a

finally

in the deftruction all the

4.

Should

efforts of fuch inefficient


to

ftillprove "tntment* federacy


of Perfia.

powerful conthe accompliili

city,there was yet another and animofity behind, from whofe flrength enemy the Athenians had every thingto fear. The long and peaceful king of Perfia, reign of Artaxerxes expiredfour hundred and twenty-five years before The the Chriftian sera. two following years were fucceffion of kings,Xerxes, remarkable for a rapid afllimed the Sogdianus,Ochus ; the laft of whom
ru'm
tne
name

of

devoted

of Darius,

to

which

hiftorians have

added

of Nothus, the baftard, to diftinguifh epithet this effeminate princefrom his illuftrious predethe ceflbr s. The firit years

of Darius

Nothus

were

employed in confirming his difputedauthority, and in watching the dangerous intrigues of his who kinfmen numerous afpiredto the throne.
When difturb
monarch every his rival
was or

removed offend

that his

could

either

quiet
into

funk

an

voluptuous court
*

was

the fufpicion, indolent fecurity, and his governed by the feeble adfeqq.
Diodor.
c.

Thucydid.
Diodor.

1. viii. p. 558, "

1. xiii. p. 348.

1. xii. p. 32*.

Ctefias,Perfic.

xlv. "

feqq.

miniftration

THE

HISTORY
women

OF

GREECE. 6. But in the


c TI A

$
p"

miniflration of

and

eunuchs

ninth year of his

by Jethargy
dominion
a

the

reignDarius was roufed from his L-^^ revolt of Egypt and Lydia. The
to

defection of the latter threatened


the valuable

tear

from

his

of provinces

Afia

Minor;

which he determined to prevent by confequence employing the bravery of Pharnabazus, and the to repolicy of the crafty TifTaphernes, govern diftricts of and fouthern the northern fpectively The that rich and fertile peninfula. abilitiesof the rebellion in thefe generals not only quelled of their mailer towards Lydia, but extended the arms well as of the the fhores of the ./Egean, as in direct oppofition to Hellelpontand Propontis ; the treaty which forty years before had been ratified of their between the Athenians, then in the height and the unwarlike Artaxerxes. But profperity, the recent misfortunes of that ambitious people flattered the Perfian commanders with the hope of reftoring the whole Afiatic coaft to the great as well as of inflicting king7, exemplarypunifhment the proud city, which had refifted the power, on difmembered the empire,and tarnilhed the glory

of Perfia.
'

The

terror

of fuch

formidable combination

ThcAthe""

and might have reduced the Athenians to defpair; that this confequence fhould not immerevolt, our furprife follow,will be increafed by the following diately reflection. Not to mention the immortal trophies
6

Ctefias,c. xlvii.

Thucydid. 1.viii. p. 560. B 3

"

Ctefias,Perfic.

c,

li.

of

6
C
HA p.

Of Alexander,

or

the extenfive and

Khan,
race;

Tamerlane,
the

ravages of Zingig of their the Tartar princes

nations of of men, barbarous


The
over

Spaniards,the Portuguefe,and other modern Europe, have, with a handful


victorious
over

marched

the effeminate weftern

or

coafts of the eaftern and

world.

of Europe eafily hardy difcipline prevailed

the unwarlike

foftnefs of India and the


But
was

favage
of

ignoranceof knowledge
of their
fubdued
arms
8

America.

the

rapidfuccefs

all thefe conquerors and and

owing to their military experience. By the fuperiority of their difcipline, the Romans
But
a

the nations of the earth. afford the

the Athenians

only example
over men

by

the virtues of the mind dominion

people,who, alone, acquiredan extenfive equally improved with


war

of

themfelves

in

the

arts

of

and
to

government.
around
not to

or were They poffefled, to courage and capacity

believed

fuperior pofiefs,
them;

the nations fhould

and

this

which opinion,

feem them

intirely
maintain,

deftitute of foundation, enabled

abfolute authority in an garrifons, the iflands of the .^igean, well as in the cities as of the Afiatic coaft. Their difafters and difgrace in Sicily the real and the ideal at once deftroyed of their power; third of the lofs of one fupports their citizens made with it impoffible to fupply, of their frelh recruits, the exhaufted ftrength

by

very

feeble

If that of the Tartars

fhould

be

doubted,

the

reader

may

confult

Mnnf.

admirable
v.

Guignes's Hilt, des Huns, and Mr. Gibbon's of the manners of the paftoral nations, defcription
de

ii.

garrifons

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
terror

7
c H A

in foreign garrifons parts;


was no more ;

the

of their fleet

p.

and

their

before "__' ',_j" defeats, multiplied -t


converted Athens into contempt had

the walls of

had Syracufe, in which

that admiration held

been

long
latent Peculiar

by

Greeks

and Barbarians. there


are

But

in free governments

many
can

refources which

calamities alone public

bringto

Of

frce

light;and
dowed with

which, to individuals enadverfity, inborn vigour of mind, is the great


of heroifm, furnifhes alfo
the and
to

g"vern~

fchool of virtue and


the

enthufiafm

field for the

popular aflemblies of national honour difplay


the
man,

of

nobleft
nanimity. mag-

Had

meafures
or even

of
on

the
a a

Athenians

depended
the

on

one

few, it

is

that probable cautious

the felfifhtimidity of

prince,and
have

prudence of
the

council, would

funk under for the


But

weightof misfortunes, too

heavy

of ordinaryminds. unfupportedftrength

of generous the firft fpark ardour, which the love of virtue, of glory, and the republic, or
even

the

meaner

motives

of ambition

and
was

vanity,
difrufed

excited and

in the aflembled

multitude,

increafed the

thy ;

of rympaby the natural contagion communicated flame was to patriotic

every breaft ; and the focialwarmth, reflected from fuch a variety became intenfe to be of objects, too

refilledby the coldnefs of caution of

and

the

damps
Prudent

defpair.
With
one

mind
to

and
the

refolution the Athenians of fortune,and leverity


to

determined

brave

withftand the aflaults of the enemy. Nor did this noble defign the ; evaporate in ufelefs (peculation
B
4

nians.

wifeft

8
CHAP,
t

THE

HISTORY
were

OF

GREECE.

_' _.

adopted for reducing it to The formation began, as national repractice. great work ought always to begin, by regulating of the finances, and lopping off every branch clamour of turbulent The fuperfluous expence. and exfilenced; aged wifdom perience demagogues was allowed calmly to direct the public were
wifefl meafures
councils
j new

levies

were

raifed

the

remainder of

of their fleet was the colonies and


an was

equipped for fea ; flates were tributary


every

the motions watched

with

anxious

and folicitude, that

proper

might appeafetheir thefe meafures, render it impotent9. Yet or prudent and vigorous as they were, could not, have fufpended the fall of Athens, had probably, feveral concurring their operacaufes facilitated not tion. The and ineffectual proweak, dilatory, ceedings of the Spartan confederacy the temj and capricious conduct of the porifmg,equivocal, employed
Perfian
governors
j

expedient animofity,

above of

and all,the intrigues after involving

genius enterprifmg
his undertook finally

Alcibiades,who,
in inextricable

country

calamities,

its defence, and

retarded,though

he could

not

prevent,

its deftiny.

ans

and

In the year following the unfortunate expedition into Sicily, the Spartansprepared a fleet of an hundred

to prepare a"3 againft

fail,of
,

which
own
,

twenty-five gallies were


fea-ports
:

furnifhed by their
the Thebans
, _,,

theAfiatic
cc

r_
;

twenty-five J
.

by
*

depend-

fifteen

by

the Corinthians

and and

the the

remainder Athens!*
9

b7 Locris, Phocis, Megara,


559. Diodor.

Thucydid.I. viii. p.

1. xiii. p. 349.

maritime

to

THE dered
'

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
a

CHAP,
XXI
u
.

the

allies from

at acting expeditioufly,

time when
ance.

defeat

the rin-

from

the
was

of the utmoft importwas expedition of privateviews diverted them variety and the generalaim of the confederacy;
f^ been advanced

thians
the

and

feafon
who

before the

Corinthians,

vDi-

".0.413.

by excefs of antipathy diftinguifhed to Athens, were preparedto fail. They determined" from pride perhaps, as well as fuperflition, celebrate", before leavingtheir harbours, the to
had Ifthmian games, conlecrated feftivals in
to

Neptune,

the third

of the

Grecian

point of dignityand

this ceremony the Athenians, fplendour. From excluded rinthian not by the Cothough enemies, were did they exclude themnor magiftrates; felves, though opprefledby the weight of paft misfortunes, and totally occupied by the thoughts

of

future againft providing

evils.

While

their

re-

fhared the amufements of this facred prefentatives commended ipe"acle,they neglectednot the commiffion reformed inby their country. They iecretly themfelves of the plan and particular circumftances time precife

of the intended
fixed for the

revolt, and

learned

the

of the Corinthian departure of this importantinfleet. In confequence telligen the Athenians the defigns of anticipated

the rebels of Chios, and

carried off feven

fhipsas
turned re-

pledgesof

their

fidelity.The

fquadronwhich

from
T1 "

this ufeful

the enterprife, intercepted

the force of the

The fchotufl juflly ZntfTotffeM." obferve?, ripivTaIcn5.ai" Aa," thoroughly, completely," /. e. until
" "

they

had

celebrated

the games, Vid,

the

complete

number

of

days,

appointedby antiquity.

2E, Port, ad loc. p. 563.

Cor in-

THE

HISTORY
as

OF

GREECE,
CHAP.
"

*i

Corinthians

gulph; and purfuedand


Meanwhile the Ionian

they failed through the Saronic having attacked and conquered them,
blocked the them up in their harbours".

-y-'j

coaft

Spartansand their allies fent to fuch fquadronsas were fucceffiveof Akibiades,

succefsful

"perathe
con-

ly readyfor fea, under the conduct Chalcideus, and Aftyochus. The


commanders failed
to

firft of thefe
was

federat"-

the ifleof Chios, which

by contending factions. The Athenian and compelled to fubmit; were furprifed, partifans which and and the city, fortygallies, poflefled of the to none yieldedin wealth and populoufnefs acceflion to the colonies,became an neighbouring The and rich confederacy. ftrong Peloponnefian followed the example: Erythrae of Miletus town
diftracled
and Clazomene

furrendered
note
were

to

Chalcideusj feveral

places of
When

lefs

conquered by Aftyochus.
received the unwelcome
expen-

the

Athenians

Battle

of

of intelligence
diture
c
i

thefe events,
r j i

they voted the


t
"

JJ'ietiw.
Olymp.
xcii.
a.

or

thouiand

talents, which,
had
a

"

more

pro-

iperoustimes, they
under

in depofited decree of the

the citadel, fenate and

A* C* 4"*

the fanftion of

occafion of the utmoft to referve it for an people, enabled them to danger. This feafonable fupply increafe the fleet, which failed, under Phrynichus and other leaders, to the ifle of Lefbos. Having fecured the fidelity of the Lefbians, who were ripe for rebellion,they endeavoured their to recover in Miletus, anciently authority regardedas the
"

Thucydid, p. 564.

capital

u
CHAP,
' '

'

of the capital foughtbefore Athenians and

Ionic

coaft.

the walls of that


one

bloody battle place,between

was

the

Argives on ponnefians,affifted by the


and the revolted Athenian

fide, and the Pelo-

troops of
the

Tiffaphernes
other.
The

Milefians, on
of
Greeks

bravery defeated,on

this occafion, the


and

numbers fuperior whom they were auxiliaries Miletus


:

Barbarians

to

were

oppofed ; but their Argive citizens of repulied by the gallant


parts of the engagement, like, commonly reckoned the lefs wartheir Dorian

fo that,in both
race,

the Ionic

overprevailed

rivals and of

mies. ene-

victory,the Athenians preparedto aflault the town, when they alarmed were by the approachof a fleet of fiftyElevated

with

the

joy

five fail, which

advanced the

in

two

the divifions,

one

commanded
other

by

celebrated

Hermocrates,

the

the Spartan. Phrynichus by Theramenes ftrength prudentlyconfidered, that his own only and refuled to amounted to gallies, forty-eight commit the laft hope of the republic to the danger of an unequal combat. His firmnefs deipifed the clamours of the Athenian failors, who infulted13, under
TheAthe-

the
;

name

of cowardice, the caution


he

of their

admiral *"rce
to

and ^ ^e

calmly

retired with
where

his

whole

"f Samos,

the

treated having lately


*s

the nobles

tion popularfacwith fhocking

Like
"

Fabius,
Non

ponebat enim

rumores

ante

falutem." ENNIUS

apud Cic,
"

Thucydides exprefleswith more vigour, aAcfi'j "i|as; $ix.y.H$vnvcrw," p. 574tuffXtu


o""tj="

which

v$t

WOT"

ra

injuftice

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. dearms

13
c

in Grecian and cruelty, too frequent injuftice ready to receive with open mocracies, were the

patrons

of that

fierce and

licentious

form

of

government.
The
the
retreat
i

of the Athenian
of the
i

fleet
enemy;
to

acknowledged
a

TheAthenianafFairs retrieved * blades.

naval
was

,-""/-

luperionty
alone

luperionty
or

which

fufficient either

acquire
"

to

maintain and

the fubmiffion
In

of the

neighbouringcoafts
the

iflands.

other the

too, refpects

Peloponwere

nefians Their

enjoyed

mofl

decifive

advantages.
forcement rein-

victualled,their foldiers were gallies and theydaily paidby Tiffaphernes, expecteda


of
an

Phoenician ihips, fifty reached Afpendus, which, it was faid, had already of Pamphylia. But, in this dangerous a fea-port the declining crifis,fortune feemed to refpect age of Athens, and, by a train of accidents, fingular and almoft enabled Alcibiades, fo long incredible, the misfortune and the fcourge, the defence to become
hundred and and the his

faviour,of his country.

During
aflumed

long refidence
to

the

outward

conformed

himfelf

Sparta,Alcibiades gravityof deportment, and the fparediet,and laborious


m

His

iti-

in that auftere republic; prevailed but his character and his principles remained as licentious as ever. His with Timea, the intrigue fpoufe of king Agis, was difcovered by an excefs of female levity. The vain of the attachment queen, of fo celebrated the
name
name
a

which exercifes,

character, familiarly gave


to

of Alcibiades

her fon
to

which,

firft confined

the

Leotychides a privacyof her


",

female

14
.CHAP,

THE

HISTORY
was

OF

GREECE.

female companions,
world. Alcibiades

foon

fpread abroad
her

in the
a

c"y",^

punifhed

follyby

moft

but mortifying that he had

well-merited

declaration, boafting^
no

folicited her favours from

other

tive mo-

but that he

might indulgethe
The

ambitious

defire

of

givinga king to Sparta.

offence itfelf, and

the fhamelefs

avowal, ftillmore

provoking than
and magiftrates

the

excited the keeneft relentment offence, of the hufband14. injured The

in the breaft rals gene-

of the fame, and of Sparta, jealous the merit

envious

of

with the ftranger, readily fympathifed of Agis; misfortune, and encouraged the revenge
a as

of

and,

the horrid

of practice

affaffination ftilldifwere

graced the manners Aftyochus,who


whole Grecian But
too

of Greece, orders commanded

fent

to

in chief the

Peloponin

nefian forces in Afia, power defied

to deftroy Alcibiades, fecretly

thofe

laws

which
to

every

republiccondemned
active and

adulterers

death'5.
iecured

the

fubtile Athenian
in intelligence

had
die

faithful domeftic

principal
all
quired re-

families of Spartato become

the victim

of this execrable

defign. With
the fnares of

his ufual addrefs he eluded his

Aftyochus:

however, fafety,

and caution, and he determined vigilance perpetual which a fituation, to efcapefrom fubjected him
His
con-

to

fuch irkfome

conftraint.

Publiclybaniftied from
cuted

Athens, fecretly perleto

Tif-

by Sparta,he
Plutarch,

had

recourfe

the

friendlhip

faphcrncs.
ii. 49. in Alcibiad.

Lyfias in defence

of

Euphiletus, "c.

p.

419.

Of

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

15

of

c who admired his accompliihments, TifTaphernes, his abilities, and refpected which, though far fupefimilar in kind to his own. rior in degree,were of a temper the more to readily was Tifiaphernes his ferve a friend,in proportion as he lefs needed concealed fervices. Alcibiades,therefore, carefully of the Sparfrom him the dangerous refentment tans.

l*".

In

the felfilh breaft of the Perfian

no on

tachment at-

could

be durable

unlefs founded
had

inhis

tereft; and Alcibiades,who character, began


to

deeplyftudied

flatter his

avarice, that he

might enfure his protection.He informed him, failors a that by allowing the Peloponnefian of daily drachma, or feven-pence fterling, pay, he with an ufelefs and even treated them dangerous that the pay given by the Athenians, liberality: in the moft flourifhing times, amounted even only to three oboli; which proceeded,not from a difinclination
to

reward
an

the fkill and

valour

of their

feamen, but from

that if theyreceived experience, each day, the fuperfluity than half a drachma more in fuch profligate be fquandered would as pleafures their minds enfeebled and corrupted and bodies, and rendered them equally of activity and of incapable Should the failorsprove dirTatisfied with difcipline. this equitable forded reduction, the Grecian character affor filencing their licentious an eafyexpedient clamours. naval and commanders It would and
a

be fufficient to

bribe the

the carelefs and

few mercenary orators, improvident feamen would


rate

the fubmit, without fufpicion, well


as

every

other concern,

to

of their pay, as the influence and


audio-

THE
CHAP.
XXI.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
to

of authority
them16.

thofe who

were

accuftomed

govern

Perfuades him
to

heard TifTaphernes

this advice with the attention


to

di-

minifh
the

his

of

an

avaricious
and

man

every
a

fubftdies
to

his

money;

fo

true

propofalfor faving judgment had Alcibiades Syradifdained, meanly


the

Peloponjiebans.

formed
cufan

of the Greeks, that Hermocrates


was

only officer who the intereft of the men and perfidioufly, to betray under nis command: yet throughthe influence of the plan of oeconomy his colleagues, univerwas
the

fallyadopted, and on a future occafion, TifTaphernes boafted that Hermocrates, though more lefs corruptible than others, and that not coy, was
die

only reafon

far which
to

he undertook

the patronage

of the failors, was


to

compel his own

reluctance

comply with the exorbitance of his demands. entertained by This reproachilluftratesthe opinion nations of Grecian virtue; but it is proforeign bably
on afperfion Syracufan.
an

the

fame

of the illuftrious

Alienates him the


reft

The

of intrigues

Alcibiades

had

fown

from inteof

and diftruft in the


alienated the minds

fleet : Peloponnefian of the troops both

jealoufy they had


Tif-

from

Sparta.

and their commanders : the Perfian faphernes was he had learned to ready to forfake thofe whom of this dilpofition and Alcibiades profited defpife;
to
was

infmuate

that the alliance of the Lacedaemonians

for the equallyexpenfiveand inconvenient his lieutenants. That thefe great king and accuftomed to take arms were haughtyrepublicans
"

Thucydid.

p.

584, " feqq.


to

^
QHAP.

THE
dus "om

HISTORY
to failing

OF

GREECE.
enemy.

Aftuming the fucboldnefs, as he perceived more yjl^^. gradually declared that the he finally cefs of his intrigues, Athenians might obtain not merely the neutrality,
aflift the the afiiftance of Artaxerxes, fnould perhaps, they conlent to abolifh their turbulent democracy, but fo odious
to

the Periians, and


to
men

entruft the admini-

flrationof government
with fo
This
mea-

worthy to negociate

mighty a

monarch.

propofedthis meafure, with the ^ *s uncertain whether he was acquainted beenhaiready in formed, both fecret cabals which had been already the dein*" and in the camp., for executing in the city bmh th(\c.Ity, fignwhich he fuggefted. The misfortunes,occafioned by the giddy infolence of the multitude, had of into the hands thrown the principals authority and the noble wealthy, who, corruptedby the
When

exile the illuftrious

ftveetsof temporary

power,

were

defirous

of

dering ren-

it perpetual. Many feveral moved

prompted by ambition few directed by a a by inconftancy,


defects of democracy, every
encounter

juft fenfe of
were

the incurable

preparedto
overturn

danger,that they
In the
was

might
man

the eftablifned conftitution.

third and of

moft
an

honourable

clals

Antiphon, a
endowed with

exalted

character, and

of talents. The irreliftible extraordinary energy his eloquencewas by the people. He fufpected in the afnor appearednot in the courts of juftice, fembly; but his artful and elaborate compofitions

often faved the lives of his friends.


vifible agent who and conlpiracy j

He

was

the in-

governed all the motions of the when compelled,after the ruin of


his

THE liis party,


an

HISTORY ftand

OF

GREECE*

19
C HA

to

trial for his

life,he difcovered

p,

that aftonifhed the and force of mind activity l7. Pifahder, of his contemporaries moft difcerning

Theramenes,
cratical party, biades. The

and

the other

leaders

of the

arifto-

warmly approved the


Athenian
the

views of Alci-

foldiers likewife,though the valour, of


fee him

they detefted
the illuftrious
to

impiety,admired exile,and longed to


of Athens become

reftored
lamented

the fervice of his country.

All ranks
;

the that

dangerousfituation
their affairs mufl

many

thought
to
co^ joiced .recon-

fhould defperate,
fleet

command Tiliaphernes

the Phoenician

operate

and many Peloponnefus; in the profpect in of a Perfian alliance, fequenceof which they would enter at once the pay of that wealthyfatrap^18.
i

with

that of

into

J7

Thucydid.
the
TUV

1, viii. p, character xab


xai
a,

600,
of

few

lines with

above, Thucydides

defcribes
amp

Antiphon
Te. tfoEvo;
"

expreffiveenergy
in virtue

AQvHztav

eavTov

awert

x'ou t"Y"g"K" xga-nro? n9i"ff/j-

Swan
cond

ysM/nsvcf,
to
no

yvwr,,

HTTW.

An

Athenian,
the

feof

man

then

endowed living, of

with

greatcft vigour
Lives
of

thought,
very

and

the greateft power and

exprefiion," Plutarch
The intitled,
was

in the the

inaccurate

imperfedt work,
that and

Ten

Orators,

tells us,

Antiphon
that
to

the

firft who

wrote

inllitutions of oratory; ancient that had


come

his

pleadings were
The agrees chara"er with

the moft

down

pofterity. Antiphon

given
the

by

Plutarch

of

the

writings of
Thucydides,
this

high
be

commendation
18

of

What

influence the

confederation

muft

have

had,
Orat.

may

conjedlnred from fays, that


their Perfian about the ipg' value

information
of this
to
war

of Andocides,
the

iii.who
from
lents, ta-

in the courfe

Spartans received,
of is five thoufand

fuhfidies allies,,
a

the

amount

million

fterling. The
in tbat age.

fum

confiderprodigious,

of money

One

16
CHAP.
t

THE
One
man,

HISTORY

OF

GREECE,

of Alcibiades, perfonal enemy But this man alone oppofed the generalcurrent. Phryniwhofe prudentfirmnefs as a cornwas Phrynichus, had occafion to remark, mander have already we counterhe invited dangers many ^ne ablades* courage with which the boldbut none have equalled, ever furpafled

the

-y-

nefs with

which When

he he

extricated

himfelf
his

from

culties. diffi-

were

deaf

to

every

colleagues the objection recalling againft


the

perceived that

friend of

informed he fecretly Tiflaphernes,

which Spartan admiral Aftyochus,of the intrigues of his country. were carryingon to the difadvantage Daring as this treacherywas, Phrynichus addrefled
a

traitor
was

not

than lefs perfidious the

himfelf.
ture crea-

Aftyochus
of

become

penfioner and

whom he communicated to Tiflaphernes, the intelligence. The Perfian againcommunicated it to his favourite Alcibiades, who complained in ftrongterms of the bafenefs the Athenians to and villany of Phrynichus. The pated latter exculhimfelf the
return

with

confummate

addrefsj but
prove fatal
to

as

of Alcibiades

might

his

he ventured, a fecond time, to write to fafety, him with his breach "Aftyochus, gently reproaching of confidence, and explaining he by what means the whole Athenian fleet at Samos; might furprife that muft for ever an eftablifh his fame and exploit fortune. Aftyochus again betrayedthe fecret to and Alcibiades; but before their letters Tiflaphernes

conveyed Phrynichus, who, by fome

could

be

to

the

Athenian

camp,
was

u'nknown

channel,

informed

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
H

21 A

the C treachery, anticipated by apprifmgthe Athenians dangerous difcovery, their fleet. They of the enemy's defign to furprife had fcarcely to counteract employed the proper means from that purpofewhen meflengerscame the horrid perfidy of a Alcibiades to announce facrificedto private refentwretch who had bafely But the mefthe laft hope of his country. ment arrived too late; the priorinformation of fengers well as the bold and fingular wickas Phrynichus, which no common of ednefs of his defign, degree evidence was thought fufficientto prove, were fufand it tained as arguments for his exculpation;

Informed

of this fecond

P4

was

believed that Alcibiades infamous


the

had

made

ufe of
not
ampled unex-

ftratagemmoft
among

in itfelf, but

a man Greeks, for deftroying

whom The ed
the

he detefted'*.
of Phrynichus, oppofition though it retarddefignsof Alcibiades,prevented not the

Con-

meafures

of Pifander and his aflbciates for abolilhwere

lpir.ac/".
agamlttne
democra-

ing

democracy. The foldiers at Samos induced, by the reafons above mentioned,


the refolution of their

the

to

ac-

govern-

generals.But a ment* difficult tafk remained; to deprive the people more of Athens of their liberty, which, fmce the expulfion of the family of Pififtratus, they had enjoyed hundred years. Pifander headed the deputaan tion which was fent from the camp to the city to effeft this important revolution. He acquainted the extraordinary fummoned that oo aflembly, on
*9

in quiefce

Thucydid.p. 587"590.

cafion

12 CHAP,
"

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

cafion in the theatre of Bacchus, of the meafures which

adoptedby their foldiers and fellowThe citizens,at Samos. compact bandi0 of conwarmly approved the example; but loud Ipirators
had been
murmurs

of difcontent refounded

in different quarters

Pifander aiked the theatre. fpaciotis his opporeafon of this difapprobation. Had nents If they had, let any thingbetter to propofe? them forward and explainthe grounds of come let them explain how their diiient: but, above all, and their they could fave themfelves, their families, of that
f{

of they complied with the demand The imperious voice of necefiity Tiffaphernes. the actual dangerhad to law ; and when was. fuperior ceafed,they might re-eftablifhtheir ancient confticountry, unlefs

tutipn."
or

The
to

opponents of Pifander
and the ambaffadors

were

unable cree, detq

afraid

: reply

afTembly paffeda
with full powers

ten inverting treat

with the Perfian

fatrap.

phernes.
xcii. i.

A. c.

41 j.

fleet Peloponnefian had the coaft of Afia, the Spartan commanders on of their republic, concluded, in the name a treaty with Tiffaphernes; that in which it was ftipulated, fhould be regularly fubficljes tne paid by the king of Perfia,and that the Peloponnefian forces fhould for employ their utmoft endeavours to recover, Soon

after the arrival of the

ao

Or
at

rather

bands, according gain


over

to

Thucydides.
T"?
*'

Pifander aiTre^

tvas

pains

to

to
SKI

his views

?t7Wftw"*?" The
to

{tyy^aov
or

wpoTtpoK

t'J rr"

TroXs* tja-cti

SIXUK; xcti ""%3K* Athens,


with the
a

tions facthruft

juntos already formed


into the feats p.59Z. of

in

view

themfelves ftate."

judicatureand

great offices of

Thucydid.

that

THE
that which

HISTORY

OJ
dominions

GREECE.

^
CHAP.. anceftors,
XXI

monarch,
had

the

of

his

been

and cruelly ufurped, long unjuftly ^"'_f i__ This

infuited, by the Athenians.


honourable
could
not to venture

treaty feemed fo

the great

that in the fible,

king, that his lieutenant it. It is pofopenlyto infringe interval between his intrigues with
the arrival of the Athenian
am-

Alcibiades, and
bafiadors
at

the placeof his ufual refi-^ Magnefia, dence, Tiffaphernes might receive frefh inftructions from his court to make good his agreement with the Spartans. Perhapsthe crafty ver nefatrap entertained any ferious thoughtsof an alliance with the Athenians,although he fufficiently reliihed the advice given him by Alcibiades to weaken both parties. But whatever motive determined
.

him, it is certain that he fhewed


enter

difmclination

to

into any

bafiadors.

with the Athenian amnegociation Alarmed at the decay of his influence which he had built the flattering

with the Perfians, on

to his country, Alcibiades hopes of returning employed all the refources of his geniusto conceal -and the Artifices his difgrace.By felicitations, intreaties, he obtained an audience for his meaneft compliances, he fellow-citizens. As the agent of Tifiaphernes, the conditions on which theymight then propofed obtain the friendfhip of the great king. Several demands made, demands moft difgraceful to v/ere
" c

the
dors the But

name

of Athens:

to

all of which
even

the ambafla-

fubmitted.
whole when coaft

They

agreed to

furrender

of Ionia to its ancient

the Cartful Athenian

fovereign. left they (fearful


Tif-

on fhould,

any terms,
C

admit
4

the treaty which

faphernes.

CHAP,

faphcrneswas
to

refolved
Perfian

on

no

terms

to

manded grant)debe

that the

fleets ihould

allowed
am-

undifturbed, fail,

in the Grecian

feas, the

bafladors,well knowing that fhould


be

this condition hinder Greece

complied with, becoming


a

no

treaty could

province of Perfia, expreffed and in very unguarded language, their indignation left the arTembly in difguft. This imprudence enabled
from Alcibiades
to

affirm, with
own

fome and

appearance

of truth, that their


the reluctance

anger

obftinacy,not
obftructed

of

had Tiflaphernes,
was

the

which negoeiation, affair moft


Thedeoverturn-

the precifely
to

iffue of the

favourable

his views
were

".
not

His

artifices fucceeded, but

attended
The

with the

confequencesexpected from
in the camp and

them.

Athenians, both
Athens

city, perceived,
the
a

Olymp.
,A

by

this

that his credit with the Perfians tranfadtion,


tnan
ne were

was C.-iii.

kfs

it; reprefented

and

ariftocrawhofe

tical faction

glad to get
rendered
him

rid of
a

man,

reftlefs ambition ciate.


in

dangerous aflbwith

however, They perfifted,

great
which

vity, acti-

executingtheir purpofe; of
had

Phryhatred When
to

nichus, who

oppofed
an

them

only from
had

of Alcibiades, became

active abettor.

perfuafionwas
violence.

ineffectual, they

recourfe

Androcjes, Hyperbolus**,and

other

licentious;
41

Thucydid. Thucydides

1. viii. p. 593.

**

paints

his

character

in few

words

'Ywip"oXo"

Jfyperbplu*, a
pot

worthlefs

fellow,
and

and

banifhed
on

by

the

Oftracifm,
of bis
ex-

from

fear of his power

but dignity,

account

"
C p. nian II^A

THE
orators

HISTORY

OF

GREECE, liable
to

and

ftatefmen

were

proiev

cution44 before the


fuch

courts ordinary

of

for jnftice,

fpeechesand decrees as had been approved and confirmed by the affembly. In eonfequence of this acl of indemnity,Pifander and his party the nor boldly declared, that neither the fpirit forms of the eflabliihed conftitution (which had fuch a weight of mifthem to recently fubjected ing fuited the prefent fortunes) dangerous and alarmcrifis. That it was new-model the to neceflary whole fabric of government; for which purpofe he read) ought to be five perfons (whofenames appointedby the people,to choofe an hundred
others
ates
; i

each

of whom

fhould

felect three afibci-

and

the four hundred

thus

chofen,

men try coun-

of

who and opulence, dignity without

would

ferve their

fee

or

reward, ought immediately tq


of majefty the the

be invefted with the alone

republic. They
uncon-

fhould

conduct

adminiftration
as

trouled,and afiemble, as
five thoufand

often

feemed

proper, mod

whom citizens,

they judged

of worthy of beingconfulted in the management public affairs. This extraordinary propofalwas

acceptedwithout
dreaded

: oppofition

the

of partifans the cabal


j

mocracy deand

the

of ftrength

multitude, dazzled by the imundifcerning of five thoufand, a number far expofmg name ceeding the ordinary affemblies of Athens, ceived perthat they furrendered their libertiesto not
the artificeof
** *"""

the

an

ambitious
See

faction*5.
Vol. I.

By

the ypap*i wypcuopw. "

Chap. xiii. But

Thucydid.

Lyfias,ubi fupra.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

57

But
.

the conduct
have

of the

four hundred

tyrants
and

CHAP.
t__

hiflorians (for

juftly adopted the languageof


opened
the
/

-,T-'_J
^~

Athenian

refentment) foon

Their

eyes
*

xmderftandingof the mofl of aboliihed every veftige


mercenary iilands of the and
,to

thoughtlefs. They
ancient freedom levied from
the
; ployed em-

rannyren-* ders them

troops
to

fmall

^Egean,

overawe

the

multitude,
to

intimidate, in fome
or

inflances

deftroy,

Inftead of feizenemies. fufpected of annoyingthe Peloponneing the opportunity of Tiffaphernes, fians, enraged at the treachery their real and fent mutinous for
want to

of pay

and

fubfiftence, they
from
the

ambaffadors
on

folicit peace

tans Sparranny tytheir

the mofc rendered

dilhonourable
diem them odious

terms.

Their
and city,

in the

in the camp contemptible Their and injuftice Samos. deat were cruelty who fcribed, and exaggerated,by the fugitives arrived in that ifland. The continually ge.nerous youth, employed in the fea and land fervice,were of the indignities offered to their fellowimpatient fame indignities citizens. The might be inflided
cowardice made
on

Theirpar.
Samos
de-

themfelves, if they did


3 '

not

vindicate their free- o'ansat; broke


were

dom.

Thefe

fecret

murmurs

out

into loud

ftroyedbyand

arid licentious the

clamours, which

encouragedby'buius

of the Samians. and ThrafyiThrafybulus approbation officers of high merit and diflinctwo Thrafyllus, entrufted with a ihare in tion,though not actually the principal and boldnefs command26, gaveadivity
to
a6

Neither
a

for Thrafybulus only comadmiraU; nor manded gener,als and in the heavy-armed ingalley Tluafyllus feryed ;

fantry,

2S
CHAP, to

THE
the

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. of the
new

The infurgents.
were

abettors

go-

vJ*l^_.
moft
were

vernment

attacked
were

of the thirty by furprife:


to
was were

criminal

put

death, feveral others


re-eftablifhed in the bound

banifhed, democracy
and

camp,

t|iefoldiers

maintain

their hereditary government

by oath to the againft

gour of domeftic foes, and to aft with viconfpiracy the publicenemy. and unanimityagainft
The
for-

Thrafybulus,who

headed
a a

this

fuccefsful and
to to

had meritorious fedition, dudts"Afcibiadesto and tongue to perfuade,


5.

mind
hand

conceive,
execute,

the

daring defigns. He exhorted the foldiers in the capital of effecting the fame not to defpair revolution which they had produced in the camp. But fhould they failin that defignthey ought no longer to obey a citywhich had neither wealth nor wifdom, neither fupplies nor good counfel to themfelves more fend them. rous numeThey were of the four hundred, and than the fubjefts better provided in all things neceflary for war. ifland which had formerly an tended conThey porTeffed of the fea, with Athens for the command and which, it was hoped,theymight defend againft and domeftic. But were they every foe, foreign compelled to forfake it, they had ftillreafon to expeft that, with an hundred fhipsof war, and with fo many brave men, they might acquire eftablifhment not an lefs valuable elfewhere, in which they would the invaluenjoy, undifturbed,
moft
whether fantry, uncertain. The
ta

as

leaves officer, or in the ranks, the expreflion fcholiaft, however, conliders o7rAiT"fim gs fynoan

fiimous with

o7z-Vn""

a^xfn,*

Thucydid. p. 6041

able

THE able
concern

HISTORY

GREECE*
CHAP.

29

of liberty. Their moft immediate poflefllon who had been deto recall Alcibiades, was
and

'

by the tyrants^ and who not difgraced but could refent fenfibility, only feltwith peculiar the wrongs of his country with becoming dignity, advice of Thrafybulus and his own. The was proved apturned Magnefia,and re; foon after he failed to
ceived with Alcibiades. in company fmce four years had elapfed Near

the

fpokenin an Athenian by Thrafybulus to his fellowBeing prefented he began by accuiinghis fortune,and citizens, his calamities. Yet his banifhment lamenting ought not to affect him with permanent farrow, fmce it had furnifhed him with an opportunity to
fon of Clinias had
"

He eloquent affembly.
men.

ferve the caufe of his country. This event, otherwife unfortunate, had procuredhim the acquaintance
of TifTaphernes who, moved friendfhip had withheld the ftipulated by his entreaties, pay from the Peloponnelian forces, and who, he continue his good offices to doubted not, would the Athenians, fupply them with every thing refor maintaining the war, and even fummon quifite and
"

the Phoenician
were

fleetto

their afliftance."

Thefe

but flattering promiles. In magnificent making them, Alcibiades however did not confult merely the dictates of vanity. They raifed his credit with the army, who faluted immediately him general a7j they widened the breach between
*7

MfT"

tui

Trtznaw

commanders.
ita.no.

But

They aflbciated him with the former Thucydides immediately adds, """ T"
"

o""T*3wa", and

referred

every

thing

to

hit

p.

"99. Tiffa-

3"
CHAP.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE/

vJ^l^

and the Spartans;and they ftrnck Tiflaphernes terror (when his Ipeech got abroad) into the tyrants of Athens, who had provoked the refentof a man to fubvert their usurpation. ment capable Alcibiades

His

mef-

leftthe

care

of the troops

to

his col-

fagctothe

and withdrew leaguesThrafybulusand Thrafyllus, of his admiring himfelf from the applaufes v/ith Tifiacountrymen, on pretence of concerting phernes the lyftem of their future operations. motive fhew himfelf to But his principal to was the

Perfian, in the
he
was

new

and

illuftrious character

with which

inverted} for having railed his

the Athenians by his influence^ authority among this influence he expectedto ftrengthen with the fatrap, by the fupportof that authority.Before he returned fent
to

the

camp,

ambaffadors

had

been

with by the tyrants, to attempt a negociation of democracy, who, inflamed the partifcno by continual reports of the indignities and cruelties committed in Athens, prepared to fail thither to their friends and take vengeance their on protect Alcibiades judicioufiy enemies. oppofedthis rafh which mufl have left the Hellefpont, refolution,

Ionia, and the iflands, at the mercy


fleet. But
deliver
cc

of the hoftile
ambaftadors
to

he

commanded
a

the

to

their mafters

Ihort but

pithymeflage:
of their illegal

That

they muft

diveft themfelves reftore the ancient

p6wer, and
If

confritution.

they delayed obedience, he would fail to the them of their authority Pirseus,and deprive and
their lives13."
28

Thucydid. ibid.

"

Plut. ii. 54.

in Vit. Alcibiad.

When

THE When
added
to

HISTORY
this meffage
was

OF

GREECE,
at

"1
Athens, it
that
C

reported
The

HAP.
XXI

the diforder and

confufion in which

L-l^-Lj
Tumults
in

unhappy
who
had

city was
acted with

involved.

four hundred,

Athens.

the gounanimityin usurping vernment, about the adminiftration, foon difagreed which perfecuted each other and fplit into factions, both had perfecuted the people29. as as furioufly Theramenes and Ariftocrates condemned and op-

meafures of. their colleagues. pofed the tyrannical The perfidious : both parties Phrynichuswas '(lain preparedfor taking arms ; and the horrors of a ready to be renewed in Corcyrean fedition were

Athens, when
women,

the

old

men,

the

children, the

of for the fafety ftrangers, interpofed of a city which had long been the ornament and the admiration of Greece, the terror of Perfia,
and the world Had 3".

availed themfelves public enemy opportunityto aflault the Pirseus, Athens the
not

of this Mutiny could


p

have
the

been

faved

from

immediate
at

deilruction.

camp.

But

forces Peloponnefian
and had difcontented,

Miletus, long
broken
out

clamorous

into

open

mutiny, when
the

they heard

of the recall of Al-

and the hoilile intentions of TirTaphernes. cibiades,


To

of their

of the fatrap, and the treachery duplicity afcribed the want own captains, theyjuftly

of

and and all the misfortunes fubfiftence, pay which they feltor dreaded. Their refentment was

violent Perfian
*9

implacable. They deftroyed the fortificationsin the neighbourhood of


3"

and

adv. Agorat, Lyfias

Thucydtd.

p. 610.

Miletus;

ja
CHAP.

THE Miletus

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
*t

they put

v^-^A^

their treacherous
his lifeby

the fword to garrifons commander, Aftyochus, faved the

the tumult altar ; nor was to an flying from their removed until the guilty were appealed and Myndarus, an officer of approvedvalour fight, arrived from Sparta to afiiime the and fidelity, 3f. command principal j^

Amid
the

ft
tu-

Dreadful confequences which


*

muft

have

muitsin
the

refuked
their
a

to

the

Athenians, if,during the fury or


had

Pelo-

the enemy fedition,


an

attacked them

with

ponnefian
pears
ic coa
on
.

fail, fifty may be confmaller ceived by the terror infpired by a much veffels, fquadronof only forty-two pe}0p0nnefian The commanded by the Spartan Hegefandridas.
fleet of hundred and friends of the conflitution had affembled in the theatre fpacious between them

of Bacchus.
the

and had

Meflengers palled of Antiphon and partifans


in
a

Pifander,who
the

convened

diftant quarter of

in matters were city. The moft important when the alarm was agitation, given that fome Pehad been feen on the coaft. Both loponnefian fhips aflemblies were immediatelydiflblved. All ranks
cf
men

haftened

to

the Piraeus launched

manned

the veflels

in the harbour;

others; and

for taking the fea. When thirty-fix the ardent oppofition which he perceived in attempting encounter to land, he doubled
of Sunium, promontory fertile ifland of Euboea, and

prepared das Hegefandrimuft the the the

failed towards

from

which, fmce
had

fortification of Decelia, the Athenians


3'

derived

Thucydid. p.6ii.

far
JO

34
c
H

THE
A
'

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

p.

to

difourden

the

of republic
or

its domeftic
at

foes, who
to

had

fummoned, fummoned,

who

were

leaft believed the

have

the. affiftance of

monian Lacedae-

that theymight be enabled to enflave fleet, their fellow-citizens. Antiphon, Pifander, and others moft

obnoxious, feafonably efcaped ; the reft


A decree
was

fubmitted.

Alcirecalling paffed, of the troops The


at

biades,and approvingthe conducl


Samos.

The had been

fedition ceafed.

democracy,
was rea

which

four months, interrupted


are

ilored; and fuch


that
even

the refources of

free government,
was

this violent fermentation the ftate. had and been The

not

of benefit to unproductive completed whatever


in former
to

nians Athe-

left

imperfect
to

reformations

33

determined

fend, dethe

the ancient the laft extremity,

glory of

republic, conduct of their TheAtheBy the imprudent or perfidious of their troops, toriouTat commanders, and the feditious fpirit the Peloponnefians loft a feafonable opportunity to ^' terminate the war with equaladvantage and honour; xcii. and having neglected of the profperous current their fortune, theywere compelled long and laboriftream. oufiy to ftrive againftan unfavourable
a.
"

JJ

The
as

government

was

brought

back

to

its

original principles,

eftablilhed
was

by Solon.
no one

Among
fhould

other receive

it

enacted, that

falut^ry regulations, a falaryfor any


"

public magiftracy. " And firft time, in the prefent


their government her head."

now,"
age
at

faysThucydides,
Athenians Athens enabled

for

the

leaft, the

modelled
to

aright;

and

this

again
that make

raife

Thucydid.
nor

p. 6zj. any

It is remarkable, of the

neither
leaft

Diodorns, Plutarch,
mention
not

orators,

the

of thofe

falntaryregulations, which, however,


of Alcibiades.

lafted

long after

the return

The

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

35 the
",

The

doubtful
an

hefitated Tiffaphernes enemy,


or a

between

p.

part of

open

treacherous

ally

the

the friendSpartans,who had formerly rejected of his rival Pharcourted the protection, now fhip, nabazusj to whofe northern province they failed with

ftrengthof their armament, principal at Miletus, to defend onlya fmall fquadron leaving The mated their fouthern acquifitions. Athenians, aniby the manly counfels of Thrafybulus and dom, Thrafyllus,the generous defenders of their freeof the enemy; north wards in purfuit proceeded which join the Euxine and the importantftraits, and j^Egean feas,became, and long continued, the
the fcene of conflict.
war,
a

In the

ft winter of the twenty-fir

year

and

revival

already by the dirTolution diftinguilhed of their democracy, the Athenians vailed prethe
event

in three fucceffive engagements,

of which

decjfive. In more continually the firft, which channel was foughtin the narrow between Seftos and Abydus, the advantages were in fome meafure balanced, fince Thrafybulustook with the lofs of fifteen fhips, twenty Peloponnefian of his own. But the glory remained entire to the the enemy, and offered to Athenians, who repelled the battle 34. Not long afterwards, renew tercepted theyina veffels, fquadron of fourteen Rhodian near Cape Rhegium. The iflanders defended themfelves with their ufual bravery. Myndarus beheld the engagement from the diftance of eight miles, while he performed his morning devotions to Mibecame
3+

Thucydid. D

1. viii. p. 6a6.
2

nerva

36
CHAP,
nerva

THE in the

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. Ilium.

temple of lofty
haftened with

Alarmed

for

vJ^Ljthe

of fafety

his friends,he rulhed from

that facred the

and edifice,

to great diligence

fhore, that he might launch

his

and prevent, fhips,

the capture or deftruftion of by fpeedyafliitance, Athenian ". The fquadron the Rhodians principal The the fhore of Abydus. gagement enattacked him near and was foughtfrom morning tillnight, the arrival of eighftillcontinued doubtful, when teen commanded by Alcibiades, turned gallies, the fcale of victory. The efcapeof the Peloponfavoured by the bravery of Pharnanefians was

bazus, who,
had been
an

at

the head

of his Barbarian

troops,

fpedator of the combat. impatient rode into the fea, encouraging his He gallantly and his example. The with his voice, his arm, men Spartan admiral drew up the greateft part of his fleet along the fhore, and preparedto refift the
obtained, failed to Seftos, carryalready ing with them a valuable prize,thirty Peloponnewell as fifteen of their own, fian gallies, which as theyhad loft in the former engagement. Thrafyllus was fent to Athens, that he might communicate the good news, of men and raife fuch fupplies and could be expected from that exhaufted as money 36. city
Alcibiades

affailants; but the Athenians, fatisfied with the advantages

of the fea,which yielded Spartans poffeffion ^ey n"Pec^^oon to recover, and retired to the anTtakes harbours of Cyzicus, to repair their fhatthe whole friendly
"

The

Xenoph. Hellen.

1. i. c, i. Dioddr.

xiii.p. 354.

J*

Id. ibid.

tered

THE

HISTORY
the

OF

GREECE.

tared fame
to

fleet; while
of their

Athenians
the from
terror

of profited

the

victory,and
in that

of their arms,
numerous

demand

contributions

the

and

The feveral neighbourhood. with very divifions returned to Seftos, having met without indifferent fuccefs in their defignj nor, decifive and important advantages, more obtaining fortified could they expect to intimidate fuch flrongly places as Byzantium, Selembria, Perinthus, the European, or Lampfacus, Parium, Chalceon

wealthy towns

don,
attack

on

the

Afiatic, coaft.

It

was

determined
to

therefore, chiefly by the advice


the enemy
at

of Alctbiades,

Cyzicus; for which purpofe to the fmall ifland gallies, they failed,with eighty the weflern extremityof the of Proconnefus, near
and ten miles diftant from the ftation of Propontis, fleet. Alcibiades the Peloponnefian furprifed fixty veffels in a dark and rainy morning, as they were manoeuvring at a diftance from the harbour, and their retreat. As the day cleared intercepted fkilfully up, the

reft failed forth


became

to

their

affifbance ;
obtained

the
a

adtion

general j

the Athenians

and their valour rewarded was complete victory, by the capture of the whole Peloponnefianfleet, burned, in fhips,which were except the Syracufan the face of a victorious enemy, by the enterprifmg Hermocrates. The circumftances
were

and related

confequences
in

of this

important aftion
to

few,
a

but

words, expreflive
written

the

Spartan fenate, in
fecond
"

letter

by Hippocrates, the
D

in command,

and

by intercepted

the Athenians:

All

is loft;
our

38
C H A

THE t". our


want
are fhips

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

taken
we

Myndarus
not at

is flam
to

the

men

ull,,^
ThcAtheim-

bread;

know

what

do31." Pe-

The

fatal difafter

Cyzicus prevented the

from obftrufting, during the followloponnefians their of the enemy, who took pofjng yeari the defigns well as of the fefiion of that wealthy fea-port, as tagcs. ^"m?' ftrongcityPerinthus; raifed a large contribution A. c. 410. fmall Selembria ; and fortified Chryfopolis, a on of Chalcedonia, only three miles diftant from town fortrefs they placeda Byzantium. In this new confiderable body of troops ; and guarded the ftrait with a fquadronof thirty fail, neighbouring commanded and Eubulus, and by Theramenes from all friips deftined to exact, as tribute, a tenth which failed throughthe Bofphorus into the Euxine affifted by Pharfea 38. The were Peloponnefians prived denabazus in equippinga new fleet; but were
ve

of the wife counfels abilities were

of Hermocrates,
to

whofe
to
ploy em-

well fitted both of


war.

prepare

and

the refources Afiatic

The

fuccefs of the

had not correfponded to the fanexpedition the infolent poguine hopes of his countrymen j pulace of their commanders; accufed the incapacity

and

mandate

was

fent from

Syracufe,depriving
p. 60.

37

Xenoph.
It is well

Hdlen.

1. 5.

c.

i. "

Plut.

in Alcibiad.

38

known,

that

Mahomet

the

Second
on

obtained

the

fame another called


town

end, by
on

fortifying two European


Greeks modern
now

caftles, one
That
near

the
to

Afiatic, and
is of the the

the

fide.

Chryfopolis
name

by

the

Neocaftron;
to

but
a

the

itfelf is
one

changed

Scutari,

place

deemed

by

Turks

of

the fuburbs of Conftantinople.

TOURNEFORTE,

Lettre

15.

them

T;HE
them

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

39 with is
.

of their

office, and
The conduct

punifhingthem
of
Hermocrates

TJ A

P.

banifhment.

__

y-,Lj

worthy of admiration. Having called an afTembly, the haviour of his hard fortune,but recommended he deplored of the cralJTthe the authority moil fubmiffive obedience to republic. He
temporary
who had been then exhorted the failors
to
name

Syracufan.

commanders,

till the

arrival of thofe

But by their country. appointed the captainsand pilots, the aflembly, efpecially That he and his colcalled out, leagues tumultuoufly mocrates Herought to continue in the command." them then conjured not to rebel againft When the government. theyfhould return home, they would then enjoya fair opportunityto do the battles to their admirals, by recounting juftice which they had won, by enumerating the Ihips how which their they had taken, and by relating
{C "

own

courage, and the conduct


entitled them
to

of their commanders, honourable

had

the moft

placein

At the earneft every engagement by fea and land." and unanimous entreaty of the aflembly, he con-

fented,however,
the

to

retain his His

arrival of his fucceffors.

till the authority, imitated colleagues

fcene, example} and foon after this memorable Myfco, and Potamis, the admirals Demarchus, named of the by the ftate, took the command the foldiers and Yet forces. failors Syracufan leaders to depart, would allow their beloved not oath to rebefore taking in their prefence a folemn voke their unjuft banilhment, whenever theythemin Hermocrates felves returned to Syracufe. On beftowed and pilots the captains many particular,
D
4

diftin-

40
CHAP.
xxi

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE,

tokens of their affection and diftins;ui{hed


"

refpect,

had juftly v/hich his behaviour merited; for every ^__r-'_. morning and evening he had called them together, aficedtheir opinionand communicated his defigns, and concerted the future, advice, reviewed the paft, while his popular.manners of the war; operations fecured the love of and condefcending affability his fkill, and his thofe who reipected his vigilance,
'

courage
Thrafyi-

39.

Meanwhile
which

Thrafyllusobtained
he had gone
to

at

Athens

the

fuccefsful, fupplies
is

defeated

tie of

E-

far fupplies than he had reafon to expect. They more powerful confifled in a thoufand heavy-arrrjed hunan men, dred horfe, and fifty manned gallies, by five thoufand
'

folicit;

*ciiA.

4-

experiencedfeamen.
*

That

the failors might


'

C, 409.

ufefully employed on every land, theywere providedwith


to

be

emergence the fmall

at

fea

or

and

light

bucklers, the darts,fwords, and javelins, priated approthe Grecian

targeteers, who,
an

uniting
pikemen. ing hoplefs
to not

formed and velocity, ftrength ufeful order between the

intermediate and
and

archers

With
to

thefe forces, failed to Samos, Thrafyllus render the

twenty-third campaign
and

and gloriousthan the preceding ; rival,by his victories in the central

ambitious

fouthern

parts of the Afiatic Alcibiades and


were operations

coaft, the fame

acquiredby
His firft

in Thrafybulus

the north. He took

fuccefsful.

Colophon,
;

with

feveral

placesof

lefs note,

in Ionia

penecorn

into p-ated

the heart

of

Lydia, burning the


p. 431.

39

Xenoph.

and

42
c H A P.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

refuied had

to

rank with the foldiers of To

Thrafyllus. who

XXI.
T_
-T"
,

_"

foiled before the walls of fhamefully Ephefus. They fubmitted, however, though not
been without

reluctance,
;

to

live in

the
a

fame

winter-

quarters

from

which

theymade

conjunct expedition

defended the Abydus. Pharnabazus againft body of Perfian cavalry. placewith a numerous in an The rejoiced difgraced troops of Thrafyllus retrieve their honour. to tacked, opportunity They atand routed the enemy. Their repelled, victorydecided the fate of Abydus, and their approved by the army of Alcibiades, courage was
who
Alcibiades

embraced

them

as

feilow-foldiersand friends. of the Athenians

For

feveral years the meafures


almoft

fuccefsful ; but the uniformly Hisfuccefs campaign was diftinguifhed twenty-fourth by peThe culiar favours of fortune. invafion of Sicily land. preventedthat ifland from ky the Carthaginians xcHi"1!* A. c. 408. fending any effectual affiflance to their Peloponnefian allies. The dangerous revolt of the Medes

7*mium
~

had

been

withheld

the Perfian

which reinforcements,
arms

were

to neceffary

fupport the
were

of Pharnabazus41.

Both

nations

defeated by the repeatedly


their encampments

nians, Athe-

driven from
near

and fortreffes

into the inland purfued country, and defolated by the victors. which was plundered returned in triumph to attack the Athenians The which fortifiedcities, flilldeclined

the Ihore, and

fubmifTion

an

undertakingin
wonderful

which

Alcibiades
his

refources of
*'

the dilplayed extraordinary genius.

Diodorus, L xiii.

By

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

43
c HA p.

by approaches, By gradual by treafon,or prife,


months
and
was

fudden

afTaults, by fur-

became lad of

by ftratagem,he in a few mailer of Chalcedon, Selembria,


His naval

" _____

,-,^j

at

Byzantium itfelf. confpicuous. The equally


the fea. The

fuccefs

Athenians

commanded
out

fmall

again^ fitted fquadrons


their power
were j

by

the enemy

fellinto fucceffively
which the

and with the

thefe

multiplied captures,
accumulated difficulty,

made

little

of trophies

battles which have already we well-fought It was of defcribed. computed by the partifans

Alcibiades, that, fmce


had taken
or

aflumingthe command, he hundred two deflroyed Syracufanand

his fuperiority of naval gallies ; and Peloponnefian raife fuch contributions, him enabled to ftrength

both

in the Euxine his fnpplied

and

Mediterranean,

as

dantly abun-

fleet and army

with every

necef42.

faryarticle of
While
fuch
r i i

fubfiflence and
Athenian
u j

accommodation
were
"

the

arms
L

crowned
"

with
con-

H'8

tr'*

umphant

glory abroad,

the

Attic

territorywas
and

rttum

to

haraffed by king Agis, tinually monian troops portedat Decelia.


fudden incurfions

the Lacedas-

Their

bold and the

*ciii,*"

A.

C. 407.

threatened frequently
the defolated lands

fafety
no

of the

cityitfelf ;
venture

afforded

advantageto
Athenians

the ruined

proprietors ; nor
their walls, to

could the celebrate

without

their accuftomed

feftivals" Alcibiades,animated

by

victories, hoped to relieve the doforeign of his country; and after an meftic fufferings abfence of many by fuch a years, diftinguifhed
his
4*

Xcnoph. Hellen.

Diodor.

1. xiii.

Plut. in Alcibiad.

variety

44
CHAP,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

varietyof fortune, eagerlylonged and to enjoythe rewards native city,


bellowed ufually This celebrated

to

revifit his honours

and

by

the Greeks

on

fuccefsful valour.
feveral every

voyage,

which with

ancient
circumthe

hiftorians flance

decorated ftudioufly

of naval

triumph 43, was


of the
war.

performed in
fon

fummer twenty-fifth all his

Notwithstanding
of Clinias, inland in the Piraeus,

fervices,the cautious
declined by adverfity,
was

flru"ted
until he

to

informed

that the

affembly had
the
term

pealed re-

the decrees
his banifhment,

revoked againfthim, formally and

prolonged
to

of his

command. he
was

Even
flill unable

after this

intelligence agreeable
his well-founded

conquer and he

diftruft of the variable the

people ;
his

nor

would

of humours capricious approach the crowded

tude, Ihore, tillhe obferved, in the midft of the multi-

friends principal
and

and

relations He then

inviting
landed

him

by

their voice

action.

amidft

the univerfal acclamations

of the
and

fpeclators?
regardlels only on

who,

unattentive

to

the naval pomp,

of the other

commanders,
Next

fixed their eyes

Alcibiades.
was

he

affembly extraordinary that fummoned, by order of the magiftrates, his apparent mifconmight explainand juftify
an

day

duft, and receive the rewards


merit. The

due

to

ledged his acknow-

his apology, publicanticipated fituation of affairs with the

the melancholy by contrafling

when

Alcibiades

affumed

the

command,
"

condition of the
*5

republic.
in

At

the former

Duds

apud Plut.

Alcibiad,

THE

HISTORY the yielded every where

OF

GREECE.
of
;

4$ the Tea : the ftate


C
H

periodAthens
the enemy
was

command victorious
torn

P.

were

--'._/

by foreign war, oppreffed


and without refources,
were

by fedition,
The

without

hope.

addrels

and dexterity of Alcibiades have

alone

capableto
and

difunited the councils, to have

weakened

afterwards

have

of a powerfulconthe efforts, federacy repelled and could alone his activity j courage the dejection of the citizens to puranimated

fue the meafures

of offenfive war

his abilities, his rendered

virtue,and his fortune,could


thofe meafures

alone have

fuccefsful."
recepthere'

to hear him, His difpofed judgesfo favourably his defence -, tlon Alcibiades found no difficulty to make

Before

but it was moderate who would

difficult both

for him

and

his friends the

to

the exceffive
have loaded

of tranfports

people,
nours ho-

their favourite with

with the geniusof a free repubincompatible lic, have proved danand which might, therefore, gerous his future fafety. He to received, with the crowns and garlands, with other acpleafure, of publicgratitude cuftomed and admiration; pledges but he refpectfully declined the royalfcepfirm refblution to maintain the a tre, exprefting freedom of his country 4*. Athens hereditary quired renot a king, but a generalwith undivided the ancient fplendour of refloring of power, capable the which

commonwealth. had been

To

this

illuftrious rank, and

filledby Themiftocles

Cimon,
was

the fon

of Clinias

might juftly afpire. He


et PlutJn

44

Com.

Ifocrat,Orat. pro Alcibiad

Akibiad.

appointed

46
CHAP:
*" "

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

appointed commander
"

in chief

by

fea and

land4*.

An
were

hundred

men,
The Eku-.

and tranfports equipped, heavy-armed prepared for fifteen hundred with a proportional body of cavalry.
were gallies

Several

months

4"s

had

in patted

thefe preparaa

myfieries.tions, when time deftined

the Eleufinian
to commemorate

feilival approached; and


to

diffufe the

of the goddeis Ceres, temporal and fpiritual gifts bellowed the Athenians, and by them on originally communicated
to

the the

reft of

Greece

47.

Corn,
tica At-

wine, and oil, were


;

productionof principal
been introduced

each

of which

had

into that

intervention of a divinity, by the propitious whofe feilival was by appropriated diilinguifhed honours. Minerva, who had given not only the country

olive,but what
her

far more valuable, as regarded of Athens, was the city to peculiar protection
was

rewarded allb were


ftated

with the

innumerable

folemnities.

Various

in of gratitude expreffed, profefiions and autumn, to the genedays of the fpring

**

ciTrcttTuv Ap2"p,9;i"

'

'

yysfAvv

KVTvx.pa.Tuf*

He

was

chofen

ab-

folute
*5

commander

of all."

Xenoph.

p.

440.

From

the feftivals that

Plynteria and
he

Eleufinia, mentioned

in the

text,

it appears

arrived

in

July,

and

failed

in

vember. No-

4-7

Meurfius, apud
writers celebrated

Gronov.

Thefaur.

has colle"ed

all the

paf-

fages in ancient
been Father
was

refpeding

this feftival.

It is faid to have

in the month
an

Boedromion,
our

which,
But
not
as

according
the Attic

to

Petant,

fivers to months In with

November.
year

year

lunar,
thofe of

the
ours.

of that
the

could

exactlycorrefpond
their
even

to

computation
nations,
".
nor

of

months,
among

the

Greeks felves.

agreed
Vid.

not

other

them-

Plut.

in Vit. Romul.

Ariftid.

rous

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

47

rous

author

of the vine.

The

worfhip of
was

Ceres

HA

P.

but returned, indeed, lefs frequently ;


on

partly,

that account,

the

more

folemn

and

awful; and

becaufe difdnguifhedby the Eleufmian partly, treafures of wifdom and thofe hidden myfleries, which were poured out on the initiated happinefs, fore centuries BeFourteen in the temple of Eleufis. it is faid, the Chriftian aera, the goddefs, municated comthefe invaluable rites to Eumolpus and
*8

Keryx,
the form

two

virtuous
an

men,

who

had

received

her in

pious hofTheir defendants, the Eumolpidseand pitality49. of Kerykes, continued the minifters and guardians which abothis memorable inflitution, was finally
of unknown traveller with

lifhed

by

the great

Theodofius, after it had

lafted

tiation hundred years 50. The candidates for inieighteen were by watching,abftinence,faprepared and prayer ; and before revealing to them crifice, the the divine fecrets, them. Yet moft awful filence
was joined en-

enough tranipired among

the

prophanevulgarto enable us ftillto collect,from and authentic teftimony, that the myimpartial51
*8
+9
5" S1

fleries

Marb.

Arund.
l.v. Hift.l.

Epoch.
Ifocrat. iv.

14.

Dioclor. Zozim.
I

Panegyr. Pollux, 1. viii. c.


Ifocrates, the fcholar
the merit The

ix.

fay impartial,becanfe
be

of Socrates, which
:

cannot

fuppoled
is faid
to

to

exaggerate

of ceremonies,

his mafter
'

have
am

defpifed.
to

paflage is remarkable
be
the

Though
and

what

going

relate may
not

disfiguredby defervingof
her

tion tradiyour

fable,the
When

fubltarice of it is travelled
to

lefs

regard.
fhe

Ceres

Attica

in

queft of
and

daughter, particular
not

received the moft


are

hofpitable
known
to

treatment,

thofe

good officeswhich

the initiated.

The

goddefs was

48
C

THE
HAP.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

fteriesof Ceres
_.

by expreffed

external

the figns

impared preof

v_

of -r-' mortality in heaven. fo


a

the human

foul,and the rewards

future The

life for the virtuous

fervants

fecrecyenjoinedby her minifters, unworthy the truths which they taught,might


indifference

the juftify
not

of Socrates5*, whofe
inculcated fate of with

trines, docunre-

lefs divine, were


But

lerved

freedom.

the

Socrates

may

in its turn, juftify phants of Ceres.


Akibiades

the

circumfpedionof

the hiero-

Befldes the

ceremonies myfterious that bountiful

of the

temple,

th*e Ekufinun

the

of worlhip

pro-

by
and

vocai ancj inftrumental

exhibitions,which
above

goddefswas celebrated mufic, by public Ihows, continued during feveral


proceffion,
facred road This

days, and
which

all, by the pompous


for
ten

marched

miles
to

along the

from leading

Athens

Eleufis53.

ant importmitted, inter-

part of the becaufe

had formerly been folemnity the

Athenians, after the lofs of


of the road, and

Decelia,
were

were

no

mailers longer

compelled,contrary to eftablifhed cuftom, to des Alcibiaproceedby fea to the temple of Ceres.


determined
ungrateful for
the two
or

to

wipe

off the

ftain of

impiety
on

not

fuch mod

favour?, but
valuable
can

in return

conferred either

our can

anceflors

prefents which
the

heaven

beftow,
which
common

mankind
us

receive;

practice of agriculture precarious


the
manner

delivered
to
us

from wild

the fierce and animals


;

of of

life"
of
mortality. im-

with

and

knowledge
the
an

thofe

facred

myfteries which

the fortify

initiated

againft
of

terrors

death, and

infpirethem
See in

with p.

the
24.

pleafing hopes
" Eufeb.

happy

Panegyr.
Diogene.

Praspar.Evang.

1. iii.

**

Laert.

"

Herodot.

1. viii.c. Ixv. "

Plut. in Alcibiad.

which

50
CHAP

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

lities and

fortune

of

their

commander

would and the

reduce Chios, Ephefus,Miletus, fpeedily other revolted cities and


was

iflands.

The abated

general by
the in Athens

however, alacrity,
the

fomewhat

that the arrival of Alcibiades reflection, coincided


a

with

of anniverfary

the

Plynteria55,

from a to melancholy idlenefs, day condemned belief that nothing undertaken on fuperflitious that day could be brought to a profperousconclufion. The

celebrated

Parthenon^ whofe

mains re-

ftillatteft the

of Pericles, was magnificence

prefenceof a goddefs, who of Homer, far as they realized the infpirations as by the genius of were capableof being expreffed Phidias. Minerva, compofed of gold and ivory, and reprefented twenty-fix cubits high, was the buckler^ the lance, and all with the cafque, and the warm her ufual emblems; fancyof the Athenians, enlivened and tranfported by the graceful of her air and alpeft, confounded the majefty with the inpainfulproduction of the ftatuary ftantaneous creation of Jupiter. To confirm this of the temple ufeful illufion the craftypriefts wafhed and brightened the image, whofe carefully luilre increafed the veneration of extraordinary the multitude. The Plynteria, during which this was performed, required uncommon ceremony The gination fecrecyand circumfpeclion. eyes and imaof the vulgar might have become too
confecrated

by

the

5y

nxtwir,
"

to

wafh;

wXtiyryjfl,wKvrrwn,

; and

in the

ter, pluralneu-

the ceremony

of ablution."

familiar

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

51

familiar
held and into her

with

their

revered of her

goddefs,
accuftomed

had

they

be-

HA

P.

flopped
every

ornaments,

/
__^
"

obferved
new

part
under this

of her the

form

brightening
of
the

beauty
To

hands plaftic

priefts.
the doors
was

prevent

dangerous confequence,
in

Plynteria was
of the

veiled
were

myftic obfcurityj.the
that

temple
on

fhut;
to

facred

edifice
proach apturn re-

furrounded of of

all fides
or

intercept the
the

indifcretion

profanity;and
hope

Alcibiades, the favourite


on

of his

try, coun-

happening
Minerva many
to

the

inaufpicious day
was

when

hid
announce

her

countenance,

believed

by

the

dreadful

calamities

which

foon

afterwards

befel the

56. republic

*6

Xenoph.

p.

438. " Pint,

in Alcibiad.

52

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

CHAP.

XXII.

Char after
YUS.
"

of Lyfander.
"

His

Conferencewith
fleet.
"

Cy-

He

defeats the
"

Athenian

Difgrace
Callicra"

of
the

Alcibiades.
"

LyfanderJucceeded by
the

tidas.

His

with Tranfaffions
"

Perfians
"

with

Spartan Allies.
the Athenian the

Battle
"

of Arginujf"e.Trial
Eteonicus
"

of

Admirals.

checks

Mutiny of

refumes* the
mos.
"

Troops. Lyfander Peloponnefian Battle of JEgos PotaCommand.


"

Spartan Empire of Athens.


"

in

Afia. Siegeand
"

render Sur-

Humiliation

of

the

nians. Athe-

CHAP.
V-V-IT

T
HI

"ff 7 /^L /

HILE
at

multitude the fuperftitious


the

trembled

,_

_'

Lyfander
command of the Pe-

imaginaryanger of Minerva, men the activity of reflection and experience dreaded and valour of Lyfander, who, during the refidence
Qf Alcibiades of
the
at

V V

Athens, had taken


in

the command Eaft. The


ra-

loponnefian forces
'

Peloponnefian forces
of the

the

oiymp?forms
xcni. a.

Spartan
of

conftitution
a

requireda
with

pj^
it

fucceffion the

generals ;

circumftance, which,
which

A.

C.

407-

amidft
was

numerous

inconveniences

attended, enlarged the fphere of military


number of actors afforded

and multiplying the competition,


on

the theatre of war,

an

opportunityfor
muft
ro-

the

difplayof many

illuftrious characters, which in

otherwife have

remained

obfcurky.

In

the

tati

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

53

tation of
and
O

annual
J

elections,offices of importance c
entrufted
to
men
im-

dignity will often be


to

worthy
any be and

fillthem;

but

in the vaft

of variety

periments, ex-

abilities of the fuch exift in the called into armed

order (if moftdiftinguifhed community) muft fome time

exertion, honoured

with confidence,

with

authority.
difcovered Spartans finally of
the Herculean in
His ch

Such

abilities the
a

Lyfander;
not

{hoot

flock, but

ra"ftcr-

defcended
had been

from

either of the with all

He

educated

royal branches. of the feverity

and Spartan difcipline; and his


'

manhood which

in became

having fpent his youththofe honourable ments employthe dignity of his birth,

when his fuapproachedthe decline of life, him to the chief command periormerit recommended in a feafon of publicdanger. Years had the added experienceto his valour, and enlarged refources,without abatingthe ardour, of his ambitious

he

mind. he had learned


manners;

In
to

his tranfactions with

the

world,
his

foften the harfri


to

of alperity

national
not

gain by
;

fraud

what
own

could

be

effected

by
This

force
"

and, in his
out

ative figurthe

language,to
fox's {kin*."

eke mixed

the lion's with character

admirably
employed
as

He

had

ferved in

in the array

and

navy

had

been

ambafiador
*

foreign ftates,"c.
faid, in alltifion
to

Plut.

in

Lyfand.
of

This
who

was

the lion's Ikin

Hercules,
that His

to

one

afked

Lyfander,
to

"

How

he, who

fprang from by
fraud

hero,
cha-

could

condefcend

conquer

his enemies

?"

raftcr is diffufely defcribcd

by Plutarch,

t. iii. p. 4"15.

fuited

5*
C

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. His

xxt?'
"

^u'lte^ tne

Part wnicn

he

was

called to ad.

en-

v.

"

His

con-

wSth
"c"

Cy.
(

xciii.

i.

exerted in the fuccefsfully terprifing courage was hoflile operations againflthe Greeks; his fubtile addrefs gave him and insinuating afcendant in an with the Perfians; and the reunion every negociation of thole various qualities enabled him, in few years, finally terminate the war, and to a to produce an importantand permanent revolution in the affairs of Athens, of Sparta, and of Greece. Since the decifive action at Cyzicus,the Pelounable had been to refift the enemy, ponnefians, employed in preparingfhipson the coaft of their well as in the harbours of their as own peninfula, perftan able and Grecian allies. The molt confider-

.407.

fquadronshad

been

equippedin Cos, Rhodes,

Ephefusj in the laft of which the whole amounting to ninety fail,was armament, the aiTemblingof collected by Lyfander. But
Miletus, and
fuch
a

force

was

matter

of little
be

confequence,
for holding

unlefs proper it

meafures

fhould

taken

together,and for enabling it to ad with above all, to fecure vigour. It was neceffary, pay for the feamenj for this purpofe, Lyfander, ambafTaaccompanied by feveral Lacedasmonian the happy to Sardis, to congratulate dors, repaired
arrival of

Cyrus,
with

generous been

and

valiant

youth
his father

of feventeen, who
Darius

had the

entrufted of

by
the

government
or,

inland
the

parts of Lefler Afia;


Perfian
court,

in the command

language of
of the in the
rous nume-

with

the

troops, who

rendezvoufed

plains of
Kaftolus,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

55

Kaftolus3. and

Lyfander complained to the young plicity dumagnanimous prince, of the perfidious


"

of had
been

by TifTaphernes,
enabled
to

which

the Athenians

re-aflume

that afcendant fo

in

the Eaft, which and

had

formerlyproved
the Perfian
name.

ous dangerThat
to

to difgraceful
on

fatrapfeemed,
difcovered
and had the

one

occafion

indeed,
his

have

fatal

tendency of

meafures;

of thofe fon

attempted to check the victorious career ambitious the perby feizing republicans,
Pharnabazus caufe had
more

of Alcibiades4. ferved the

fectually ef-

of his mafter, the detaining

by

his

active valour

in the field; by had

nian Athe-

ambafTadors, who
the

been

fent

to

furprife

of Darius5; and by generofity unfufpecting after the unfortunate the Peloponnefians, fupplying of preat Cyzicus,with the means engagement

This

was

the ftyleof the letter, confirmed


rtav

by

the

royal feal.
p.

K.a,Ta.7Tip7ru Kvfov xxfavw


*

E";

KarwAov

Xenoph. a0pOi"OfMfMte twenty-firft year


was

This

event, which

happened
p.

in the
439.

of

the

war,

is related

by Xenophon,
foon

It

omitted the

in the text,

becaufe

Alcibiades

effected

his his

efcape; and
own

Tifiaphernes only difplayed hurting


5

treachery of worthlefihefs, without

his enemies. difhonourable


the

This

tranfa"flion was

approved
to

even

by Cyrus,
of nations.

which He

{hews

difregardof
to at

the Perfians

the laws in his

begged
to

Pharnabazus fet them the

put the Athenians


their

hands;

at

not leaft,

that liberty, in

countrymen

might
But
a

be

ignorant of
morfe condudl the

meafures feized

them. agitation againft who had


or

re-

of confcience

Pharnabazus,
to

fworn, either
to

to to

ambafladors

the great

king,

fend

them
were

the Ionian

coaft ; in

confequence of which,
p.

the

Athenians

releafed.

Xenoph.

438.

paring

56
C

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

H^AP. paring a
-

new

fleet,and

with

the

neceffaries and

conveniencies "^r^-,'

employed in they were this ufeiul undertaking. But TifTapherneswas and Pharnabazus was perhaps unable, to unwilling,
while of life, the ftipulated difcharge pay, Grecian feamen
or

without
not

which be

the

and

foldiers could

gether, kept to-

common

been

engaged to act with vigour againftthe enemy." Cyrus replied, That he had commanded by his father to affift the Lace"

dasmonians,
exact

and

to

pay

their troops with

the

moft

That, punctuality.
him

carried with hundred


a

thoufand
fhould

purpofe,he had five hundred talents (near an and if fuch pounds fterling) ;
he would infufficient,
even

for this

fum

be found
his

ingly will-

expend
down and

private fortune, and


the

melt
on

coin

into money

golden

throne

which
The pay

he fat6."

Grecian

difcourfe gave extraordinary fatisfactionto his Grecian auditors; and Lyfander endeavoured
to

This

failors,
and
com-

avaj} himfeif Of what,


'
.
.

judging by
J o o j

his

own

chathan
a

piement

rafter,he imagined might be nothing more


fudden

of generofity, that tranfport by requefting the feamen's pay might be raifed from three oboli
to
"

an

Attic
on

drachma
this

day. Cyrus anfwered,


he had That
received
ex-

That,

fubject too,
his father 7.

orders prefs

from

the pay fhould

continue
Kou

TO"

Vfwzv xccraxoyw,
that he would
was

it

EXaS^To, ovra pieces

K^yvfUy
on

KCH

xpvcrut.

" Literally,

cut

in

the throne

which

he

fat,"
7

which

compofed
makes

of filver and anfwer


ov

gold.
more

Xenophon

Cyrus
s

with

art

than

truth,

Aeysjv,

58
CHAP,
come

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

of Cyrus. He magniperfonal enemy of and the courage, fied the beauty, the ftrength, vjJ^Ll^ exerthe young prince. His addrefs in military of his endowments cifes,and the extraordinary the

mind

(the fame of which had reached the moft borate extolled with the moft eladiftant countries), were that he might praife.It is not improbable of which Cyrus of panegyric in a quality find a topic out withof bearing, the capacity not a littlevain was than of liquor a intoxication, greater quantity and he might pofFibly fuggeft, any of his equals*; the beft that of all the fans of Darius, Cyrus was fucceed his father, to fillwith dignity to qualified the glory of the Perfian throne, and to emulate
-,

that illuftrious hero

whofe

name

he

mortal bore, the imBut

founder of the monarchy.


were

whatever

the

of topics

which

he made

ufe, it is certain
of

that he excited the warmeft


in the breaft youthful of

emotions

Cyrus, who

friendihip drinkinghis
to

defired him health, after the Perfian failiion,


a

afk

boon, with
him.
"

full affurance that

denied
His ad-

nothingfliould be with his ufual adLyfander replied,


he fliould afk what
it would be
no

clrefs, That
^-

procuring
anadditiontothe

ufeful for the


the

prince to
of
an an

give,than
obolus
a

for him

to

receive: pay

addition
;

day
J

to

the

feamen's

of the

manners

augmentationwhich, by
to

inducingthe only increafe


common

Athenian
their
own

crews

defert, would

not

but ftrength, with the

enfeeble the apparent


difor-

enemy."

Struck

intereftednefs of this

Ipecious Cyrus propofal,


Sympof.

Plut.

dered

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

59

uered

him

immediately
to

ten

thoufand

Daricks

which (above five thoufand pounds fterling) ; with


he due returned
to

the Ephefus,difcharged them


a

arrears

his

troops, gave

month's

pay

in

advance, raifed their dailyallowance, and feduced


innumerable While deferters from the Athenian fleet9.
Defeats

ning his
refiftance

Lyfander was ufefully employed in manthem for action,Aland preparing fhips,


the fmall iflandof Andros. vigorous than he had
r

nian
in the
fence

cibiades attacked
was more

The
to

*}""
of

reafon

Aicibia-

expedt;
pay

and

the immediate for the

of procuring necefiity Q"'

and

fubfiftence

obliged him fleet,


a
on

to

xdil'A C

a-

407

leave his work he failed


to

imperfect.With
raife contributions

fmall the

fquadron
Ionian
or

Garian
to

coaft I0,committing the


a man

Antiochus,

truft ". important

armament principal totally unworthy of fuch an Even the affectionate partiality

of Aicibiades

feems

to

have

difcerned he gave him

the unworthiftrict orders

fmce nefs of his favourite,


to

continue, during his


of

own
no

bour abfence, in the harmeans

Samos,
This

and

by

to

riflean

gagement. en-

the

of levity
Plut.

it could ijotpreas injunction, vent rafhnefs, might perhapsprovoke the vain the vice-admiral, who, after the depar-

tom.iii.

p. 7.

Xenoph.

Hellen. 1. i. p.

441.

Diodor.

1. xiii. p. 360.
10

Xenophcn

fays, " Aicibiades


lays,
"

failed to
of

Phocaea," which
'*

is in

Ionia ; Plutarch
?'
UY

to

the coaft

Caria."
words
T" :

Diodorus

gives his

character
ffTTtVOUt

in few

'o

as

Tr,

Ql'ffU TTfO^Elfo;,

XOt.1

"X

E*fT"

7Tj;"|"

Antiochus,

and naturally precipitate,

defirous, by bimfelf, to

fomc fplendid exploit." perform

tore

60
M

THE
A P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

ture

of his friend, failed towards


fterns

T_J
T-

'__, preachedthe
moil The

Ephefus, of Lyfander's and with fhips, challengedhim


to

apthe

licentious

infults

battle.

prudentSpartandelayedthe moment of his enemies until the prefumption


them into the His
a as

of attack, had then thrown


manded com-

fcattered

diforder ".

He

manoeuvres

advance. to Peloponnefian fquadrons and executed with were judicious, The battle
was

prompt
much

obedience.

not

obftinate,
refiftthe in-

the Athenians, who

fcarcely expectedany
at
once

ance,

lefs affault, funk into temerity the

from

folence

of

defpondencyof
a

fear. part

They

with loft fifteen veffels,


crews.

confiderable retired

of their

The

remainder

while the Lacedsemonians toSamos; fully of their vidory by the taking of Eion and Delphinium. Though fortune thus favoured the prudence of Lyfander, he declined to venture a fecond with the fuperiorftrength of Alciengagement biades, who, having refumed the command, ployed emevery artificeand infult that might procure him an opportunity luftre to reftore the tarnifhed

dilgraceprofited

of the Athenian
Akibiadcs
ancUif-

fleet.

graced,

he could never opportunity again ^nc^' ^ne Pe"P^e "f Athens, who expected to hear of nothingbut victories and triumphs, were mortified to the laft degree,when they received intellige

But

fuch

an

of fuch could
not

fhameful

defeat.

As

they

the abilities, they diftrufted the fufpeft of their commander. Their fidelity, fufpicions Xenoph.

p. 441,
were

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

61
C
v

were

increafed

and

confirmed whether

by the arrival of
actuated

p.

who, Thrafybulus13,
animated honours

by

able laud-

zeal for the intereil of the

by
that

public fervice,or felfifhjealoufy of the fame and


been fo

had

liberally heaped
had

on

nian rival,formally impeached Alcibiades in the Athe-

aftembly.
ruined

"f

His

mifconduct
A

totally
to

the affairs of his country.


a

talent for low his

buffoonerywas
favour.
the His meaneft and

fure

recommendation

friends were, moft

felefted partially,

from
who

abandoned than

of men,

no poflefled

other

merit

that of

fervient
ments

to

his

pafiions. To
was

fuch

being fubunworthy inftru;

the fleetof Athens

entrufted

while

the
the

commander harlots of

in chief revelled in

with debauchery
or

Abydus
on

and the

Ionia,

rajfed exorbitant
he

contributions

dependent cities, that


of
a

might defraythe
of Thrace, which he had

expence

fortrefs on

the coafl

in the

juft vengeance
**

neighbourhoodof Byzantium, erected to flicker himfelf againft the of the republic."


we

Thrafybulus,
about
the

have

feen, had
Nor

fhare in bringprincipal ing


was

recal of Alcibiades. When naval his


own

the latter
to

ungrateful
him their lowed al-

to

his benefactor.

the

Athenians

committed
T"?

whole

militaryand
him
to
name

force, "

"V"o-"?

"$W,*3K," and
1, xiii.

or colleagues,

rather

he fubftitutes,
p.

named

Adimantus. Thrafybulus and this interchange of good Confidering


and
any

Diod.

36?.

offices between
no

Alcibiades

Thrafybulus,
reafon for the them.

it-is remarkable

that foon

Greek

writer broke

affigna
out

animofity that

afterwards
was

tween be-

Plutarch

fays, that Thrafybulus

the bittereft of him


to

of Alcibiades's

enemies, and

imputes

his accufation

enmity,

not

to

patriotifm.

Were

62
CHAP.
i^_^~-"
Ten
com-

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

by examples the deceitful emptinefs of popular favour, this fubjett of illuftrated from the hiftory might be copioufly
Were it
to neceflary

prove

appointed the

Athenians. before
was

The

fame it

man,

whom

few

months
to

they found
the

reward,

fufficiently impoflible to the rage of difa"uallyexpofed

appointmentand
between the the

fury of
moment

revenge. which

They

gretted re-

the lofs of every

intervened

of rapidprogrefs

their refentment, and In the fame

execution

of their vengeance.
on

and afiembly,

the fame

cufed, and
that the

almofl

day, Alcibiades was acand, unanimoufly condemned;

affairs of the the abufe


were

republic might

not ten
;

again
manders com-

fuffer

by

power, his fubflituted in room

of undivided

among whofe

whom

were

Leon, Diomedon, Thrafyllus,


and
to

approved valour,
them

love

of

commended reliberty, juftly j

public honours
but

Conon,

character
a

as

yet but littleknown,

deftined, in
poraries contem-

future

the to eclipfe period,


;

fame of his

and

Pericles,who

inherited the

name,

the

merit, and the bad


new

fortune,of

his illuftrious

father. The
Samos
j

and

generals immediately failed to Alcibiades fought refuge in his


the command,
when

Thracian
Cnllicratidas
lent to
an

fortrefs '*.
had aflumed fcarcely

They
nefian

impOrtant alteration took


fleet.
a

place in the Peloponhad

command

thePelo-

Lyfander'syear
a

fleet"/Callicratidas, Spartanof
ol.y.raP-ter,
XClll.

very The

expired, and characoppofite


active, ambi"

was

fent

to

fucceed him.
fin.

3.
H

Xcnoph.

Ilellen. 1. iv. fub

Diodoj-. xiii. 67

74.

tlQUS

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

63
had
C H
A

tious, and

intriguing temper
as

of
and

the former

p.

^J^-L/ fyftematic policy as duringthe fhort term of his precarious power, been had never if his authority to end. Though
employed
much afiiduous endowed with with
uncommon

vigour

of mind,

and

long prudence(ifprudence can beand humanity), character deficient in juftice a to thofe amiable and ufeful he poffefled not which alone defer ve, and can alone obtain, qualities confidence and refpect.Lyfander, fenfible public had recourfe to the ordinary of this imperfection, ambition the by which crafty fupplies expedient He of virtue. determined want to by govern boldeft of the failorswere 1S. The attached parties his perfonby liberal rewards and more liberal to in the moll promifes.The foldiers were indulged In every city licentious diforders. and in every whom he flattered ifland,Lyfander had his partifans, with the hopes of obtaining the fame authority their fellow-citizens, which the Spartans over the inferior ranks of men in Laenjoyedover

confummate

conia l6. It
was

the

at Ephefus,that generalexpectation

nis

info-

the Spartans would, for once,


1
. .

depart from

efta- lent.veceptioo.
mand com-

bhlhed

practice, of fuch an

in

order

to

prolong

the

able and

fuccefsful officer.

An

univerfal clamour
'*

arofe, when
the odious

Callicratidas dif"

His

maxims do

breathed
too

party fpirit.

That

it

to impoffible

much
are

good
to

to

friends,

or

too

much

evil

to

enemiet.

That

children

be deceived

by trinkets, men
in

by-

oaths ; and others


'6

equally flagitious."Pint,
"

Lyfand.

Idem, ibid.

Xenoph. Hellen.

played

64
CHAP,
XXIf.
,
_

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

played his commiffion


The

in the council of

of the

con-

federates. y..-'_j
"

Lyfander affirmed, it was That equallyimprudent and ungenerous of a deferving and check the victorious career to that the importantcharge fortunate commander ;
of the fleet ought not
were

friends

to

be entrufted

to

men

who ties abili-

deftitute of
;
nor
a

and perhapsof experience, it be

would
numerous

fuch

facrifice the intereft of to jufb and powerfulconfederacy to a the


a

obfervance of punctilious laws." Lyfander maintained the character of his

Lacedaemonian
cerning con-

decent filence

fucceflbr, onlyobferva

ing

that he

to refigned

him

fleet which

manded com-

the fea. confirmed aflembly


His
ho-

The

noifyacclamations
a

of the

his afTertion.
heart untainted with
re-

But

Callicratidas had

firmnefs
confounds of

of proach,and incapable
feditious turbulence That he muft

fear.

Unabafhed he

of his opponents, his aflent


to

by the replied,

fans

Lyfander.

magnified of the Peloponnefian unlefs Lyfleet, fander fcpfxfajffiy fhould fet fail from Ephefus,coaft alongthe ifle of Samos and (wherethe Athenians then lay), furrender his victorious fquadrons in the harbour The of Miletus. pride of Lyfander might have been confounded by this judicious and folid obfervation ; but his ingenuityfuggefted a or plaufible rather an elufive reply, That he was no longer
"c

withhold

the

admiral." Callicratidas then the


addrefied
an

the

with affembly,
dif-

of manly fimplicity

honefl

heart, which

dains the artifice of

words, defies the infolence of


of policy. intrigues
"c

power,

and
5

defeats the

La-

cedas-

66
CHAP,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

i_

"

obtain admiffion to ftipulated pay, he could not the royal T-'_' prefence.The firfttime that he vifited told that Cyrus was the palacehe was It at table. is well, faid the unceremonious I will wait Spartan, The tillhe has dined. of this proceeding, fimplicity the opinion which confirmed Lyfander had

given the
feemed
retainers
a

Perfians of his character


was

and

his honeft

franknefs,which
proper of the

conftrued

into low
to
on

breeding,
the

of object
court.

ridicule returned

proud
fee the

He

another

occafion, but
young

without The

being
his

admitted this

to

prince.

of injuftice

treatment

might have

deferved

refentment, but
left the

it chiefly

excited his contempt.

He

deroyalcity,

of his Perfian allies, fpifmg the pride and perfidy whofe accidental importancedepended on the precarious

advantageof riches,
domeftic diflenfions of the
court

lamentingthe Greeks, which obliged


not,
at

and

them
Obtains
comribu-

to

the favour of infolent Barbarians.

~Qut

Callicratidas could
to

wkh

honour

or

ans.

Ephefus, without collected money to fupply the immediate nav*ng of the failors. He to wants proceeded,therefore, of Ionia; and Miletus and other friendly towns
return fafety,

the

fleet

having met
tive
mean

in their refpeccitizens, principal afTemblies, he explained openly and fullythe of Lyfander, and the difdainful arrogance jcaloiify
the

of

Cyrus I8.
in the of the

"

The

behaviour unjuft
Callicratidas whofe had

of

18
a

It will appear, falfe


man

ftquel, that
Perfian

formed of
a

very

opinion
was

prince,

ncgieft

worthy

occasioned
or

by the perfidious
of

fnggeftionsof

his

retainers,the

friends

creatures

Lyfander.

both

THE both
to too

HISTORY much

OF

GREECE.

67

him, compelled

have much

c HA phis inclination^ againft recourfe to the confederate cities (already -V-L_/ to fupburdened)for the money requifite
"_

port the
his
arms

war.

But

he allured them, that, fhould would repay their intereft required

prove with
a

he fucJcefsful,

favours

fince the
to

Their own gratitude. with his demands, cheerful compliance had been principally taken underexpedition their freedom. He

vindicate

ever, had, how-

to requireeffectual fupplies" mefTengers came from Sparta; but until thefe fhould arrive,it bein general, but efpecially the the Greeks frorri lonians, who had fuffered peculiar injuries the ufurping tyranny of the great king, to prove

fent

to

the world

that, without

the

fordid affiflanceof their profecute

his

boailed

treafures, they could

and take vengeance on their enemies/' juft defigns, expedients, By thole judiciousand honourable
without Callicratidas, fuch

fraud

or

violence, obtained

confiderable, as yet voluntarycontributions,


the importunatedemands gratify with honour and to return to Ephefailors,

enabled

him

to

of the

fus, in order
His

to

prepare

for action '9.


directed

the He takes againft ifle of Lefbos, or rather againft the ftrong and na^ which populoustowns of Methymna and Mitylene, the northern and fouthern commanded refpe"iveiy firft operations were
"

of that divifions, citizens of


an an

ifland.
to

Befides
arms,

the

numerous
was

age

bear

Methymna

defended

by
'9

Athenian

garrifon. The
p. 444.

place

Xenoph.

Hellen.

made

68
CHAP,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

made

brave reiiftance ; but the

efforts perfevering

of Callicratidas exhaufted
was

its ftrength :

Methymna

taken of

to by florm, and fubjefted the Peloponnefian troops.

the The

depredations garrifon
booty.

and
The

the

flaves

were

treated

as

part of the

confederates
be

advifed, that the Methymneans


;

alfo fhould

fold into fervhude

das but Callicratimand, comduced re-

allured them, that, while he there fhould


to not

the enjoyed

any

Grecian
a

citizen be

the
to

condition fubvert the

of

(lave, unlefs he had


20.
enter-

taken
thirty
s,

arms

publicfreedom
moft

Meanwhile
.

Conon,
*

the

active and
had

and

pnfmg
ea

of the Athenian
a

commanders,

put

to to
was

w^tn

in fquadron "f feventyfail,


But
it

order

the the

fleet in
har-

protect the coaft of Lefbos.

this defign been


more

hour

of

attempted too
uncierta]ceri) was

late

nor,

had

early
to

Iitykne.

tne

force of Conon

iufBcient

accompliihit.
difcovered
his

Callicratidas obferved his motions, far

and, with a ftrength, his retreat the to fleet, intercepted


Samos. The Athenians
were

fuperior
of

armament

fled towards

the coaft of

prevented from enteringthe of that place by the refentment harbour of the in an inhabitants,who opportunityto rejoiced thofe who had fo often conquered,and fo punilli of this their city. In confequence long oppreiTed, the Athenian was unexpectedoppofition, fquadron overtaken The was by the enemy. engagement and obftinate than might have been more fliarp of ftrength. Thirty cxpeded in fuch an inequality
but Mitylene,
40

Xenoph.

ubi

fupra.

Diodor.

1. xiii. p. 375.

empty

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
to

69

moft of the men fwam (for jfhips taken by the Peloponnefians.The were ing fortywere haled up under the walls

empty

land) c
.

p.

remain-

-Y-'^

of

Mity-

lene

Callicratidas recalled his troops from Methymna, received a reinforcement from Chios, and
:

blocked The He the


was

up

the Athenians

by

fea and land ".


was

condition

of Conon
on

moil

diilrefsful. TheAthe-

furrounded of

ail fides

by

force ; """a fuperior MW


fleet.

hoflile; his men Mitylen? was were deftitute of proyifions, of refiftance, incapable yet In this melancholyfituato furrender. unwilling the onlyenterprife tion he attempted which could promiiea hope of relief. The braveft and moft
town

feamen were embarked in two iwiftexperienced of which eluding the vigilance vefTels, one failing of the enemy, the Hellefpont, to efcapedin fafety and informed the Athenians blockade
at

of the misfortunes and

and

the

lefs than

mediately imwas intelligence Samos communicated and to Athens^ to which was importanceof the object, no of forty the fafety and above eight fhips, brave
men,

Lefbos,

The

thouiand of

excited

uncommon

exertions

Athenians The reinforced their doactivity. with the affiftance of their allies; meftic ftrength into the feryice; all able-bodied men were preffed, and, in a few weeks, theyhad affembled at Samos. hundred and fifty which immediately fail, took an

the fea, with

refolution

to

encounter

the enemy.
of Battjc engagement. the harbour of n whichCalUcratidas

Callicratidas

did

not

decline

the

Jiaving

left

fifty fhips to guard

Xeaoph. ubi fupra. Biodor.

1. xiii. p. 373..

7"
CHAP.
._

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
an

Mitylene, he proceeded with -y-'_. twenty to Cape Malea, the mofl


Lefbos. The Athenians had
'

hundred

and

fouthern

pointof

is defeated

advanced, the fame

the iflands,or rather rocks, of Ar~ to evening, g^1111^'f"ur m^es diftant from that promontory. !Ac 3'o6 for mutual The nightpafledin bold ftratagems which rendered ineffectual by a were furprife, At violent tempeft of rain and thunder. the
oiymp.

dawn Hermon and him

both

armaments

were

eager

to

engage

but

and

Megareus,

two

feamen, experienced
of the

exhorted the chief counfellors of Callicratidas,


not to

commit the

the weaknefs

Pelopon-

and numbers of ftrength fuperior and intrepid The the enemy. Spartan generous danger and death in comparifonof glory; defpifed the but either his magnanimity had not overcome

nelians with

of virtuous minds, and laft imperfection


to

was

averfe he

facrifice perfonal glory to this

or publicutility,

imagined that
from
an

could utility
to

not

be

feparated

inflexible adherence
He anfwered the

the martial laws of

Lycurgus.
to according

prudent admonitions
words, which,
on

of his friends

in thefe memorable

the conftru"ion

that is put

them",
deferve

"
"

Cicero

de

Offic. 1. i.
multi

c.

rxiv.
non

takes

the unfavourable

fide.

Inventi

autem

funt, qui
facere

modo
:

pecuniam,
iidem

fed vitam

etiam
ne

profundere pro patriaparatieffent


quidem
vellent, ne
cum

miniinam

glorias ja (fluram republic!quidcm poftudux vertit ad fuiflet


extre-

lante ; ut

Callicratidas,qui

Lucedsemoniornm

Peloponnefiaco bel!o, multaque


mum

feciflet

egregie ;

omnia,

cum

confilio
nee

non cum

paruit eorum,
Athenienhbus

qui

daflem

ab

ArginufTis removendam, putahant. Qiiihus


ille liam pararc

dimicandum

refpondit, Lacedasmonios,
dcdccore

clafle
non

ilia

pofle; fe fugerefine fuo

pofic."
Notwith-

THE

HISTORY
admiration deftructive
or

OF

GREECE.
.

7I
CHAP.
XXII.
"

deferve
cannot

our

our

pity.

"

My

death

Sparta, but my flight both to Sparta and mybe difhonourable would he gave the fignal for his fhips felf." So faying, The advance. to fightwas long and bloodyj fucceffively, through all the different grapalling, dations,
be
to

from the moft

order difciplined

and

to regularity

tumultuous
was

confufion.

The
centre

Spartan
of the

commander braveft

(lain chargingin the The hoftile

enemies.

fquadrons fought

with various fortune in different parts of the battle,


and
or

furrendered, conquered, promifcuoufly purfued,


fled. Thirteen Athenian

yeiTelswere

taken

by

the
way

the latter gave Peloponnefians ; but, at length, of their {hipswere all fides : feventy on tured, capthe reft efcaped anc^ Phocaea i3. to Chios Athenian

though juftlyelated stratagem with their good fortune, cautioufly deliberatedconof improving their victory. cerningthe beft means
admirals,
Several advifed that the fleet fhould
to

The

fleer its courfe

the Peloponnefian Mitylene,to furprife fqu.adron blocked up the harbour it as. their oare
to
a

which medon

of that -city. Diomore to

recommended

immediate

and

eflential

of object

recover

the bodies

of the (lain,and fels which

fave the wreck

of twelve vef-

had

been

difabled in the engagement.


whoever of

the refpeflableauthority of Cicero, Not\vithftand!n.g confiders attentively the be


not

laws

of

Lycurgus
to

and
that

the
an

character

Callicratidas,will

difpofed
the

believe,

;mdeviating
the

principle of duty,
fublime
*J

ftar

of

lofing his glory, formed


p. 384.

motive

of

th:it

accomplifhed Spartan.
" Diodor.

Xenoph.

p. 446.

Thrajy-

72
CHAP.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

Thrafybulus obferved,

that

by
be

dividing
effected
.

their His

'-*.

.both purpofesmight '_.flrength,

opinionwas approved. The chargeof preferving the bodies of the dead, the dying, and collecting
was

committed

to

Theramenes

and

Thrafybulus.

vefiels were deftined to that important fervice, Fifty doubly recommended by humanity and fuperftition. The remainder failed to the ifleof Lefbos, in queft that coaft, who of the Peloponnefians on narrowly efcaped deftruction through the well- conducted of Eteonicus, the Spartanvice-admiral. ftratagem Soon

after the engagement

arrived brigantine the death

at

him Mitylene, acquainting

with the

of Cal-

licratidas, as well
die

as

with

defeat and

of flight

fleet. Peloponnefian immediatelyforefaw


events.

The the

of Eteonicus fagacity probableconfequences would

of thofe failfrom
.

The

Athenians

naturally

which -Peto
neiian

on-

to Arginuflae purfuetheir good fortune, Ihut up at Mitylene, would and Conon, who was be encouragedto break throughthe harbour, that he mightjoinhis victorious countrymen, In order to anticipate thofe meafures, and to facilitate his own retreat, the Spartan commander ordered the brigantine leave the harto privately

atUMity-n D0ur"
icne.
rowers

an"i

to

return,

at

the

diftance of
and

Ihort

time, with

joyous
with

acclamations

mufic, the

and calling that out garlands, the laft hope of Athens, Callicratidas had deflroyed and obtained a glorious and decifive victory. The contrivance fucceeded ; the" Spartans thanked heaven for the good news by hymns and facrifices ; the crowned failors

74
CHAP.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

Mitylene, Methymna, and Chios, from which fuc"...''_" they had reafon to hope the moil diftinguifhed cefs; and particularly portant takingnotice that the imcharge of recoveringthe bodies of the
r-

drowned
menes

OF

(lain ha.d been

committed

to

Thera-

of approved two Thrafybulus, captains conduct and fidelity. The joy which the, Athenians received from this Difconconverted into difapwas intelligence Aihen". flattering
and and forrow, when they underflood that pointment their fleet had returned to Samos, without reaping fruits of victory. They were afflicted the expected beyond meaiure with the total lofs of the wreck,

by
had
a

which been

their brave

and

victorious

countrymen

of deprived
viewed

the facred rites of with

funeral;

horror,bepeculiar caufe it was accordingto a fuperftition fuppofed, confecrated by the belief of ages, to fubjecttheir

circumftance

melancholyfhades to wander an hundred years on, the gloomy banks of the Styx^ before they could of light and felicity. the regions be tranfported to The relations of the dead lamented their private
misfortunes the
;

the

enemies

of the
",

admirals

gerated exagan

public calamity both demanded


and ferious examination
that the

immediate

into 'the caufe

of this diftrefsfulevent, difcovered and

might guilty

be

punifhed.
ferment
to

Amidft
Theramenes

die

of

popular difcontents,,
a

failed

Athens, with
his them

view

to

culpate ex-

himfelf
The

and

colleagueThrafybulus.
had excited it rendered

letter fent thither before

their fear and

their refentmentj fmce

therr\

THE them

HISTORY

OF

GREECE,

75

for a duty which they found it refponfible accufed the to perform. Theramenes impoflible the favourable moment admirals of having neglected and to recover the fave the periihing, to of bodies of the dead ; and, after the opportunity loft,of this important fervice was irrecoverably having devolved the charge on others, in order to
fkreen their
own

mifcondu"t.
to

The

Athenians cafhiered

liftened greedily

the

accufation,and Conon,
up
at

the abfent commanders.

action remained
with genes the
a

blocked
fleet.

during the truded inMitylene,was


who and Arifto-

Protomachus

chofe

returned home fo criminal a6.

The reft voluntarybanifhment. meafures which appeared to juftify

Among
invented
that

the ineftimable rules of

Trials jurifprudence,

of

by the

wifdom

of Athens,

we

may

remark

beneficial inftitution which the fortune

fubjedsthe life,
of individuals, not

the character,and
to

will of an arbitrary capricious judge,but to decifion of the public. In every the equitable of an Athenian eafe, civil and criminal, the rights entrufted to the judgment of his citizen were peers; the queftion lefs as was who, according or more the confifted of a committee, more lefs or important, of the popular afiembly. But, in numerous, order to unite the double advantagesof law and the nine archons, or chief magiftrates, liberty, of approved wifdom and fidelity, men reflectively in the feveral courts of juftice, received prefided
*6

Xenoph. Hellen.

1. i. c. vii. S:

fcqcj.Dioclor.

xiii. 76"97.

complaints,

76
CHAP,
s

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

examined the parties, directed pro-. complaints, conducted the fuit through its cefs, and regularly -r-,Lr and ftages. In matters of general various fteps fuch the treafon, perfidy,or as concernment,

malverfation
five hundred,

of
or

men

in power,

the fenate of the

rather the

Prytanes,who
of the

prelided
ma-

in the fenate,performed the functions of the and giftrate, the whole

body
to
or

in full aflembly, executed and

jury.
to

It

belonged
of action

the

vened people,conthe office of judge Prytanes to pre-

fcribe the form accufer


.

and trial,

to

admit

the

caufe

was

The impleador impeach his antagonift. then referred to the people, who, as

judges of the fact, gave their verdict, and, as their fentence or decree. judgesof the law, palled Such the regulations which reafon had eftawere and intereft commonly blifhed, but which paffion
rendered
Artifices
of their accufers.

ineffectual.
an
a

Archedemus,
ancj
'

citizen, opulent and powerful


feditious demagogue, 6 o
""

Callixenus,

partly r
y

by the intreaties of Theramenes, and partly nounced excited by perfonal and refentment, deenvy
the admirals tion "who
was

moved

to

the fenate.

The

accufa-

by the relations of the deceafed, fupported appeared in mourning robes, their heads
arms

eyes lamentingthe lofs and -tears, pkeoufly their families, deprivedof their had been themfelves
to

Jhaved, their

folded, their

bathed

in

of difgrace who protectors,


thofe
are

deprivedof
all mankind in court,

lail and entitled.


had been

folemn
A

duties

which
fwore

falfe witnefs

that he

faved, almoft by miracle, from the wreck, and that


his

THE his

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
H- A

77
p.

companions,as they were readyto be drowned, c his country how they charged him to acquaint had fallen victims to the cruel neglectof their it hapcommanders. pened During thefe proceedings
that the

people had
then

met

to

celebrate

the be-

Apatouria,or
had the reached

feftival in January, fo named

caufe the Athenians

their fons,who p/efented


to

their feventh year,


their

be infcribed in

tribes. Callixenus refpedtive and the evidence given in the fenate, on prefu'ming of the aflembly, the actual difpofitiaa on proThat the caufe refolution : pofed the following referred to of the admirals fhould be immediately Ihould be given by that the fuffrages the people ;

of regifter

"

tribes,in each

of which

the criers Ihould


urns

make
to
ceive re-

having preparedtwo proclamation,


the white and
more

black beans

if the latterwere be delivered of


the

numerous,

the admirals
men,

mould

to

the eleven

the executioners

public juftenth

and tice, their eftates confifcated,

part

confecrated
This manders

to

Minerva." the com deprived trial,of feparate


"

decree, which unjuft


of the benefits of
a

an

and of the time as well as the impartial hearing, to prepare a legal means defence, was neceflary ap-* of the fenate, and received proved by a majority with loud acclamations by the people, whole levity, and cruelty, all eagerly infolence, demanded pride,
the deftru"ion of the admirals.
men

In

fuch

rous nume-

two afTembly,

alone, Euryptolemus and


and

Axiochus, defended the caufe of law


The former
i

juilice.
refo-

impeachedCallixenus

for

propofmg a

78
CHAP,
XX!
I

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. forms
of

refolution inconfiftent with

all the

legal

procedure. But the rabble made a violent uproar^ fhould that none punity, out calling attempt, with imThe to abridge their fovereign power. who attended,as ufual,to direct and conPrytanes, of the multitude, endeavourtroul the proceedings ed the ferment : but they were moderate licento with the told, that if they did not concur tioully they fhould be involved in opinionof the majority,
the fame furd
menace

accufation with the admirals.

This

ab_

(fuchwas
intimidated

the

popularfrenzy)might
execution.
a

be carried into immediate


tors
were

The

fena-

with which

meafures

they were

compliance which they difapproved,and by for ever be difgraced. Yet the to

into

reluctant

firmneis of Socrates difdained to fubphilofophic He protefted the tamenefs of his colleagues, mit. againft and
nor

declared

that neither

nor threats,

ger, dan-

violence, could
the

compel

him of

to

confpire
cent. inno-

with

for injuftice

deilru6tion

the

They
cd

are

gut
man

what

could the

avail the voice of

one

virtuous
thoufands ?

and

amidft

licentious madnefs
were

of

executed.

^]ie commanders

accufed, tried, condemned;

and, with the moft

ed deliverirregular precipitancy, Before they were led to to the executioner. addrerled the afiemblyin a fhort death, Diomedon but ever- memorable I am nians Atheafraid, fpeech.
"

! left the fentence


us,

which

you

have

on. paffed

prove you

hurtful
to

to

the

republic. Yet
proper You

I
means

would
to
care-

exhort
avert

employ

the moft

the vengeance

of heaven.

muft

full

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

79

fully perform the facrifices which, before givingCHAP. battle at Arginuffe, we promifed to the gods in
Our misfortunes behalf of ourfelves and of you. deprive us of an opportunityto acquitthis juft

'

debt, and

to

pay
we

the fmcere
are

tribute

of

our

tude. gratiaflift-

But
ance

deeply fenfible

that the

ous gods enabled us to obtain that glorithe and fignal victory." The difintereftednefs, and the magnanimity of this difcourfe, patriotifm, mull have appeafed(if any thing had been able to paffions6f the vulgar. appeafe)the tumultuous But their headftrong fury defied every reilraint of
of the
reafon
or

of fentiment.
was

They

in perfifted
without

their

which bloody purpofe, was yet their cruelty

executed

pity:

by a fpeedy ance, repentand punifhed by the fharppangs of remorfe, the intolerable pain of which theyvainly attempted to a well-merited mitigate by inflicting vengeance
on

followed

the worthlefs The removal death

and

deteftable

Callixenus17.

of the Athenian of the

admirals, and the

Charaaer

defeat and

pended
cles and

for feveral

fufSpartan Callicratidas, months the military and naval The had behaviour been

on operations

both fides.

of Philothority au-

Adirnanthus, who
with

joinedin
to

Conon,

were

better fitted

obftrii6b and dent pruof


a

than

promote

the meafures The

of that brave
was
a

commander. violent and

former

man

to impetuous temper, unaccuftomed deftitute of experience, and incapable reflection, of governingothers, or himfelf. latter poiThe

*7

Xenoph.

"

Diodor.

ibid.

feffed

go
CHAP.
'

THE

HISTORY
the virtue

OF

GREECE.

i_

Eteonicus
*

humanity,but was and a"ivity, deflitute of Ipirit fo ufual in qualities with his tongue, his age and country. Though ready flow with his hand, carelefs of difcipline" he was of duty, and fufpected of a treafonable negligent with the publicenemy. correfpondence the Spartans and Eteonicus, who commanded
"***

fefTed

perhaps

of

rautiny
among nefian :roops' the

confederates, was
But the

character.

very different diftrefsfulfituation of affairs


a

man

of

him from difplaying his abilites in any prevented His armament inferior was enterprife. important his failors diiheartened by defeat in ilrength were ;
"

he had /iftence Thefe

not at

money Chios
was

to

pay very

them

even

their fub-

and precarious. (paring

vexatious

circumftances increafed the mutinous

too by which the confederates were fpirit animated. naturally They reproachedthe ungenerous they had parlimonyof the Chians, whom taken arms to defend j they Ipurned the authority

-of their commander

and, in order

to

obtain thole

which their fervices defervcd,and which advantages denied them, they determined had been unjuftly to rich at once and plundering the become by feizing of that flourifhing ifland. largeand wealthycapital avowed The formed, was though fecretly deiign, \vhofe with open boldnefs. The confpirators, feemed to promife fuccefs,or at leoft to numbers arTumed fecure impunity, a badge of diftinclion^ date that theymight encourage each other,and intimialarmed their opponents. Eteonicus was juftly of fedition. It was with the progrefs ous dangerattack the infurgents to by force if he deftroyed
:

8a
C
HAP.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
man,

Aracus,
command.

weak
and The

and

obfcure
out
was

with the
as

name

vJ ~,y-,L.t of admiral,
the Perfian

fent

Lyfander
received

fecond
Sardis

in

latter

at

by
fa-

tions of

with the warmeft prince, with joy. He was fupplied

demonftramoney
""

to

of the troops the immediate wants and, as tisfy Cyrus at that time happened to make a journey of his wealthy into Upper Afia, the revenues vince proin his abfence,to the mawere nagement configned, of his Spartan friend. Such powerful refources could not long remain unemployed in the active hands of Lyfander. His emiflaries afthe Ionian and Carian engagedor prefled fiduoufly harbours of Afia Minor, particuThe feamen. larly the port of Ephefus, glowed with the ardour and in a few months of naval preparation, der Lyfanwith an failed to the Hellefpont hundred and and attacked the important town of fifty gallies, fended deLampfacus. The place, though vigoroufly by the natives as well as by the Athenian at was cording lengthtaken by ilorm j and acgarrifon, of the age, abandoned to the barbarous practice the avarice,the to the licentious rapacity, of the conquerors as. and the fury, lull,
TheAthe"

The

languid and
at

imprudent

meafures

of

the

rs

Athenians
to

Samos F

accufe the abilitiesof had


,

Tydeus,
lately J
.

prepare

Menander,
....

and

Cephiibdotus,who
, .

been
.

give bun
battle.

with Lonon and command his unworthy in joined cus, colleagues.They failed too late to fave Lampfahundred and eighty but as they pofleiTed an

13

Plut. in

Lyfand.

gallies,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
c

83
H^A p-

to a force fuperior Lyfander's, they angallies, the oppofite, chored or on European fide of the in at the diftance of fifteen furlongs, Hellefpont, order to provoke the enemy to an engagement.

't-.Lrf

Their

unfortunate

ftation

was

the

mouth

of the

Potamos, or river of the goat, diftinguifhed j?Egos fmall iflands, of fome account on by that name which riling high above the furface of the waters, the appearance of exhibit to a lively imagination This placewas that animal. chofen, Their injudicioufly
fince it afforded
tant two

im-

very

infecure

and riding;

was

dif-

JJU^fJjf
lence.

miles

from

Seftos,the neareft
be

town

from

which

the fleet could

provided with

neceflaries.
was

Alcibiades, who
unable
to

in his Thracian

retirement
the
war

withdraw

his attention from


a

in

which

he had

long acted fuch


was

diftinguifhed part,
of their imprudence

modeftlyadmonilhed
;

his countrymen

for prearrogantly reproached vice fuming, while an exile and an outlaw, to give adof Athens. Their to the admirals fubfequent with this infoconduct too faithfully correfponded lence and folly. Defpifmg the inferiority of the tle fleet, they advanced in order of batPeloponnefian of Lampfacus ; and when harbour the to the moved from their ftation, not they returned enemy in triumph as acknowledged mafters of the fea. The and indulged prudenceof Lyfander perceived their prefumption. During four days he bore with extraordinary their repeatedinfults., patience, the utmoft difinclination to an affecting ment, engagehis fleet in a placeof leretaining carefully and regularly a few curity, difpatching fwift-failing
but he G
2

veffels

84
CHAP, xxri

THE veflcls
to

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. and behaviour

oblerve when

the motions

of the

^-r"

Athenians '_-" cruife

pccifive
bnttleor

xhe

they returned from their daily to the road of JEgos Potamos. fifth day they again bore up with the Pelo' J " r

JEgos

Po-

and ponnefians,

provoked them
than
on

to

battle

by

more

xvhich't'he daringmenaces
Athenians
lofe their
'

any

former occafion.
an

As
*"

t]iey flattered themfelves


J
_

with
.

undoubted

proto

fleet.

Jpect of fuccefs, they yielded without


all the

referve

A. c. 405.

ber.

and of profperity, debated in petulance what manner they Ihould treat the Lacedaemonian who had the misfortune to fall into their prifoners cruel Philocles propoled to cut The off power. of Athens their right hands, that thofe enemies the oar and to incapable might be equally manage the ipear; and this bloody refolubrandifh to tion, though oppofedby Adimantus, was ed approvof his colleagues.After inby the majority the enemy in a manner the moft mortifyfulting. ing and difgraceful, they retired with an air of exultation mingled with contempt. The PeloIpy-boatsfollowed them as ufual at a ponnefian

convenient
no

and diftan.ce, reached

obferved

that

they had
feamen into

fooner

their ftations than

the

about landed, ftraggled

the fliore,advanced

the inland country in queftof provifions amufeor in indolence, or revelled in diforindulged ment, der. The

advice-boats
convey had made

returned

with

uncommon

to celerity

the welcome embarked every

to Lyintelligence

fander, who

the troops, cleared his

to neceffary preparation avail himfelf of the favourable opportunity to effe"5t what it might have been danby ftratagem

fhips,and

gero

THE gerous
to

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
his fcouts apchannel, they hoifted
C

85
HA
P.

attempt

by force.
of the
was

When

proached the
their Ihields

middle

_^"*

appointedfignal), the Peloponnefian and at the fame moment fquadrons were commanded to fet failthat they might and indulge that refentthe hoftile fleet, furprife which had been rendered more and animofity ment violent and furious by the long and prudent reThe ftraint of their commander. victory was complete,if that can be called a victorywhere

(forthat

the

there

was

fcarcely any
Conon

refiftance.

of activity femble the

endeavoured

vigilant afto feafonably

The

of the Athenians ; but his advice ftrength and unworthy difdained by officers incapable was and his orders were of command, delpifed by feaunaccuftomed and unwilling to men obey. At lengththey became fenfible of the dangerwhen it late to avoid it. Their fhips too were was taken, manned with either altogether iiich or empty, feeble' unable to work, much lefs to were crews as

defend them.
to

The

troops and

failorswho

flocked with dif-

the fhore from

different quarters, and

attacked by the were precipitation, lar reguvalour of the Peloponneonfet and difciplined flainj the remainder fians. Thofe who fought were

ordered

fled into the took

inmoft recefies of the Cherfonefus, or


Athenian

refuge in the
over

fortrefles which

were

fcattered reviewed

that
extent
a

peninfula. When
an

Lyfander

the

of his well-merited fuccefs, he

found

that of nine

fleet of

only
were

veflels had

conducted

by

Conon G

fail, eighty eight of which efcaped, ifland of to the friendly Cyprus, 3

hundred

and

86
CHAP.
\.

THE

HISTORY while the of ninth


a

OF

GREECE.
to

Cyprus,
and and

carried

Athens

the

"",

melancholy news
fatal.
three An

difafter and

hundred

equallyunexpected feventy-onegallies,

TheAthefonenexecuted.

were prifoners (among whom the patience Philocles and Adimantus), rewarded with his and fortitude of Lyfander, who returned invaluable fpoil to Lampfacus, amidft the joyous of naval triumph*9. acclamations of an Before purfuing the natural confequences the moft event importantthat had hitherto hapfor pened in all the Grecian wars, it was neceffary Lyfander to decide the fate of the Athenian prifoners, ani-r whom the confederates were againft mated hatred which is congenial by all that unrelenting the flern character of republicans to exafpeinfult. rated by continual provocation and recent The injuftice and cruelty of that ambitious people

thoufand

29

Xenoph.
of

p.

456,

"

feqq.
the

"

Plut.

in

Lyfand.

By
of

the
the
lies aljoyed, en-

battle

.TEgos

Potamos

Athenians

loft the

empire

fea, which
in the

they had
foiuth

acquired by
of the

the confcnt

of their maritime

year

feventy-fifth Olympiad. empire


as

They

therefore,that
from of the year
477

or fovereignty,

they ftyledit, period


to

tillthe year This

405

before

Chrift ; that is,a


is not

feventy-t.woyears.
in any

important computation
and
no

be

found

ancient

writer; fays,
"

two

authors

agree

in calculating

the duration

of the Athenian

empire.
Diodorus
the

Lyfias in
years Siculus fea

his Funeral

Oration,
Athenians
95. i.)

p. 93.

During feventy
fea."
commanded

in which

the

commanded

the

(ad Olymp.
in another

fays, the
in
one

Athenians

fixty-five years.

Ifucrates

place (i. p. 174.) agrees


Andocides

with

Lyfias;

(ii. with Diodorus, p. 209.)


it at

(Orat.iii. p. i86.) ftates


fub

eighty-five years.
Halicarnatfus
ais we

Lycurgus

(adv.Leoc.
Rom.

Dionjfius

(Ant.

145.) at ninety. init.)at fixtyeight.


p.

Pemofthenes,

ftiallfee

below, ftates it varioufly at forty-

five,toy-five, and fevent

y- three yeare.
were

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

87
CHAP,

were

defcribed carefully in the

and

malicioufiy exaggeof their enemies.

rated
"

dreadful

tribunal
to

It would

be tedious
to

enumerate,

ever impoilible

their forget,

though it was minable and abomultiplied


and individuals, the innocent and

crimes, of which
fo many

fo many

communities, had been


Even

unhappy victims.

of late

theyhaddeftroyed
of necefan

without remorfe, and


the helplefs crews fity,

without of
a

the lhadow and

Corinthian

An-

gods had averted the atrocious refolution propofedby the bloody Philocles, of which the author and the approvers were equally could thofe deierve pardon who criminal; nor of pity." Such which difcourfe, were incapable
veflel. The

drian

refounded

from

every

without unanimous

clared, dequarter of the aflembly, of a formal vote, the the neceffity

decree

of die confederates.

As

the

had been ftripped of their arms, there prifoners and be feared from their numbers to was nothing conducted into the prefence defpair.They were of their armed and, as a preludeto the judges ; of inhuman demanded maflacre, Lyfander fternly

SWPhilocles what

he deferved The

to

ed fuffer for his intendwith firmnefs, replied


are

cruelty.
"

Athenian
you

Accufe

not

thofe whom
us

entitled to

judge,
we,
on

but inflict on
a

the fame

punifhmentwhich
have inflicted

in
our

different fortune, would The


words
were

ended when fcarcely Lyfander hacked him in pieces. The Peloponnelian foldiers followed the bloody example of their

enemies."

commander.
mantus

Of
was

three thoufand

Athenians, Adihad op-

alone

either becaufe he fpared,


G
4

pofed

88
CHAP,
YYT
r

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

ort"epofed the deferrable refolution of Philocles,


I-

T_'
of

caufe he had
ence

Views

It
event

engaged in a treacherous correfpondwith the Spartans30. that immediately after an might be expected,
y^h gave him the command of the

Lyfander.

fea,

Lyfander fhould fail to the Pineus, and aiTault the which was unfortunate city, already grievoufly opDecelia. at prefed by the Lacedasmonian army But the fagacious Spartan forefaw the numerous of Athens, and obflaeles that oppofed his conqueft of the troops and reftrained the eagernefs prudently The fortified harbours of that his own. ftrongly walls which the long and lofty furrounded capital, the cityon and actual every fide, the ancient renown defpairof the Athenians, muft render the if not leaft difficult at fruitlefs, altogether fiege, and tedious ; and the precious wafted in moments this doubtful enterprife taining might be employed in atcertain,immediate, and moft important advantages.
He
eftac

On
o*

the coaft neither of Greece


c
. ..

nor

ef Afia, nor
there
a
na-

blilhfsthe

Spartan

any

or

the

intermediate

iflands,was

with the fleet of caPa^^e"f contending coails and Lyfander,nor any fortifiedplacein"all thofe counof Athens Afi" an"d iYlts to (exceptthe city alone)fufficient of his t}ie imprefiion It was a defign, army. which 4* therefore, xct'ii. might well deferve his ambition, 405 an(j which condemned was not by his prudence,
to
over

va^ ovcr'the

^orce

eftablifh

or

confirm

the Lacedemonian

empire
The pulous powere

thofe valuable
cities of
1"

and extenfive coafts. and


in

Byzantium

Chalcedon Lyfand.

Xenoph. Hclkn.

Plutarch

attacked

9o
CHAP,
XXII.
*"_

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
afiaults of the

the

Athenians, who
braved the

defpifedthe
of hardfhips

Y-L- enemy,
an

famine.

Even with

after Lyfander had


hundred and

blocked

up

their harbours

fail, fifty they ftilldefended,with their walls and ramparts ; patiently endured vigour, fatigueand hunger; and beheld with obftinate
unconcern,

the

afflictionof their wives


the ravages

and

dren. chil-

Amidft which advanced

of death

and

difeafe"

with the

puniihed,with
cowardice of

increafmg horror, they utmoft the ignoble feverity,


firfl mentioned the fame
moment

Archeftratus, who
declared
to

and capitulation,

that

fhould put
lives.
Siege of
Athens. sciv.

an

end

their

and independence

their

i.

the melancholy firmnefs of notwithftanding ^ and powerful popularafiembly,a numerous governed rather by mtereft party in the ftate was fc" than enemies of by honour; and the greateft Athenian liberty flourilhed in the bofom of the republic. But The Hundred
nate
;

ariftocratical leven infected the whole

of

the

Four

had and
not

body

of the fe-

only
men

the

inconftant Theramenes,

but
who

feveral other had been moft

of abilities and

influence,

that cruel fubverting the reftoration of democracy tyranny, regretted who to a people, proved in (asthey had recently unable to enjoy, parts of their conduct)were many without abufmg, the invaluable giftof freedom. In the misfortunes, republican governments, which ought to bind all ranks of men in the firmeft and moft

active in

indiflbluble union, have


to

often littleother

tendencythan

factions the political exafperate which

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
CHAP.
"_
,

91

which

community. Amidft the Athenians of publicdiftrefs, caevery form each balled, clamoured, accufed, and perfecuted
tear

and

diftra"l the

Lr

other with

and

the

faction of the

nobles, who

acted

vigour, and addrefs,deconcert, fuperior falfewitnefles, by dark insinuations, ftroyed, jury, perand every other fpeciesof legalfraud and lent the feditious Cleophon, and other turbucruelty, have demagogues, who might moft effectually oppofedtheir meafures31.
When
menes

thefe obftacles

were

removed,

Thera-

Negocia-

(whoferecent merit preventedthe fufpicion "'ith of the aflembly)propofed an embafly to Laceda^- n"s which Ihould requeft of hoftili- tans j a fufpenfion mon, and obtain, if poflible, fome moderate ties, terms
of accommodation.
as colleagues,

He

named

with nine himfelf,

beft qualified take to underperfons this important commiilion j the flattering people in the clearefl and leaft ambiguous terms, with an undoubted of fuccefs. A decree profpect the ambafiadors was immediatelypatted, inverting with full powers. They afliimed the facred badge the of their inviolable character,reached in fafety Spartan camp, held a conference with king Agis, the Lacedasmonian and afterwards repaired to capital.During four months they carried on their with the fenate, the kings, pretendednegociation the ephori, with Lyfander, whofe and efpecially conftituto the ancient authority, being unknown tion of Sparta, far more extenfive than that of was
the
3'

Lyfias, p.

273.

all

92
c

THE
WAP.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

him, together. With magiftrates for compelling concerted the plan was principally,
aJl the

other

the Athenians

to

fubmit

to

terms

of peace, which
not

they
war,

mult

have

regardedas
The

worfe,

only
as

than

but death3*.
were

bours fortificationsof their harthe

to

be

dernolifhed,as well

long

them with the city : they were joined all their fhips, but twelve; to refign to furrender reign in foto their ancient pofieffions every pretenfion walls which

parts

to

recal from

banifhment

the

furvi-

ving members
to

follow
to

peace, the

model

ariflocracy tyrannical ; the ftandard of Sparta in war and, in ; their political conftkution after mould which that victorious republic might prefcribe.
Theramenes

of the

late

think

fit to

produced thefe unexpected fruitsof his boafted negociation, the Athenians had refift, to or no longer either ftrengthor fpirit even During the long abfence of courage to die. their ambafTadors, the fiegehad been carried on with redoubled Lacedaemonians, vigour. The reinforced by the Thebans as well as merous by their nuallies of Peloponnefus, had invefted the fide, the harbours were city on clofely every blocked up by Lyfander,who had become matter of Melos, Ceos, JEgina, and Salamis; iflands fo that they were almoft regarded as to Athens near a mifery part of the Attic territory. The greateft within the walls ; the famine was rable, intoleprevailed
When and

the difeafes more

intolerablethan the fa-

**

Lyfias againft, Eratofthenea, p. ";j.

mine.

THE mine. The

HISTORY full

OF

GREECE.
CHAP,

95

periodof
we

which, elapfed,
and faithful

if

may

thrice nine years had credit a moft accurate


been

had hiftorian33,

by affigned
deflined the

peated re-

oracles and

of the

as the predictions, and of Peloponnefianwar

term

Athenian

leaders of the democracy principal fnares of their had been cut off by the perfidious were prepared to bear a foreign opponents, who theymight ufurpdomeftic tyranny. yoke, provided faction was That odious ready to approve the of Theramenes, who meafures might intimidate choly the dejected aflemblyby declaring(a moft melannians, of the Lacedaemotruth) that the feverity

greatnefs.The

exceflive and when lenity

as

it

feemed,

was

yet moderation
the

compared

with

furious and
and thians, Corin-

unextinguifhable rage
who
not

of the Thebans

maintained

that the Athenians

delerved

any

terms

of accommodation;

that their crimes

with unrelenting perfecuted vengeance; their proud citydemolilhed with fuch perfect dethat not even its veftige fhould remain ; flruction, and the infolent inhabitants utterly from extirpated Greece, which they had fo long difturbed by their ambition, and provoked by their tyranny and cruelty.

ought to

be

Such

an

argument

Theramenes

might have
are

"

The
*'

words
He

of

Thucydides,
that

!. v.

p. the

362.

very

able. remarkof would

remembers,
been
;

from

firft commencement that the


was
war

it had hoftilities, laft thrice and


"

conftantlyprophefied
which,
idiom

nine

years
as

of all predi"ions, of the


Greek

alone firm
will

ftable

;"

or

the

language

bear,

the moft

firm

and

ftable."

employ-

$4
CHAP,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

employed,if

it had been

L"

"

argument,

to

which Spartans,

to employ any neceflary his negociation with the juilify confirmed and ratified by the was

voice of the ariftocratical cabal, and fubmitted


rather than

to,

Athens
"itshu-

of the a"by the majority accepted, fembly, with the gloomy filence of defpair. On the fixteenth of May, the day on which the Athenians
had been the accuftomed immortal
to

celebrate

the

of anniverfary
compaf-

the hoftile
j

armament

victoryof Salamis, took porTeffion of their hararmy entered their gates.

bours rnemies.*8

the

combined

oi.ymp.
XClv. i"

The
which

walls and

fortreflesof the

city of Minerva,

A.C.404.

of its inhabitants, the generous magnanimity the public fafetyto their own, had preferring
abandoned barbarian in defence

of Greece

to

the

furyof

levelled to ungratefully the ground by the implacable refentment of the who executed their deftrucbive purpofe Greeks; with all the eagernefs of emulation, boafting, amidft the triumphs of martial mufic, that the demolition of Athens would in fucbe regarded, ceedingages, as the true asra of Grecian freedom. Yet after they had fatisfiedtheir vengeance, they feemed to cluded conregret its effects. The day was with a magnificent in which the feftival, recitation of the poets formed, as ufual,the principal of the entertainment. ornament Among other rehearfed the Electra of Euripides, and was pieces that affecting We O chorus, particularly come, daughter of Agamemnon ! to thy ruftic and humble roo"" The words were uttered, fcarcely when the whole afTemblymelted into tears, the

invader, were

"

10

forlorn

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

95

forlorn

condition

of
the

that

young

and

virtuous her

prinand

CHAP,

cefs,

expelled
a

royal

palace
in

of

father,
and

inhabiting
ednefs,

miferable
the

cottage, dreadful

want

wretch-

recalling
which had and

viciflitude

of miftrefs

tune forof

befallen

Athens,
of

once

the in

fea,
one

fovereign
hour,
of
her

Greece,
her

but

deprived,
and her and

fatal and

fhips,
the

walls,
of
and

ftrength, profperity,
without the

reduced

from

pride

power

to

mifery,
one

dependence,
memorable
her

fervitude,
to

exerting
laft
moment

effort and

brighten
her

of
34.

deftiny,

to

render

fall

illuftrious

3*

Xenoph.
Plut.
in

Hellen.

1.

ii.

c.

i. "

feqq.
in

Diodor.
Eratofth.

1. Sc

xfiu

104"

107.

Lyfand.

p.

438.

Lyftai

Ajorat,

CHAP.

XXIIL

Rapacity
'The
"

and

Cruelty of

the
in
"

Spartan
"

Government.

'Thirty Tyrants
and
"

Athens.

Perfecuticn of
opposes
"

Lyfias

his

Family.

Theramenes
Critias.

the

Tyrants.

Sanguinary Speech of
"

Death

of Theramenes.
biades.
"

Per/edition

and

Death
"

of

Alcithe

Thrajybulus Jeizes Phyle


Memorable
"

Defeats

Tyrants.
"

Speech
"

of

Thrafybulus.

Oath

of Amnefty

not

faithfully olferved.

CHAP.
YVTTJ

r~v~\

conqueft
dominion of

of

Athens,
of.

and

the

acknowthe It iflancl ftill

',
^_
_^

JL

ledged

Sparta,

terminated years. the

The

rapa-

memorable remained

war

tvventy-feven
to

cruelty
the
tan

of

for
"

Lyfander
enjoys
J
'

reduce honourable in and the the

of

Spargo-

$amos of the

which the

the

diftinftion
that defied fub-

-moment,

being

laft fettlement

Eaft

ambition
to

of
arms

Pericles,
of

laft which The

mitted
iflands under

the

Lyfander.

conquered
vexations under

and the

cities

fuffered than

ftill greater

Spartan,

they
Among
461.
"

had the

done hoftile

the

Athenian,
Comp. Xenoph. Lyfias
that in
a

empire.
Hellen. Eratofth.

fac-

1. ii. p.
p. and
274.

"

Plut.

iii.
p.

p.

31.

in

Lyfand.

adv.

Diodor. both
one

396.

It is

remarkable,
fhould differ

Xenophon
matter

Lyfias,
the

contemporaries, placing
the
con-

of and

chronology;
the other

quefl. of
to

Samos

before,

after, Lyfander's

voyage

Athens.

tions

.8
CHAP
XXIII.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

The

been
Caufes
to

feverityof Sparta has ufually unrelenting of her character afcribed to the perfonal
natural
arrogance

which

whofe general, ^
O

and

cruelty

were

afcribed.

heightened and confirmed


of his fortune.
and then From the

by the fudden
f

exaltation

unfortunate

citizen of a fmall, fimple he became, in a republic,

ledged Athens acknowfew years, the arbiter of Greece. his authority the frnaller cities courted his
-,

venal poets and orators extolled him protection; he was with odes and panegyrics with honoured ; and worihippedby hymns and and flatues, crowns

facrifkes s. whatever

Yet

it is obvious the temper and is

to

remark,
of

that

might be
which

manners

Ly-

fander,his country
wrongs
;

accountable juftly
to

for the
with impunity

he

was

allowed

commit another have

and itis uncertain whether the fame would fituation, the


nature

general,
acted
on

placedin
different

principles ; fince
the
to

of the

Spartan
public, re-

and Inftitutions,

ambitious and the

views

of the

feemed
exertions

demand

uncommon juftify

of

feverity.Jn
government,

adminiftration
or

of

their dorneflic

five

fix thoufand

over Spartanstyrannifed

thoufand thirty
Lyfander
The been had fent
law

Lacecbehome of flill

in

Lyfand.

"

Xenoph.
and

p.

462. that
of

largerfum

after the

furrender

Samos.

LycurgVis

refpeding gold
DOW

which filvcr, The

long virtually, was

formally, aboliihed.
to

ufe of the
to

precious

metals

was

allowed of
1

the

flate, but

forbidden

individuals, under
was

pnin

death*
;

The many

prohibition, however, Spartans


the

garded
none

abundance pofiefTed of the

of

univerfallydifrefilver ; gold and


Plat. "

incurred

penalty

law.

Compar.

Xenoph.
S

loc. citat. "

Ifocrat. in Archidam.

Plut. in

Lyfand,
momansj

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. Hill greater


CH-AP. rigour,
tural na-

99

monians;
over

thefe

with tyrannifed,

thrice that number


to

of (laves; and it
the (laves
were

was

that expect,

when

aflbciated
men,

with

the

troops 6, -ail thefe

of defcriptions

and Helots, would Spartans, Lacedemonians, with the emulation of cruelty, their over tyrannife, conqueredfubjedts. The materials of ancient hiflory cannot fcanty The deep enable us minutely to explainthe humiliation and "mPrfffion which diftrefs of the Aliatic Greeks, opprefied by the they made and of their fel- ""mCg"~ double tyranny of die Spartans, low-citizens. who beheld varies. Contemporary writers,
'

feem at a lofs miferyand defolation, its horror. for words to imprefs Ifocrates endeavours of the fubjecl: the amplitude in the to grafp defcription ; by ftrokes vague language of general of exaggeration and the hyperbole,he {applies information j but all the placeof clear and pofitive and energy of the Greek copioufnefs tongue fink, beneath the heavy afflictions of that unfortunate of the orator and the mind feems to labour people ; with a thought which he is unable to exprefs r. It

this fcene of

is
6

The
o;

Helots
TO

then

took

the

title of

noSetpu"H;, Libertini,
Thucydid. 1. v. (Panegyr. " de Pace.),
freed
men

ouvscTai

"f$'4 vtoSz-uuZt; tiicci"tjj6tpa"


fome that

p. 533.

From feem

pafiagesin

Ifocrates

it fhould
offices
7

of great truft and oration of

Lyfander often appointed thefe authority.


of Ifocrates
on

to

Seethe

the

peace,

p.

171,

"c,

la

the

panegyric

Athens,

fpeaking
and
the
"

of the

ariftocratical factions

fnpported by Lyfander
they confided

Lacedaemonians,
\vhofe mankind.
were

Ifocrates fays,
arc injuftice

of wretches, in the

cruelty
From

and

unexampled
did

hiftory of
II a

what
not

indignity They,

they

abftain ? Into

\vhatexcefies

they

tranfported ?

ioo CHAP.
X5CITT

THE is not, that


we

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

however, from
can

fuch rhetorical

defcriptions

attain

knowledge of the in plain and delights


treatment

adequate and fatisfactory Spartan adminiftration : hiftory


an

authentic fa6bs; and

the rigorous

of the Athenians

themfelves, will
their Afiatic

the beft reprefent colonies Thethirty


"*

and

inflifted on hardfhips dependencies.


had
were

The

Athenians

furrendered

their fleet;their
;

wa^s an"^ harbours


was

demoliflied

their citadel

Athens

oiymp.
404.

comgarrifon, occupied by a Lacedaemonian the friend of Lyfander; and rnanded by Callibius, the their government was ufurpedby thirty men,

and creatures of Sparta. dependants Critias formed a proper and profligate

The head

furious for this


been

ariftocratical council, whofe

members

have
name

under branded in hiftory juftly Thirty Tyrants 8. On pretence

the of

of the

ftate from

the delivering the malice of informers,and the turbulence

of feditious
the
,

moft

valuable

demagogues, they deftroyed portion of the community9.


a

Niceratus, the fon of Nicias, and


not

fon who

herited in-

only

the

opulence,but
fadious
as

the virtues

of

They,
moft

who

regarded
as

the moft the moft the

the

moft

faithful ; the

treacherpus
and

deferving.
mildnefs of

Their human

crimes
nature

proved
into

infe"ious,
8

changed
See

"c. favageferocity," Their


names

p. 52,

"c.
Hellen. ii. 3. Bello Catil. Athe-

are

prefervedin Xenophon,
Casfar, ap.
'*

9
c.

Xenoph.
jr.

p. 461. which in

Salluft. de

evidently had
"

view,

Lacedxmonii
...

devidis

virng nienlibus, triginta fimum quemque,

impofuere.

Hi

primo
ubi

ccepere
necare.

pefEo

omnibus

invifum,
fieri. malos

indemnatum Poft

populus laetari,"
tia crevit

mer'tto dicere "

paullatim licen^
. .

juxta bonos

libidinofe interficere.
poenas

Ita

fervitute opprefla, civitas, ftulta;lastitiae graves

dedit."

hi*

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
to

101

his

illuftrious father,
the moft

was
"

condemned

death

and public-fpirited, Antiphon, -,-lj the moft eloquentof his contemporaries, fhared the fame fate; Thrafybulus and Anytus were baknown be powerful, niflied. Whoever to was as was dangerousj whoever was fuppofed regarded accufed as criminal. be rich, was to Strangers and citizens were involved in one promifcuous

Leon,

CHAP. xxiii

ruin I0. Amidft this

wreck of whatever was moft Illuftrated general I fhall feled the perfecuworthy and refpeftable, fiSJjJf tion of Lyfias and his family,the only tranf- Lyfiasand
action of that kind, recorded
as

with fuch circum-

*"

ftances

anfwer the ends of

the father of that


a

Syracufan. The
to

hiftory. Cephalus, by birth orator, was ingenious of Pericles perfuaded friendfhip


the protection

him

fettlein Athens, where, under

of that and

ftatefman, he powerful
His
inoffenfive and

obtained wealth
generous cha-

honours.

the enmity and perfecution to which efcaped the opulent Athenians were commonly expofed; and he enjoyedthe rare of living felicity thirty ments, years in the midft of continual trialsand impeachwithout beingobliged as plaintiff to appear His defendant in any litigation. fons, Lyfias or
rafler and

Polemarchus,
his

inherited

his

innocence, his

good fortune. Though poflefled of the moft valuable natural accomplilhments, and acquired, the brothers prudently kept aloof from the dangerous life pathsof public j contented
and generofity,
10

Xenopb.

1. i.i. p.

463 " " feqq.

with

102

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

CHAP,

with

their domeftic of Athenian


to

felicity, they afpired


citizens
;

not

to

the rank

but

tributed conliberally

of the flate,from fupplythe exigencies manufacture of fhields, of a flourifhing the profits which they carried on by the labour of an hundred The flaves. and cruelty of the thirty twenty eye neither obfcurity tyrants, froili whofe rapacious

could death

conceal,

nor

merit

defend, occafioned
and the

the mif-

of Polemarchus,
as

immediate

fortunes, as well
afted
a

the future

who gloryof Lyfias,

that difcinguifhed part in overturning deteftable tyranny, and in bringingits authors and abettors to condign punifhment ". is related by himfelf with perfpiThe "hiftory The and The : gracefulfimplicity oount^fcuous precifion
om"

thru

mat-

tyrants Theognis and ciates, that many


were

their affbacquainted efcabliilied at Athens ftrangers the

Pifo

difaffecled

to

government.

This

was

a.

the effects of thefe plaufible pretence for rifling meafure die thirty to which were unhappy men ; a not only excited by avarice, but prompted by fear. Money was become neceflaryfor the prefervation of their powef, which, being founded on ufurpacould only be aQininiftered,' tion, and tyrannically maintained and the by the influence of corruption, mercenary life of man, The foreign troops. of little motherefore,they regarded as a matter ment the amafling of wealth the principal was j of their defire; to gratify which, ten ftrangers object aid of
were

at

once

devoted

to

dercruclion.
the Orations

In this
lhc:c

num-

11

Sec
JO,

the "

Life of Lyfia?, and

referred

to,

p.

frqq.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

103
a

her, indeed,

were

two

poor

men

",

bafe and

P.

perfuade you, Athenians ! that the eighthad been condemned, not for the remaining the fake of their riches, but in order to preferve if the intereft of the as public tranquillity ; of that tyrannical the concern had ever been public infamous cabal ! Their defignwas executed with taken inhuman in cruelty. Their victims were of domeftic their beds, at fupper,in the privacy Me the rites of retirement. they feized exercifmg were rudely difmified; I hofpitality; rny guelts delivered into the cuftody of the worthlefs was his accomplicescontinued While in the Pifo. 1^ worklhop, takinga liftof our flaves and effects,
cruel artifice to aiked
'"

him,
a

"

Whether

money fum."

could fave my
"

?" life
a as

Yes,

confiderable This

I will
to
a

give you
accept,

talent of filver."

he confented
",

the

priceof
was

my I

fafety

and

to

fuch

melancholy
me a

fituation momentary

reduced, that it afforded


to

confoiation
a

depend (asI
well

on

faith of every
was

man,

who

precarious knew) defpifed


my fooner

the

law, human

and
;

divine.

But
no

comfort

of Ihort duration

for I had

opened

coffer to pay him the talent,than he ordered my of his attendant to feize the contents, confifting three talents of filver, an hundred

hundred

Daricks, th^ree
I in-

Cyzicenes,and
to

three filver cups.


a

treated Pifo
expence

allow

me

fmall

fum

to

defraythe

of my
to
we

thankful

journey. But he defired me to be gether, efcapewith my life. Going out tothe tyrants Melobius and Mnefien-

met

from the workfliop. They theides,returning


II
4

quired,

104c
H

THE
A P.

HISTORY
we

OF

GREECE.
to

quired,where
i

were

going? Pifo anfwered,


brother

/examine

the

houfe
him
to to

of my

Polemarchus.
me

They
to

demed

proceed ;
of

but commanded

Damaf^ppus. Pifo and to fear nothing, whifperedme to be filent, becaufe he would immediatelycome there. Upon found Theognis guardingfeveral of we arrivalj our in calamity. I increafedche number my companions but obtained of his prifoners an opportunityto ; misfortunes to Dainnocence and reprefent my him, by our mafippus,intreating pail friendfhip, behalf, He alfured to employ his influence in my of his intention to intercede with Theognis, me whofe avarice would eafily perfuadehim to betray his truft. While I theyconverfed on this fu eject, top'kadvantageof my knowledge of the houfe to efcapethrough three fecret paiiages, which all tunately happened to be open and unguarded; and forreachingthe country-houfeof my friend lent him the city, to Archimaus, a fhip-mafter, that he might bring^meintelligence of my brothe-r.
had difcovered, that the tyrant Eratofthenes dragged him from the road, and conducted him to He ordered he was where prifon, this melancholy news, I At under cover of the night. Our
to

follow them

the houfe

drink
to

hemlock.

failed

Megara,
the

effects'became
mean

property of the tyrants, whofe


"not

avarice
us.

fpcired
the

the fmallefl trifle belongingto Polemarchus's brutal Melcbius

Even
were

of gold ear-rings torn away by the


"

wife
*

forcibly

See

the

tUfcomfes

of

Lyfias againfl Agoratus

and

Cratof-

thenes,

p, 2^8, "

fcqq.

The

THE
CHAP,
"

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. full
more

the foreigntroops
over

they dreaded
.

his in-

xxin

,_f_v_\fluence

the Athenian

citizens.

of tenure precarious violence of their adminiftration, and the unjuft they the pad with pain,and viewed the reflected on far to But they had gone future with terror. too remained but to prop the tottering retreat, and nothing its bafe. fabric of their power by enlarging invited to participate Three thoufand citizens were in the advantagesand dangers of their government. confldered the
The
an

they their authority,

When

reft

were

difarmed

and

treated with

increafe of
Theramenes

feverity.

He
co

is acfed

by

vainly oppofedthe criminal defigns who Qf j^s colleagues, fubmitted their implicitly to the implacable furyof Critias. He it opinions who chiefly to was encouragedthem boldly perfevere,
'

and

to

remove

every

obfcacle

to

the

un-

limited

fafety of Theramenes, he aiTured them, was no longer with their own. real or His delicacy, compatible of inconfiftent with the fpirit affected, was totally
the

of their pafllons. The gratification

adminiftration; nor prefect


of

could

than Thirty, any more admit of being curioufly canvaifed, or faftidioufly oppofed. Thefe Icntiments being received with that Thesamenes we might expect: approbation, fhould have been deftroyedby that fudden and cpen violence which had proved fatal to fo many others. But as the moft daringviolators of the laws of fbciety to efcabliiliand obferve are obliged fome rules of juftice, in their conduct tov, each

the ment governof that one tyrant,

other, it had

been

refblyed

by

the Thirty,

that,

THE

HISTORY

OF and

GREECE.
c

107

that,
which

am

idft the

violent

they committed
own

capricious outrages their fubjefts, none againft

H^A

p.
'

of their

number
a

die benefit of

fhould be put to death without trial before the fenate ; a privilege


the and three

extending
O
C3

to

thoufand

intruded

with

the uie of arms, condition aifembkd


was

the fufficiently denoting other

miferable fenate
was

of the
to

citizens.

The

try

rheramenesj

but this When

tribunal the

furroundsd

criminal addrefied pretended in a fpeech remarkable be the court too ever to forgotten. Should you imagine, '*O fenators! confidering
"

by armed men. appeared,Critias

the
we

great numbers
have been

who

have

fuffered death, that

U Critlas

of unnecefTary guilty cruelty, you that revolutions will alter that opinionon reflecting be attended with bloodof government mud always when fhed ; but particularly a populous citylike ty, Athens, which liasbeen longpampered with liberis reduced under
the

dominion
was

of

few.

The

impofed by the the condition of the public Lacedasmonians as have we fafety. In order to maintain its authority thofe feditious demagogues, whole demoremoved mities. cratical madnefs hath occafioned all our paft calaIt is our duty to proceed in this ufeful without fear or compafllon, work, and to deftroy, difunb the public tranquillity. would all who of this dangerousdilpofition Should be a man found in our order, he ought to be punifhed own double with rigour,and treated not only as an
enemy

aclual form

of administration

but

as

traitor. That

Theramenes

is liable
to

,o"
CHAP,
""

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. the whole the


tenour

to

this accufation appears


He
;

from

of the

his conduct.

concluded

treaty with

Lacedaemonians
he boldeft fooner

he diflblved the and


our

directed

popular government; approved the firft and


adminiitration he
:

meafures .did

of

but

no

difficulties arife than his

deferted

his

afibciates,declared
and
When fued
on

to oppofition

their
the

defigns,

undertook

the
was

protectionof
with
his

populace,

the weather the fame

fairand favourable, he pur-

courfe

companions, but,
to

the firftchange of his

wind, he thought proper

fuch an irrelblute navigation. With of the helm it is impofiible fteerfman to govern and to guidethe vefiei to her deflined the republic, deed, This dangerous inconfiftency harbour. ought, inbeen expectedfrom to whole a man to have character began his perfidy is congenial. He under the direction of his father career political of democracy. He Hagnon, a violent partifan afterwards in order to obtain changed his fyftem,
alter the favour of the nobles. diflblved and He both the eftabliflied and

the

government

of

four

hundred;
him

the whole
to

ftrain of his behaviour and made

proves

unfit

govern,

unworthy
a
"

to

live'4."

Theramenes

fence, decopious and perfuafive That he had

fence, acknowledging,

often
ever

changed
varied

his

conduct, but denyingthat he had

his

principles.

When the die

the

democracy

he had fiourifhed,

maintained

the infolence,of reprefled


1

but juft rights, it people. When

Xenoph.

p.

464" 466.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

109

became
in

C H A p. to alter the form of- the republic, neceflary of the Spartans, /, -w" 'u* compliancewith the command

he had

the legal the jj fupported power, but oppofed adevery tyranny, of the magiilrates.Under he had approvedhimminiftration of government which he felf the friend of moderation and juftice, ftill continued, and
ever

would

continue, to

commend re-

and enforce, convinced alone could

that thofe virtues


to

and permanence give {lability whether

any

fyftem of government, popular."


The the fenators murmured Critias
a

ariflocraticalor

unawed applaufe,
and his aflbciates.

by
But

Thera-

prefenceof
furrounded their

Sieged
to

this furious tyrant made who the

to the armed fignal men, fenate-houfe,to fhew the

execution,

points of

daggers ;
is the

and

then

ward, forftepping fenators! of


a

faid, "It

duty, O

and to prevent the deception prudentmagiftrate, of thofe dangerof his friends. The countenance his armed brave youths (pointing to partifans). difcovers that they will not permit you fufficiently who is manifeflly the goto fave a man fubverting vernment with the general : I, therefore, confent, of Theramenes from the lift of, ftrike the name thofe who have a right to be tried before the fenate; of my I and, with the approbation colleagues, condemn him Roufed by death." immediate to this unexpected and bloody fentence, Theramenes ftarted from his feat,and fprangto the altar of the fenate-houfe, at once imploringthe compaffion, and urging the mtereft of the fpectators, whofe names, he obferved, might be ftruck out,

and

no

THE

HISTORY lives might be his


own.

OF

GREECE.

CHAP.
u..

ancj whofe !""cruellyas

and facrificed, as unjuftly the.


terror
or

-,-

But

of

armed

violence prevented any


and the eleven
men

ailiftance

interceffion ;

the ftyled

thus the Athenian (for delicacy of publicjuftice) executioners dragged


to

him
His death.

from the altar,and hurried him

execution.

the proceedingthrough the market-place unhappy victim of tyranny invoked the favour and of his fellow-citizens, who had often gratitude been protected by his eloquence,and defended by the impudent Satyrus, But his valour. the chief both in authority and cruelty, minifter of vengeance told him, that if he continued his lamentations flernly and uproar foon he fnould cry in good earneft15
"

In

"

And remain he
to

fhall I not," faid filent?" When

Theramenes,
he
on

though I
a

drank
the

the

fatal hemlock,
with health

poured a
honeft

libation

ground
even

the

Critias ; circumftances
that

if they proved not, unworthy to relate, in his laft moments, he


was

forfaken neither

by

his

facetioufnefs

nor

by

his fortitude I6.

JS

Ort

oif/.o""oiTo" s" MI}


unlefs he
were

c-itTT-ijTMsi.

Literally,that
inaccurate the fmart

he

would

cry

but

(ilent.

The
to

executioner

furniflied occafion

language of the menes. reply of Thera-

16

Xenoph.
the

p. 470.

The

glorious death
his life. That

of Theramenes his character


was

celled can-

imperfections of
writers of many deliberate
he

inac-

conilant, moft
cufes him

allow.

Lyfias crimes;

adverfus but he

Eratofthen. died in
a

virtuous

caufe, and, however


me

acted, left the


! quam

fcene

" gracefully. Qiiam

delectat Theramenes
tamen
non

elato animo

ell ! Eta

cnim

flemu;--,
Cic.

cumlegimus,
Tufc,

miferabiiiter vir clarus

moritur-"

Qua;ft.

The

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

frr

The

death of Theramenes the

delivered the tyrants


tended
to

from
their

only reflraint which


to
now

controul

infolence, and might

moderate

their

cruelty.
the
rants.

They

indulge in all the licentioufnefsof


the

IY-

outrage,

without

fear of Their

danger of
were

refiftance. from
the

reproach or the miferable fubjects


the

driven

from city,

Pirasus,from
inftruments of

their
were
an

which houfes, their farms, and their villages, divided

among

the deteftable

odious A

ufurpation. Nor
mandate

here.

of the authority Grecian cityto receive the unfortunate fugitives. almoft univerfally order was difBut this inhuman

flop enforced by the was publifhed, Spartan fenate,prohibiting any

did the tyrants

obeyed ;
over

the

facred

laws
an

the

terror

of

hofpitality prevailed unjuft decree; Thebes,


crowded

of

Argos,
In the

and

Megara,

were

with Athenian

exiles I7.

thofe abominable exercifmg

acts of

cruelty, They
of

confulted ^Thirty probably

the immediate

machin*^ fafety

but they precipitated the downfal tions perfons, The of their power. Athenians, whofe ^ opprefTed feemed no longer tolerable, fufferings required duct only a leader to roufe them to arms, and to conthem This to victoryand to vengeance. danger the tyrants had greater reafon to apprehend, fmce they could not expect a reinforcement to the while the efforts of Lyfander and the garrifon, directed towards the exprincipally Spartanswere tenfion of their Afiatic conquefts. The abilities of their

*7

Diodor.

1, xiv. p. 236-

and

ii2

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.-

CHAP,
"JvXIII
^_ -r-

and

refentment

of Alcibiades

pointed him
the

out

as

beft qualified L' the perfon to and honourable and

undertake

arduous

the fugidefign of reaiTembling tives, them animating with courage That


to
cover re-

of

their loft country. had


terror

iliuftrious exile

been

driven

from

his Thracian then

fortrefs by the
mailers of the under

of the Lacedemonians,
had

Hellespont,and
the

acquireda fettlement

Hu

death,

of Pharnabazus, in the littlevillage protection of Grynium in Phrygia, where, undiflurhed by and politics, he the dangerous contentions of war obfcure happiriefs in the bofom of love an enjoyed But the cruel fears of the tyrants and friendfhip. purfuedhim to this laft retreat. that the facrifke of Lyfander told Pharnabazus for the fafety of that form Alcibiades was neceflary eftablifhed of government which had been recently

in Athens,

and

which
to

it was

the

intereil both A

of

Spartaand
fon
the

of Perfia

maintain.

reaprivate

(whichwill to pay fatrap


A band

afterwards
immediate

with appear) prevailed attention


to

this

bloody
fent
to

advice.

of armed

Phrygianswas
Such

and furprife

deftroyAicibiades.
that prowefs, in broad

was

the

fame
not

of his

thefe timid afTaflinsdurft

attack him
the

day,

or

by

open

force.

They chofe
fet fire
fafhion
to

of

lightand

of nightto furround and obfcurity his houfe, which, accordingto the the country, was chiefly compofed of combuftible materials. The crackling
alarmed

noife of the flames

Alcibiades,whofe

owri

treacherous character rendered him

always fufpicious
of

XI4.
CHAP, XXIII

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
his
m-

arduous tendons

defigns.
to

Having

communicated

in Thebes and unhappy fugitives Megara, lie encouraged a body of feventy intrepid. fortrefs of Phyla,, followers to feize the important the fituate
The
on

the

Boeotian

and

Athenian the

frontier.

ty-

This

alarmed daringenterprife

tyrants, wha
to

fled in their
atto

marched

forth with the


new

the

flower

of their troops

di{]ocw
to

tempts
di

But garrifon. b

the natural ftrength

fledge

of the

placebaffled
to

their aflault; and, when

they

determined

violence of unexpected fall an a tempeft,accompanied with extraordinary their unof fnow*", obligedthem to defift from dertaking. to They returned with precipitation behind part of their attendants and Athens, leaving baggage, which fell a prey to the garrifon of Phyla j the ftrengthof which continually mented augthe of Athenian confluence exiles,and by feven hundred, foon increafed from to feventy,
invefl it, the
men.

Thrafy-

The

tyrants had

juft reafon
attack the

to

apprehend that
the

urT thefe
defeats

daringinvaders might ravage


even

country, and
this

furrounding capital.Alarmed by
of horfe,
cenaries, mer-

leveral troops danger they difpatched

with the greater part of their JLacedasmonian


who

diftance
to

watch

encamped in a woody country, at the of fifteen furlongsfrom Phyla, in order and reprefsthe incurfions of the motions
But

the
lent

enemy.
to

thefe

forces, which

had

been

guard

the

and city from territory

furprife,
p. 47
r.-

r.t

Jtxrs?

yj.j",

Ku.p.T.'b.-r"r,:. Xenoph.

werc

THE
\vere

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

115

themfelves

marched filently amidft

furprifed by Thrafybulus,who forth in the night, polledhis men


intricacies of the foreft,and the Lacedemonians
or

CJ^

the concealed

fuddenly attacked
had
to

before
even

they
fland

time

to
arms.

recollect themfeives, The


dread

to

probably them the wary generalfrom following prevented the garrifon. An dred hunto any great diftance from (lain in the purfuit and twenty men were ; a trophywas erected ; the baggage and arms were conveyed in triumph to Phyla".
their
an

of

ambufh

The

news

of this difafter
terror

with

fuch

that

they
*

no

the Thirty infpired longer regarded a rants


move

re*

to

demolifhed refidence.

city like

Athens

as

proper
remove

for their
to

Ekufis*

They town neighbouring feemed extremity,


three

determined

to

the

of Eleufis, which, in cafe


more were

of

capableof
entrufted

defence.
with the

The

thoufand, who

ufe

accompanied them thither,and aflifted death all fuch of them in treacheroufly to putting the Eleufmians were as thoughtdifaffected to the the inhabitants, usurpation.Under pretence of muftering thofe unhappy men were ducted fmgly conto the fhore, througha narrow gate leading where they were difarmed, bound, and fucceffively executed, by the cruel inftruments of tyranny".
of
arms,

Meanwhile ceived
new

of Phyla continually Thrafyregarrifon reinforcements. The orator Lyfias,marche$ the have been fufferings

whofe

domeftic

recently de- {?the


'

Piraeus.

2T

Xenopb, p.

471.

**

Id. ibid.

Jfcribed,

ii6
c

THE
P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

HA

collected fcribed,
on

three

hundred

men

to

take

vert-

-t

\ geance
authors

the

murderers
own

of his brother, and


Thefe

the

of his

banifhment13.

ufeful

fupplies encouraged Thrafybulus to attempt furfiding prifmg the Pirseus,the inhabitants of which, conof tradefmen, merchants, and mariners, chiefly bore with great impatience and indignation of a fubordinate the injuries council of Ten, the imitators of the Thirty. This enterobfequious crowned with fuccefs, was prife althoughthe tyrants Brought forth their whole force to oppofe it. the place, their march to Having intercepted Thrafybulus occupied a rifingground, which him decifive advantage in the engagea gave ment.
Addrefles

Before

his leading
and
on

men

to

a6lion, he

animated

lowers" in
fightof

tne^r val"ur

refentment, by reminding them,


the

my.en

confifted of thofe Laright cedasmonians whom only five days before theyhad fhamefullyrouted and put to flight;that the commanded by the Thirty troops on the left were had unjuftly into banifiidriven them tyrants, who

that the enemy

confifcated their property, and murdered their deareft friends. ff But the gods have finally
ment,

opportunity(long ardentlydefired) in our with arms to face our hands, and oppreflbrs to take their multiplied wickednefs on vengeance and cruelty. When they inverted us at Phyla, the gods, confulting ruffled the ferenity our fafety,
us *J

given

the

1. v. Jullin.

c.

ix. The

compiler, with his ufual inaccuracy,

fays,Lyfias Syracufanus orator.

Of

THE of the

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

117 The

iky with
to

an

unexpected tempeft.
enabled
us,
our

af- cJiAp'

fiflance of Heaven
men,

with

handful

of
;

"

L"
v-

raife
fame

trophy over

numerous

foes
us

and with enemy

the

divine

Providence

ftill favours

the moft
are

manifeft marks
up in
a

of

The partiality. and clofe array


;

drawn

deep

they muft be obligedto afcend the eminence; reach beyond of their rear cannot javelins
van ;

the
their

while, from
no

the reverfe of thefe circumftan-

ces,

weapon Let
us

of

ours

needs

be

in difcharged
an rangement ar-

vain.

avail ourfelves, therefore,of

produced by the favour of evidently each foldier remembering, that he never Heaven ; honourable atchieve a more obtain or can victory,
a more

tomb24." glorious
revered

The

of the prieft enforced authority


"*"
.

the

The
rants

*?'
de"

general. He promifed them feated. they forbore to charge completefuccefs,provided


exhortation till one
"

of the

of their
added

men

were
"

killed

or

wounded;
you
on

Then,"

he,

I will conduct

to

victory,though I myfelf fliall fall." He had threw their javeended, when the enemy fcarcely lins which, as if guidedby a divine impulfe, ; upon
he ruihed his

forward

to

the

attack.

Both

parts of

were accomplifhed. The battle was prediction neither long nor bloody; but Critias and Hippo-

machus, the
left among

two

moft

violent

of the

tyrants,

were

the

flain.

Thrafybulus judicioufly
who fugitives, be-

avoided

to

purfuethe
p. 473.
"

fcattered

**

Xenoph.

Diodor. 1. xiv. p. 414.

I 3

u8
CHAP.
XXIII.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

ing fuperiorin number,


the battle,if he

might

flill. and rally

new re-

of the the advantage quitted ground. But having proceededto the foot of the manded he floppedthe ardour of his troops, and comhill, the herald Cleocritus to proclaim with a
"c

His pro-

loud voice, clamation

Wherefore,
countrymen
the
are

Athenians

would have

you you

tothcvp.n-

fly from
driven

your

? Wherefore do you

quiflied.

them

from

? Why city all united

thirft for

their blood ? We and have


common

civil, by religious,
combined
to

domeftic
we

ties.

Often, with
fea and
common

arms,
our

by fought,
country

land,

defend

and

freedom.

Even

in this unnatural

civil war,
of

excited and

fomented. rants, ty-

by

the

ambition have

impious and
more

abominable

who

fried

blood in

than the
ten
as

our Peloponnefians,

months^ eight public enemies, in


your
a

years.

We
our on

have
own ;

lamented
nor

misfortunes
man

much
have
not

as

is there

whom

you
does

left

the field of

battle,whofe

death

excite The

our

and increafe our fympathy, tyrants, dreading the effect


calculated
to

flictio afof
a

well proclamation

fow

the

feeds

of

led off their troops with difaffedtion,


j

great precipitatio

and

the without {tripping Thrafybulus,


to

dead, marched
Govern*
ment

the Pirasusas.

Next the

of De-

the

difcomfited in Thirty, fhamefully rious engagement, and deprivedof Critias,their fu-

day

the

eemvirs,

but feats in

leader, took their melancholy intrepid council with ftrong indications of expe"5ted
unfortunate
Xenopb.

ruin.

Their

accufed fubjedts

their

p. 474, com-

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

commanders, arofej
nor

and
was

each

other;

new

fedition

until the tyallayed, and ten of their .dignity, had been deprived rants from each tribe)apmagiftrates (one ele"ed pointed in their room*6.

the ferment

with in

thofe who
to

were

too

furviving tyrants, united with them clofely


in intereft, fled the
to

The

not guilt,

be united

Eleufis.
as
as
"

It mi";ht be
now

expected that
the government,

Decemvirs, who
have
been

that

of

aflumed from

jfhould

theThir-

"leterred

ty" by the fatal example of injuftice in the turbulent republics But their predeceffbrs. free in theory, of Greece, however little men were liberty. acquainted with the benefits of practical Whether the nobles, or people, or a prevailing

faction of either
the
was

whatever

tained party .in the ftate ob-

chief alike

their authority adminiftration,


and tyrannical. nately Alteroppreffive

almoft

mailers
-were

and

Qaves, thofe fierce republicans


or

that deto draw unwilling .cifive and imperviousline between the power of of the fubject; a line .government, and the liberty which forms the only folid barrier of an uniform, and rational freedom. .confident, The Ten

either unable

had

no

fooner

been

invefted with Lyfander


an

the

enfigns of command!,
with
to

than

they (hewed

""the*?!-

"qual inclination
citizens*7.
*6

the

"cedasmonians, and
After

Thirty to obey the Latheir fellowover tyrannife


which fkirmifhes^

various

hap-

*7

Xenoph. p. 474. " Ifocrat. ii.p, 426. Lyfiasadverf. Eratofth. p. aia, " feqq.

I 4

pened

120 CHAP,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

pened
"

in the

courfe

of
to

two

weeks, and

generally
conduct

"__-",

L" proved honourable

the

bravery and

of
in

Thrafybulus, the
Athens

tyrants both

in Eleufis

and

difpatched mefiengersto folicit farther affiflance from Sparta and Lyfander. That active and leader employed his ufual diligence enterprifmg
to

protect the
At the

government
head

which

he

had

eftablifhed.

mercenaries, he marched
inverted

of ^ powerful body of the Piraeus, which he to


his brother

by land;
a

while

Libys, who
up

commanded

confiderable

fquadron,blocked
reftored the
can

the harbour18.
His
mea-

Thefe
courage

vigorousexertions
of the tyrants
; nor

hopes and
that

thwarted

it be doubted mull have the

and Thrafybulus been compelled

his followers
to

fpeedily Spartan
controul. the
pacious ra-

furrender, had
allowed
to

commanders
But the

been

act without

proud arrogance
avarice
of his

of

Lyfander,and
of

dependants,provoked
whatever
The
was

the

and indignation in refpectable

refentment
his

moil

country.

kings, magition his ambiquering con-

and fenate, confpired to humble ftrates,


5

and, left he fhould


Athens
a

enjoy the glory of

fecond

time, Paufanias, the moft

popular and
levied the

beloved domeftic

of the

Spartanprinces, haftily
and
a

troops,

confideratye

body

of

Peloponnefian allies, and

marching
the in-

through the Ifbhmus of Corinth encamped in Neighbourhood of Athens j littlefelicitous to


*8

Xenoph.

p.

476. fcDiodor.

ubi

fupva,

creafe

322

THE

HISTORY
he

OF

GREECE.

H^A
v"
m

P.

Before

!,_"

favourable '_j.
ifwere
to

perfuadethe enemy of his fully intentions, feveral bloody fkirmifhes


the partifansof democracy with
,

could

Com

fought, in which
.

iionersap-

pointed

defended

the

uncommon iffai^of Athens,

made their In

them

unequal force, but with refolution 3". At length Paufanias underftand, that, inftead of deftroying
Pirnsus wiflied
to

he perfons,

protecttheir
known
a

liberties.
pected unex-

Athens

his emiffaries made excited

this

revolution,which
to

numerous

party
to

throw
a

off the

yoke

of the

tyrants, and

dein

fire the

reconciliation
The

with

their fellow-citizens

Piraeus.

deputies were

ceived favourably re-

by
to

the

to protection,

Spartan king, and propofe overtures


and

fent, under
of The tion accommoda-

his

the

ephori

fenate.

mefiengers
to

of

Lyfander and

the tyrants endeavoured but

traverfe

this

negociation ;
in

the fition,

who,

their opponotwithftanding fifteen commiffioners, Spartansappointed with Paufanias, were powered emconjunction

to

fettle the affairsof Athens31.


or approbation,

This

hap-

With

the

rather

by

the

com-

pilycffeflmand,
CO.

of

thofe

miniiters, the Athenian


tyrants
were

factions
diverted

ceafed from their power


and the
-,

hoftility ; the
the

of
;

foreign garrifonwas

withdrawn

re-eflablilhed. This populargovernment revolution was remarkable for its fmguimportant

lar mildnefs.
mod

The

authors

and

initruments
in the

of the
annals

recorded ufurpation oppreffive

of any

people were
3" 21

allowed

to

retire in

to fafety

Xenoph. Xenoph.

Diodor. p.

Lyfias,ubi fupra.

4.?".

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

123
CHAP.

Eleufis.
cefTion
to

Thrafybulus conduced
the

military proin the

temple

of Minerva

citadel,u

[j-

where
were

of thanks and facrifice acknowledgments offered to that protecting who had divinity,
the exiles
to

reftored the virtuous healed who them cife of had the

their country,

and

divifions of the ftate.

The
had

citizens driven
exer-

been

banifhed, and thofe who


after which,
addreiTed
:

into

banilhment, joinedin this folemn

religious duty5 full afiembly, they were


in thefe memorable
"

convening in by Thrafybulus
Memo-

words

The

of experience
men

your
!

pafttranfafHons
to

may

enable and you,


to

you,

of Athens

know

each

other, fpeech
bulus.
.

of

know
,

yourfelves. On
us

what
.

pretence could
a

who

drove

from

the

, city, abet

cal tyranniyour

faction ?

Why

would On your

you

have

enflaved

fellow-citizens?
could that you you

what claim

of fuperiority of dominion virtuous ?


never

merit
Is it

found
are

? Yet

more

honeft

and

the their

people
poverty
you

whom

you

infulted

relieved

by unjuft gain; whereas


it that you

the tyrants, whom

ferved, increafed their wealth

by
are

the moft
more

op-

rapacity. Is prefTive
and warlike ? Yet

brave
and

this

people, alone injured


unarmed,
reinforced have
overcome

unaffifted,and
your

almoft

numbers, fuperior

by

the Lacedaemonian

fuccours of Paufathe powerful garrifon, mercenaries of Lyfannias, and the experienced der. As muft yield the prize both of probity you and of prowefs,fo neither can you claim the You honour of fuperior and fagacity. prudence
1 1

have

124
c

THE
p.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. in war, but

HA

have

been
in

not

only conquered
the

over-

u"

'_. come
,"

negociation, by
whom you,
to

people whom

you

de-^ have and

fpifed j

to

your like

Lacedsemonian

mailers bound

delivered

biting curs32,

muzzled,

be

infolence

juftly punifhed for your and audacity. But as to

voked unproyou, my

fellow-fufferersand fellow-exiles ! you, who fhared the hard(hipsof my and who banifhment, now
Ihare the
you

triumph of my victorious and forgetour to forgive


the

return,
common

hort ex-

juries. inadorn

Let
'the

of dignity

your

fentiments

Iplendourof your actions. Prove to fuperior only in your enemies, not


in

yourfelves
valour

but
con,

clemency, that
The

moderation

my

produce

cord, and, concord


The
am-

ftrength."
enthufiafm,excited
in
a

effect of this generous

pcfty

and

diffufed

by Thrafybulus,appeared
of the

very

refolution extraordinary
the had

affembly. During
hundred
talents
to

of ufurpation
been

the

Thirty, an
the
a

borrowed

from

Lacedaemonians,
government
put
The
to

the rigorous of fupport cruelty had banifhed


five

which

thoufand33, and
citizens.
to

death,

untried, fifteen hundred


of this ^um
was

repayment

expected from the it whofe intereft and fafety people at large, againft had been fo notorioufly employed. Yet the Athenot
1

be

Slcrirto T"?

%ax"ona";x.\oia
fin.
In

h^oacnv. Svcrairi/; irctfct

Xenoph.
it is

Hellen.

ii. fub

their

companions
than

the

ancients,

ivell known,
J'

regarded juflnefs more


in

dignity.
of five hundred.

Ifocrat.

Areopag.
one-half

p.

345.

fays upwards

piodorus /ays the

of the citizens,

nians

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

125

nians unanimoufly the money all3*. fhould This

refolved, on
-

this occafion.

that

P.

be

xxiir

them
have

chargedindifcrimmately on unexampled generality might


the

even encouraged

enfeebled party
But

of the
too

tyrants

to

return

from

Eleufis.

fenfible of their

to guilt Having fortified their


manner

they were efs or expectforgiven

punity. im-

infecure refidence,
could

in the beft

that their circumftances


to

permit,theybegan
mercenaries; and
But
to

prepare

arms

to

collect

try, anew,

the fortune of war'. effect of rage and

the unequalhoftility, defeated by was eafily delpair,

their

the

vigour
leaders

of the

new

republic.The
their blood, the
to

moft

obnoxious

fealed,

with

fubmitted
fortunate

and

of their adherents, who fafety the clemency of Thrafybulus. That magnanimous commander generoufly

undertook

their

caufe,and

obtained

decree

of the

them to the city, for reinftatpeople for reiloring and for ing them in their fortunes and privileges, of their paftoffences35. burying in oblivion the memory Theaffembly even ratified, by oath,this

act
J+ JS

liberates,ibid. "

p. 495.

of the tranflation.
reckoned All thefe the laws

Among
thofe of
that

thefe their

offences

were

laws arbitrary
were

enadled and

during

usurpation.

annulled,
It

Solon, Cliahenes, Pericles,"c.


the

re-eftablifbed.

appears

Athenians

embraced

the fame
as no

opportunity of longer fuited


ones.
new

examining
docid.

their ancient

fuch laws, abolifhing


and
an.

the condition Ont. The

of the
i. de year in

times,

enatf "

ing

fome

Anp. in

Myfter. p.
which

Demoft.
was

adv.

Timocrat.

469.
other
as
an

the

democracy
was

reflored,or,
The

words, the archonfhip of Euclides,

regarded, therefore, only


terial ma-

important
alterations

sera on

in Athenian record

jurifprudence.
thofe born

confift,i.

In the lav.'

confiningthe
mothers.

of votingin right

to the afierably

of Athenian

Former.

ia6

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

a"^" IxAiiP'
_,'

"^

amnefty"
have been

"f

which

both

the
civil

idea
ifed and

and

the

\_

name

adopted
all

by

moft

nations,
modern
;

-r"

and

extolled dazzled

by by
to

hiftorians,

ancient of
to
a

who,

the

fplendour
and

tranfaction

fo have

honourable

Thrafybnlus
to

Athens,
the

univerfally
rot

forgot
were

mention,
not

that

conditions Yet when their

ob-

of

the

amnefly
is the

faithfully
to

obferved.

femd.

there the

fulleft
were

evidence
no

prove36,
the

that,
of

tyrants

more,

abettors
and

ufurpation
for
crimes

were

accufed,
which
folemn

convicted,
had So been
true

punifhed,
demnity inthe

of

they
oath.
to

promifed
it

by
Athenians

is, that

had
to

wifdom
the

difccrn,
of

but found

wanted

con-

ftancy
even

praftife,
rules

leiTons

policy,

or

the

of

juflice.

Formerly
of the

it fufficed
mother in Vit. the
not

that

the

father

was

citizen,

the xiii.

condition
p.

being
p.
to

regarded.
55.
a.

Athenaeus,
In

285.

"

Mark,

Lyfise,
citizens
them

the

law that

of

Demophantus, perfonal
to

quiring re-

take

an

oatli

no

danger
their 180. 6c

fhould

prevent
from

from

doing
Vid.

their

utmoft adv.

deliver

country
Andoc.de
36

tyrants.
p.
220.

Lycurg.

Leocr.

p.

Myft.
See p.

Lyfias's
"33to

Orations
p.

againft

Agoratus

and

Eratofthenes,

from

aSOt

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

127

CHAP.

XXIV.

Accujatwnof
"

Socrates.
"

"

Artifices of his Accufers.


"

Addrejsto the in Prifon and Death. fudges. His Converjation of his Difciples. 'Tranfient Perfecution MJchines. State of Pbi~ Writings of Cebes Of Literature. Icfophy. Of the Fine Arts. Herodotus 'ThucydidesXenophon. 'Tranfition the public 1'ranfaffions The to of Greece.
His

Defence.
"

Condemnation.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

driven MeJ/enians Eiftoryof Cyrene Of Sicily. from Greece. 'with Carthage. Siegeof Agrigentum. War the firft Province of of Dionyfms. Sicily .Reign

Spartans

invade
"

Elis."'The

"

"

"

"

"

Rome.

were

well for the honour


an

of Athens, if

none

C
"

HAP.
"Y""V*T\r

but the cruel abettors of

ariftocratical facits tritranfac'

.
_

'_,.

tion had bunals.

the unjuft experienced rigour of But among the

AccufaSocrates,

firftmemorable

tions, after the

re-eHablifhment
condemnation

of democracvi
of Socrates
;

o|v'mPxcv. r.

happened the trial and


a man

A. C. 407.

of every offence 'but that of difguiltlefs gracing,by his illuftrious merit, the vices and follies of his contemporaries. His death fealed the inimitable virtues of his uleful and honourable life; it feemed inflicted
as
a

to

be

beftowed

as

favour, not
who

puniihment; fmce, had Socrates,

I28
CHAP.
"*'
.
'

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE!.
year,

wlio had
.

already pafiedhis
nature,

feventieth

yielded
deto

to

the

r_

decaysof
lefs

his fame

would

have

fcended

more certainly iplendid,

doubtful,

pofterity.
Principal
thatmea-

fare.

the was profecution ^arce "f Microus Ariftophanes, entitled the had occafion formerlytd Clouds i to which we Socrates In this infamous performance, allude. of his country, is introduced denying the religion and profeffthe morals of his difciples, corrupting The and chicane. ing the odious arts of fophiftry attends of a licentious populace,which ever envy virtue too independentto court, and too fmcere the fhafts of envenomed to flatter them, gradually inimuated that the prethe poet, and malignantly tended fuch a perfon as the petufage was really lance of Ariftophaneshad defcribed him. The received, and its virulence greedily calumny was embittered and by the craft of defigning priefls ambitious demagogues, as well as by the refentof bad poets and vain fophifts, whofe ment tended preThe
remote

caitle of his

excellencies the difcernment

of Socrates his
a

had

xmmafked,
had combination fhould have

and

whofe

irritabletemper
From

fmcerity

offended1. grievoufly it feems lived fo

fuch

powerful

that Socrates extraordinary fmce, during long, efpecially

The

caufes of his perfecution, which

are

hinted

at

in Xenoin that

phon's Apology for Socrates, are more written Plato. Vid. Plat. by Apolog.
thefe
"with
two

fullyexplained
Socrat. fed. vi.

From

admirable

treatifes of

of

pradical morality, together


Memorabilia,
and

the firft chapter

Xenophon's

PJato'a

Phaedo, the narrative in the text

is principally extracted.

the

30
IT A

THE
P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

addrefs

to

give their malignant


of

calumnies

the

ap-

xxrv.
u

~-r -_?

pearanee

public with
and
'

probability. Socrates of men, defcription every


His

converfed in all
were

in

places,
well
conno

on

all occafions.
as

opinions
ever

as

known

his

perfon, and

uniform
;

and

fiflent; he

taught no
;

fecret doctrines
were

admitted
to

privateauditors
that with cufed

his leiTons

open

all ; and

they
the

his poverty, gratuitous, compared who exorbitant wealth of the fophifcs acwere

him, fiirniflied abundant

proof.

To

balance

thefe ftubborn in the hatred

circumitances, his enemies


of the

confided, of

jury
be

and the

judges, compofed
perjury of
at

the meaneil

populace, and might


of
a

falfe witfor

nefies, which
the fmall fum
not

purchased
drachmas.

Athens

few

They
the

fruited,

however,

lefs in the artifices and

eloquence of
firftof whom

Miletus, .Anycus3, and

Lycon

-,

and poets ; the priefts and artifts ; the fecond, on that of the politicians 4. third, on that of the rhetoricians and fophifls

appeared

on

the part of the

Informae

From

the

nature

of

an

accufation, which
caule
numerous

prinhave
more

the ciprtlly refpeftedreligion, been tried regularly

ought

to

in the lefs of die

but
;

enlightenedtribunal immediately carried


s

Areopagus
the

yet it

was

before

tumultuary
at

ailem-

Some

perfonal
forth

reafons
as

are

glanced
Vid. lias

why

M-letus

and

Anyi. "

tus

Hepped

accnfers.

Andocid.
fwelled
to
a

Orat.

Xcnoph.
"nd

A'pol.

Socrat.

Libanius bint of

long Jtorj',
Soc.
p. 644,

ftrangely feqq.
*

disfigured the
Soc.

Xenophon.

Apol.

"

Plato

Apol.

c.

x.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
court, for fo CHAP.
XXIV.

bly, or
it was
mod way

rather mob

of the

Helisea5, a

of five hundred called, confiding


of whom of
were

perfons,
.

'_/
-,"

liable, by their education

and

life,to be feduced

and by authority, of undue In able


a men

dated by eloquence,intimicorrupted by every ipecies

influence.

degenerate age and nation, few virtuous or ever merely by their acquiredpopularity
or

Uncom-

j^"^^
ofsocta-

virtues

abilities.

In

fuch

nation, fhould

curfed otherwife eflimable, be unfortunately perfon, it at gratify the expence of his feelings and his principles, and attain generalfavour only in proportion can as he ceafes to deferve it. will Uncomplying integrity with derifion and wifdom, difdaining artifice, meet while thoie alone will will grovel in obfcurity, reach fame, or fortune, or honour, who, though with talents juft endowed conbeyond mediocrity, imitate the mandefcend to flatterthe prejudices, ners, the pride,or adoptthe refentments, gratify of an infolent populace. of Socrates was mind ." of nis do The fuperior incapable fence* called to make his When fuch mean compliances.
to
-,

with

ambition, he muft

endeavour

This
are

appears mentioned

from

innumerable

circumftances, fome
in his Treatife

of
on.

which the

below, though Meurfius,


Gronov. Thefaur.
;
an

Areopagus
.was

(vid.

vol. v.j, maintains


has been
to

that rally geneof

Socrates

tried in that court which


the

opinion which difprove.


" alludes in

but -followed,
the

attention flighteft
to

the

works

Athenian

orators

is fufficient Andocid.

Vid.

Jfoc. Orat.
Orat. i. p.

Areopag.
aij.

Lyfias adv.
oath
can

p. 108.

Andocid.

The
c.

to

"which

Socrates
to

Xenophon's Apology,
length

iv.

only apply

the Heliasa.

It is recited at

by Demofthenes,

Orat. cont. Timocrat.

defence^

"32
CHAP,
XXIV
v_" wns r_J_i

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

defence, he honeilly acknowledged that he himfelf


his the

eloquenceof by the perfuafive adverfaries ; though, in truth,if he might ufe they had faid nothingto the purexprefiion,
much affected He then obferved, that the fond

pofe6.

of his friend

having afked Chserephon,


any
man was

partiality the Delphic


? the wifeft

oracle, whether
"

wifer than Socrates


was

the oracle
men.

that replied, order


to

Socrates

of

the anfwer of that juftify he had god, whofe veracity they all acknowledged, converfed with every diflinction of perfons, moft in the republic and finding that theyunieminent ; verfally pretendedto know many thingsof which he began to that in fufpect, they were ignorant,
In

this circumfhmce
to not
no

he excelled

them, fince he
which he he
to

tended prewas

fort of

knowledge of
What he did

reallymailer.

know,
and

freely
render

communicated,

to flriving,
more

the utmoft,
more

his fellow-citizens
an

virtuous

happy ;

employment to which he believed himfelf called I relpec~t, Athenians ! by the god, whofe authority than yours." fall more
"

this judgeswere feized with indignation at ^rm languagefrom a man efViJ15** accufed, from capitally judges. whom to the ufual they expectedthat, according he would have broughthis wife and children practice, intercede for him to by their tears 7, or
Provokes

The

even

The
u$

of fimpliclty
STO; tiiTin,

the

is inimitable original

"

K""

TO*

atoSt?

yit
7

u$e" Eifrrjxairt. Plut.


arc was

Apol.
both
a

Thefe

circumftnnces, which
that Socrates

mentioned

by Xenophon popular tribu-

and

Plato, prove

tried befoie

nal.

THE

HISTORV

OF

GREECE. which
c

133

even

have

his friend

employed the elaborate difcourfe the orator, had compofed Lyfias,


a

^,

for his

defence
and
to

",

difcourfe

alike fitted But

to

detect

calumny,
con-

excite it
as
a

companion.

Socrates, who

fidered than
to

far greater misfortune to commit, fuffer an declared, that he injuftice,

thoughtit unbecoming his fame, and unworthy his character,to employ any other defence than that
of
the
was

an

innocent

and

ufeful

life. Whether

to

incur

delinquency with which falfely charged ought to be regarded as penaltiesof gods


the alone knew. have For
no

he
an

evil, the

imagined
row at

that he

fhould

part he reafon for forhis


'

*4

beingdelivered
which
were

from

the inconveniences overtake

of
at

old

age,

ready to
to

him, and
his

being

commanded

ftillactive and him

quit life8 while likelyto vigorous,was

mind,
hind bemembrance re-

leave the

the moft

impreffionin agreeable
of Socrates

of his friends. The firm

magnanimity
of virtue found

could fuch

not

Socrates i"

alter the refolution of his

judgesj yet
the
a

is the

afcendancy
that

over

worft

of

minds,

he

was

guiltyby
the

of only majority

nal.

It is well undue

known methods Vid.

that of

Areopagus rigorotifly profciibcd


and

all fuch the

the judgment biafiing in Neaer. " Ifocrat. "

feducing
.ZEfchin. in

paffions.

Demofth.
Hermotim. he

Ariftocrat.

Timarch.
8

Lucinn.

Areopag. Defence,
talk with

Xenophon
others,
flull and
on

fays, that
who

writes

Socrates's
that
one

after fo fuffictin-

many
ent

had

already
order That
"

executed
to

in fidelity,

illuftrate

point
to

much

Gfted
to

by Socrates,

it

was

better

for him

die than

live."

Xenoph. Apol.

fub init.

three

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
commanded

three

voices9.

The

court

then

him,

which agreeably to a principle betraysthe true of democratical tyranny, to pafs fentence of fpirit condemnation
ment
on

himfelf, and
to

to

name
on

the him. I

punifhThe

which

ought
faid

be

inflicted

punifnment,
render

Socrates, which
whole

deferve

for

having fpent my
my

life in

endeavouringto
and

fellow-citizens wrier

better, and

in flriving to infpirethe Athenian particularly and temperance, youth with the love of juilice of To be maintained, during the remainder is,
"

my

life,in the Prytanssum;


than
as

an

honour

due

to

mey

rather

to
as

the

victors
on

in the
me,

Olympic
I have

games, my

fmce,

far

depended

made

-countrymen

more

happy

in

appearance." Provoked which they ought to have


Socrates
His
the who ndto

reality ; they only in by this obfervation, by


been

confounded,

the

to pafsfentence, and judgesproceeded

condemned

drink

hemlock

lo.

judges
voted
r

your.

excited the indignation injuflice friends and moft "^ n^s "umerous of difciples, the court had accompanied him whom it to ; but other paflion in the illuflrious fage awakened no of the than that of pity for the blind prejudices This atrocious Athenians.
court to

He
had

then been

addrefled
to

that

part of the
or

who

favourable

him,

rather
tune misforwould

themfelves, fmce
of pairing
an

they had

avoided

the

unjuftfentence, which
the lateft

have

and embittered dilgraced

moment

9?:-iioApoI.

""-

Idem,

ibid.

of

THE

HISTORY
"

OF considered

GREECE.

135
as

of their lives.
with whom upon

He

them

friends

HrA p-

he would the
was

event

converfe for a moment, willingly which had happened to him,


to

before

he

fummoncd
of the

death.

From

the

commencement

an profecution,

unufual

circumftance, he
words taken who
to
on

obferved, had

attended all his

and

actions,and

in the whole

he had every flepwhich courfe of his trial. The daemon, had he


ever

occafions ordinary

been

fo watchful
do

reftrain him, when

preparedto fayor

once thing improper or hurtful,had never of this withheld him, during the whole progrefs the bent ,of his own from following tion. inclinaaffair,

any

that fufpect had decreed him, although the fate which the court it for an evil,was to him a real good. they meant If to die was onlyto change the fcene, mull it not be an from thefe pretended to remove advantage judges to Minos, Rhadamanthus, and other real had judges,who, through their love of-juflice, this important been exalted by the divinity to function of government ? What to live and delight
For
was

this reafon he

apt

to

converfe

with

the

immortal

heroes

! It becomes antiquity you alfo,my of good comfort with regard to death,

poets of friends ! to be
and fmce
no

evil, in life
whofe For
me

or

death,
(

can

befal

virtuous

men,

true

intereftis part, I
am

ever

the

concern

of heaven. it is better for


am

my
to

perfuadedthat
live, and

die than with towards my my

to

therefore

not

fended ofhave -be-

judges.
done K
4

I intreat you

all

to

fons, when
to

they attain
you,
not

the years

of reafon,as

I have

ceafmg

"

to

blame

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

TT^A P. blame

^_

wealth theyprefer the to or or ^,-,1. pleafure, any other frivolous object, If they think highly ineftimable worth of virtue.
and

accufe them, when

of their

own

merit, while

in fact it is of little
!
as

value, reproachthem
have done
me

Athenians feverely, fo

you. and I go
to

By
my
to

doing
to

you

will behave
now

jufUy to
us

fons.

It is

time

for

to

part.

die, you

live; but which

is beft, none
Theexethe fentence

but the

It is fhould
narv

not

wonderful
believed

knows "." Divinity that the difciples of the


events

Socrates

have

of his extraordi-

de-

its concluding ancj efpecially jj"Cj fcene,to be

acco

nt

f
"

of a particular by the interpofition regulated procircumftance vidence II. Every to evince confpired his inimitable his unalterable firmnefc, and difplay It happened, before the day of his trial, virtue. had crowned the ftern of the that the high-prieft fent to Delos, to comwhich was veflel, memorate, annually to Apollo, acknowledgments by grateful of Thefeus from Crete, and the triumphantreturn from a difgraceful the happy deliverance of Athens
announced tribute 3. I his ceremony which ended of the feftival,
'

the commencement with the


return

11

Plato

Apol.
to

fub fin. Plato

11

According
";
TK

noth'ng happened
Yet
oy"ee"..

in

this tranfaftion fub init. he

a?"

*;

fApip-c. Plat.
a.v-v,
u

ApoU

in the

Phaedo.
TV^

fays,
not

Tt-^n

I Etex^RTtc
the effcfl ;

But
to

here

refers but
to

to
un-

the caufe, but to

not

blind

chance,
a

an

of events jccount.ible-difpofition
of the

produced by

pofition particular interis ufed


not
as

divinity.

In

this fenfe the word

only
we

In- philofophtrs but

orators,

Demofthents, particularly

(hall lee below.


*J

See vul. i. p. 32.

Of

THE
CHAP,

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
near

gence

and, moved

by

the
to

admired

friendj ventured
at

danger of his propofe a clandeitine


time
to

{hewing him efcape,


collected
a

the fame

that he had

fufficientfum his

of money

corrupt the

of fidelity which

-keepers. This

unmanly propofal,

ardour of nothing but the undiftinguifhing could in a excufe, Socrates anfwered friendihip which fhewed the perfect dom freevein of "pleafantry, of his mind,
can
"

In what

country,
to fiy

Crito \

efcapedeath
doom,

where

fhall I

elude this kind ?"

irrevocable
To

pafied on

ail human

of no great depth of Apollodorus,a man but his affectionate and zealous derftanding,
who

un-

mirer, adyond be-

laid,
was,

"

That

what
a

grieved him
man

meafure

that fuch

fhouid

periOi

he replied, the. head of his unjuftly," ftroking And would be lefs grieved, O friend, you
"

Apollodorus!
it would be
no

were

his friends,and

of death16 r" deferving Crito efpeciaily, infilled, I


"

When That

lefs ungenerous

compliancewith the or mifguidedmultitude, to render his wife a widow, his children orphans,his difciples for ever miferable and forlorn,and conjured him, by every thing facred, to fave a life fo ineftimabiy precious;"
Socrates maxims which he afTumed which hcid
we a

imprudent,in refolutionof a malignant hafty

than

tone

more

ferious,recalled the
the That

he
ever were

and profelled,

doctrines
how
never
un~

inculcated,

"

foever juftly
our

treated, it could

be
retort

interefl to

much pradtife injuilice,


16

lefs

to

Xenoph.

"

Plat. ibid.

the

THE the

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

139

of our parents or our country ; and to C H A P. injuries If teach, by our example, difobedience to the laws.", Tof his arguments, and flill more, The ftrength the unalterable firmnefs and cheerful ferenity that '"., appeared in his looks, words, and actions I7, emotions of his difciples. filenced the flruggiing of virtue elevated their fouls ; they The dignity admiration, and partedwith tears of inexpreffible with a firm purpofe to fee their matter earlier thai} ufual on the fatal morning. they were HJsbehaHaving arrived at the prifon-gate, defired to wait without, becaufe the Eleven (fothe of Athens the executioners of public; ftyled delicacy unloofed the fettersof Socrates, and anjuflice) ment. of the nounced to him his death before the fetting fun. They had not waited long, when they were defired to enter. lieved They found Socrates juft refrom the 'weight of his bonds, attended by his infant his wife Xantippe, who bore in her arms
.

fon.

At

their appearance,
come

flie exclaimed, "Alas!

Socrates, here
the laft time you
one

your

friends,whom
who

you

for

behold, and
Socrates,
conduct

for the laft time

behold fome

!"
to

beatingher breaft,and
morous

lookingat Crito, defired her home. She departed, lamenting with that cla-r
to

forrow

natural

her fex

l8

and

her cha~

racier.

poj.
18

Xenoph.Apol.
'*'

EC.UO-UV

TE

von

KOK-WAVW

and

little

above,

out

^"

?." Phsedo,

fe"ft.iii.

Socrates,

i40
CHAP.
XXIV
i^^

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
the

Socrates, meanwhile, L, with


his ufual

reclining on
his which

couch
towards been
con-

His

con-

him, and

compofure, drew gentlyrubbing the part


what
men one

leg

had

with'iri* galled by
diiclplcs. ne6bion

remarked the fetters,

the wonderful

between

call

and pleafure,

its

pain. The oppofite, (asjufthappened to


from the fmart of the

he obferved fenfation,

leg after being delivered followed was irons), generally


his

by

the other.
;

Neither
are

of them
pure may
"

could and

long exift
;

apart

they

feldom
one,

unmixed

and

whoever foon the

feels the

be

fure that he will

feel the other.


fabulifl made

think, that had


would reconcile

JEfop
have thefe

this reflection, he
to

defirous ikid, that the Divinity,

oppofite natures,
reafon and
Why
he

cable, rindingthe defignimpractifor which their fummits had at leaftjoined has ever fmce dragged pain after it, pleafure
",

but

painpleafure."
mention
a

The

of

JEfop recalled
which
a

to

Cebes, the
had recently elegiac poet,

compofed Theban,
priibn,

converfation of Paros,
"

he had

with

Euenus refldent

celebrated The
never

then Overdone
it before.
"

Athens

lp.

Why

his mailer, who


to

had

poet alked Cebes, before addicted


his confinement,

himfelf
have

poetry,
a

fhould, fmce
to

Apollo, and turned into Theban verfe feveral of JEfop'sfables ?" The himfelf in feized the prefent to fatisfy opportunity
written

hymn

this

and particular,

to

fuch acquire

information

as

J9

The

following narrative,
fiom
the moment to

to

the
to

death

of

Socrates, is

tirely en-

borrowed
at

Phaedo,

which

it is therefore

un-

every

refer,

.plight

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
H

141
A

Euenus, who, he allured Socrates, c might fatisfy would certainly repeat his queftion.The illuftriall tinged, ous fage,whofe inimitable virtues were rather brightened, by enthufiafm, defired Cebes or
"

P.

"

to

tell Euenus,
or

cc

That
a

it was

not

with

view

to

rival him,

with

hope to
not
new

excel

his poetry he had

(for
had
tempted at-

tbaty he knew, would

be

begun

late in life this it in

eafy),that purfuit.He

compliancewith a divine, mandate, commanded him which in dreams to frequently He firft applied cultivate mufic. had, therefore, mufic ; to thinkingthat the greateft philofophy,
but fmce he
was

under

fentence

of death, he

judged it fafeftto try likewife the popular mufic, left any thingfhould on his part be omitted, which him. this reafon, he the gods had enjoined For had compofed a hymn to Apollo, whofe feflival and not being himfelf a mynow was celebrating; had verlified fuch fables of JEfop as thologift, his memory. to to occur happened moft readily
Tell this to Euenus
"

bid him

farewelj and farther,


me ;

that if he is wife, he wiil follow


as

for 1

depart^
have

it is

to-day; fo likely,
words

the Athenians

ordered it."
His importantconverfation concerningfilicide, and the immortality of the foul. Socrates maintained, that though it
an was

The

lad

introduced

opt-

better for
was

wife

man

to to

die than

to

live, bebe
'ltyof the

caufe there

reafon

believe that he would ftate of prefent

happierin
ence,

future than in the


never

exiftto

yet it could
his
own

be allowable
or

for him

by perifh

hand,

even

to

laydown

life

without

THE
c

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
as

ri A P.
'

without financed

fufficient motive, fuch

that which

in-

'fubmiffion to the laws himfelf, a refpedful


This

of his country.

fumed

from
were

difcuffion coninterefting the greateft couraged part of the day. Socrates enhis difciples not to fparehis opinions fituation. Thofe who to his prefent delicacy of his mind he exhorted to perfevere. Entwining in the long hair of Phasdo, his hand beautiful locks, my
cut

"

Thefe

dear

Phaedo, you
place,
but make

will this day I would


a
vow

off "V

but

were

I in your
to

lefs

again allow them (asthe Af givesdid in a refume to moment) never


not

grow,

matter

of

infinitely
ment orna-

the had

wonted confirmed

of my

beauty, until

the

do"rine
Concern-

of the foul's

immortality."
and
con-

The

arguments of Socrates convinced


*^s
as difciples, they have

^e"^

often done
"

the

learned and virtuous in


tothedeceafcd.

times. fucceeding with

Thofe

who

had

adorned

their minds

"

and had and fortitude, jufcice, of the body, could and vain pleafures ornaments from this terreflrial never regret their feparation now," continued he, in the Companion. And languageof tragedy, the deftined hour fummons to death ; it is almoft time to bathe, and furely me better that I myfelf,before I drink the it will be Ihould than ocperform this ceremony, poifon, trouble to the women after I am ion unneceffary
"f

temperance, the vain defpifed

dead."

"So

let it

be," faidCrito;
off the hair
at

"

but

firft

z"

The

ceremony

of

cutting
c.

funerals

was

tiientioned above, vol. I.


the

vii. p. 324.

where

the tranfadticn of

Argives, alluded

to in the test, is related.

inform

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
we
or

inform
lure, cern."

us,
i~ o

Socrates, in what
"

can

do you
f

plea-C H_A
XXI\
con_

P.
.

refpecnng
"f

your

children,

i'ii

any

otner

-w-m^

Nothing new, O Crito ! but what I have By confultingalways told you. your own happinefs, you will -act the heft part with regard
to

my

children, to
you bind
But
we

me,
not

and

to

all mankind'; although any


new

by yourfelves
/for fake
the
to

pro-

mife.

if you
have

rules

of

virtue,
with
to

which
will whom
to

juft endeavoured
my

explain, you
any
now

benefit you

neither

children, nor
fhould

live, although you


Crito then
"

fvvear
"

the

contrary."
to

afked him,
As

How

he

chofe

be

Tided

I don't

adding, that
feemed
moil

pleafe, proefcapeyou." Saying this,he fmiled, as to his body, they might bury it as
you
.

buried?"

decent, and moil fuitable to. the laws chamber, adjoining


;

of his country.
He then retired into the
ac-

ikbathes;

companied only by
behind, like children
he up, had and bathed
two

Crito

the
a

reft

remained
When

mourning

father.

and

his fons (one grown djrefled, his female converted

children), togetherwith
were

relations ",
with

admitted

to

him.

He

them
to

in the

his

of Crito, and then reprefence turned for he tarried fun-let;, near difciples

Jong within.
*

Before he had time

to

beginany

new

The

ouc'.tzt

yviianifc

of

Pl.ito.

This
that

expreffion feems
had
two ; and

to

have

given

rife to the ahford

fable,

Socrates

wives,
plication ex-

mentioned

by Diogenes Laertius, and


of that

others the

theabfurd after

irregularity,
polygamy,

"

that

Athenians,

the

had peftilence,

allowed

at leaft

bigamy,

to

repairthe

ravages

of that dreadful

malady."

fubjecl:,

THE
CHAP,

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

.J*
._y_

the keeper of fubject, Socrates, _'_. ftandingnear


cc

the
"

prifon entered, and


I

cannot,"
ra^e
'

faid and
thofe

he,
exe.

is addreflT-

t'ibythe
of death.

acCLjfe you, J
.
,

Socrates

! of the
.

crattons

too to

olL'en vented

agamit

me

by
of

here
ma-

confined,

whom,

by

command

the

I announce that it is time to drink the giftrates, mildnefs, and generofity poifon. Your fortitude, exceed know all that I have you
as

ever

witnerTed I act

even

now

pardon
are

me,

fmce

by compulfion;
of my
much
tioner, execuas

and

you

with acquainted your

the purport fate with

metTage,farewel,and bear as poffible."At patience


hardened
""
as

thefe words in fcenes of

the

he

was

death, dif-

folved in tears,
out.

and, turning from Socrates, went


him following alfo farewel
;

The
"

latter And you

with
as

his eye,
me,

plied, re-

to

I (hall
at

obey
**

your
"

inflrudions." How

Then

looking
ct

his

difciples,
man

faid he, trulypolite," my

is the

During

confinement, he often vifited


me
-,

and does

converfed he lament

with
my
we

and

now,

how let the

generoufly poifon be
! there
tains. moun-

death ! But

brought, that
His
con-

may
"

obey

his orders."
Socrates

Crifco then

faid,

O Still,

is

werfition before

time;

the tops of the the fun itill brightens

drinking

Many

have

known,

who, have

drank

the

night,after a luxurious fupper after enjoying the and generous wines, and laftly, enamoured*3. embraces of thofe with whom were they

poifonlate

in the

"

'O

the ot^fuTfoc,
y

term
uv

for the
ut

executioner.
?.

*5.

Syyy""of"vB$
an

en"?

tvyjaa-t, mibopun

Phsd.

C.

xlviii.

\Yhat

picture of extraordinary

Athenian

manners!

But

146

THE

HISTORY

OF
command
was

GREECE.
? But

ar^ ^ing CxxivP"

further

to

he made
"

nO

i__-f-^_? reply.A
his eyes.

littleafter, he Thus died

in agony
;

Crito flint his difci-

Socrates

whom,

plesdeclared, theycould never ceafe to remember, If any nor remembering, ceafe to admire. man," faysXenophon inimitably, if any man,
"f "

lover of virtue, ever


than human

found

more

profitable
man

companion of happieft
Tranfient
of his

Socrates, I deem
kind *V*

that

the

difaples.

tion nopopular paffions appears where more uniform than in the hiilory of Athens. '-pjiefac^itious refentment excited againft Socrates by fuch improbable calumnies, as even thofe who

The

current

of

were

the
never

readied

to

receive

and

to

dirTeminate,
itfelfwith adherents. manity, hu-

could

believe,extended ferioufly
friends and

his numerous to rapidity for the But fortunately the "within the

intereft of letters and

endemic
Athenian

contagion was
frontiers.

confined

Plato, Antif-

Critobulus, and other Athenians, thenes,./Efchines,


eluded wifely
to
a

ftorm took

which

refill. Some

they had in Thebes refuge

not

ilrength
their

with

pent, and
the mory
me-

of

Simmias, Cebes, and Phasdonfellow-difciples, in Megara from das others found protection of philoand Terpfion. This perfecution tranfient. accidental and fophy, however, was Mingled fentiments of pity, fhame, and refentfOon gave a new direction to the popular j^gn^
"

Plato
xp
TO

fpeaks with
KCH |K^MM|9da"t

equal feeling,or
a.vrot

rather

eathufiafm.

r"roi. Phaed.

c.

ii.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECfi.
far

H7

deftruftive, yet fury,which raged with more the accufers and judgesof againft cruelty, jufter driven into exile ; many Socrates *s. Many were
were

put
own

to

death hands.

""

feveral
The

their

in defpair, by perifhed noured hoilluftrious fage was

monuments by fignal

his

fame, like the


47

tion16} public admirahardy oak, derived


of age
to

vigour from
age, tillthe

years

and

increafed from

of the Athenians at length fuperftition their injuftice worfhipped,as a god *8, him whom
had

condemned

as

criminal.
The writ

the death, and the honours of perfecution, and the affection, to animate Socrates, all confpired Their number to increafe the zeal, of his difciples. The

had

been

great in his lifetime : it became


;

greater after his death


and

fmce

thofe who

followed,

his doctrines,alike ftyled rejected His name themfelves Socratic philofophers. was thus adoptedand prophaned by many fects, who, while they differed widely from each other, unior changed, exaggerated, verfally pervertedthe

thofe who

tenets

Among genuinefollowers of Socrates, Xenophon, as merits the hereafter, unqueftionabry appear


common

of

their

mafter.

the
will firft

place.
*S 16

Plato

comes

next,

yet

feparated by

long

Plutarch.de

Invid. p. 538.
a

Statues, altars, ever,


in Socrat.

chapel, called Socratcion.


sevo

Vide

Diogen.
*7

Crcfcit Fama

occulto,
Marcelli
as a

velut arbor,

HORACE.

*8

Or

rather

demi-god
1.iv. p. 86.

; but

the boundaries is

were

not

very
in

accuratelyafcertained, though

that

attempted by Arrian,

Expedit.Alexand.

1,

interval.

148
CHAP.
XXIV.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. be ranked Cebes"

interval.

In the fame

clafs may

the Theban,
Cebes.

nians. JEfchines, Crito, and Simon, Athetable of Cebes, which has been tranfa

The

mitted

to

modern

times, contains

beautiful and

life,delineated with affecting pictureof human of judgment, and illuminated by the accuracy
JEfchines.

of fplendour

fentiment'. Three
the fame

remainingdialogues
fublime and fpirit,
:
"

of ./Efchines breathe
abound

in irrefiftible to virtue perfuafions

That

is attained, not but by by gratifying, happinefs the paflions ; that he alone is rich and moderatingwhofe faculties exceed his defires ; that powerful, virtue is true wifdom, and being attended with the which can be enjoyed in the only fecure happinefs prefentlife,muft, according to the unalterable
laws

of

Providence, be
remains

crowned

with

immortal

hereafter." felicity
Thephiloiophers
"who

The
more,

of Cebes

and

and far ./Efchines,

the copious will appear in the fequel, enable us of Plato and Xenophon, may reprefent- writings ed his opinions. difcriminate the philofophyof Socrates, from to
as

mif-

that

of

the various
his

feels who

or mifreprefented

eftablifhment of opinions. The thefe feels belongs now not to the periodof hiftory

adulterated

under

our

review.

But

the had

foundation
been laid in
a

of their

tenets, refpective

which

former

age,
Euclid and

was

confirmed

by

the

who philofophers

flouriihed in the time


moft

of Socrates.

Of

thefe,the

Phsedo,

Ariftippus
and

Antif-

thencs.

Euclid of Megara, Phsedo were diftinguifhed of Elis, Ariftippus of Cyrene, Antifthenes of Athens. The two firftreftored the captious logic of the fophiftsj their licenembraced Ariftippus

tiou

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

149

tious

morality. While
ftudied
to

the

fchools of
the

Elis and

cJlfvP"
tf-w

Megara
that of

confound
to

u-. imderftanding,

Cyrene laboured
to

corrupt the heart.

oppofe thefe pernicious of the fcepticsj the refined fubtleties fefls,deriding of the Epicuthe mean and difdaining reans pleafures the mind to the body, duty *9. To prefer the great and virtue to pleafure, were to intereft, Yet this fublime philofoleffbns of Antifthenes. not affecting phy he carried to extravagance30, only to moderate and govern, but to filence and and declaring the paffions, bodilypleafure extirpate but a thing not only unworthy of purfuit, be avoided, as the greateft and moft to carefully of life dangerous of evils. His rigid feverity
Antifthenes fet himfelf deceived
not

the

of penetration
no

Socrates.

The

fagecould difcern,that

fmall lhare of

fpiritual

pridelurked
thenes. While

under

the

tattered cloak

of Antif-'

thus flourifhed ?"%" true or falfe, philofophy, watched in Greece, a propitious the ?rtsdurover deftiny jmitative arts, which continued, during half a p"nod
der un-

review.
*9

th.efcnames. anticipate

of Pyrrho, as Thejcepticifm

will the
fined re-

be explained hereafter, arofe from fchools of EHs


the and

Megara.

quibblingfophifms of Epicurus, having adopted and


had Ariftippus, the

the

felfifh

phjlofophyof
his name,

honour

of

diftinguifhing by
3"

the Epicureanfeel.
as

His

follower, Diogenes,
called called the

will

pufhed
fuburb

this extravagance of Athens

ftillfarther.

in the appear fequel, They both taught in the which

from Cyrtofarges,
In
a

they

and

their difciples were

Cynics.
the

fubfequentpart

of this rife

work,
to

it will be

explained, how

Cynical phil"Jbpl"y gave

fo called,becaufe Zeno and his followers taught at Stoicifm, " Stoa paecile," the paintedportico. Ajhens in the

century

j5o
CHAP,
"

THE

HISTORY
wars perpetual

OF

GREECE.
to revolutions,

century of

and

be
The

cultivated --Y-'_i404,

with

and fuccefs. equal afliduity


were

A. c. 431
"

j^ofl. diftino-uiihedfcholars of Phidias


menes

Alca-

of Athens,

and

Faros,
in their

They

contended

Agoracritusof the ifle of for the prizeof fculpture

ftatues of Venus nians, and the Atherefpective ; it is faid, too partially decided in favour of their countryman. Agoracritus,unwilling that fhould remain in a city where it had met his work fold it to the borough of with fo litde juftice, Rhamnus.

There

it

was

beheld with

admiration,
3I

and foon

of Phidias for a production himparTed Ctefelaus excelled in heroes. felf. The fculptor and (till farther ennobled He chafe noble fubjects, them by his art 31. His contemporary Patrocles himfelf by his ftatues of Olympic diftinguifhed of celebrated wreftlers. victors, and particularly work Affifted by Canachus, he made the greateft under our review, mentioned during the periodnow of bronze, reprefenting the rethirty-one figures of the feveral cities or publics, refpechvecommanders who, under the conduct of Lyfander, obtained the memorable victoryof ./Egos Potaerected in the temple of Delphian mos. They were with the ftatue of Lyfander Apollo,together himfelf,crowned by Neptune. Inferior artifts33 vinities were employed to copy the ftatues of various didedicated
at

the

fame

time,

and

in the

fame

place,by
Vid. Suid. "

the Lacedaemonian

conqueror,
3*

** 3*

Hefych.

voc.

Pu^ae.
1. x.
p.

Plin. 1, xxxr,

See their

names

in Pgufan.

625, "

feqq.

It

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
c

It appears

not

however

that, during the Pelo

was ftyle attempted either war, ponnefian any new artifts of that Ofhterain fculptureor painting. The periodcontented themfelves with walking in the of their great predeceflbrs. fame The footfteps and poetry ; but eloobfervation applies quence, to mufic on

l}A rpQ ij-y_

the

contrary,
the

received
tumults

new

form,
war

and

amidft flourifhing

of

and
con-

the contentions

of active life, produced that

cife,rapid, and
which thenceforth

manly

character

of

compofition

the Attic writers. diflinguifhed works of Homer, The Sophocles,and Pindar, leftfew laurels to be gained by their fuccefTors. It to was excel, it was dangerous to rival impoffible out withthem. Great geniuswas requiredto ftart, where fuch candidates had in a career difgrace, But run. great genius is rare, and commonly difdains imitation ; and the firfl poeticalprizes tion being alreadycarried off, men who felt the animaand naturally vigour of their own powers, which porTefTed directed them to objects the charms the hope of excellence. of novelty, and promifed the merit and fame in profaic Even compofition Principal it and Democritus auth,ors of Herodotus mention to (not authors more ancient) oppofed very formidable cedingthis
34

period.
3*

Itaque

video

vifum
a

efie

nonnullis
tamen

Platonis

"

Democriti

locutionem,

etfi abfit

verfu,

quod
ad

incitatius

feratur, "

clarifiimie verborum quara


c.

luminibus

utattir, Cicero

potius poe'ma pntandiim,


M. Brutum

comicorum See alfo de

poetarum.
Orator. 1. i.

Orator,
read

xx.

c. we

xi.

It is

to importable

Lucretius, without
on

fancying,if
we are

recoiled

Cicero's

criticifms of that

Democritus,

that

the long loftworks perilling

great

philofopher. L
4

obftacles

*5*
C

THE
to

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

obftacles TT/^P.

the ambition

of their fucceffors.

In

i_.-y"
Charader

'--" a work

no

than lefs fplendid

important,the father
the

Q{ prOpnane the

hiftoryhad
Greeks and

deduced

tranfactions
the

jdoiusasan between
omn*

Barbarians, from

earlieft accounts
war;
a

tillthe conclufion

of the Perfian

the hiftory of many turies, cenincluding and comprehending the greater! kingdoms This extenfive and empiresof the ancient world. handled with order and dignity. The was fubject interwoven with the ingenioufly epilbdeswere

work

The various parts of the naraction. rative principal ly werefo fkilfully combined, that theymutualeach other. reflected light ners, on Geography, manlaws, and arts, entered into the plan religion, of his work
;

and

it is remarkable

that the earlieft

of hiftorians agrees more to as nearly, with the and form c-f his undertaking,
writers of the author His in the

defign enlightened

the

prefent century, than any hiftorical long feriesof intervening ages.

language was the pictureof his mind ; natural, flowing, perfuafive loftyon great oc; in fcenes of diftrefs 36, cafions 3S, affecting perfpicuous in narration, animated
Yet this admired writer and has in

defcription.
inferted
many, deed, in-

fcmetimes

reports romantic
of the conceited
of its

incredible.

Of
as

fables of Herodotus,

ignorance

knowledge long affected to call has proved the reality; them, fubfequent experience
3*

Longmus
c.

cites The

as

an

example

of

the

fublime, Herodot.
is written with
an

1. vii.

Ix,

whole the

expedition of Xerxes

elevation becoming
**" See the

fubjeft. ftoryof Adraftus,1. i. c. affefting

xxxv.

modern

j54
CHAP,
XXIV

THE

HISTORY author

OF

GREECE.
a

this molt inftru"ive


rather
to

had written with


to

view
un-

amufe

the

fancythan

inform of his

the

derftanding.The
tend
to

livelygraces
this

diction mode

confirm

His fuppofition.

of

compofitionmay be regardedas the intermediate fhade between epic poetry and hiftory. Neither
concife
nor

character of his vehement, the general


j

4" and flowing is natural, copious, ftyle

and

his

manner

breathes throughout

the

foftnefs of
of Athens.

Ionia,

rather than the active contention


Of Thu-

cydidca.

Herodotus appeared to the Athelight nians \n tne his own. age immediatelyfucceeding he had read his work with At the Olympic games univerfal applaufe. Thucydides, then a youth, In

this

wept
His

mixed

tears
was

of wonder

and

emulation*1.
ar-

father

complimented on
fo bad
a

the generous

countrymen
The criticifm

made of

figure in
of

the

hiftory of
a

Herodotus.
more

Dionyfius
than

Halicarnaffus,
does

writer of

tafte and father


4"

difcernment

Plutarch,

ample

jufticeto

the

of

hiftory.
his Rhetoric,!, iii.c. and
the

in Ariftotle,

ix.

kinds diftinguifliestwo The former The flows


on

of

ftyle ; the

continuous

periodic.
is

"without

until the fenfe interruption., due and

complete.
the

latter is
are

divided, by flops,into
felt by the ear, eafily

proportionsof
meafured

duration, which
mind. The

by

former
the

ftyleis tirefome, becaufe


end
;
even

in every

thing men

delight to fee
are

racers,

when is the his time

they pafs the goal,


moft remarkable

quickly out
of in the

of

breath.

Herodotus

inftance
was

tinuous con-

ftyle. In
is
now

fcarcelyany
So far

other

ufe;

but

it

entirelylaid afide.

Ariftotle,who

feems
are

rather

unjuft to Herodotus, fince many


adorned But the

parts of his work

fufficiently

by periods,although the loofe ftylein general prevails. of his countryman partiality Dionyfius completely
the wrongs of Herodotus,

avenges
**

Suidas, Photius,Marcellinus.

dour

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
at

"!our of fame

fon, whole
a

earlyinquietude

another's

CHAP.
XXIV

announced

character formed

for great de-

and illuitrious exertions. But Herodotus had figns beft adaptedto hiftorical the fubjects preoccupied and it was till the commencenot ment compofition j

twenty-feven years, the that Thucydides, amidft dangers which in a theme worthy threatened his country, rejoiced exercife the genius,and call forth the whole to the breaking of out vigour of an hiftorian. From this war, in which he proved an unfortunate actor,
war

of the memorable

of

the moil judged that it would be the greateft, that had ever and important been carried obftinate, He and treafure on. began therefore to collect, for defcribing neceflary up, fuch materials as were

he

itj in the felection, as

well

as

in the diftribution
an

of which, he afterwards difcovered

evident pur-

much Herodotus. Too pofeto rival and furpafs for fiction had diigraced the narrative indulgence of the latter : be animated to Thucydides profeiled tion His relapurelyby the love of truth. of an intended to delight the ears not was of the Olympic audience. By a faithful account pad, he hoped to afllfthis readers in conjecturing
*c

the future.

While would

human have

nature

remained

the
on

fame, his work


not fefilon,

its ufe, being built it


an

rendered fuch principles as


a

pofeverlafting
of temporary

contentious

inftrument

applaufe4*." The this noble defign.


**

execution In
his

with correfponded difcourfe introductory

Thucydid. in

proem.

he

THE ^e

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

carefully the feparating fpeaking of Thrace, he touches, with the on proper brevity, fable of Tereus and Progne43 ; and in defcribing Sicily, glances at the Cyclops and Leftrigons. from fuch But he recedes, as it were, with difguft, monflrous to phantoms, and immediatelyreturns the main purpofe of his hiftory. In order to render of the times, he profeffes it a faithful picture to relate not only what was done, but what was faid, and geneof ftatefmen fuch fpeeches by inferting rals
runs over

^e

^a^u^ous aSes "f Greece, from the drofs. In ore

as

he had
to

himfelf

heard,

or

as

had

been

ported re-

him
was

by

others.

This

valuable

part of

his work the

imitated of

by

all future

till hiftorians, the


one

improvement
fuch
as

on difcipline military manners on

of hand, and the corruption rendered


once

the other,

Eloquence fpeechesfuperfluous.
an

ferved

incentive

to

courage, the time

and
was

an

inftrument

of government. the dead

But

to

of fear and inteprinciples reft Ihould alone predominate. In rnofl countries of Europe, defpotifmhas rendered public aflemblies a dramatic and in the few, reprefentation ; where men enflaved by a mafter, they are not are the flaves of pride, of avarice,and of faction.

arrive,when

ComparL

Thucydides, doubtlefs,had his model in the of Herodotus tween" faort and obliquefpeeches but in ; this particular he muft be acknowledged far to furpafshis patron. In the diflribution of his fubject,
u

Ovid.

Metam.

I. vi.

how-

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

'57

however, he fellfhort of that writer.

Thucydides,CHAP.

divides his afpiringat extraordinary accuracy, work and winters, relating by fummers apart the events comprehended in each period of iix months. But this fpaceof time is commonly too fhort for the notice of hiflory, events gun, beto be deferving carried on, and completed. His narrative^ broken and interrupted: therefore,is continually is raifed without and the being fatisfied, curiofity
as by magic, from Athens tranfported, from the to Peloponnefus, to Corcyra, from Lefbos coaft of Afia to Sicily. Thucydides follows the

reader

is

order
events
:

of

time

Herodotus

the

connection

of

in the

the languageof a great critic,


have
one

fkill and

tafte of Herodotus

reduced

very

cated compli;

argument

into

harmonious

whole

the

of Thucydides has divided a induflry prepofterous into many detached parts and very fimplefubje"l which it is difficultagain icattered limbs of hiflory, reduce into one to regularbody44. The fame critic obferves, that Herodotus's not hiflory only but difplays and variety, art more more pofiefies and Iplendour. A fettled gloom, doubtlefs, gaiety of the Peloponnefian war : hangs over the events of all wars, but a defcripbut what is the hiflory tion of crimes and calamities ? The auflere gravity of Thucydides admirably correfponds with his His is worthy of Athens, when fubjecl:. majefry fhe commanded thoufand tributary a republics. and His his concife,nervous, energeticflyle,

4+

Dionyf. Halicarn. de Herodot.

"

Thucydid.

abrupt

J58
c H
A

THE
P.

HISTORY

OF

and elaborate plainnefs, admirably abruptbrevity, of active life,and the contentions the ijl r-' reprefent
.

tumult whom

of democratical

aflemblies.

Demofthenes,
all orators,

Dionyfius himfelf extols

above

tranfcribed fmoothnefs

eight times,
of

not

the but

elegantflowing
the

Herodotus,

fententious,

harihj and often obfcure


Tranft-

annals of work

Thucydides45.
in the It
re-

Thucydides left
of
continued

his the

unfinished

SSTtniittwenty-firft year
tarytranfwas
xctions

war. Peloponnefian

by Xenophon,
battle of

who

deduced

the

of Greece,

volutions years
to

of Greece
the

through a
Mantinasa

feries of
;
a

forty-eight
which

work

enables

us

to

purfuethe importantferiesof
to

Grecian

hiftory.
To the uniform contemplate of modern and confident operations policy, muft appear extraordinary that, at the diftance
a

reader accuftomed

it

of lefs than Athenian


fame been

two

years from
a

the

fubverfion

of

the

democracy by
form
new

Spartan general,the
Ihould have

turbulent

of government

re-eftablifhed with and


even

fplendour, by
a

the approbation

Spartan king. The reafons explainedin the preceding but cannot altogether Chapter may leflen, remove, his furprife; to and, in order fully comprehend
the caufes of this event,
not

of the afiiftance,

it is

to neceifary

condder

only the internal factions which diftraclied the but the external objects councils of Sparta, of ambition
or

revenge

which

folicited and

employed

her

arms.

45

Dionyf. Halicirn.

de

Hcrodot.

"

Thucydid.

While

THE

HISTORY
the fortune of the

OF

GREECE.
H

159
A

C ftill war Peloponnefian inhabitants the peaceful hung in doubtful fufpenfe, of Elis often teftifiedan inclination to preferve an

While

P.

inorrenfive undivided
to

*"

that they might apply, with the neutrality, to their happy rural labours, f^o attention,
Cur

1-11

-i

"

i_

and Sparta Olympian feftival, the indifpenfable to worfhip of thofe gods and their territory heroes to whom was conpeculiarly continual felicitation of Sparta, fecratecL The the adminiftration of the and the

unprovoked
to

violence

of

mined Athens, deter-

the Elians
;

declare for the former

lic repubthe

but

of all the and

Spartan allies they were


indifferent. In time

moil

lukewarm

of action

and languidand ineffectual, of the Olympic folemnity when the regular return they fhewed fuipendedthe courfe of hoftilities, for their powerful little federates, conor refpect partiality whofe warlike ambitious and fpirit with the enjoymentof their feemed incompatible This omiflion own contemplativetranquillity. of duty was followed by the actual tranfgreflion of with the Mantin^eans In conjunction the Elians. and Argives they deferted the alliance of Sparta; defended themfelves by arms the ufurpaagainft and excluded tions of that republic; its members the oracle, from confulting and from partaking of the games and facrifices celebrated at Olympia*6. Thefe with impunity until the fucinjuries patted cefsful iffue of the war of Peloponnefusdilpofed the Spartans to fed with fenfibility, and enabled them feverely to chaflife every infult that had been their afiiftance was
4*

Thucydid, 1. v.

offered

!6o
c
H
WTV
A.A.1 s___v___

THE
A
V

HISTORY

OF

GREECE*

P.
"

offered them
their fortune.
^
'

during the lefs profperouscurrent


" f

of

-The

Spar-

While

Paufanias and of

"f Athens laSe Ei'is.


oiymp.
A. c. 403.

Lyfander fettled the affairs Afia, Agis, the moft warlike of


and
a

their

levied princes,

powerfularmy,
on

to

inflicta That his and

late,but terrible vengeance,


he

the Elians.

he led might attack the.enemy unprepared, forces through the countries of Argolis the Elian territory Achaia, entering by the way

of

Lariffa, and
road
to

the

march to intending devoted capital.But river

by

the

fhorteft

he had

fcarcely

the paffed
town,

and

to the givesname of Elis the adjoining feparates provinces

Lariffus,which
the invaders

and

Achaia, when

were

admonifhed,

abflain to by repeated fhocks of an earthquake, mediate from ravaging a country which enjoyedthe imof Heaven. Into fuch a menace, protection
at

this terrible phenomenon leaft, the

was

preted inter-

of the Spartanking,wha fuperftition immediatelyrepaired the river, and, returning of home, difbanded his army. But the hoftility the Spartans was reflrained, not extinguished. and facrifices Having offered due fupplications their impiousinvafion,the ephori, to next fanctify Agis again to levy troops, and year, commanded the Elian unfavourable No to enter territory. fign checked the progrefsof his arms. During

by

two

fummers

and

autumns,

the country

was

defo-

burned demoliflied; their or villages inhabitants draggedinto captivity fices facred edi; the of their moil valued were ments ornadefpoiled which and temples, ; the porticos, .gymnafia,

lated; the

adorned

,62
CHAP,
^_

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. the protec-

community
"

-,

under which, flourifriing

Jj tion of Athens, fpread along the weftern coaft,and

colony in the neighbouring have alreadydefcribed ifland of Cephalenia.We the memorable of the Meffenians, who gratitude the moft active, zealous, and, according to were the moft their ability, in ufeful, allies of Athens the Peloponnefian But their affiftance (and war. afiiftance far more powerfulthan theirs) proved
a planted

confiderable

ineffectualj

and

the
a

time

was

now

arrived

when

punifhment for their ancient injuries. The refentment as well as recent from Naupactus and Ceof Sparta drove them ; phalenia.The greater part efcapedto Sicily the only above three thoufand failed to Cyrenaica, countries inhabited by the Hellenic race, which lay beyond the reach of the Lacedaemonian power 48. the the sera of this importantmigration, From Caufes will feldom occur in "f Sicily and Cyrenaica names withdrew which account it may not be Cyrenaica the prefent hiftory ; on 7 the caufes which withdrew to explain improperbriefly he of from the general a fruitfphereof Grecian politics
they were
to

fuffer

fevere

politics, ful and

extenfive coaft,and

an

ifland
more

not

lefs fruitful and

and

extenfive, and

far

populous

powerful. The while provinces,

infulated fituation of thofe


it rendered
to

remote

it

venient extremely incontheir

for Greece

interfere in
to two

affairs,
dered ren-

peculiarly expofed them


it ftillmore

evils,which
for them
to

inconvenient

fere interthe

in the affairs of Greece.

Rempved

from

*s

Diodor.

1. xiv. p. 41.7.

pro-

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
CHAP.

163

of their Peloponnefian anceftors,both protection the opthe Cyreneans and Sicilians often endured of prefiion ravages of
domeftic

tyrants, and

often fuffered the

barbarians. foreign inhabitants of Cyrenaica alternately carried SubfeThe the Libyans and Carthaginians'49, on war againft uof actually They were opprefied by the tyrant Ari- "yrenaiv aftenvards they recovered their civil fton. Soon but were to ftruggle frequently liberty50; compelled for their national independence.Though often fubdued by any invaded, their country was never
*

and their liberties furvived barbarian enemy of their European brethren, fmce republics
-,

the

they
the di-

fubmitted,for the firfttime, reluctantly of Alexander, who, in fortunate general


vifion of his matter's

to

the

obtained the fertile conquefls, and wealthykingdom of Egypt51. far better known The revolutions of Sicily are of Sicily, than thofe of Cyrene, and ilillmore worthy to be remembered. During the latter years of the the afliilancegiven by Syrawar, Peloponnefian cufe to the Lacedaemonians became gradually more and at lengthit was faint and imperceptible, totally This was withdrawn. occafioned by the neceffity of defending of the whole ifland, the fafety in which that of the capital the formidable involved, againft was whom defcents of the Carthaginians, the invitation of Segefta and feveral inferior cities at -tr
49 5"

va-

Ariflot. Polit.
Diodor.

Salluft. de

Bell. Jugurth.

1. xiv. p. 415. 1. xix. p.


715.

$l Diodor.

"

Strabo, 1. x\ii.

p.

836.

riance

164C
II A

THE
P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

riance with their

the hopes of neighbours, powerful

,XXIV.

thofe valuable commodities, the at once acquiring annual purchafe of which drained Africa of fuch

immenfe

treafures,and, above
death

all,the
and

defire of the difho-

revengingthe
nour

of Hamilcar,

in the unfortunate name Carthaginian and fiegeof Himera, encouraged to undertake for the entire fubjucarry on various expeditions gationof Sicily.
which is
ha-

of the

Hannibal, the grandfonof Hamilcar,


trufted with the conduct
the with and The of the and
war,

was

enmenced comtinued, con-

long
raffed

by

which

the Car-

ans thagini;

four hundred

tenth, and
Chriftian

little intermiflion, till the four hundred year

Olymp.
xcii. 3.

fourth

before

the

sra.

Olymp.
xciv. A.
i.

C. 410

by
who

troops of Carthage were their African allies. Confiderable


domeftic

reinforced
levies
were

"404.

made

among
had

the power colonies

Spaniardsand Italians, and dreaded long envied the fplendour, of the Greeks, to whofe and conquefts The united army they faw no bounds.
an

the

native

exceeded
to

hundred

thoufand fhore of

men,

and

was a

veyed con-

the fouthern number

in Sicily

tionable propor-

of

5*. and gallies tranfports


as

whofe

The

defignof Hannibal,
to

far it appears

from

conquefts
are

inter-

rupted by
and

his meafures, was


more

conquer

the fucceffively

fmaller
to

pcltilcnce.

defencelefs towns,
natural

before he laid f ege

Syracufe,whofe by
A. C. 409.

proved recentlyimftrength,

art,

only be
was

taken

rendered

could biddingdefiance to affault, The firil campaign by blockade. of Sememorable by the conqueft
Sicul. 1. xiii.

*'-

Diodor.

c.

43,

"

ftqq. linus

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

165
of
c

linus and Himera

the fecond

by
the

the demolition

Agrigentumj
The

the

third

inferior cities of

taking of Gela. Solas, Egefta,Motya, Anby


either invited the without
refift-

ArP.J" ^
v"

A. c. 4o6.

cyra, Entelta, and

Panormus,
or

Carthaginian arms,
ance.

furrendered
have

proceededto the the main object of their expediof Syracufe, tion fiege followed the bloody havoc of but rjeftilence ; and fwept off, in undiftinguifhed ruin, the war, victors and the vanquilhed. Not only the general, but the moil numerous portionof his troops, and Hamilcar, had fallen a prey to this calamity ; might
who with been fucceeded
to

The

invaders

the command,

contented

himfelf
had
the

in the towns which leavinggarrifons and returned to Africa with conquered,

enfeebled remains
the

of his armament,

which

municated com-

infection to Carthage^ peftilential ". where it long raged with deftructive fury According to the genius of Grecian fuperfli-

tion,it

was
.

natural

to

afcribe the fufferings of the "

of cri!^ty
the Car-

the unexampled cruelty and im- thaginito Carthaginians pietywith which, in their fuccefiive ravages, they had deformed the fair face of Sicily. It would be ufelefs and difguftful fcenes to defcribe the horrid and (laughter tranfacted in the feveof bloodfhed ral placeswhich prefumed to refift their power. Whatever atrocities could be invented by the unprincipled licence of the Italians, approved by the flern infenfibiiity and inflictedby of the Spaniards, the implacable comrevenge of the Africans, were
a

Diodor.

1. xiii.

c.

70,

"

mitted

166
c
XT-

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

HAP.
YT

minted in the miferable


and

cities of Selinus, Himera,

Gela, \__^Lv-^j

Agrigentum.
Hannibal
its inhabitants

After

the
one manes

Himera,
thoufand

facrificed in
to

taking of day, three


of his

of

the

invawho, in the firft Carthaginian grandfather, before its walls ; and the lot of lion, had perifhed thefe unhappy victims, dreadful as it was, might of envy to the long tormented be an object juftly natives of Gela
Ancient
tum ccnce'of

and

Selinus.

Yet

the fate of of all Sicilian cities, the moft

feemed

worthy

to

be

Agrigenfrom deplored,

Aprigen-

the

contraft of its fallen ftate with its recent ftriking and profperity.The natural beauties fplendour fecured by flrength, of Agrigentum were and
54

adorned

with

elegance ;

and

whoever

confidered,

of the city itfelf, advantages the gay cultivation of the furrounding or territory, which abounded in every luxury of the fea and the Agrigentines land, was ready to pronounce

cither the innumerable

the moft

favoured

inhabitants of the earth.

The

exuberant
luxuriance

of the foil,particularly the rich fertility of the vines and olives55, exceeded
is related of the the materials of every

thingthat
furnifhed
with the

and happieftclimates,
a

lucrative

commerce

populouscoaft of Africa, which was very Iparingly providedin thofe valuable plants. The
54

The
we

in followingparticulars learn
1. iv. 8.

the text,

concerning Agrigentum,
374
"

from

Diodorus

Siculu^,
I. i.e.
3.

p.

379.

Valer.

Maxim.
5$

Athenaeus,
the
a

Diodorus

celebrates

height

of the

vines, which

we

are

not

ufed

to

confider

as

proper

fubjtftof pancgyiic.
extra-

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE,
c

167 rHAr?-_'_j
_

wealth of the Agrigentines difwas extraordinary of publicedifices, and playedin the magnificence in the enjoyment of privatefortunesiplendid

the cele- The begun, and almoft completed, built in the grandeft brated temple of Jupiter, ftyle of architecture employed by the Greeks the on folemn and moil Its walls occafions. greater! were without, and adorned encompaffedby pillars far exceeded within ; and its magnitude by pilaflers the ordinary dimenfions of ancient temples, it -as feet in length, extended three hundred and forty and twenty in fixtyin breadth, and an hundred the loftyand ipacious without including height, dome. The grandeurof the doors and veftibu.le of the whole with the fimple correfponded majefty whofe fculptured edifice,, ornaments reprefented, with fmifhed elegance, and with a laborious accuracy that diftinguifhed each particular the figure, defeat of the Giants, and the takingof Troy ; reof Grecian the mod illuftrious fpedively, exploits gods, and Grecian heroes.

They

had

tern-

This

noble

monument,

confecrated

to
a

and piety

patriotifm, might
mind,

be

contrafted,by
to
a

philofophic

with others deftined

very

different pur-

ficial Agrigentum an artifeet deep and pond, or rather lake, thirty mile in circumference, was a near recontinually with a rare plenifhed varietyof the mod delicate the fumptuous fillies, to furniih a fure fupply to But nothing extravagance of public entertainments. could rival the eleganceand beauty of the

pofe.

Without

the walls of

tombs

68

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

CHAP,

tombs

and

erected by fepulchres

the

Agrigentines,
had

u-_v"

L"

to

perpetuate the fame of their courfers which


the

Olympic prize; and, if we believe the teflimonyof an eye-witnefs 56, to commemorate the quails and other delicate birds, which with an cherifhed affectionate and were partial fondnefs by the effeminate youth of both fexes. Such and abfurd abufes of opulence capricious fying and the arts might be expectedamidft the mortiobtained difcrimination of ranks, and the
enormous

diflinof private riches, which fuperabundance rous guilhed the Agrigentines. The labour of numeand active (laves cultivated agriculture and with manufactures From fuccefs. extraordinary of thefe fervile hands many citizens atthe profit tained, and exceeded, the meafure not only of
Exceffive

Grecian, but of modern

wealth.

fhort time bereturned hundred horfes

^ore ^ indivklu^
als.

^ieSe"f tne townj in triumph from Olympia, chariots,each drawn by two


Sicilian

Hexenitus
with three

milk-white
had

of

blood.

Antifthenes

eclipfed this

the marriage of his magnificence in celebrating daughter. But every native of Agrigentum yielded the fame of fplendourto the hofpitable Gellias, whofe palacecould entertain and lodge five hundred who had been clothed from his wardrobe, guefts, and whofe cellars^ dred confidingof three hunin the folid rock, cut fpaciousrefervoirs, of ftrangers invited the joyous feftjvity and daily

citizens.

5* Trains

apud

Dicdor.

1. xiii.

Before

J7o
CHAP, XXIV
. _._

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

tection of the gods, '_.enemy. But the

or

by the religiousawe
.

of the

refpecled what facred, than what was was profane. The and offerings, confecrated ftatues,and altars, were with things the moft vile, and plunconfounded dered in the promifcuous ruin. One or deflroyed the genea6b of defpair memorable reprefent may ral
no more

Barbarians

horror

of this dreadful

fcene.

With

his

merous nu-

friends,and moft valued


and the

mane treafure,the hutaken he

Gellias hofpitable
Minerva
;

had when

refugein
underftood he

temple of
that

but

the univerfal defolation of his country,


to

fet fire
the

facred edifice, chufing to


rather ". than

perilhby

flames

by the rage
years

ginians of the Cartha-

Amklft

Near

fourfcore

before the

demolition

of
3

had acquired immortal mulls Agrigentum, Sicily of


war

glory
but,
were

and

more foy defeating

numerous

invaders
"

at

Dionyfius
eminence.

that time, the

efforts of the

whole

iiland
and

united
oiymp.

and

animated

by
*

the virtues

abilities

of Gelonj

whereas, amidft the a6r.ua! dangers and


the Sicilians

of the Carthaginian A.'c. war, 408. trepidation


were

by domeftic factions. Syracufehad banifhed the only man whofe confummate wifdom, feemed and approved valour and fidelity, worthy in the prefent to direct the helm tempeftuous ture. juncof Himera the fiege In the interval between and that of Agrigentum, the patriotic Hermohad returned to and, at the head crates Sicily ; of his numerous adherents, had attemptedto gain
57

diftracted

Diodorus,

p. 379.

admiflion

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

171
was

admiffion into the

capital.But
to

the

attempt

CHAP.
*

immediately fatal
quences,

himfelf

and, in its confeHis

deftructive of the

freedom. public

though difcomfited and baniihed, foon partifans, their caufe,and to avenge found a leader qualified of to punifhthe ingratitude Syracufe.
This
was

the celebrated
_

Dionylius, a youth of
rader.

twenty-two ambition of rians)


talent
;

years;
;

of

mean

parentage,

but

bounded un-

deftitute

almoft every

(ifwe believe hiftoof every virtue,and pofiefTed


to

and

whofe
thofe and

fortune it was,

live and

flou-

r]fh amidft
war

perturbedcircumftances
which diilenfion,
are

of foreign able favour-

civil

to

the

minds. elevation .of fuperior and entrufted

Though
v/ho

efteerned could
more

by Hermocrates,
the merit his

difcern eafily
the

of his abilities,

than difcover fms had

danger of
was

ambition, Dionyfrom exile. him


was

gainedfriends
intereft he in the He in

in the recalled

faction, oppofite by
His
to
rivalled un-

whofe

fervices eminence.

war Carthaginian

raifed

excelled

in

valour; he

his ends were eloquence ; purfuedwith his means varied with were fteadyperfeverance ; the appearance convenient flexibility; of patriotifm rendered him popular, and he employed his friends. to reflore his banifhed popularity of one The gratitude party, and the admiration Means

by

of both, enabled
the mercenaries,
was

him
and

to

attain the

command
war.

of But

which

^e

uiiirpcd the conduct of the


the go-

he

lefs folicitousto
to

conquer

the

Carthaginians
factious
cufe-

than

enflave

his

whofe fellow-citizens,
them

turbulence

rendered

xciii. 4.' unworthy of liberty,

A.C.40J.

172
C HAP. XXIV.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

By

the

affected dread
a

of violence his

from

his

mies., ene-

he obtained
his artful and the

guard for
his troops,

perfon,which
to

attached eafily generality


arms

his intereft; influence and

of

the

wealth
was

the of Philiftus, with the

hiftorian of

who Sicily,

of the fecond appellation and daring crafty Thucydides s8,above all his own to ambition, enabled him, at the age of twenty-five, he held which of Syracufe, ufurp the government for thirty-eight years.
honoured
Hi* f.iccefsful

reign.

During his long and active reignhe was engaged in war ; fometimes with the
fometimes
with his revolted

rally geneginians, Cartha-

Oiymp.
xciii.
4.

A. C. 405.

Olymp.
ciii. A.
a.

C.

367.

Yet fubjects. in both contefts he finally duced having reprevailed, and apthe Carthaginian in Sicily, power peafed, or intimidated,domeflic rebellion. His actual condition,however he regarded fplendid, for higher grandeur. He only as a preparation of Italy and took Rhegium, the Ivey : nor befieged could the feeble confederacy of the Italian Greeks have preventedthe conqueft of that country, had the renewed hoftilities of the Carthaginians., not and frefh difcontents at home, interrupted the proof his arms. This growing ftorm he refilled grefs generate before,and tranfmitted,to a deas fuccefsfully as of the fon, the peaceful inheritance after having ftrengthened, greateft j part of Sicily with wonderful of the capital art, the fortifications ; the fize,and improved the form of the enlarged

Cicero

de

Orator.

1. xi.

Syracufan

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

173

CHAP. invented the military Syracufan gallies catapults, ; which he employed, with great v"^^l/ an engineof war in the fiegeof Motya and Rhegium j advantage, and not only defended his native ifland againft foreign

invafion,but rendered
to

its power

formidable

the His

neighbouringcountries.
labours poetical
were

the leaft
"

uniformly Hisiiteverfes, [?ryam~


bition.

fuccelsful of all his

undertakings.
the mofl

His

though rehearfed by
the age,
were

Ikilful rhapjodifts of
at

treated with

fignal contempt

the

A fecond time he renewed his Olympic games. fame in that illuftrious to literary afiempretenfion bly; but his ambafTador was infulted by the moft and the orator Lyiiasprohumiliating indignities ; nounced
a

in which difcourfe.,

he

maintained

the

the reprefentative of admitting of an impropriety confecrated impious tyrant to affiftat a folemnity 59. The oration of to religion, virtue, and liberty that the plenitude to of fufpect Lyfiasleaves room Dionyfius's power, rather than the defect of his him to the cenfure and derifion of poetry, expofed and this fulpicion the Olympic Ipectators; receives in the tlrat, Itrong confirmation by confidering, he deferved and obtained the laft year of his reign, for the at Athens crown cityrenowned poetic ; a decifions 60. of its literary impartiality It is remarkable, that,with

A. c.

387.

fuch

an

viactive,

gorous,

and

comprehenfive mind}
fuch
an

with

fuch of
"f
nus

variety of talents,and
59
60

accumulation

Dion""ap-

Life of
Ifucrat.

Lyfias, p.

117.

Dionyf.

Halicar. dc Dcmofth.

Pancgyr.

glory,

i-4
C H A P.
'

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

glory, Dionyfms
and branded,
an

fhouid

as

the moft

t_
v

held out imiverfally confpicuous example of

be

peared fo

odious and
in his own, Yet

miferable and

andcnV"

ror

of tertyrant, the objeft of deteftation in fucceeding of

ages"

the

uncorrupted evidence

hiftory
not

will prove, that the character of Dionyfiuswas His fituation rendered decifively flagitious.

it

acknowledgedoften to have of virtue. aiiiimed the femblance Always crafty and cautious ; but by turns, and as it fuited his intereft,mild, affable, and condefcending or ; did the Syra: nor cruel, arrogant, and imperious feel the rigour of his tyranny, until they cufans had juftly provoked it by an infurrection, during which they treated his wife and children with the and brutal fury. But moft barbarous there are circumftances in the character of Dionyiius two excited the indignation which of the peculiarly
artificial;and he
"

is

moralifts of Greece
or

and

Rome,
lefs of
a

and which

the

deration mo-

the foftnefs of modern

times will be

confider with to difpofed ufurped the government heinous crime neceffarily held the aflafTmation of

in the
a

.He had feverity. free republic a ; of thofe who fight


to
;

tyrant

be

the moft he prohis

meritorious exertion of human fefTed


an

virtue

and

open
a

contempt
of which

for the

of religion

country;

crime death

broughtto
of
men.

Yet

the

had fufpicion the moft amiable and refpecled of Dionyfius was impiety only the

the bare

child of his intereft, and his wit. He

fometimes

the

parent of

of

a celebrated ftatue of Jupiter ftripped that it was too golden robe, obferving, heavy

in

THE
in

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
For
a

175 reafon CHAP,


._

fummer,

and

too

cold in winter.

of his he deprived LJ jEfculapius ingenious equally _Tthat fuch a venerable ornament goldenbeard ; averting, the Ion of the beardlefs Apollo. illbecame the altars and ftatues, he inBut if he defpoiled creafed and improved the fleets and armies, of which were fuccefsfully employedagainft Syracufe, And of to the general the public c'urrent enemy. this extraordinary declamation againft fatire and 6I, may be oppofedthe opinionof Polybius man racters and Scipio Africanus, the moft illuftrious chaof
"

the

moft

illuftrious age

of

Rome:
more

That

none

ever

concerted

his fchemes with

with more executed them or boldnefs, prudence, the Elder." than Dionyfius His fon, Dionyfiusthe Younger, exceeded his inglorious his abilities. The reign of vices without poffeffing this fecond tyrant
was

diffracted and

the ilus inglorious.

Younger*

His

kinfman

Dion,
to

the amiable

of Plato, Olymp. difciple


un~

endeavoured

correct But

the diforders of his


was

^Tc'itf*

governedmind.

heavy for oiymp. for Plato himfelf. The Dion, and even former,A."c!*3 unable to reftrain the excefles of the prince, dertook unthe defence of the people. His patriotifm but did not the tyranny of deftroy, interrupted, which was abolifhed, finally Dionyfius, twenty-two
too
61

the tafk

The

authentic

hiftoryof

the

reign of Dionyfiusis copioufly


xv.

recorded
numerous

by
and

Diodorns

Siculus, 1. xiv. "


ftories told

To him be
to

relate

the

improbable
and
other

of

by

Cicero,

Plutarch, Seneca,
whaf
it is not Plut. Garrul.
p.

moralifts, would
The reader Moral,
;

tranfcribe

enfy to
ex

believe.

may pp.

confnlt, particularly,
78 " 83.
De

edit. Paris, in In Dion.


p.

508.

961

and

various

paflages of

Cicero

" Tufculan. de Officiis,


i

Qtjxft.
years

THE
CHAP.
XXIV.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

years

afterhe ftrftmounted of Timoleon 6i.

the throne, by the magnanimity

This

revolution

pened hap-

only

two
as

years before

Corinth,
other

the country

of Timoleon,

well
to

as

the
arms

Greece, fubmitted
don
;

the

of
own
.

and, having loft their

of republics Philipof Maceindependence,

became

of aflerting the freedom incapable

of their

colonies.
comes beSicily
a

province
of Rome.

tyrants darted up in Syracufe,and almoft and held a precarious in every cityof Sicily, fway of the Carthaginians under the alternate protection
New and Romans. ancient The

Olymp.
cxlii.
I. aiz

citizens of

Syracufe,mindful ufurpers, of liberty. But


their

A.C.

of their
and

fame,

dethroned

confiderable intervals enjoyed of the at gained pofiefiion length the Romans the perfevering valour of Marcellus, affifted place ; after of the garrifon, by the treachery prevailing, efforts of the bold a liegeof three years, over mechanical directed by the inventive power, of the 63. The reduction genius of Archimedes was capital, immediately followed by the conqueft thus to of the adjoining and Sicily came territory ; and be regarded as the eldeil provinceof Rome, the firft which country, without the limits of Italy, had taught that victorious republic to tafte and dominion 64. enjoythe facets of foreign
6a

Corn.

Nepos.

Dioclorus 1. viii. Cicero

Sicul.

Plut.

Dion.

65

Polyb. Excerpt.
Livy,
1. xxiv. "

Pint, in Marcel!. in Verrem in few amicilinm


ornamentum

6+

words"

Omnium P. R.

exterarum

gentium princeps Sicilia.ad


id quod
docnic eft

fidemque,

applicuit; primaque omnium, provincia praeclarum


efiet exte/is

imperil eft, noftros, quara

appellata: prima

majores

gentibus imperitare.

178
c H A

THE
P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
ex-

fui and

ambitious

who employed her Paryfatis,


over

WM-I,

'". tenfive influence


uxorious

the
to

mind

of
the

an

old

and

hufband,

obtain

kingdom

for

Cyrus, the younger brother of Artaxerxes, and favourite of his mother. the peculiar The rivalboth of whom of the young at princes, fkip were
court

duringthe laft illnefsof Darius, unhappily into enmity j and a circumftance, degenerated which would be thought immaterial in the prefent of Cyrus. The age, increafed the indignation had happened before the acbirth of Artaxerxes ceflion of his father to the throne, but Cyrus was ever born the fon of a king; a diftin"ion which, howfrivolous it may
appear in modern

times, had
the Arta-

engaged Darius
younger bazanes
Caufe of

Hyftafpesto prefer Xerxes,


to

of his fons,
".
"

his

elder brother

The

^*nte
-

e'

monarch

eftablifhed by fuch an illuflrious precedent might have enforced the partial arguments

and both of paryfatis,


1irL

might have
c
"

been
r-

confirmed
i

by

the

ftrong claim
moft

or

merit,

imce

Cyrus early
to

difcovered fill the

fuch talents and virtues, as fitted him and difficult, At


to

adorn

the

mod

exalted,flation.
obtained

the age of feventeen, he had the government of Lydia, Phrygia, and mandate of

Cappadociaj and the fame which deftroyedhis hopes


Perfian

Darius,
to

of fucceflion

the

throne, rendered

him

fatrap hereditary
the demife
return to

of thole valuable

provinces. On that monarch, Cyrus preparedto


1

of

Afia

Herodot.

1. vii. c. ii.

Minor,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. efcort with which he


c H

179
A

Minor,
had
come

attended
to

by
j
a

the fame
faithful

P.

Sufa

body of

three hundred

^
t

'.mj

Greeks, heavy-armed
Arcadian. very But when criminal and

commanded
he
to prepared

by Xenias,
leave court,

an a

unfortunate incident retarded his

and perfidious Tiflaphernes, departure.The felfifh of the young who expefted to divide the ipoils prince,accufed him of treafon. He was apprehended by order of Artaxerxes ; but the powerful of Paryfatis, who, though fhe loved protection only one, was beloved, or at leaft feared, by both nour, of her fons, defended his life, vindicated his ho-

and reftored him


The
not

in

to fafety

his government.
circnmvourabie
am*

the

could perfon much affe6b the heroic fortitudeof Cyrusj but affront offered to his dignity funk deepinto his

danger that

had threatened his

heart

and

from the

moment to

that he recovered

his

freedom, he determined
or

to

in the attempt. perifli of the

revenge In the
is

Eaft,

as

there

and
or

between the gradation fcarcely any alternative but

injuries*, countries delpotic mediate fcarcely any interprince and people,


that of dominion

his

fervitude,a

difcontented

or

rebellious
to

fubject
die,
or na-

muft

either ftifiehis The

fubmit animofity,

2. to reign afpire
*

magnanimity of Cyrus
c.

Xenoph.

Anabaf.

1. i.

i.

This

was

the with

origin of
great
fT^

his

re"

fentment,
o oi

which
x.cn

Xeoophon
lie afierted

expiefles

delicacy;
ircu nn

x"wt/vtti"7as

taA"^"T"" aTi/*a"76n$,

Incut; ^'jfon

fu

a^?.pi', "c.
*
"

independence,

vvifh of every the firft.

great mind.

Cyrus determined
on

no

'*

depend

his brother

; aAX^

longer," fays Xenophon, ""T* faw"?viwi"" r," duvnrai

"

to

i*t"v""

**

to reign in his fiead." but, if poffible,

turally

i8o
CHAP,
^ _,"
.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. he
to

r-

the road of dangerand glory turally preferred ; but preparednot only to punifhthe injuftice,

ufurp the throne of Artaxerxes, defended as it and protected both was by a million of armed men, and by the Iplendour by the power of fuperftition, This of hereditary renown. defign would have had been great, but romantic, if the young prince
not

reiburces enjoyedvery extraordinary

in

the
tachment at-

powers

of his

own

mind, in the affectionate and, fubjects,


above valour

of his Barbarian in the allies.


Charatfer
of

all,

and fidelity

of his Lacedaemonian

Whether

we

confider what
of his

he

faid,or
.

what

he

Cyrus;

did, the teitimony


more

the or contemporaries, of his life and actions, unerring teftimony

Cyrus
human

appears
nature,

to

have been

born

for the honour


honour

of of

and

for the particularly

Alia, which, though the richeft and moft populous


quarter of
the

globe, has
been

never,

.in any
the

abounded

in great characters. he had

From

age, age of

feven years,

trained, at the gate of the Ihoot with the bow, to manage the horfe, to palace,
and

contra

(led

of

the

fpeak truth ; according to the difcipline inftituted by the great founder of the monarchy, in an age of fimplicity, and well adapted, to form and nobles of Perfia. the princes But in the courfe "f two of refinement and centuries,the progrefs luxury,the infectious example of a corrupt court, and the perfidious leflbns of the world, had perverted, rendered or a ineffectual, .very falutary of Perfia, fyftem of education ; and the grandees whatever proficiency they made in their exercifes,
to

felt

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
CHAP.
"_"

181

that (as will abunfor veracity, feltfo littleregard

dandy appear
with which
a

in the

view

to

they feldom fpokebut fequel) made .deceive,and rarely a promife


not

^,'_f

they did
did
not

break,
The

or

took

an

oath

which

they
was

violate.

behaviour

of

Cyrus
fur-

the reverfe. totally

He

and equalled,

his companionsin all exterior accomplifhpaffed while his manly beauty,his bodily But ments. and addrefs, and the fuperior activity courage, as in hunting, which he difplayed well as (kill, horfeexercife,commanded manfhip, and every military the admiration
not
to

of the multitude

he himfelf

feems

have

eftimated

fuch

beyond their real worth. of heart as the only folid


His

fuperficial advantages He regarded integrity


a

bafis of

great character.

uniform, his word facred, his probitywas inviolable. In the giddyfeafon of youth, friendfhip the admonitions with he yielded, to uncommon docility, of experience. Neither wealth, nor birth, nor
the objects rank, but age and virtue, were and his behaviour, equally .of his refpect :

meritorious admired.
His

and

was fingular,

and univerfally juftly

in fubjects

Lefier Afia, in

were particular,

State of

aftonifhment,when, AfiaTurpleafing inftead of a greedy and voluptuousfatrap, eager ins hls. only to fqueeze,to amafs, and to enjoy,they ftration. the publicintereft to beheld a princewho preferred his own who alleviated the weight of taxes, that ; of induftry he might encourage the operations ; whofe own hands gave the ufeful example of rural
feized with the moft N 3

labour

i8a
c
IT

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. and mercy; juftice

A^P.labour4;
and whofe

whofe

decifions united

active

before

nor

known

in

introduced (whatneither vigilance fmce the government of Cyrus has been the Afiatic peninfula) of fuch regularity intercourfe fafe,and

police,as rendered
fecure.
H;" pr"acts.

property

and integrity, when acjuftice wjth diligence muit proand abilities, compan}eci cure of refpect for the adminiftration, fuch a degree be extended of a the perfon, will naturally to as not to prince. But fomething farther is required, and efteem, but to obtain the publicgratitude

The

virtues

of

excite the affectionate ardour

of felect and

devoted it is

friends feldom

without

the

afiiftance of

whom,

to accomplifh any morable pofiible great and meporaries defiga. Cyrus excelled all his contemin the art both of acquiring and of prethe moft valuable friendftiips. His gratitude ferving was oveipaid every favour ; his liberality ways aland his donatives were large,yet difcerning ; enhanced and affectionate by the handfome in which he When beftowed. manner they were difcovered man a really worthy of his confidence and efteem, he was fatisfied with givinghim a not fliare of his affections; he gave his heart partial entire : and it was his conftant prayer to the gods, that he might live to requite and furpafs the good offices of his friends,and the injuries of his

enemies.
*

Xenoph.

ibid.

Cic. of

in

Seneft.

Plut.

in

Lyfand.

have

all

celebrated

this part

his charader.

With

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
CHAP.
.
"

183
ac-

With

fuch featiments
firm attachment

and

character, Cyrus
a

the quired

of

few, and the willin fubiecls,

y_'_j
rv.s

ing obedience

of all his Barbarian he

the ^V"?""1
of

bar"

which populousprovinces united

commanded,
thoufand

whole

harian
l

exceeded ftrength

an

hundred
as

fight-

ing men;

who, unwarlike
both in

braveryand

celled, they were, yet exin (kill, the effeminate

troops of Upper Afia.

They
to

were

indebted probably

for this advantage His chief


dif-

their intercourfe with the

Greeks, whofe

srati' than the numbers of his |he valour, far more ciplined Barbarians, encouragedCyrus to undertake an ex- valour the empireof the Eaft. for acquiring pedition By Q thf the moft important fervices he had deferved the of the Lacedsemonian republic gratitude ; which had been raifed,chiefly the to by his afiiftance,

head of Greece, and


In
return

to

the command

of the fea.

for that favour, fo ineftimable in the

of an ambitious people,the Spartans readily fight by fending into Afia complied with his requeft, mand eighthundred heavy-armed men, under the comof the intrepid and Cheirifbphus they ; their admiral, Samius, who had fucceeded charged Lyfander in the government of the Ionian coaft, to faithfully ing co-operate with Cyrus, by employfervice the his powerfulfleet in whatever Perfian princemight think proper to recommend5. than this, Cyrus Had they done nothing more might well have approved their ufeful gratitude; him on the their alliance,fecuring as efpecially
5

Xenoph. Hellen. I. iii.

84
JH A P.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. without
to

fide of

Europe, enabled him,


his army. them
But

danger, to
the

drain his weilern


Amount of his Grecian

and garrifons, the

augment

of flrerigth

Spartanscarried
him
to

of the friendfhip ftill farther. They allowed

troops.

recruit his forces in every part of their dominions ; and the generous munificence of Cyrus had

acquirednumerous
to

well qualified to pardfans

raife and Clearchus


Proxenus Socrates

command

thofe

valuable die

levies.

the the

Spartan, Menon

ThefTalian,
the in-

Boeotian, 'Agiasthe Arcadian, and:


to

the Achaean, all alike devoted

tereft and

glory of the Perfian prince,colle"ed, above from their refpeft'ive ten republics, chiefly and near three thouthoufand heavy-armed men,
fand archers and targeteers.
Thefe

Secrecy of
his

which were carried on with preparations, predeceived the haughty indolence filence and celerity, parations. of the Perfians ; but they could not efcapethe of Alcibiades, who then refided at Gryvigilance of Phrygia, under the protection of nium, a town Moved Pharnabazus. the by relentment againft of gaining merit Lacedaemonians, or ambitious with the great king, he defired an efcort from the a fatrap,that he might undertake with fafety journeyto Sufa, in order to acquaintArtaxerxes of his brother. bazus, Pharnawith the hoftile defigns the merit, defired the who not poflefied of the difcoveryj and therefore (as we reward had occafion to relate 6) readily formerly gratified the requeft of Lyfander, by the deftruclion of
"

Alcibiades.
6

See

above,

p.

n:

But

186
c H XXV. A
'

THE
P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. the expe-

the condition of the times, and conned dition of Greece.

y-,"

'

Cyrus

with

the

of fubfequent hiftory

Rapidity
march,

his forces at Sardis, the Having afiembled of his Perfian princewas carried,by the activity refentment or ambition, with the utmoft celerity, marches he In ninety-three towards Upper Afia. of Lydia, travelled through the central provinces Phrygia,Cappadocia; traverfed the mountains of crofted unrefifled through Syria Cilicia;pafled j after penetrating the Euphratesat Thapfacus ; and the defert,entered the confines of Babylonia. In a miles, his journey of above twelve hundred fewer difficultiesthan numerous experienced army be expected. The fertile might naturally territory of Afia Minor them abundantly with fupplying enabled them to proceed commonly at provifions, the rate of fifteenor fixteen miles a-day; and almofl every fecond day broughtthem a to large and populouscity.The dependentfatraps v-iceor lefs folicitous to joys of Lycaonia and Cilicia were

defend
to

the

throne

of Artaxerxes,

than

anxious

their relpective from plunder protect provinces and devaftation. But the former experienced the of an invader whom he had the weaknefs feverity to to or oppofe,without the fiTength courage refill7.
of Cilicia, had reafon to Syennefis, governor ^car t^lat^s country might be plundered with equal theteaJtv avail endeavoured, therefore, to ofEpyaxa. rapacity. He
Cilicia tie-

Xenoph. Anfibaf.

I. i. p. 148.

himfelf

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

187

of himfelfof the natural ftrength


fouthern
which boundaries
on

is defended

whofe CHAP. province wafhed and are by the fea,' other fides by the winding
a

branches of Mount
is but Cilicia 9
one
",

Taurus

8.

Towards
the

the weft Gates


at

called by pafs, fufficient to admit and

Arrian

of
a

only one

chariot

time, and rendered


almoft

dark

difficultby Thefe

deep
were

and
cupied oc-

inacceiTible mountains.

by
maintained the p

the his

troops

who, had he Syennefis, poft,might have eafily prevented


army.
arms

of

adage of

an

But

the

timid

Cilician

had

not

trufted in

alone for the

defence of

his country. By the order, or at leaft with the of her hufband, his queen, the beautiful permiffion

Epyaxa,
frontiers of

had

met

Cyrus

at

Cylense,on

the

to the cuftom Phrygia;and, according her acknowledgedliegeof the Eaft, prefented and other coflly lord and fuperior with gold, filver, her youth an4 was gift gifts.But the greateft [he fubmitted, it is faid, to the beauty, which her with enamoured who, after entertaining prince, and diftinctionI0, reftorecj the utmoft magnificence

Xenoph.
Arrian. She

p.

248.
Alexand.
to

9
10

Exped.

1. ii. p.
fhew
an

31.

requeued Cyrus
her coach, almoft had

her his troops.


car.

He the

complied

"

and

attended

in

open
"

But

of curiofity
were

Epyaxa
to
own
were

coft her dear.


were
a

When

the Barbarians and

reviewed, the Greeks


advance, accord,
thrown
as ran

ordered after
to ;

to their arms,

commanded

to

charge;
fhouts

which,
their

the

foldicrs, of their
The
her

with

tents.

Barbarians

into conflernation

Epyaxa quitted
tents ; and

coach; the

Greeks

returned
terror

laughing
with which

to

their
the

Cyrus rejoicedat
the ii.fpired

feeingthe

Greeks

bad

rians." Barba-

Xenoph.

Anabaf.

1. i. p. 247.

her

i88
c

THE
P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

H^A

her to

Cilicia

by

near,

but difficultroad, which

*"

led -v-L-.
j.

acrofs the mountains. the


a

"e

To

efcort

which

accompanied her, Cyrus


commanded
rived ar-

plunder

added

confiderahle

body of Greeks
The

by

Menon
at

the Theffalian.

Tarfus, the

greater part before the army capital,


",

of

Cyrus reached

the gates of Ciiicia

but

two

panies, com-

amounting togetherto an hundred men, and fuppofed to have been were miffing, deftroyed by the mountaineers, while they wandered in queft mortified at hearingthat of booty. Syenneiis was the enemy had already entered his province. But when he likewife received intelligence that the Pefrom Ionia, in fleet had failed round loponnefian order to co-operate with the army, the difagreeable of his dedifconcerted the meafures fence. news totally fled in precipitation, his He abandoning' and baggage to the invaders. tents Cyrus crofled the mountains without oppofition, and traverfed the beautiful irriguousplainsof Cilicia, which
were

adorned

with

trees

and

vines, and

abounded
In

in

fefame, panic, millet,wheat, and

barley.

days he arrived at the largeand rich cityof Tarfus, which was plundered by the refentment
four of the

Greeks,

for

the

lofs

of

their

panions. com-

Cyrus immediately fent for the governor, who from his palace,and, attended by had removed piticnVs
Cyrus
ex-

with

Syof

t{ie
^

m-eater
"

part

of

the

inhabitants, had
.

taken

emit-hi

Cilicia.

refuge

among

the

faftnefles in the the


alTurances

neighbouring

mountains.

By

of

Epyaxa,

her

timorous

THE
timorous
"

HISTORY hufband
was

OF

GREECE.

189
c n

with much

difficulty per-

_A Pf
Y"
"

fuaded
to

to

whom,

v" put himfelf in the power of a fuperior, he carried the price of his fafety, as

"

fums of large the welcome

money.

accepted Cyrus courteoufly

fupply,which the demands of his feafonable ; and, in peculiarly troops rendered with fuch prefents as Syennefis return, honoured of great value by the kings of the deemed were Eaft. They confifted in a Perfian robe, a horfe and fcimitar with a golden bit, a chain, bracelets, and the of gold, the reftoration of prifoners, Ia. exemption of Cilicia from farther plunder During their luxurious refidence at Tarfus, the Mutiny If
the Gre'

Greeks

were

corrupted by prolpenty.

"-

T-L

hey

dif- ciancamp.

j-r

obey their commanders, and refufed to of marching continue their journey. The defign unknown to Clearnot to Babylon, though it was chus, or to the Spartanfenate,had been concealed from the foldiers,left their impatience their or fears might be alarmed of fuch a by the profpect long and dangerousundertaking. At Tarfus they firft difcovered their fuipicions of the deceit, which mours. immediatelybroke out into licentious claof Cyrus ; they They infulted the majefty the perfidy of their genei als and their reproached
dained
to
, 11

'

Pride,
uoi

as

well

as

fear, feems
ttu

to

have
e"j
evstci

atfuated
%"ip*f
;
"

Syennefis.
a^g
,

o=

iTfOTtfcn a"in
Kten

XfiKTtn
57

laura
CIVTW

iX0"i" tO

Tsre

K.vfu
in any

";9c".", irfH
had
ntver

yvn

Syennefis
he then
true

clared, dea

that he
man

formerly put hirhfclfln the power


nor

of
go

refpedt fupeiior to himfelf;


wife

would A

to

Cyrus,
11

till his

petfnidtd him,"

"c.

pidture of

oriental manners,

meamufb

varniflied with
p. 249.

prideI

Xenophon, Anabaf.

anger

THE
CHAP,
;

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

anger

was

ready to
was

vent

itfelfin open

fedition,

^J 1^_' when
Appealed
drefs of

the ferment

prudenceof Cyrus of
ta^e
a

Clearchus.

appeafed by the addrefs and While he privately affured


to

his beft endeavours


turn,

make

the

affair

Ckarchus.

the openly embraced affected deeplyto feel their caufe of the foldiers, and eagerly concurred with every meagrievances, His them. fure that feen?ed to remove proper mediate eloquenceand his tears diverted the defignof imAn aflembly fummoned to was hoftility. of affairs. Several, deliberate on the actual pofture

favourable

he

of their

own

accord, offered their opinion ; others

by Clearchus. heard with applaufe, adOne counfellor,who was mand vifed them to pack up their baggage, and to deguides or fhipsfrom Cyrus, to facilitate Another fhewed the folly of this their return. from a man whofe meafures they had trarequeft verfed, and whofe purpofethey had endeavoured could not truft in guides to defeat I3. They furely given

ipoke

as

they

had

been

directed

JJ
"

This

paffage is tranflated
another

as

follows
the

by

Mr.
the

Spelman
man

After

him
to

got up,
the

{hewing
weak

follyof
would

who

advifed

demand He

fhips,as
alfo how

if Cyrus
a

not

refume
to

his

expedition.
for If
a

(hewed

thing
we

it

was

apply

guide

to

that

perfon whofe
his

undertaking
not

had

defeated.'
dertaking un-

Cyrus

refurned
was

expedition, it could
nor

be faid that his

defeated; by
an

is this the

proper
or

meaning
weaken.

of the I
am
rupt, cor-

word

which Xvfx.ai."i-tia",
that

to fignifits

hurt

fenlihle
to

eafy

tranlition,it fometimes
in
the

to lignifies

deftroy, to
ihould
"

defeat ; but
to

paflage

before

us,

if

tranflator mud
pin

choofe

explain it by any

of thofe

words,

he
or

fay, pofed,

whofe
to

defeat

undertaking we had begun, endeavoured, explanation of Atf-tam^ 6a, which ; an

i$
the

by juflificd

the

analogy of the Greek

language,and

which

fcnfe

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

r9t

CHAP. giventhem by an enemy; nor could it be expected which that Cyrus {hould part with his fhips, were -j-.',j fo neceffary to the fuccefs of his expedition. evidently determined fend comAt length it was to miffioners to treat with Cyrus, that he might either,

the by granting
on to
was a

demands
or

of the Greeks,
be

them

to

follow him,
to return

prevail himfelf prevailed on


j

allow them thus

home

and the difference

adjufted, by promifmg each foldier finally darick and a half, inilead of a darick,of monthly
When this ftorm

pay14.
the Cyrus happilyappeafed, * leftTarfus, and marched five days through SyriaV enemy the fertile plainsof Ciiicia, till they arrived at sates. of the province large, rich, IfTus, the lafl town and only fifteenmiles diftant from and populous ; the frontier of Syria. This wealthyprovincewas called the Gates of defended fortrefles, by two tains Syriaand Ciiicia. They extended from the mouninterval of three furlongs the fea. The to between them contained feveral paries, and narrow befides the rapidKerfas, which flowed in intricate,
was
",

the middle,
on

one

"hundred
that

feet in breadth.

It

was

this occafion

the 'full Cyrus experienced

affiftance. A advantage of the Lacedaemonian conducted fleet of fixty fail, by Pythagorasthe Spartan, who had fucceeded Samius in the naval command, prepared to land the Greeks on the
fenfe

requires." absolutely
which I have

This

is

one

of

the

few

minute
accurate

miftakes

difcovered

in Mr.

Spclman's moft

tranflation.
'*

Xenoph.

ibid. p. ajo,

"

feqq.

eaftern

192
CHAP,
XXV

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
muft have
-,

eailern fide of the Gates, which


f,

expofed
but the the

^J .^,

the

Syrian

works

to

double who

afiault

cowardice
numerous

of Abrocomas,
forces of

commanded

Syriaand Phoenicia,
fufficientto
fled enemy

rendered The

the

execution

of this meafure

unneceflary.

alone, was defign,


abandoned before the
The wade army
the

his forts, and

him. He terrify with precipitation


".

approach of
e

an

proceeded without meeting with Cyrus thenceforth *


'

Eaphratc8*

any appearance

or

oppoiition,
in fome

and

in

fifteen

rc

days

march, reached- the banks


which Thapfacus,

of the

Euphrates. At eailern languagesfigriver is above the

nifles the ford16,this noble mile in breadth, but fo is reckoned


yery the time where

half

that ihoaly

navigation
which draw

dangerous even
The

for boats

little water. autumnal

fhallownefs increafes in

feafon, which
the parTed the
an

that the army

happened to be which Euphrates,


This

the
no

reached above

breaft.

favourable

circumilance of

furnifhed

the Thapfacus to fubmitted to him as its future great river had viilbly prediction, king l7. Elevated by this aufpicious he his journey through Mefopotamia,part purflied of which was anciently comprehended under the cf SyriaIS. he proceededthrough While name rious this fertile that a labocountry he did not forget march of feventeen days,through a barren

the to opportunity flatter Cyrus, that

habitant in-

*"' 16

Xenoph.
Foyer's

p. 253.

Geographical Diflertalion
p.
455.

on

XenopJion'sRetreat.

*7 18

Xenoph.
So

it is called

by Xenoph. ibid.

defart,

,94
CHAP, XXV
!__

THE wards

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
a

them

in full fpeed, his horfe all in

foam,

in his own aloud fucceffively and language, -w-'jcalling with a vaft in Greek, that the king was at hand army

*".

Cyms

de-

The

Greeks, experienced

who

beft knew

the moft

fcrics the

danger of being; attacked

in diforder,were

jnimenfe
a"

alarmed by this fudden furprife. Cyrus, .fenfibly his corflet, from his car, put on mounted thcrT leaping the troops feized his javelin, his horfe, commanded
my

of

to

arm,

and ordered
were

every

man

to

his

poft.

His

orders

readily obeyed;

and

feveral hours, in order


now

the army vanced, adof battle. It was

: but in the mid-day ; yet no enemy appeared afternoon theyperceived a duft like a white cloud, thickened into darknefs, which gradually and overthe plain. At length the brazen armour fpread fiaihed; the motion, the ranks, and fpears, were feen. In the front were innumerable diftinctly in a downward, and chariots, armed with fcythes direction. The in an oblique commanded cavalry, were diftinguifhed by white corfby Tiflaphernes, lets ; the Perfians by wicker bucklers ; the Egyptians fhields reaching down their to by wooden of Artafeet. Thefe formed the chief ftrength

xerxes;

but the various multitude of nations, ing march-

columns to their refpecaccording feparate had fcarcely of defence^ tive countries, any armour the enemy and could annoy only at a diftance, with their flings, darts,and arrows 2f, in
t

10

Xenoph.

p. p.

263. 363, "

31

Xenoph.

fcqqf While

tHE
While

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

195

the hoftile battalions

accompanied by Pigres the


'chofen attendants, allmounted

approached,Cyrus, CHAP, and a few interpreter,


"._".-

'_i

on

horfes of

extraor-

*ts

r'u"~

rode through the intermediate fpace, fwiftnefs, dinary difpofiUon' the numbers and difpofition of the enemy. obferving had learned from defertersj that the troops of the hundred to twelve thoufand, great king amounted He

divided into four commanded

equalbodies of men, refpectively by the four generalsTifiaphernes,


and

Gobrias, Arbaces"
however, had
not

Abracomas.

The

laft,
reach

yet

joined ;

nor

did he

Babyloniatillfive days after the battle. But, not* this defect,the numbers of Artawithstanding
xerxes were can

itill fufricientto

perform

whatever

numbers

accompliih.According to the Curof the Eaft, the king, furrounded by a chofen torn occupied the centre of the body of cavalry, the placeof greateft and moft as fecurity, army, his orders with promptitude convenient for ifluing
and

effect.

But the
even

fuch

was

the nations

extent

of ground
he
manded, com-

covered

by

various his

whom

that

centre

reached

left wing of the army called aloud


the
to

of

Cyrus ;
to

beyond -the who, therefore,


to oppofite be broken,
was
willing un-

Clearchus

advance Ihould

king's guard,becaufe,if that


would be done. But
to

the work

Clearchus

withdraw
be

the Greeks

from the

Euphrates,
he
ut-

left they fhould

therefore
moft The
care

kept his
to

by the enemy; Cyrus of his poft,alluring


all go well.

furrounded

make

difobedience

of Clearchus, and the diftruft The batthe

of

Cyrus, threw

away O

fortune of the

day, cynaxa,

which

196
CHAP,
XXV.
.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. the
renown

which

involved For eluded


;

the fate of Perfia, and

-"-'_'of
I.

Greece.

although,by
the armed

fkilful evolutions, and

oiymp.
XCV.

Glearchus

chariots

cavalry

A. c. 400.

of the enemy
and

nance though the Greeks, by their counte-

fhouts could

alone, put
not

to

crowd, who

endure

the oppofing flight of their the fight


or

regular array,
terror

their burniihed martial founds with the

arms,

hear

out with-

the

of their harmonious

Pecans, intermixed

clanging
-,

of

their

their brazen bucklers fpearsagainft yet the great of the Greeks, the rapid purfuit perceiving king,

and

that

nothing oppofed
men

him
to

in the

front, left, and


the

manded com-

his

to

wheel

vanced adrear

with of the enemy.

in celerity

order

to

attack

defignhad been carried into execution,it is probablethat the Greeks, having the firft onfet, would ately immedion prevailed have faced about, and, animated by the joy of victory, and their native ardour, have repelled
and routed the troops of Artaxerxes.
Raft
of

If this

im-

CyruB.

impatienceof Cyrus defeated this favourable profpeft. He obferved the movement of rode to meet his brother, and eagerly him, at the Such horfe. the head of only fix hundred was rapidviolence of his afiault,that the advanced thrown into difbrder, and guards of the king were fell by the hand their leader Artagerfes of Cyrus, had not learned who, with all his great qualities, between the duties of a foldier and to diftingurih lie might ftill* a general. By a feafonable retreat and gained a crown. perhaps,have faved his life, But his eye darting alongthe ranks, met that of
But the

his

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
a

197

fiis brother.
inftinctive

He

ruftied

forward, with
"

blind

CHAP.

1" i^y.J_i I fee the man fury,crying out, the thick globe of attendants, and, penetrating his corilet, aimed his javelin at the king,pierced and wounded his breaft. His eagernefs to deftroy the enemy preventedproper attention to fave

himfeifl

From

an

uncertain

hand

he

received

Hisdeatfa.

fevere wound increafed the

in the face, which, however,

only
his
were

fury with
and

which

he

aiTaulted
accounts

brother. of given,

Various the death this

inconfiftent

of

Cyrus,

even

by

thole who The


on

affifled in crowd
to

engagement. of hiflorians thought it incumbent


him die like the hero

memorable

them

make many

of

ter aftragedy,
many
riations va-

viciffitudes of of

and fortune.,

longer to
kill him
as

and Ctefias", the mife.ry. Dinon of their readers, fuipendthe curiofity with
a

blunted

weapon

but

Xeno-

that he fellin the phon is contented with faying, tumultuaryconflict of his attendants with the guards of Artaxerxes,who zealoufly defended their reipective matters; and that eight of his moft dential confi-

friends
with their

lay dead upon him,

thus

fealing

blood

their inviolable affection and

3\ fidelity Such
ratal
xerxes
c
i

was

the cataftrophe of this audacious


T

and
ArtaA

Jhe P"T*
nan

enterpnie;

after

which

T-

the

troops

troops

or

plunder

and proadvanced, in the ardour of fuccefs, ceeded, without encountering to the any refiftance,

hoftile camp;
"

Ariseus

off leading
*i

the

forces of

Apud

Plutarch, in Artaxerx.

Xenoph.

p. 266.

Lefler

198
c

THE
P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE,

HA

-r"

difmayedby the lofs of the valuable lj their prince and general. Among plunderin the tents of Cyrus, the Barbarians found
and LelTer Afia, dejected
two

Grecian

women,

his favourite

the rmftrerTes, The

elder of

Phocasa, the younger


wit and

of Miletus.

former,whofe
the charms
name

of her of

accomplifhments heightened beauty,received and deferved


the celebrated and rivalled, The miftrefs

the

from Afpafia,

whofe of Pericles,
character Die
too

talents fhe

whofe
young
j

refembled. faithfully

Milefian likewife fell into the hands


but while
on

of the enemy

tent Barbarians, incarelefsiy guarded by ufeful plunder, more efcaped unobferved^ in the quarter had been

the

and

arrived naked
a

of the
to

Greeks,

where

fmall

guard

left

defend the

baggage.
The

Meanwhile

Clearchus,
the

at

the head

of the
been

Grecaiv

c'ian phalanx" had the fugitives, purfuing ridfotiotH


in their cf the

rjecjabove
xerxes. were *n

diftance of three miles when he heard


and

from

Arta-

But
n*s

that the Barbarians with

?ued/heUr"
enemy.

tentJ

that, tired perceived,


to

plunder, theyadvanced
about in order
to

attack his rear, them. The

he faced time
was

receive

till fun-fet, made in various difpofitions by ipent, of Artaxerxes ; but neither the foldiers, the cavalry
nor

their

commanders,

had

courage

to

come

within in

the reach

of the Grecian

fpear. They
the Grecians

fled vanced; ad-

fcattered

diforder, wherever
with

an marching againft that feemed at incapableto fight, length enemy determined their camp j wondering to return to that neither Cyrus himfelf appeared, nor any of

who, wearied

his

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

199

mefiengers**.They arrived in the beginning their tents in diforder, of the night; but found their provifions their baggage plundered, deftroyed the lofs of four or regretted fpent. They chiefly
his
hundred had been filled with carriages

wine

and

which flour,
a

by provided
-,

the

of Cyrus, as forefight
Even thefe
were

refource in time of

want.

rifled
the

by
to

the

king's troops
appearance

and

the

Greeks, whom
had
not

fudden

of the enemy

allowed

the night without obliged to pafs' their bodies exhaufted of a by the fatigue fupper j laborious day, and their minds perplexed by the

dine, were

uncertain At

**. fate of their allies

Behaviour to move they prepared approachof light, of Ariasus arrived, Greeks their camp, when the meflengers them with the death of Cyrus. The acquainting ^^j commander, new they faid, had aflfembled the Cyrus's

the

troops of Lefler Afia in their former encampment, about twelve miles from the field of battle ; where
he

intended

to

continue
to

that
;

day, that
but if

the Greeks

might have
he would

time
next

joinhim

they delayed,
them,
wards to-

without day proceed,

Ionia, with the utmoft


"4-

When expedition.
advice
has fets

In

this battle, I relating

have
"

followed that and makes


as

the

of

tarch Pluit

in ArtaxerxeSj who
with

fays,

Xenophon
force,
him
as

defcribcd
the

fuch

elegance, perfpicuity,
of his reader, and
not
as

action

before
at

the eyes

aflift with A
man

emotion
of

every

incident,

paft, but
fdect

prefent.
;

fenfe,

will defpair to rival Xenophon therefore, the action in detail, will fuch

and, inftead of relating

circiimftances

only

as

arc

rnoft worthy of notice."


**

Xenoph.

p. 370, "

feqq. O
4

the

200

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
into

CHAP,
XXV
v_"

the Greeks

recovered

from

the confternation

^.._fwhich
to

thrown they were by thefe unexpectedand Clearchus melancholy tidings, replied, Would
((

God

Cyrus

were

alive ! but
we

fmce

he

is dead,

let Ariasus

know, that

have

conqueredthe king ;
j

that his troops have every- where fled before us and that now no enemy appears to refiftour arms. You
come

may,

allure Ariseus,that therefore,

if he will

place him on the Perfian throne, which is the juftrev/ard of our victory." With this propofalthe meflfengers departed,and
Clearchus collect led his troops
to

hither, we

will

the field of

battle,to

which provifions,

were

prepared by uiing
arrows,

for fuel the wooden

bucklers,fhields,and

of the Barbarians 1"s.


Their
an-

Next who

morning heralds
a

arrived from Artaxerxes, that

thcheralds

entertained

very

different opinion from

exprefTed by "r*e"*"
vho

the ifTue of the Clearchus, concerning

de-

their

ar-

Phiminiilers was Among thefe refpected efteemed by Tiflalinus,a fugitive Greek, a man both as a fkiifulcaptain and as an able nephernes, the chiefs were gociator. When aflembled, Phi-

battle.

for his colleagues, declared linus,fpeaking


the will of the great killed Cyrus, " That

it to be

king, who
the

had

defeated and
had
now

Greeks, who

the flaves of the conqueror, fhould furrender their arms." The demand heard with uniwas verfal

become

indignation.One
"

defired

him

to

tell the
"

king
it was

to

come

and

take them
to

;" another,

that

better to die, than


*6

deliver up their arms."

Xenoph. p.

a;a,

Xeno-

302

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. deliberate
was

CHAP,

lemn

facrifice, they proceededto

con-

"^L

their intended journey. It '__" cerning that inftead of

determined,

traverfmgthe defolated country by which they had arrived at the field of battle,they iliould direct their courfe towards the north, by
which

they would avoid the defert, acquire in greater plenty,and crofs the great provifions which commonly diminiih near their fource, rivers, and danger. They refolved alfo with leis difficulty
means

to

pedition, experformtheir firftmarches with all poffible the king's apin order to anticipate proach ;

fmce

with

fmall
a

force

he

would

not not

dare

to

and follow,
to

with

great army

he would

be able
They
ccpt
from
a

overtake, them
retreat

*8.

ac.

This

plan of

^e
Artune

diihonourable

proved a

more

propofedby Ariaeus, had of Might but for; appearance Such was conductor. glorious
courage and firmnefs had
on

ta.\erxes.

^e the

eiFect of the Grecian

counfels of Artaxerxes, that he, who the foldiers


to
to

fo

commanded lately
arms,
treat

furrender their
to day following

fent heralds

them

the

of

truce,

This memorable
which
were

agreement,

the

of confequences
to

nourable fo calamitous,yet fo hoconcluded vention by the interengaged,on the part with


a

the Greeks,

was

of

who TifTaphernes j
to

of his mailer,
caufe them
to

furnifh them
as

market,

to

be treated

friends in the countries,


to

through which they marched, and without For guileinto Greece.


the other hand, Clearchus
*8

conduct

them
on

the

Greeks,

and

the

fwore, generals

Xenoph.

p.

176.

that

THE that

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

203
H A

they ihould
and
was

abftain from

ravaging the king'sC


with
L

p.

that territories ;
meat

themfelves theyfhould fupply

-.--'^

drink
not

market

only,when, by any accident, the but when it was, that provided j they wanted
for
a

they

ihould

reafonable
When

purchafewhatever *9. price


was

this bufmcfs
to

tranfacted, TrcaTiflaphernes
to
come

returned
foon
as

the

king, promifmg
on

back

as

^iffa
Phcrne8
and Ariaeus.

poflible. But

various

pretences,

he de-

layed twenty days;


an

during which

the Perfians

had

with Ariasus. to pradlife opportunity By the dread of punifhment, if he perfiiled in rebellion ; by the promife of pardon,if he returned to his tion felicitaallegiance and, above all, by the warm and friends, that unfteady of his kinfmen barian Bardetached from the interefl of was totally his Grecian allies. His conduct ground gave juft which became this difpofition, dent evito fufpect fully of Tiflaphernes.From after the return that Ariaeus no moment longer encamped with the the neighbourhood of that Greeks, but preferred fatrap.Yet, for three weeks, no open perfidious the armies, fearing, committed and was hoftility j feared by each other, purfued the fame line of led the way ; and, according march ; Tiflaphernes
-,

to

agreement,

furnilhed

the Greeks

with

market*

increafed the difficulty of their treacheroufly journey,by conducting them by many windings gris through the canals and marflies between the Tiand Euphrates. When theyhad. crofled the
but
*9

Xenoph.

p.

281, " fcqq.

former

THE
CHAP,

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
to

former

river, they continued

march

northward
at

,J*^_, along its eaftcrn


diftance of Yet this
two
or

banks, always encamping


three miles from

the

the Barbarians.
to or

unable was precaution fent out to providewood parties with quarrelling each other.
to proceeded

prevent

the

From

foragefrom reproachful
;

words, they foon


thefe

hoftile actions

and

to produce the were encounters likely partial worft confequences, by inflamingthe latent,but which it had been fo difficult to animofity, general

ftifle or
Perfidious

conceal 30.
at

At

they arrived length


Zabatus,
.

the fatal fcene3where

t]ie river
of the

flowing weiiward
.

from

the

Grecian

mountains
.^ cian ^

or

Media,
ftream

pours of ^

its

tributarywaters
The Gre_

general*.

brQad

Tigris_

and particularly Clearchus, who had generals, long feen and lamented the unfortunate jealoufies

prevailing among

diofe

who

had

fworn

mutual

the combetween manders, a conference fidelity, propofed in order amicablyto explain and remove ground of hatred and complaint. ThTaevery phernes and Ariseus, as well as their colleague Orontes, eagerlydefired the conference,though their motives actuated
were

very
A

different from

thofe which

agreeableto both parties without carried into difficulty, was,, execution; and the Greeks, on this occafion alone, forfook that prudence and caution, which, both before and after, uniformly governedtheir conduct. Five generals, and twenty captains, to the repaired
*"

Clearchus.

meafure

fo

Xeuoph.

p. 282.

tent

THE
tent

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
two

205

of

only ThTaphernes ;
them, under

hundred

foldiersCHAP.
market.
."

followed

pretence of

going to
into

-T

'_/

Menon, Clearchus, with his colleagues,

Proxenus,
the
fa-

Agias, and Socrates, were trap's apartment


were not ;

conducted

the

whether reft,
to

allowed

enter.

diers, folor captains This feparation appearance A

occafioned

fear and

cliftruft. The
terror.

of

gloomy filence prevailed; thofe a when, on given fignal, and thofe withwithin the tent were out apprehended, to cut pieces. At the fame time the Perlian fcoured the plain,deflroying whomever cavalry
they encountered.
this mad camp; until The Greeks
were

armed

Barbarians

increafed the

aftonifhed from

at
l

excurfion, which

they beheld
an

their
came,

Nicarchus,

Arcadian,

miferablymangled, and informed them of the dreadful tragedythat had been a6ted31. they ran to their arms, Upon this intelligence
an expefting

Artaxcr-

immediate

aifault.

But

the in

cowardly JJ1^11*
and
Gl"ks
t"

Barbarians, not
honourable
war,

daring to
endeavoured

engage
to

open

accomplish their

with which by the fame impioustreachery defigns Inftead of advancingin a they had begun them. body to attack the Grecian camp, theylent Ariseus,

Arteazus, and
credit with

Mithridates, perfonswhofe

great

from

Cyrus might prevent their intentions They were by the enemy. being fufpecled by
a

attended

three

hundred When

Perfians, clad in

plete com-

armour.

they

drew
Cf

near

to

the

Greeks,

herald

called out,
p. 286, "

That, if

any

of

3'

Xenoph.

feqq.

the

2o6
CHAP.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

c--^.,^

prefent, they fnould with the advance, in order to be made acquainted the Lacedemonian, Cheirifophus king's pleafure." who, next to Clearchus, had hitherto maintained
the
were or captains generals

the

influence greateft with


a

over

the army,

be abfent

party of

happenedto maining foragers.But the re-

the Orchomenian, and Cleanor generals, tion proceededwith cauSophonetusthe Stymphalian, from the camp, accompanied by Xenophon the Athenian, who (though only a volunteer) lowed folthe commanders,
ConferCnCe
'

that he

might learn
3*.

what

was

become

of his

friend Proxenus

When

*keycame
faid,
"

witnin

of hearing
O

the Barbarians,Arizeus
1

fib

j""3.

Clearchus,
the but

Greeks

having
is

violated

his oath, and with gave the your caufe

articles of peace,
Proxenus and
are

puniihed
who with

juftdeath]

Menon,
rewarded

information of his crimes,

king'sfavour.
arms,

Of

you
now

the

king
was

demands

which, he fays, are


the Orchomenian,

his property, behis flave." the


name

theybelongedto Cyrus, who

Cleanor

fpeakingin
with

of the reft,replied to this demand

the utmoft

the perfidyof Ariseus, indignation, reproaching the friends and benefactors of his betrayed mailer Cyrus; and who co-operatedwith the of that mafter, the deceitful and impious enemy to juftify Tiflaphernes.The Perfian endeavoured his accufation of Clearchus* himfclf,by repeating That chus, ClearUpon which Xenophon obferved, if guilty of perjury, had been juftly punilhed * who
"

had

3*

Xenoph,

p"

188,

"

feqq"

but

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

but

where

are

Proxenus and

and

Menon,
? is

who Let

arejy"w

benefactors,

our

commanders
fmce it will

them,
that them

at

lead,

be

fent

to

us,

evident

their

friendlhip
what is beft

for
for

both

parties
This
and
;

make reafonable
the

advife

both." elude

requeft

it

was

impofnble conferring
an

to

Barbarians,
without

after

long

together,
Their

departed
mean

tempting at-

anfwer33.

duplicity
the

in

this
treatment

interview of
in the

fufficiently
Grecian and

indicated

unhappy
who
fent
were

commanders,
afterwards

kept
taxerxes,

clofe

captivity,
whofe
order

to

Ar-

by

they

were

put

to

death,

JJ

Xenoph.

p,

389.

20g

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

CHAP.

XXVI.

of Confternation Xenophon.
"

the

Greeks.
"

"

Manly

Advice

of

Their Retreat.

it"

Surmounted

by their

Difficulties attending Skill and Perfeverance.

"Their
"

the Sea fhians. Euxine. there. Enter


"
" "

tains. Mounthe Carduchian Sufferings among Firft behold They traverfe Armenia. Theches. Defeat the Col from Mount
" "
-

Shore of the of thefouthern Defcription


"

Tranfaffionswith
The

the
at
"

Greek Colonies

Greeks

arrive

Byzantium.
His

"

into the Service

of

Seuthes.

Hiftory. of
their

of th'e Greeks and Thra-ConjunctExpeditions


"

cians.

The Greeks

return

to

the Service

Country.
CHAP, XXVI
.

fjp

of their perfidious arTaffination


converted the alarm and

com-

",-'_/

JL

manders

terror,

Confterof

the

Greeks,

reignedin the Grecian into confirmation and defpair. This cataftrophe completedthe afflictionsof men
that had
hitherto above twelve hundred

camp, dreadful

diftant

miles from their native land;

furrounded
rivers
;

by craggy mountains, deep and rapid of their by famine, war, and the treachery
formidable The than the refentment of that it was foldiers reflected,

ftill allies, more their enemies.

main dangerous to depart, dangerous to reyet more could be acquiredonly by the j provifions hoftile; point of the fword 3 every country was although

THE
CHAP,

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

them To officers in the army. Xenoprincipal .'_" phon addreffed a fimilar difcourfe, encouraging t_" to them by every argument that religion, philofophy, J^med. their own and particularly command, experience, experience, could afford,to and that of the Grecian hiftory, bravery,and the expect fuccefs from their own
T"

favour

of Heaven,

and

to

difdain be

the

offers of

made) from had their impious foes, whofe infidious friendihip hurtful than their open enmity. alwaysprovedmore of the Spartan CheirifoThe heartyapprobation to the perfuafive phus added weight and authority eloquenceof the Athenian ; who farther exhorted
accommodation them
to

(iffuch

fhould

fubltitute commanders

in the

room

of

thofe whom

themthey had loft ; to difentangle that felves from every fuperfluous incumbrance of their march, and to might obflruct the progrefs advance towards the fources of with all expedition and Euphrates,in the form of a hollow Tigris having the baggageand thofe who attended fquare, it in the middle, and prefenting the valour of their the battalions
on were

every

fide to

the

enemy.

Thefe

refolutions

unanimoufly approved by the referred to the afcouncil, after which they were fembled troops, by whom confirmed, they were readily
and carried into immediate

execution a.

fucTimafion, Xanthicles, Cleanor, Philyfias, ceeded


to

the late commanders Proxenus


;

pliedthe placeof

and

Xenophon fupfo ablywas the


viitue main-

afcendant of Spartan and


2

Athenian

Xenoph.

p. 299.

tained

THE tained

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

211

CHAP, that the names by him and Cheirifophus, will feldom occur in of their unequal colleagues -t-!_f narrative of their retreat. the following The greater part of the day had been employed The meafures ; and in the afternoon, in thefe neceffary haraffed in the Zabatus, purfued their ^ir. the troops havingpafled r"~ recommended irithe difpofition march by Xeno- thePerfian phon. But they had not proceeded far, before andcavaltheir rear harafTed by the Perfian archers and fywas which afforded them a very inaufpicious cavalry, which they muft be to prefageof the hardlhips in eighteen continually expofed daysjourney along
"

the level frontiers of Media.

It

was

difficultto
tack at-

fkirmifhers,and impoffible to repelthefe light


them without
a

lofs ; becaufe
or
a

confiderable to being expofed detachment of heavy-armed men,


not

even

of targeteers,could
could

overtake them
the

in

nor fpace, without being cut Xenophon, with

fhort

they continue
than

purfuit
army.

off from
more

the reft of the

valour

but experiment ; and his retreat brought back fighting, 3. wounded, difheartened,and difgraced the unfortunate But
nor

tried prudence, was obligedto


men

this unfortunate

event

neither difheartened They


"

He the commander. ingenuoufly difgraced it as acknowledgedhis error, which, pernicious had taught the Greeks their wants. They fumifhthe was, wanted and light-armed cavalry troops ; the former w;th fllll"St of which might be obtained by equipping for war the baggage-horfes which had been taken from
3

Xenoph.

p. 305, "

feqq.

the

212

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

the Rhodians there


were was was

fkilled in (well

the

fupplied by of whom fling),


be

great numbers

approved\
railed,the
honour the

in the army. This vice adof fifty horfemen company

foon

obtain and
two

vyingwith each other to fervice ; pf this diftinguifhed


men

hundred

Rhodians

were

drawn with
as

from

the

ranks, who

farnifried themfelves

and flings far


as

leaden balls,which
flones

they threw
the and

twice

the

employed by
buff
coats

Barbarians.

The

men horfemanded com-

wore

corflets;they were

Their fucconfequence of
as a

The f"on

by Lycius the Athenian *. of thefe preparations was utility


as

difcovered

^e

enemv

renewed

their afiaults, with and flingers with their

thoufand

horfe, and
The and

four thoufand

furcs.

archers.

boldnefs

advanced newly-raifed troo'ps celerity, being allured that be fuftained But

unequal attack would waitingto


the

by the targeteers
;

^SrrCi- 'fieavy-armed men.


receive them,

the Perfians, not

fled in fcattered diforder

made purfued,took, many prifoners, and mangled the bodies of the great flaughter, flain, in order to terrify, by fuch a dreadful of revenge, their cowardlyand perfidious Ipectacle

Greeks

enemies %
Newdif1C

After march

this

the advantage, the

army

continued

to

Whh

along

banks

of the

and Tigris,

the
many

which

weftern boundaries
rich and

of Media,

meeting with
.

they had
to

ftrug-

from which they were populous villages, with pro vifions \ and admiring, as they fuppiied
4

Xenoph.p.

307.

Ibid, p. 508.

pafTed

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
H A

walls, the lofty and c pafTed along,the immenfe but deferted cities, the fpacious durable pyramids, of that flourifhthe ancient greatnels which teftified fubreluctantly ing kingdom, before the Medes of Perfia. the oppreffive mitted to government
The but Barbarians ftillendeavoured

P.

with

very

annoy little fuccefs, unlefs when

to

them,

they
fuch

or palled a bridge, any narrow occafions, the fquare form,

defile. On
in

which

they had

hitherto

ent doubly inconveniIn order to traverfe fuch a pafTage,the 6. foldiers were obligedto clofe the wings,and to which difordered the crowd into a narrow fpace,

marched,

was

found

ranks, and made

them the
run

obftruft each other.

When
were

they had crofTed to again obliged


extend

bridgeor
with refume

defile, they
their

all hafte, in order

to

the

wings, and
a

ranks, which
difheart-

occafioned ened

void in the centre,

and much

the men,

thus

expofedto

the fudden

attack

of the To

purfuers.
obviate

both

jnconveniencies,the Greeks
each fix companies,
men. con-

Sur-

from feparated

the army hundred

fiftingof
O

an

Thefe

were

fub- military
n -11

divided

into fmaller

and bodies, of fifty

twenty-

as well five,each divifion of the company, as the it whole, commanded by proper officers. When

became

to necefTary

clofe the

wings, in

order

to

thefe troops ftaid behind, thus difpafsa defile, mafs, and burdeningthe army of a fuperfluous them to proceed without confufion thereby enabling
6

Xenoph.

p. 310.

in

THE
C
II A

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
the effected, affume the

P.

in their ranks. army fame

After the

was pafTage

XXVI.

extend might again

the
as

wings, and

loofe arrangement
centre to

before,without

danger; becaufe the there was immediatelyfupplied by the detached the opening,if fmall, being rilled up companies ; each ; if men by the fix divifions of an hundred and if larger,by the twelve divifions of fifty;

ing the

expofvacuityleft

very

The
Greeks

divifions of twentytwenty-four of men, in proportion five ; as the fame number into which of columns the number to they were of ground 8. divided, would occupy a wider extent the Greeks this ufeful precaution With formed per-

by large,

the

approach
the
try coun-

fuccefsful march
the

to

the mountains

of the
no new

Carduchians, where

could enemy's cavalry

of the Cardu-

longer annoy
far difficulties,
which

them.
more

But

here

they found
than thofe

chians.

formidable

with

to contend. obliged The their left, fo deep and rapid, on was Tigris, that the paffage appeared abfolutely impracticable. Before them rofe the high and craggy mountains, the river, inhabited by a. which overfhadowed

they had

hitherto been

1
8

Xenoph.
I have

p. 310.
matter

explained this
are

minutely, becaufe

the words

of

Xenophon
pofitionof
be filled up tranflator

miftaken

by great military writers.


and of excellent

Major
a

Mautranfmay
no

villon,a fkilful engineer


the

fcholar, propofes
that He

words

Xenophon,
has taken

the greater gaps

by

the greater divifions.

obferves, that juftly

commentator or notice of the difficulty that naturally prefents itfelf on reading the paffage, which, however, I hope is fufficiently See 1'Effai fur perfpicuous in the text.

de I'lnfluence
no

la Poudre
can

Canon,
without

"c.

work

which,

I believe,

military man

read

from it inftruclion receiving

and

entertainment.

warlike

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

215
c independ"..

warlike
"ence

race

of men,

whofe

barbarous

p-

had

alwaysdefied
of the

9 the hoftilities of Perfia,as

-w-lj

the modern that of their fucceflbrs, the


arms

Curdes, does

Turk,

to

whom

they
Greeks

are

but
ingenious
ance

l". While the nominallyfubject what courfe to purfue, a certain took vided
/c

doubted
under-

Rhodian

of

to

deliver them
him
a

from

their

perplexity, prothe

they gave
fhall want, leather

talent,to reward his labour, he,


"

Tigris.

befides," continued

two

thoufand

the flaying

bags, which may be obtained by and afles, which flieep, goats, oxen,
affords in fuch
The fkins may

the

country
us.

numbers

as

we

fee the

around

be blown, tied

at

-ends,and fattened together by the girts belonging covered with fafcines, to the fumpter horfes, then
and with laftly

earth.
;

I fhall ufe

ftones large
two

in-

ftead of anchors
whom

every

bag

will bear

men,

the fafcines and earth will prevent from with very littlelabour on and whom,

ping, fliptheir acrofs


'

part, the
This but
not

of rapidity

the

current

will waft

the river "." contrivance ingenious


carried into execution
; was

commended,

The

fuf-

the Grecians
J

'"^ having Oef'


that
.

learned
the road would

from

fome

recentlytaken, prifoners
"*"

Greeks
mong:

a-

the

through the
foon conduct

country
them
to

of the Carduchians the


and fpacious Thither they

mountain*

plentiful province of Armenia. of fearlefsly penetrated, regardlefs


under
a

the report, that

former

a reign,

Perfian army
Rauwolfs

of

an

hundred

9
11

Xenoph. Xenoph.

p.

315.
314.

""

Travels.

p.

and

THE
CHAP,
XXVI

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

and twenty
fierce

thoufand

men

had
manners

been

cut
were

off by thofe
more

barbarians, whofe

rude

which than the mountains they inhofpitable the approach of the Greeks, the At inhabited. retired to their faftnefies, Carduchians leavingthe of the invaders. in the plain at the mercy villages reftrained from injury but their The ; troops were and

inoffenfive behaviour, and


peace,
were

kind

invitations

to

with regarded

enemies

mon by the comcontempt of the Greeks, of the Perfians, and

of human
to

kind.

They

feized every

obftruct

the march
a

of the army;

opportunity and though


cubits

unpreparedfor
which

clofe engagement, three

ufed with

traordinary ex-

effect their bows,

long,

they bent by
The

pre

the fling
were

lower
near

part with
as

their leftfoot.

long as the bows ; and their irrefiftiblepoints piercedthe firmed fhields and corflets. The Greeks employed
arrows

their fkill in tactics, and their valour,


to

to

elude,

or

the repel,

afTault of thefe
more

whom

they fuffered
in
as

dangerousfoes, from in feven days than they


from the braveft troops
arrived
at

had done

many Ia. At

weeks

of Artaxerxes river forms

lengththey
hundred

the

Centrites,two
the fouthern
to

feet broad, which

juft reafon
weapons Paithians

of the

boundary of Armenia, having that they had efcaped the rejoice the Carduchians, whofe pofterity,
arms

l3, with the fame


to

and

came addrefs, bewas

formidable
to
"

Rome,

when

Rome

midable for-

the world '*.


p. 218-2*6.
"j

Xenoph.

Strabo, 1. xvi.

p. 515.

.U Plat, in Craflb "

Marc. Anton.

The

2,8
e
H

THE
A

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

P.

them

the feet were

preferredby

conftant

motion

XXVI
.,_ T_

'_jin the day, and by


From Armenia

Proceed

bare in the night. ftripping they proceededto the country

through
the terri-

of the Taochians,
an

who,

alarmed

ill

by

the

approach
their

"^ the'Taochians.

unknown

enemy,

had the

abandoned

the vallies,

and

taken

refugeon

mountains, with
Hither alfo

wives, children,and cattle.

they had

fo that the Greeks conveyed all their provifions ; attack thefe faftnefles, otherwife to were obliged the army muft have been

ftarved.

The

Barbarians

flyinnumerable boldlydefended them, by letting the precipices. But this vollies of (tones down came beat lengthexhaufted was artillery ; the Greeks mailers of the heights ; and a dreadful fcene
followed.
down The
women

firft threw then

their children
The
men

the rocks, and this frantic

themfelves.

imitated

the aflailantsmade

fo example of defpair j few prifoners, but took a

that
con^

of fiderable quantity
The
fierce

fheep, oxen,

and

afies 1S.

proceededwith uncommon through the bleak and rocky country celerity fefs cha"^ ^e Chalybeans; marching, in feven days, thfchafand fifty hundred about an miles. The beans. Chalybeans
were

From

thence

the army

They
and

wore,

in all thofe parts. for their defence, linen corflets, greaves,


;

the

fierceft nation

helmets

they

carried

Qiort falchion

at

their

attacked with pikes fifteencubits girdles ; and long. Inflead of difcovering any fymptoms of or fear,they fang,danced, and. rejoiced, at flight of an enemy. the approach defended They boldly !8 Xcnoph, p. 335.
f I

their

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.'
a

their
ment

not even declining villages,

clofe engage-

H^A

p.
'

fupplythemand warfelves with nothingfrom this inhofpitable like but, in their dangerous march country, the cattle lately on through it, fubfifted entirely
with
j

the Greeks

who

could

taken from
The

the Taochians

Ip.

river

Harpafus,four
of

hundred
the

feet broad,
and
met

The

the territories feparated the Scythinians. From with which


a

Chalybeans
Greeks

latter the march

mount

littlerefiftance, in

of thirteen

days,from
3

/ d evotion held in particular place

brought them

to

the

mount lofty

Theches,
they
hold ***
vantain, moun-

be-

ants

of the
no

by The territory. neighbouring


fooner
afcended
were

the inhabit-

the

guard had
which

this facred

than the army

alarmed
with

continued
It
was

to

redouble

by loud fhouts, lence. vioincreafing


new new

danger had The was ready to affailthem. all poffible expeditionto the

imagined that fome that fome or appeared,


rear

form

of

enemy with

advanced

affiftance of their

companionsj
were

but

feized with
their the
ears

having arrived within hearing, the moft plealing aftonifhment,


faluted from
"

when

were

every

quarter

with

fea ! the fea !" the repetition, The fo long wifhed in vain, at fightof which, a fight of tumultuous firftrilled them with tranfports joy, the rememand afterwards recalled more brance diftinftly

of their parents, their friends,their country, and every objectof their moft tender concern*0.
.

with tears Thefolcliers,


Xenoph. p. 338.
*"

in their eyes,

's em-

Jbid. p. 339.

braced

220

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. their commanders; of

CHAP,
""5CXVI
y_

braced each other,and embraced


a

and then, as by 1^_ ',..

fympathy (for known it v/as never by whofe orders),heaped up baric of {tones, which mount a they covered with bara trophy of their memorable as journey arms,
hidden confent

throughfo
They

many
iVi

fierce and

hoftile nations. Euxine


''""'

paf*

The

diftant

profped

of the

made

them
r

through
tbeccmn-

nians.

the end ot that they had not forget yet attained A fpace, tneir labours. indeed, of lefs than fixty covered by the trackmiles intervened ; but it was lefs forefls of the Macronians, and by the abrupt

and A

intricate

windingsof
the

the

Colchian them

mountains. without

fortunate circumftance
to

enabled nrft

ficulty dif-

furmount
the

of

thofe obflacles.
was
a

Among
had been
had

Grecian

targeteers
the

man

who He

underftood

the

language of
to

Barbarians.

carried
as
a

Athens
At

in his the

ferved

flave.

youth,where he fightof the Main


terms

^cronians,he
;

his long-forgotten men countryrecognifed

and

having

addrefled

them

of

and refpect, friendfhip engaged them to exchange and to enter into alliance with the Greeks ", prefents, whom with provifions, and they plentifully fupplied

having

cut

down

the them

trees

that

conducted paffage,

in three

their interrupted days to the weftern

frontier of Colchos.
Enter Colchos.

This
.*

country,

fo
.

famous

in the
.

fables of anti-

/;
,

quity

was

inhabited

by

an

ancient

colony
from
any

or

who Egyptians,

ved long prefer

pure

reign fo-

admixture, not
*"

only their original language,


"

Xenoph, p.

340,

See Vol. I. p. 19, "

feqq.

but

THE

HISTORY

OF and

GREECE, the
more

421

but the
rites

fmooilar manners,
ceremonies,
or

fingularCHAP.
'

.".

and

their

mother-country

a,
.

xxvi.

in other refpects from the Though diftinguifhed and to nations, whom they detefted, neighbouring whom deteftable, they feemed they agreed with of the Greeks, whofe ftourifhin their jealoufy them ing colonies alongthe fouthern fhores of the Euxine of their dominions. threatened the fafety They affembled therefore from all quarters, occupiedthe and prepared the paflagewith to heights, difpute their obftinacy. Their numbers, their difcipline,
arms,

but, ftill
formidable.

more,

their

fituation,rendered
advanced be in
a

them

If the

Greeks

or phalanx,

full line, their ranks

would

broken

by

of the ground,the centre would inequalities of the eneand the fuperior numbers be difordered, my would Thefe inconveoutreach either wing*4". be remedied niencies might partly by making fuch parts of the line, as had an eafy afcent, wait for of their companions the (low and difficult progrefs abrupt and inacceffible mountains ; throughmore the phalanxin length, ing and leavand, by extending in file,their front might be very few men the rendered

equal to
1

that of the

Colchians. have
too
arrows

But

the

firilof thefe

would operations
to

long exof the


fo much

pofed the

army

the

darts and

Barbarians, and
be

the

fecond
muft

would have

have

enfeebled the line, as


to

rendered

it liable

penetrated.Amidil
Heroclot. 1.xi.

this choice of difficul-

**

c.

civ4

a*

Idem,

341.

ties,

222

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

CHAP,
'

and the propofal was propofed, that the heavyreadily approvedby his colleagues, fhould be divided into companies of armed men

ties,Xenophon

an

hundred into

each, and that each diviiion fhould be


a

thrown

wide intervals column. The feparate between the columns might thus enable the yond fmaller army to extend on the right and left bethe enemy's line ; each company divifion or might afcend the mountain wherever they found it the braveft men moft convenient might be led the depth of the columns firft to the charge ; be penetrated could the could not poftibly nor j
-,

a*

enemy

fall into the intervals between

out them, with-

Defeat the
*

being cut off by the divifions on either fide, which might be arrangedin fuch a manner as ta each other. relieve, encourage, and fupport This judicious attended with the was difpofition fuccefs. The heavy-armed men formed expelled vided eighty companies; the targeteersand archers, diinto three bodies,each
men,

of about

fix hundred

and left. Their right of Arcadians, octhird divifion, cupied chiefly confiding Thus a diftinguiihed placein the centre. for battle, the wings of the Grecian difpofed army and particularly the targeteers and archers, who moft capable of expedition, advanced with were
on

flanked the army

the

as

The

Xo^o;

is defined by o^8;o; the ranks

Arrian

to

be

body
more

of

men,

ivith the files longer than

depth

than

in front. But
orav

The the

; that without (p^Aa/xl,

is,with
any army,
as

men

in

epithet, means
the fame
more

the contrary.
tells us, in

$a.*.cty% v^"x is an
xt"wc
TTocEtoiTaj,

thor aumen

"?n

that

is,having

depth than in front, and employing, what is naturally the line of march reafon,

for fome
as an

extraordinary

order of battle.

celerity

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. who
"

223

to the attack. celerity

The

enemy,
on

faw them

CHAP.
XXVI

approach,and
they outreached
left in order
to

who

perceivedthat
to

either hand

.__!'-'_j
v

their line, filed


receive them.

the

rightand
movement

By this
towards

they lefta
Arcadian

void

in their centre,

which

the
lumns, co-

targeteers,

gainedthe fummit. on equalterms with They could thus fight the Barbarians,who, thinking theyhad loft allwhen fered oftheyloft the advantageof the ground,no longer
but fled on every fide with difordered refiftance,

advanced

by fupported and with rapidity,

the neareft

foon

trepidation, leavingthe Greeks


well of battle, as
as

mafters

of the field

of the

numerous

in that villages

and neighbourhood26, the Euxine

within
any

two

days
enemy

march
to

of op-

fea, without

other

thither. pofetheir long-difputed paffage


The

fouthern fhore of the Euxine, which uniform


fcene of effeminate contained anciently

acliu- Defcrip-

one ally prefents

indomany

foulhern
"hore ot

"

lence and barbarous


on

fullen tyranny, but warlike

tribes,totally inc. independent

eacli other, and the

pendance on
extends

fcarcely acknowledging any deking of Perfia. That part which


the borders of Mount. the

towards

the eaft and which

Caucafus, and
of the

afterwards formed

dom king-

by the Colchians, Drillians,Myfonaecians, and Tybarenians j the middle divifion was poflefled by the
who Paphlagonians,

great Mithridates, was

inhabited

gloriedin
cavalry
-,

the

irrefiftible

prowefs of their numerous


two parts, extending

and the weftern

hundred

miles from

Heraclea-

*6

Xenoph.

p. 34*.

to

224
CHAP,
XXVI
'

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

to

the Thracian
-

Bofphorus,
"

were
"

occupied by the

inhofpitable Bithynians;a colony of Thrace, who in war, which, like their anexcelled and delighted
ceftors in

Europe, they carried


the formidable

on

with

favage
nume-

fury17.
Amidft
coiony
of
rous

of hoftility

thofe

nations arofe,at wide which cjtjes^

feveral Greintervals, the barbaric

enlivened

gloom,

the peculiar glory of their arts and difplayed arms. Sinope,the mother and the queen of thofe fituated on a cities,was narrow advantageoufly ifthmus which joinedits territory, confidingin a fmall but fertile peninfula",to the province of of foundation mounted Sinope rePaphlagonia. The and was afcribed to the higheft antiquity, of the Argonauts *9. The to one Antolycus, city acceflion of afterwards increafed by a powerful was harbours on either convenient Milefians. It porTeffed fide of the ifthmus. The furroundwas peninfula ed by fharprocks, which rendered it inacceffible to and
an

enemy

and

the

fea abounded the

with Palus

the

tunny

which fifh,

flow in fiioals from

Masotis,

where
and

to theyare fuppoied Propontis.

be bred 3""to the Euxinc

27
*8

Sec Dionyfius

and Periegete?, iii. p. 46.

Arrian's

Periplus.
fix miles in circumference.

Tourncfort,
See the account

v.

faysit is about

29

of the

Argonautic expedition, vol.


who

i. p. 19,

"

feqq. Strabo, 1. xii. p. 546.


Lucullus,
when

gives us

this

information,fays
carried away the

farther,that
flattie of
"9

he

took

the town,

Antolycus.
au

Tournefott, Voyage

Levant.

Such

THE
CHAP,
-

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

and the other gods and heroes, the preferver, plter had hitherto conducted whofe bountiful protection them cealed through fo many known, and fo many condangers. They afterwards celebrated}with the gymnaftic and feftivity, much and pomp games exercifes; an entertainment equallyagreeableto

themfelves, to the citizens of Trebizond, and


whom the divinities

to

they both

adored.

When

thefe

for fuch the Greeks elfentialduties,


had with univerfal performed who to :be foldiers, were unwilling been

them, the fatisfaction,


burdenfome
to

deemed

their

Trebizontian
in

friends, found
their
own

fufficient employment

for providing
numerous

fubliftence,
For

and ral

that of their

attendants.

feve-

of days theyravagedthe neighbouringvillages the Colchians and Drillians ; and while theycruelly the harafied the enemies, they carefully refpected of Trebizond. Their repeated devaftations allies, around at lengthdefolated the country immediately could no them, fo that the foraging parties longer the fame let out and return on day; nor could without being theypenetrate deep into the territory
,

by the endangered
Thefe

nocturnal

aflaults of the Barbarians. rendered it necef-

circumftances think of

Trebizond ; on leaving which convened fix to account an afTemblywas the day of their departure, and to regulate the mode and plan of their future journey33. CheirifoIn this important deliberation the foldiers very of embraced the opinion of Antileon the*"generally to

faryfor

them

to

3*

Xenoph. 343, " feqq.

Thuria,

THE

HISTORY told them

OF

GREECE.
was

227
C**A p-

Thuria, who

that, for his part, he

tired with packing up his baggage, marchalready and ing, running,mounting guard, and fighting, now wifhed, after all his labours, to perform the demand remainder of the journey like Ulyfies, and, ftretched fromPthe
out
at

his eafe, to this

be carried afleep34into r

Greece.

sPar.ta"
admiral.

That

tion, pleafmg propofal might be put in execufailed to the Hellefpont, Cheirifophus hoping obtain Ihips from to Anaxibius, who commanded the Spartanfleet in that fea. But in cafe fuch a requeft be conveniently could not granted, demand few fhipsof the foldiers determined a to war

from

the inhabitants of Trebizond, with which


to

they intended

put

to

fea, and

to

ever capture what-

with in the they could meet Euxine, in order to employ them as tranlports35. without bringing MeanSeveral weeks elapfed any news of Cheirifophus, or promifmg any hope of aflift-Greeks merchantmen
the

34-

Thus

was on

by tranfported Ulyfles
the fhore
11

Phaeatians,who

placed

him

fleeping
O*

of Ithaca
7TGVTCV

S:

EVOO"T

tr.l

60*!fTH

CiyWTtS

KcnQarixv
The

n"

lO"xr, "C.

OdyfT. xiii.
immoderate

133.

beautiful

images

which

the poet, in the fame

book,

gives
about

of
the

the

pleafures of reft,after
Antileon
:

labour, played

fancy of
K.JU
TU

vTrsio; tijaufjioi;

ETT"

tiriTrlt tAE^a^ottrt
"y^;ir"
soixw?.
waves v.

Nviypro; $"?";$6anrrw
And the
man

80.
a

again,

"

The

(hip cut

the

of flight

the

fwifteft hawk

could

not

which rapidity, carrying a accompany,


with

O$ vftv

piv

TToXXa isothat

"?a9' cite/to, on
TE x.uucnct

nonet,

Ouftoi

Avofui it

7riipu"* aerff' eu$;t I7rf7ror9j"." y'ar^ifAa? ^J^ao"(x"""J5 A-/J_TOTE


35

WT9X"f*Br, ahiyeito.

Xenoph.

p. 345. ance

228
CHAP,
XXVI
v_"

THE

HISTORY the

OF

GREECE.

ance

from

Spartan

admiral.
no

Meanwhile
better
'

the
name,

Grecian
.

r"

for they deferve pirates,


fea.
r

capture
the
mer-

infefted the Euxine


monian,

Dexippus,
Vj
or

the Lacedasi r

chantmen Euxire-

with

a,

degree

perfidy worthy
commanded36.

or

his

"

commiffion, betrayedhis companions, and


off with
-

failed
But ardour

in which

the

which galley

he

theytr,
their

with an t]ie Athenian, behaved po}yCrateSj fometimes robbers fick, and fidelity which even in their transactions with each other
;

difplay
his fuc-

Cerafus.

and

of foon collected fuch a number diligence veffels as ferved to tranfport to Cerafus the aged,the the women and baggage ; while the ftrength infirm, of the army, confifting below forty of men years of age, reached the lame place in three days cefsful
march
TranfactheGreeks

".

The

colony

of Cerafus,
near

or

Cerazunt,

was

de-

fituated lightfully

the fea,among

hills of

eafy

age38with whole woods of cherry-trees, from which, in all probability, the derived its name thence the volup3S". From place tuous and eightieth Lucullus, in the fix hundred firft brought into Italy this delicious year of Rome, which ancient naturalifts fcarcely believed fruit, of thriving in an Italian fky; but which capable adorns the bleaker! and moll northern actually s' reafcent, covered
in every
Xenoph.
3s
39 mor

p. 345.

37

Xenoph.

p.

349.

Tournefort.

K^a^c?, cerafus, cerife, cherry.


in
the

For
a

fimilar reafon

Tadtree.

defert mentions
name

was

called it
as

Palmyra, opinion
The

palmis, the palm


of St.

Tournefurt

the

Jerom,

that

the

place gave 7

to

the fruit.

difference is not

material.

gions

THE

HISTORY
our own

OF

GREECE.

229

eions of

ifland.

At

Cerafus

the

Greeks

CHAP.
XXVI
.
"

of their booty,fupdays, difpofmg the army, which their wants, and reviewing plying fix hundred Hill amounted to eight thoufand men, the reft having perifhed by fatigue, war, cold, and

remained

ten

r-.'_f

ficknefs 4",
the lefs aclive portion Thc^ After this neceffarv delay, again
tra~

verfethe

embarked,

while

L-1

the

"

vigorous

youth

pur-

territories

fued their

journeythrough the romantic country Mofynxof the Mofynsciansj a barbarous, yet powerfulclans; received their fingular denomination tribe, who
from
the wooden
4I

houfes,
;

or

rather towers,

which
or

they inhabited
were defign,

and

which, either by chance


a manner

fcattered in fuch
at

among
each

the

hillsand
the The
narrow

that vallies,

the diftance of and alarm

miles, eight
other

could villages
army
next

hear

4at
chaly-

throughthe proceeded
who Chalybians, and whbfe
;

dark

and

diftricl of the

fubfifled by bians"

working of iron rugged mountains,


the muft have formed
a

toilfome

labours,
43,

and

more

rugged

manners

contraft with the fmillinking the innocent and life4*, ing plains,the paftoral character of their Tyberenian neighhofpitable bours
",

who

treated the Greeks

with every mark

of

a"cl

Ty-

and conducted and refpeft, them, with friendfhip the city of Cotyora. attentive civility, to that the army, It might be expected, having Difienreached the country

of their friends arid kinfmen,*' 4;

t'hTcam

4" +z 44

Xenoph. Xenoph.
in

p. 349.
p.
351.

MotvtSc

vxtu.

Idem,

p.

3.54.

them by DionyfiusPeriegetes qualifies

the

epithet iro^v^-"n;t

abounding

ilieep.

fliould.

23o
CHAP,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

to peaceably enjoythe difpofed ^_-y-l^fruits of their paftlabours and dangers. If they foon after themfelves to frefh hoftilito expofe were unwilling ties from the warlike inhabitants of Paphlagonia rivai in Cotyora. ancj Bitnymaj theymight have waited the arrival from Sinope and Heraclea, or from the of Ihips Spartan admiral in the Hellefpont,who would in his own either retain them fervice, or tranfport them to the Cherfonefus,to Byzantium,and to other cities and territories, which, beinglately conquered the vigilant of brave protection required by Sparta,

fhould

have

been

and
men

numerous

But garrifons.

it is

more

eafyfor

to

repelthe
the

afTaults of external violence, than their


own

to

elude

effects of

ungovernable

ger, paffions.The Greeks were involved in real danin proportion as they attained apparent fecurity. During the long courfe of their laborL Barbarians of unknown ous journey,the terror their difcipline and hangingover them, preferved their union. But the air of a Grecian colonyat difTolved both. once They, who in the remote of the Eaft had acted with one garded foul,and reregions each other as brethren, again felt the unhappy influence of their provincial diftinctions. The well divided by feparate interefts, as army was attachments. who had Thofe as quired acby partial home wealth, defired to return to enjoyit. Thofe who deftitute of fortune, longed to were plunderfriends and foes, Greeks and Barbarians. The commanders and deceived the troops defpifed the troops clamoured infulted the and againft, commanders. Both were reallyin the wrong;
-,

and

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. each
were

and both fufpectedand

accufed
none

other of ima-

CHAP.
XXVI
^

ginarycrimes, of Xenophon,
reflect either
does
not

which

"

guilty.
addrefs, has
can

"'j
j

who,
from his

with

wonderful

Xeno-

himfelf juftified
on

every

reproach45that
his
he
was

gr"a"s
feated de-

underftanding or
to

heart, views
ex-

by

deny

an

imputation

which

the

mean

unfea- Jh^ pofed by difcovering (fomewhat,perhaps, ""ey_" the juft and extenfive fonably) he furveyedthe pher. When the views of
a

miesphilofo-

fouthern

fhores well

of
as

Euxine, covered
are

in ancient

times, as

they
trees,

with tall and foreft prefent, majeftic he admirablyadaptedto fhip-building ; when


at

confidered

the convenience the

of the harbours, and the

confift-r territory, neighbouring ing in flax, iron, and every commodity moft necefambitious of faryin raifmg a naval power, he was fettlement, which the numbers, a new eftablifhing of his followers, the valour, and the activity muft foon render fuperior the other Grecian to colonies the Euxine, or perhaps in any part of Alia. on which But this noble defign, might have proved
'

of predictions

fo ufeful and

honourable

to

the

army,

was

blafted

of his enemies.. Xenophon jealoufy with formingprojects mantic equallyrowas reproached of an tion intenand dangerous; and accufed to keep the foldiers from home, that they might continue dependenton himfelf, and that he fame and fortune at the lifk might increafe his own 46. of the publicfafety

by

the

mean

45

Xenoph.

p. 367.

"

Idem,

p.

359,

"

ftqq.

The

232
CHAP.
XXVI
,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

The

mutinous

of the troops and diftrafted fpirit


weak and
waver-

^L,
in

rendered

all their future meafures


terror
,
"

Sufferingsing-. The
of the Greeks
their march

which
was

they infpired,and
re r 1

their
1

wants,

which
very *

"

it

neceiiary to guefts at
"

them
,

unwelcome
at

iupply, made Cotyora, Sinope, r


J

through
iiiyma.

and Heraclea,

which

places theycontinued
of

feve-

raj months, under

pretence

ports, but
country,

meanwhile

waitingfor tranfthe neighbouring plundering

layingthe cities under contribution,and their them with burdens that exceeded threatening faculties. The inhabitants of Heraclea, while they affected to confider thofe unreafonable demands,
removed their effects from
the Taut villages,
men on

the the

and placed armed gates of their city, \vail3.

Cheirifophushad
numerous fufficiently

by
to

this time

returned

with veflels from Anaxibius, the


but
an

not

Spartanadmiral" fo great tranfport


their

army.

The

foldiers thus

of difappointed

hopes, and

difcontented with their commanders,

and with each

other, rafhly undertook, in feparate


hundred and miles

bodies,the dangerous a journeythrough Bithynia,


country
to two extending

from

raclea He-

inhabited, or totally rather wafted,by the Thynians, a Thracian tribe, the moft cruel and inhofpitable of the human race. 1 n this expedition they loft above a thoufand men ;

Byzantium,

and had

the deftruction muft


not

have

been

much

greater,

of Xenophcn feaactivity generous led his own fonably divifion to the afiiftance of
thofe who
was

the

had deferted his ftandard.

Cheirifophus
which he de-

foon afterwards killed taken


in
a

by

medicine

had

fever.

The

fole command

volv

234
CHAP,
XXVI.
v.
."
'

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.' of
a

of
'

tempeft, prevented the execution


muft have

meafure
dan-*

which

r"

expofed them
them

to

immediate

ger, and
Xenoto them from

covered
tears

with eternal

infamy48.
"

With

and prayers, he conjured them tarnifh,by the deftruction of a Grecian

not

city,
What

the

glory of

campaign fignalized by
over

fo many

illuftriousvictories Fng^hat"
place.

the Barbarians.

could they entertain, afterunfuc-" if, hopes of fafety the king of Perlia, to dethrone cefsfully attempting they fho.uld provoke the refentment of Sparta? of money, of friends, of Deftitute as they were

by their mifconduct to a could theyexpect to infult with handful of men, in the world? impunitythe two greateft powers of late years ought to correct their The experience folly. They had feen that even Athens, in the zenith of her greatnefs, of four hundred gallics, poflefled
fubfiftence
;

and reduced

an

annual

revenue

of in her

thoufand

talents,and
who

ten

times that fum

Athens, treafury;

manded com-

all the iflands,and both in Afia and

occupied many

cities

Europe, among which was Bythe prefent zantiiim itfelf, objectof their frantic, whofe of Sparta., ambition,had yielded to the arms was authority acknowledged in every part actually
of

Greece.

What

madnefs, then, for


mixed

men

in

their friendlefs condition, a different nations,


to

afTemblageof
dominions of
from
?,

attack the
was

people
whofe

whofe

valour it
was

and irrefiftible,

for them to fly, impoffible without flying from their country, and taking refuge vengeance

*8

Xenoph.

p.

399, "

feqq.
among

THE thofe
two

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

235

among
near

hoftile Barbarians, from

whom,

for

CHAP.
t,

they had met with nothing paft, y-,'_f and treachery?" but cruelty, injustice, perfecution, of Xenophon faved The The judicious reprefentations Byzantium ; but it is probable that neither the invited weightof argument, nor the power of eloquence, and ofSeuthes; would have long reftrained the difcontented of needy troops from attempting other enterprifes had not nately fortufimilar nature, if an a opportunity itfelf of employing their dangerous prefented in the fervice of Seuthes, a bold and activity
years
,"

fuccefsful adventurer
the

of Lower

Thrace.

Masfades,

the Melanreigned over the Thynians, and the Thranipfans, who deptans, inhabited the European Ihores of the Propontis and
his Euxine fea. The

father of Seuthes,

licentious turbulence

of

minions. compelled him to fly from his dofubje"5ts took He refugewith Medocus, king of the Odryfians,the moil powerfultribe in Upper his own had long Thrace, with whofe family been connected by the facred ties of hofpitality. Medocus tained, kindly received, and generou fly enter-

the father ; and, after his deceafe, continued


the fame and bounty to his fon, Seuthes. protection of the young But the independent fpirit princedifit,to live like a dog af andained, as he exprefles other man's from table. He

defired horfes and

foldierS

Medocus,
His

that he

for himfelf.
fions
were

might acquirefubfiftence was requelt granted; his incurterror

fuccefsful ; the

of his
;

name

filled

all the maritime

parts of Thrace

and tliere was reaibn

236
c H XXVI A
'

THE
P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECEV

reafon forces

to to

believe that if he could


his
own,

jointhe Grecian
*9.

he

might eafily regainpofleffent


to

fion of his
Their

dominions hereditary

wth^
prince

Xenophon Medothe Greek fedes,a Thracian, who, underftanding ferved him as ambaffador. The ufually language, foon agreed on. Seuthes of the treaty were terms promifed each foldier a Cyzicene (about eighteen the captains two fterling), Cyzicenes,and /hillings The the generals four, of monthly pay. money, it was as obferved, would be clear gain, they might the country ; yet fuch of the fublift by plundering Seuthes nature, booty as was not of a perifhable that by felling it in the marireferved for himfelf, time he might providefor the pay of his towns,
For this
new

purpofehe

auxiliaries 5".

The

Having
armv"
tne to
en-

communicated Grecian

their

defigns to
followed
was

the

commanders

Medo-

"rs

fades
about
f

the camp
from
note

of Seuthes, which the coaft


in the

diftant
a

in the

fix miles

of Perinthus,

city
*

"^ confiderable
Scutbcs.

neighbourhood
Seuthes

of

zantium Byhim-.

They
the Barbarians

arrived
and

after fun-fet, but watchful.

found

awake
a

felf was

pofted in
at

bridled flood

the the

Itrong tower ; hories ready gate ; large fires blazed at a


camp

diftance, while
darknefs
;

itfelfwas

concealed

in
ne-

precautions,however
the moft

fingular, yet
who
were

cefiaryagainfc the Thynians,


of all men, danerous

deemed,
in the

enemies

Xcnopb.

p.

393,

"

feqq.

Idem

ibid.

night.

THE

HISTORY The Greeks


them
were

OF

GREECE.

237
enter.
",

night.
Seuthes

permitted to

H_A

p.

received

entering on horns full of wine; then confirmed drink in large of his ambaftador ; and ftillfarther the promiies beallured Xenophon by the hopes of receiving,
fides the

fore

be- v^l-v-^j hofpitality to bufinefs, challengedthem with ruftic

ftipulated pay, lands and cattle,and the fea-fhore. eftablifhment on advantageous the camp Next day the Grecian army joined
their
new

an

of

The

army

mailer. with
a

The

commanders

were

h'f -j,oins. again to


ftandard,

entertained

copious feaft,in which


were

Seuthes

After fupper, all his magnificence. the difplayed


buffoons and dancers and

introduced,the cup
whole

went

round, brifkly
folved
to

the

afiemblywere
knew
how

dif-

in merriment. when

But
to

Seuthes

far

and indulge, tivity.Without flillnefsof the

the joys of fefreflrain,


to

his revels allowing night,he rofe with a

difturb the

martial

fhout,

who avoided and a a man imitating javelin ; then Grecian the captainswithout addreffing defired them to have their any fignof intoxication, men my, ready to march in a few hours, that the enewho were with the poweras yet unacquainted ful reinforcement which he had received,might be taken unprepared, and conquered by furprife51. The in motion it was at midnight \ camp was the middle of winter, and the ground was in many theGreeka But the Thraparts covered with a deep fnow. cians,clothed in fkins of foxes, well prepared were for fuch nocturnal expeditions. The Greeks fuf*'

Xenoph,

p. 406, 5c

feqq.

fered

238
CHAP, XXVI

THE

HISTORY
5*

OF

GREECE. but the

fered much
their march,

by the cold
animated

rapidity of

by the certain profped of their fufferings. them forget made Where fuccefs, attacked and, were ever they arrived, the villages
-

the plundered, and cattle


were

houfes

were

burned, many
the ravages

captives
of that uniform
of
a

taken, and

By
of

the reprefent bloody night fufEciently the ?.f- fcene of cruelty, by which, in the courfe thT weeks, Seuthes compelledinto fubmiffion habitants of that fertileand that lies between of the poffeffion do-''" moft could
arms

few

the in-

Greeks,
Seuthes
recovers
1

populous flipof land


and

the Euxine this

Propontis.

But

minions,

valuable
not

which the formed territory, of his hereditary dominions, portion ambition.


over-ran

his fatisfy

lie the

turned

his

northwards, and
maritime

country about
at

a Salmydefius,

cityfituate
name,

the mouth

of

river of the fame branch of

which Hsemus There

flows from the into


a

fouthern
cious

mount

fpa-

bay of the repeatedthe fame had alreadymade tality ;


much

Euxine.

the allied army

destructive havoc
in the fouth
;

and

they avenged,by hoipifo


were

which

their cruel incurflons, the caufe

of violated

for the Barbarians


to

of thofe parts

plunderthe veflels which were often fhipwrecked their fhoaly coaft, that they on had diftinguifhed of in the nature it by pillars,
accuftomed
'

H"

dc

%Utiv

TToXXrijX.SH
x.cu
otro o o"o-

lwru"; \|/t;p^c;
iv

cart

To

v"iu3

sS^o

SttTTtov, VKYiywrc,
xou

TO*;

ayyuon*
was as

xoti

Tuv

EXX")"w"

"ws;

owixju

HO.I

u-rx..

There froze

much

fno\v,
were

and

the

cold
to

fo

intenfe,that
and

the

water

they

carrying it
alfa

fupper, and
cars

the wine

in the veflels.

Many
408.

of the Greeks

loft their

nofes.

Xenoph.

p,

land-

THE

HisTokY
to

OF

GREECE.

139

land-marks,

by afcer- c H : A P. quarrels, the property of the fpoil53. taining months after his jun"ion HIS figIn the fpaceof two his pofleflions with the Greeks, Seuthes extended Jjfuc}]
prevent inteftine
\,.
-v-

-j

feveral

days march

from

the fea

his numerous, fuccef-

but unlkilful

were enemies, fighting fmgly,

fivelyfubdued; each vanquifhed tribe encreafed allured by the Odryfians, the ftrength of his army;
the flocked to his ftandard, and plunder, of his fortune, no trie growing profperity longer the him the fupport, to neglect difpofed requiring

hopes

of

of his Grecian fervices, of levity


the

auxiliaries 54.
was

The

grateful un-

the Barbarian

encouragedby

'

counfels perfidious
one

of his favourite Heraclides

Greeks, who fugitive for their having merited punifhment at home diftinction abroad wickednefs, obtained by their fullied with every vice, preparedalike talents ; men die or to deceive, and who to having provoked of their own the refentment by their countrymen and their audacity, often acquiredthe intrigues efteem of foreigners by their valour and eloquence, and in negotiation. their (kill in war, dexterity exhorted his matter to defraud Heraclides ftrongly
of Maronea,
thofe the from

of

Greeks

of their pay,

and

to

deliver himielf difmiff-

their troublefome

importunities, by
But the

ing
than

them
the

from

his fervice.

fears,rather
from

of Seuthes, preventedhim delicacy this adviQe;

complying with
5*

he

loft his honour

Xenoph.

p. 408.

*+

Idem,

p,

414,

"

feqq.

without

THE
24o

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

II

P.

without

faving

his money
",

and

the

Grecian ,gene-

"J_-T-

"'_'

ra^s

nad
an

earty

opportunity

to

reproach

his per-

The

fidy

and

ingratitude,

being

foon

calledto

engage

in
a tiimto

honourable
more

warS53

kindled

by

the
re-

^entment

of

Artaxerxes

againft

the

prefumption

of

the
country,

Spartans,

who

had

fo

ftrenuouily

fupported

the

unfortunate

rebellion

of

Cyrus.

SS

Xenoph.
p.

427.

THE
CHAP,
"*

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. but their co-operathem

rival of the king tion with


an

of Perfia

",

ambitious

rebel

rendered
His

the

enemies perfonal
to

of Artaxerxes.

refolution
to

chaftife their

audacitywas
after

communicated
retreat
moun-

who, Tiffaphernes,
the Greeks
"

the haraffing

of

to

the foot of the Carduchian he


a

tains, beyond which them,


Lower
his

had

not

courage

to

follow

returned

with

powerful army
the government

towards

Afia,

to

refume

of Caria,

well as to take pofiefas hereditary province, of Cyrus, beflowed on him fion of the rich fpoils

of his mailer, in return for his gratitude that dangerous fervices againil and fignal recent to the throne. pretender

by

the

Attacks
the Mor

Honoured
,

with
c
,

this

magnificent prefent,Tif/L
i
"

lian ci-

fapherneswas
vengeance Without

farther

entrulted

with

-i

executing

the

of the great
any

the Spartans. king againft

formal declaration Eaft

of war,
to

which render cities ;

the
un-

late hoftilities in the he neceiTary,

feerned

attacked

the

JEolian

the

Pharnabazus fatrap
and concurred with

entered readily

into his The

views,
daemonian Lace-

all his meafures. the

by fupported garrifon,
defended themfelves
with their
a

townfmen,

however, earneftly foliciting,

courage, reinforcement from


to

ufual

home,

which

might
an

enable

them

refilland

to

danger *. unexpected On this important occafion, the Spartan fenate TheSp-rand affembi7 were not Wanting to the affiftance of -Thi'mbron
1

lurmount

Hich

Xenoph,
416.

Hellen.

1. iii. p.

480.

Diodor,

Sicul.

1. xiv.

p.

their

TH"

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
CHAP.

the hopes of their JEolian to or garrifons, allies. They immediately levied a body of five thoufand Peloponnefian a troops, and demanded the Athenians. confiderable fupply from The
latter fent them

their

c"

v"

J
"

^
a

theiraffift-

three
the

hundred

horfemen, who

having ferved
tifans of the the

under
to

facrificed

new

forces was joint


who had

fully cheerthirty tyrants, were this dangerous duty by the parof democracy. The command entrufted to the SpartanThimbron,
as

orders %

foon

as

he who

arrived in
had
gaged en-

^olis,

to

take into pay


.

the Greeks

in the

of Cyrus, and expedition difhonourable


The
mean

who

were

employed in the actually Barbarian. an ungrateful


behaviour of
_,

lervice of
which perfidious
["?

and
new

of Seuthes, who,
his

in his

character of
r
' ' "

bevlnth"
Greeks
who had returned

prince,flillretained
.

manners original

Tiiracian

robber,

rendered

JIL

the

propoial or joining
who

Thimbron conducled
men,

to Xenophon, extremely agreeable to

the Lacedsemonian remains

ftandard fix thoufand


of
an

the venerable

army

ex-

haufted

and

ennobled

by unexampled

toijs and

dangers3. Having
Thimbron
tenant

received

this the

opened

powerfulreinforcement, Thimbron the lieucampaign againft


the diftance of two years
with

of Artaxerxes,

at

afcer Cyrus had the


crown

marched
The

from

of Perfia.
arms were

Ephefus to dilpute oiymp. firftimpreffions of the


with confiderable fuctowns

Grecian cefs.

attended

Thimbron

took,
Hellen.

or

the regained,
416. Diodor.'p.

of

Xer.oph.
3

p. 550.

Xenoph. Anabaf. R

1. vii. p. 427.
2

Pergamus,

244
CHAP.
XXVII.
,_
"

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECF.

Pergamus.

Teuthrania,

Halifarnia, Mvrina,

_T("

fails in the

Lariffa ;

Grynium. But the walls of LariiTa, in the Troade, defkd his afiault ; the a ftrong city baffled all his contrivances for vigilant garrifbn depriving them of frefh water; and, affifted by made a vigorous the inhabitants of the place, fally, and burned the befiegers, demolifhed or repelled
Cyme,
and their works.

recalled

graced ;

Nothing ruptedcareer

but of

continual action,and

an

uninter-

could reftrain the licentious victory, of the troops, compofed of a motley paffions from fo many different, and often hoflile aflemblage

communities. formidable
Afia. the
to to
to

Their
each

feditious ipirit rendered

them of

other, and

to

the

Greeks

Their

ipared not rapacity

the territories of

Lacedaemonian
the

\vho loudly allies, complained

the violence of the troops fenate,afcribing of the

of general. In confequence Thimbron this reprefentation, recalled and was *, and the command, for which he feemed difgraced the weaknefs

Recced- f0
edbyDercyiiidas;
man

in

was qualified,

beftowed
who

on

'

Dercyllidas, a J
3

fertile m

reiources,

could

often

vary

his

conduct
knew

without
to

changing
and the

his

who principles ;
to

when

relax, and

when

enforce the difthe talents of


an

of the camp, cipline able general, added


who with ad-

who,

to

of being the reputation

beft

of engineer

his times.

By

direcjudicious

^on "^"t^ie macftines "f war which he invented,or eefuai the obflinacy of abilitythe improved,Dercyllidas overcame Lariffa ; and in the fpace of eightdays, reduced and war
peace.
*

Xcnoph.

p. 481.

eight

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE,'

245

CHAP. other citiesin the province of Pharnabazus. eight of his conquefts recommended him The y..J rapidity ufe of the Spartan fenate, and his moderate to endeared him to the Afiatic colonies. He victory leffened their taxes, encouraged their induftry, with candour, and decided heard their complaints their differences with the rnofl impartial juftice. the cruel example of his predecefibrs, Difdaining he impofed not exactions the on any arbitrary and left the peacefulcitizens and hufbandmen;
"-,

maintenance
fome his
to

of his troops fhould of the allies and fubjects

prove

burdenfixed

Sparta,he

in Bithynia, where die valour winter-quarters of Xenophon and his followers had lately fpread the
terror

of the Grecian
in the

name. Com
m

commiffioners fent were fpring, the affairsof Afia, and to from Sparta to infpect for another year, the authority of Derprorogue,

Early

if-

femTom
sPar*a
to

cyliidas, provided
connVmed been
at

iv

-jii-

their

obiervations

"

and

"

"

"

the very

favourable

accounts

inquiries that had

Prorogue his autho-

Q^*
xcv

given of

his administration.

On

their arrival

4.

Lampfacus, where the army was then alTembled, they vifited the camp, and afiured the foldiers, much of the republic that the magiftrates as proved aptheir conduct in the laft, as they had demned conit in the

preceding, year,
of

preffmg the
the
was formerly,

fenfe of the

excaptain, that multitude, replied,

different behaviour

and the troops, now yet lefs different than the characters This

DercylHdas. was not more military approbation


R

of Thimbron

and

teftimonyof to the flattering


commiffioners who
;

the than farisfactory to general,

THE
CHAP.
r

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

who

vifited the neighafterwards,at his requeft,


of ^Eolis
and

bouring towns
them in
a

Ionia, and

found

condition

extremelyhappy and fiourifh-

ing5.
-

Dercyllidas

Before ^ hirri"

leave of Dercyilidas taking theyacquainted the inhabitants "f the Thracian Cher-

fies' fortithe

Cherfonefus.

fonefus had

lent to Spartaan cmbaffy, relately afliftance againftthe fierce Barbarians quefting and that, inhabited the adjoining who territory ; ihould circumftances permit him to afford protection
to

thofe induftrious and

diftrefledGreeks,

he

perform a fignalfervice to the ftate. of Tiffaphernes, The who, notwithinactivity which he had conducted ftandingthe powerful army further refrom Upper Afia, ftillexpected inforcements the from Eaft, encouraged the undertake this ufeful and meritorious Grecian general to The Cherfonefus was of one enterprife. the moft fertile and beft cultivated fpots in the In an of fifty miles in ancient world. extent length,and fifteenin breadth,'it contained eleven ous rich and fiourilhing and feveral commodicities, The harbours. fields,producing the moft valuable grains,were arid adorned interfperfed with delightful and orchards, as well as plantations
would
6

with lawns

and

meadows,
Had

ftored with

all forts of

ufeful cattle.
an

inlular

form,
but
a

this beautiful country enjoyed its happinefs would have been neck of land,
to

complete ;

longs furthirty-feven

in breadth, joinedit
5

the territories of the

Xenoph.

Heller.
xxi

1. Hi. p. 487.
acirw.

Xenoph.

p.

fierceft

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

247

fiercefttribes in Thrace.
lidas could

The

troops of Dercyl- CHAP.

their inroads. They. have repelled eafily by deftroying might have punifhedtheir cruelty in the open their miferable villages country ; but in the Barbarians would have found a fecure refuge
their army down

woods
was on

and

mountains,

and have

whenever

the

withdrawn, would
the

again poured

Cherfonefus with their native helplefs afforded fury, heightened by revenge. Dercyllidas ufeful affiftanceto thofe unhappy Greeks a more and employed in their defence, not the courage,
but the

"

labour, cf his foldiers.

With

inceffant almofl
to

and continued toil,begun in the fpring, the autumn,

they formed a ftrongwall acrofs the ifthmus j the fpace was bour marked out, and the lathe feparate to communities diftinctly apportioned
from
and the which the army
was

had

been

levied

by the iharpened in perfon fuperinincitement of gain,the general rewards (lavifhly tendingthe work, and bellowing the moft furnifhed by the wealthyCherfonites)-on and deferving 7. diligent returned from this emEnters had.fcarcely Dercyllidas ennobled by its utility, when the ploymentjjuftly faPlierne*" combined and Tiffaphernes forces of Pharnabazus of Ephefus. The appearedin the neighbourhood generalcollected his v/hole flrengthin order to givethem battle; the European foldiers di 'played fpur
a

of emulation

noble

ardour

for action
had

but

the
to

inhabitants of his ftandard,

the Afiatic coaft,who


7

flocked
488.

Xenoph.

p.

were

248
c. H A P.
'

THE
Werc

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
an
"

intimidated by the fisht of far exceeded their own.


"

enemy
.

whofe
.

XXVII.
L _^_

numbers
r

This

panicmight

have

the troops of Tiffahad not proved fatal, feltthe terror which they infpired. They phernes recollected the braveryof the ten thoufand who had accompaniedCyrus ; they perceivedthat the had to contend exforces with whom ceeded they now but theydid not reflectthat that number j of Dercyllidas generate fwelled by the dethe army was

Greeks
had been

of 7"olis and Ionia, whofe

minds

enfeebled and

degraded by

long feries

of

gaged oppreffion.The cowardice of the Perfians enmuch the inclination TiffapherneSj againft

of Pharnabazus,.to

propofe a conference ; the cowardice of the lonians engaged Dercyllidas to thus fufaccept the propofal,Hoililities were mutual were given pended ; hoftages ; overtures difof peace were made j and mefifengers were patchedfor inflructions to the Spartancouncil,
and
to

the

court

of Perfia.

The

of TifTaphernes, however, was only defign moft timQ The to "a*n by amufmg the enemy. cr"uyfp"refolemn oaths and engagements had long loft their pare his perfidious mind. He treacheroufly power over watched the war, waiting an to renew opportunity with impatience for the promifedreinforcements from the Eaft, and efpecially for the equipment of a fleet, which Artaxerxes was preparing,with filence and in the ports of Phoenicia. celerity, Thefe fecret preparations communicated to were the Spartanmagiftrates of Heby the patnotifm rodas, a Syracufan, who, animated by the love of Greece^
Perto re"war.

The

050 CHAP,
ment

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
and eloquence adployed em;

of his favourite.
which would

That
been

drefs % J^-11^

have

ineffectual if

for himfelf, fucceeded in behalf of another


and
more

by

the influence and

by the merit, Agefilaus was


than
vacant

of Lyfander,ftill intrigues of ftrongclaims of juftice.and


declared
at

fucceffor

to

the
two

throne

and,

the diltance of about

in chief of the Greek forces in years, commander in name than that of Afia j an office lefs fplendid with king of Sparta,but carrying weightand authority.
ciuadon's

it

more

folid

In

tne

interval of thefe fucceffive honours, he

confpi-

in the fervice of approvedhis attentive vigilance of which the fafety, the republic, and even the exiftence, was endangeredby a daring and bloody Cinadon, diftinconfpiracy. A youth named guifhed above his companions by extraordinary and agility, lefs conlpicuous not for was ftrength

undaunted
an

courage

and

ambition.

Defcended

of

felt and regretted the family,Cinadon of the government under 'partiality mortifying
obfcure
*

The

of Leotychides, partifans oracJe This

in

pleading his
exhorted the

caufe

before
to

the

affembly, alleged an
of
a

that

Spartans
and

beware in

lame But

reign.

pointed at Agefilaus, who


one

limped
pected unex-

walking.

Lyfander, by
often the

of thofe the

ready
of

turns, which

decide

refolutions oracle

numerous

affemblies, directed

battery
was

of the

againft Leotychides,
indifferent
but
a

that it afferting,

the

lamenefs fince it

of the title only which


was
a

Apollo
to

mud

have

had

in view, the

matter

the

gods
of

whether

Spartan kings walked


whether

gracefully ;
from Athenian

matter

high importance
of Com. "
I

the fon

they Jupiter, or Alcibiades, an


Piut. in

defcended

cules, Her-

profligate

and exile.

Agdil.

"

Ly,fand."

Xenoph. Agefil.

Panegyr.

Hcllen.

i. iii.p. 493.

which

251

which with

he the

lived.

His

pridewas

deeply wounded
abilities his
mature,

'i

c H

P.

that reflection,

whatever

and youth might promife, the

his manhood

unfortunate

circumflances from the

of his birth

muft

for ever

of principal dignities circulated among few Spartan the ftate,which a of extendingbeyond families,without the poffibility warmth of that very limited- fphere. The of his paflions, his character,and the impetuofity and revenge: nor prompted him to feek juftice his blind and headlong alarmed by the ferocity was
exclude him
means,

however
He

atrocious, that muft


communicated
and

lead

to

this

favourite end.
to
men

the horrid

deiign

of his own,

of

an

inferior condition,

their exaggerating cracy, of the

cruel

treatment

by

ftern arifto-

which

he contrailed with the mild and


a
-,

neighbouringcommunities; fubmit to that if they muft afferting,


be better
to

equality perhaps
mafter, it
that
even

would
the

have

one

than many

of a monarchy enjoyed fubjedis greater equality than the members of the Spartan reand liberty public 9, fince the former all equally participated in thofe prefermentsand honours, to which not only the flaves, the Helots, and freedmen, but the whole body of the Lacedaemonian people, forbidden to afpire.After this general were reprehe fentation, fectual efwas more neglfcfted not, what and important, tp arraign the arrogance
9

This

language
in

have

often

heard
are

from
more

the

of Jubjefis

modern

republic, whofe

citizens

not

remarkable

for in

their firmnefs it.' cxercifiiig

maintaining power,

than

for their moderation

and

THE
CHAP,

HISTORY

OF^GREECE.
to

and

fenators,and of particular cruelty


nor

inflame

the refentment

their of individuals againft


;

private

to encourage forget of fuccefs,by all with the certain profpect them and numbers with their own ftrength contrafting who the weaknefs of an might be taken enemy, 10. unarmed, and cut off by furprife and the author The time for a"ion approached, is difcohis affociates to ftay commanded of the confpiracy when ripe for at home, that they might be ready at a call. Agethe accuftomed vows meanwhile, performed filaus, of the republic the and facrifices for the fafety ;

and domeftic foes

did he

extcu-

appearance of the and concealed

entrails announced

fome

ful dread-

danger; a fecond victim was ftillmore unfavourable ; were (lain,and the figns the prieft but after examining the third facrifice, ! to be in We feem, O Agefilaus exclaimed,
"

the

midft

of

our name

enemies."
has
not

Soon

afterwards, a

whofe perfon, of guilty

been
to

of record, denounced
as a

Cinadon

thoughtworthy the magiftrates,


which
he had
an

treafonable
to

of defign, himfelf defired


to

endeavoured

render
was

When

the informer
more

accomplice. his declaratio explain

he fully,

told them, that Cinadon

havingconducted him to the great fquareof the which, beingdeflined for the publicafiembly city, and the market, was the ufual place of rendezvous, defired him to count of Spartans the number whom he faw in that fpacious refort. That he counted the king, the cphori,the fenators,and about forty
10

Xenoph. IkUen.l.

Hi, p. 493, "

feqq.

others,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

253

others, and then afked Cinadon, for what


he had

purpofe

CHAP.
XXVII

him to take that feemingly ufelefs required the confpirator, I reckon trouble ? Becaufe, replied the Spartans to be enemies, and all the reft,whofe to you behold in the market-place, great numbers does this proportionapply to be friends. Nor to adjacent Spartaonly ; in the farms and villages lhall in each houfe and family have the city, we
one our

enemy,

the mailer, but all the fervants will be Cinadon then him acquainted

friends.

with

the

and caule object been formed by men

of the of

which had confpiracy, and fortitude, and probity


to

which

was

foon

to

be communicated

the flaves,

and the whole body of Lacedaemonian peafants, againftthe Spartanswas people,whofe animofiry violent to be concealed. That the greateft too beingtrained for war, had part of the confpirators, in their hands ; that the fhops of the ararms mourers, the tools of thofe artificers who wrought in metal, wood,
ments

and

ftone, and

even

the

inftru-

agriculture, might furniflifuch weapons the reft,as would anfwer the purpofe to fully unarmed men. againft This alarming intelligence roufed the activity,
without lhaking the firmnefs, of the Spartan
ma-

of

prur a,ncl
dence of

giftrates.It
Cinadon with the in

imprudent to feize the the capital, as they were unacquainted


of his refources, and
On
to

would

have

been

Spar-

extent

the number the Aulon

of

his affociates.

pretence
fend him

of
to

public

fervice,they contrived
in fimilar

(for

ready arm

expeditions they had often employed his and enterprifmg valour),that he might
feize,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

feize, in that licentious city,and bring within the


reach

of

feveral daring violators juftice,


among

of the

Spartan laws,
woman,

whom

was

very

beautiful

Cinadon
and
accom-

the manners of corrupted young and for conveyThe fenate prepared old". waggons ing and furnifhed every thingnecefthe prifoners, faryfor the journey. A body of chofen horfemen Cinadon, who fet out to accompany was appointed that this long train of preparawithout fufpecling himfeif alone. deftined againft But no tion was who fOOner had he reached
.

his

proper
.

diftance from

the

piices

city, than he

was

ieized

as

traitor, and

compelled,

^7 ^ terror "f immediate death, to denounce his fent to the fenate, were accomplices.Their names fecured their perfons. Cinadon, who inftantly and the other leaders of the Tifamenus, a prieft, were fcourgedthroughthe city, gored conlpiracy, relieved by with inftruments of torture, and finally
death.
Agefihus
command Greek forces in

The

rafh

of enterprife

Cinadon

frill filled the

Olymp.
CV J"

was conSpartanswith alarm, when intelligence of Artaxerveyed of .the formidable preparations influence of Lywhom the perfuafive xes, againft fander encouraged them to employ the great and

"k"^" but

as

yet unknown

of their young abilities,

and warlike

prince. Since the reignof Agamemnon, the firftGrecian king who led was Agefilaus

the united

forces of his country to make in war Afia; and his expedition, though not lefs im-

Xenoph.

p. 494.

portant

THE
portant

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. the

255
CHAP.
XXVII

than

the

exploitsof
"

fons of Atreus
renown ;

and the

Achilles, is much

inferiorin

becaufe
""..

^jr

and fplendid panegyricof Xenophon, warm as it is, even beyond the ufual colour of his commuft yet, like all the works of man, be pofitions, for ever eclipfed by the luftre of the Iliad. But however the conqueftsof Agefiiaus, different in in misfortune, the war of fame, yet furpafTed the intereils of to pernicious Troy. Both were Greece ; but of the two, the victories of Agefilaus indeed in their immediate, fatal, not proved the mod but in their remote confequences. and Bifgraces In the fpring of the year three hundred fix before Chrift, he left Sparta,with three who alone ninetythoufand Lacedaemonian freedmen, and a body of [i.valled,
his autn{""

foreigntroops, amounting
collected nefus.

"

"

from
Since

thouiand, chiefly rity. the confederate cities of Peloponto


nx

"

and unjuftifiable conirregular duel of Agis, in his unfortunate expedition againft attended in Argos, the" Spartankingswere ufually the field by a council of ten fenators, whofe concurrence held neceffary in all publicmeafures. was demanded of ten, but of a council, not Ageiiiaus refined ftroke of policy, which : a thirty Spartans indicates that artful dexterity with which, ftrongly the

he uniformly duringa long adminiftration, moted prothe views of his intereil and ambition. By of the council, he di~ augmenting the number minilhed its importance. Each member, as he lefs weight and influence,felthimfelf lefs. porTefled in the honour concerned and theof the body whole were more fwayed and governed by eafily
-,

the

256
CHAP,
XXVII
was

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. in A"i
a

the kino;. Lyfander alone, whofe illuftrious or of

name

rivalled for terrible,

while

the

of Lyfander Agefilaus. But the colleagues his pretenfions, and the firftto diipute were availed himto controul his authority.Agefilaus the and liftened too felf of their envy, to eafily in humbling the arrogance dictates of felfiihnefs, power of
own a

rival who

had

been

the

chief author

of his

of greatnefs.By thwarting the meafures by employing Lyfander,by denying his requefts, in offices unbecoming his he him dignity11, in the eyes of thofe by rendered him contemptible This ungenehe had been fo long feared. whom rous of a benefactor, as well as the afpirtreatment ing prideof the benefactor himfelf,which could in an otherwife virtuous excite fuch black ingratitude of friendbreaft,doubly prove the instability After a difgracefhipbetween ambitious minds.

ful rupture, which

ended fent

in

an

affected reconciliation,

Lyfander was
council
in the
to

by Ageiilausand
and

his

command

the Lacedaemonian

fquadrcn
fubordinate
tunity oppor-

an Hellefpont,

inactive
not

iervice,in which
to

expect an perform 'any thingworthy of his


returned, therefore,in
a

he

could

ancient

fame.
to

He

few months

enraged by difSparta,covered with difgrace, appointment, and vowing implacable revenge the cruel ingratitude of his friend,which againfc
11

Lyfander
him
a

was

known

in the Eaft Vid.

as

conqueror

Agefilaus
"

made

commifiary.

Plut. in Agetil. "

Lyfand.

Xenoph.

Hellen.

1. iii. p. 497.

he

THE
CHAP,
i_

HISTORY with

OF

GREECE.

engagements
fooner had he

TifTaphernes.The
for the
the

perfidious
No

fwore '^- \ fatrap


from
to

and deceived
received

laft time.

the Eaft, than he

aries auxililong-expected commanded Agefilaus

leave

Afia; if
Perfian

the coaft of Ephefus,and to evacuate he delayedto comply, the weight of the


arms

would

enforce

obedience.

The

prudent,or pious Spartan, while his friends were with this unexpected aiTumed alarmed declaration,
an

of countenance, that gaiety obferving, the war under fuch favourable he rejoiced to commence fince the treachery of Tifiapheraufpices, muft render the godshis enemies. nes the infidiMeanwhile he prepared to encounter Innocent witn equal,but more in"f tne fatraP" arts ous ofTgeT laus. addrefs. It was nocent induftrioufly given out, that he intended to march into the province of Caria, the favourite refidence of Tiffaphernes, which adorned was by his voluptuousparks and the repalaces,and ftrengthened by a fortrefs, of his treafures. The cities pofitory intervening
unufual
were

ordered
to

to

mend

the every

roads,

to

furnifh

market, and
to

prepare

thing moft necefTary


army. TifTa-

facilitate the march

of the Grecian

phernes,not doubtingthat Caria was the intended fcene of war, the mountainous as nature efpecially of that province rendered it improper for horfe, in
camped poorlyprovided,enwith his own numerous cavalry in the of the Meander, in order to intercept the lie defeats plains "f the enemy. But Agefilaus Paffage fan!? havingpotted arid plunders in Ephefus, left that city, and a fufficient garrifon

which

the Greeks

were

very

Phrygia.

*
.

turning

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECfi. by rapid marches


'

259
CHAP. XXVII
.

turning
into

to

the

north, advanced

Phrygia,the rich plunder of which rewarded of his foldiers. The felfilh the active diligence was unwillingto relieve the province of fatrap Pharnabazus, by weakening the defence of his remained inactive on the and accordingly own; whofe fruitful banks of the Meander, winding
ftream
fkirts the northern

T^

[j

frontier of Caria, ftill

from Ephefus invafion of the Greeks an fufpecting and the neighbouringfea-ports. During the; greateft Agemaus ravaged part of the fummer defeated Phrygia the Barbarians were fhamefully in feveral rencounters at length they ceafed to ; refillhis arms harafs his to even attempted ; nor the juft refentment retreat, when, havinggratified of his country, he returned, loaded with fpoil, to winter in Ephefus '3. In the Phrygian expedition, fhared,Employ. Agefilaus the toils of the meaner! and foldier, furpaiTed, from whom he refufed to be diftinguifhed by his during drefs,his food, or his accommodations, by day or night. The inactive feafon of the year was moft and ufefully diligently employed. Ephefus and gia. the neighbouring towns glowed with the ardour of, The military Phrygian wealth was preparation. employed to urge the hand of induftry. Shields, fwords, and helmets, filled every fhop, fpears, and crowded inhabitants of every magazine* The the country were allured by great rewards to form of the field and *heir beft horfes to the difcipline
-,

-,

\* Xenoph,

Hellen.

1.iii.p.

498, "

feqq. the

THE
CHAP, XXVII

HISTORY
were

OF

GREECE. the fer-

the wealthy citizens


"

exempted from

il"

vice of the enfuing campaign, upon condition only '_f that theyfurnifhed a horfeman, properly equipped,
to

perform their
as

vicarious the
new

duty.

The

veteran

Well as foldiers,

levies, were

exerdaily

cifed within the walls of amufements and which which formed

Ephefus, inxthofe martial faithful image, a reprefented


fchool, of
to
war.

the bert

filaus often valour


or

condefcended
",

the difpute

Ageprizeof

his popularmanners endeared dexterity of his talents him to the troops j the fuperiority their willing commanded obedience; theyvied with each other in loyalty to their prince ; they vied in the gods with their prince himfelf^ to gratitude of victory, who, as often as he obtained the crown dedicated the honourable reward
ff

in the What
a

admired

temple of EphefianDiana.
a

then

foldier,a
be

and philosopher,

man

from troops who expected in the exercife of war, their general^ refpected and revered the gods '*?" of Xenophon, who beheld the The expectation Agcfilaus which he has inimifcenes at Ephefus, insetting forPtbe" enfuing tablydefcribed, was by the fuccefs of fully gratified the enfuingcampaign. Agreeably to the annual oiympf"'

might not

(adds of piety) delighted

VG

*"
"

revo^ut^on
a

"f

offices

in of

the

Lacedaemonian

public, re-

fent thirty Spartans was the placeof Lyfander earlyin the fpring to fupply and his colleagues. of this Among the members council Agefilaus diflributed the various denew commiflion
f+

Xenoph. Panegyr.Agefil.

partments

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

261

partments

CHAP. command. The military fuperior abilities of Herippidas were entrufted with the (-L-^-^ had ferved under Cyrus. Xeveteran army who nocles was appointed to conduct the cavalry. the Afiatic levies; Scythes, Mygdo commanded

of

the Lacedaemonian

freedmen

",

for himfelf, as

his

peculiar care,
warlike the

the of

body

flower

and With

referved the faithful and general chofen from allies, Peloponnefian publics. revigour of many flourilhing
a

view

to

encourage

his foldiers

the field, he ordered the Phrygian taking be brought forth, {tripped, and exto prilbners poled to fale. The Greeks viewed with contempt

before

the delicate whitenefs of their

their flaccid fl^ins,

motions, their fhapelefs and the effeminate forms, their unwieldy corpulence, foftnefs of their whole perfons. Such an to an fuperior they confidered as nothing enemy
mufcles, their awkward
army

of

women

;s.
Attacks
Of

Agefilaushad declared, that he would be no but longerfatisfiedwith ravagingthe extremities,


was

theVerin

determined

to

attack the center,

of the Perfian

fia.n.d"-.
minions

fearful of being deceived Lower Tifiaphernes, power. by a fecond feint,again conducted his fquadrons of the Meander, and reinforced with to the banks of Caria, the garrifons the flower of his infantry which ported) re(asthe contrary had been induftrioufly he concluded to be the main objectof approaching hoftilities. But the Spartan was too
able
a to general

repeat the fame


**

game.

On

this

Xenoph. S

p. 500.

occafion,

262
c
H

THE
A

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. the

P.

occafion, therefore,he carried into execution

/v'
_

'j

which had been made wards public,marched todeiign the 'royd city of Sardis, and ravaged the without had oppofition.He adjoiningterritory Valuable booty, and fhaken the acquired*'much

oF the Lydians, before any enemy appeared fidelity That which refiftance, was to refifthi'sprogrefs. made late,proved ineffectual. After feveral too fuccefsful Ikirmiihes,he defeated the Perfians in
a

general engagement
furrounded
other ^e and

on

the banks

of the Pactolus,

took their camp, in which, befide riches,he found feventytalents of filver.


to expected

unrelenting of the Greeks, the perfidious Tiflaphernes; enemy the event but that crafty of the traitor, fufpecting
battle, had
thrown

kkewife

have

taken the

himfeif, with

confiderable

of troops, within the ftrong walls of Sardis, where his cowardice continued to refide, difplaying

body
the the

pride of pomp inglorious provincesof Artaxerxes


The
now

and fell
a

luxury,while
prey
to

the

hoilile invader.

time

of his His

punifhment,
life had

however,
been

was

arrived.

whole

himfeif j but its laft fcene had to difgraceful of his mafter, who the arms cancelled, difgraced the merit of by one ftroke of royal ingratitude, for innumerable and cruelties committed perfidies
"

his fervice.

Tithrauites

was

fent from

court
",

to

take off the head

being allured
own

to

arts

I6, and

fatrap who, conference, was a caught by his with a juftfate ; although met
of the obnoxious
The

16

Polyaenus, 1. vii.

fa"ftis mentioned
none

with

few

circfum-

ftances in Diodorus, and

with

in

Xenophon,

p. 501.

the

THE the author in Perfia any claim


or

HISTORY of his death was, in Greece of merit.

OF

GREECE.
man

263
CHAP.
XXVII
.

perhaps,the only

with whom

had Tiflaphernes

'_j
_f-

who Tithrauftes,' efcorted the

by

mandate

He is fucBabylon* ^hrauf-Y body of cavalry, powerful porTerTed of the great king for arTuming the tes" who
come

had

from

government
the
war.

of Lower

Afia, and

tlie conduct

of had and fend

the fame

intereft

or

Having removed the onlyrival who to difputethis extenfive ability


commiOlon,
his
next
care
was

lll"edof

honourable
an

to

mean

ing whichj inilead of indicatembaffyto Agefilaus, the character of a great general(forfuch Tithrauftes efteemed in the Eaft),betrayed the was of his worthlefs preand temporifmg genius The
"

decefibr.

ambaffadors

were

inftructed

to

declare,
troubles

That

the TiiTaphernes, embroiled


-,

author of thole and

which
a

Greece

Periia,had

fuffered

jufldeath and that the king, who had been too now was long deceived by his artifices, ready to acknowledge the independence of the Grecian colonies,on condition that Agefilaus withdrew The Spartanhoneftly his troops from Afia." replied, That the alternative of war or peace but 'on the relblution of depended, not on himfelf, the afiembly could he remove his and fenate; nor
"

forces from the Eaft without the exprelscommand


of his that

artful fatrapperceiving republic." The it was for him to interrupt, mined deterimpoffible
at

leaft to

divert, the courfe of hoftilities.


than Tithrauftes the

.None
money

knew
as

better

ufe of
con-

an

inftrument of pur chafe

defcended

to

He negociation. from Agefilaus, by a


4

very

large

THE
CHAP,
XXVII
t"

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. and it

larp-e fum, the


feemed
a

of Lydia; tranquillity
of indifference
to

as

v-Jj

matter

the

Spartan

AgefiUya
cntrufted
with the

felt king whichever part of the Perfian dominions of his invafion,he evacuated that prothe weight vince, and againentered Phrygia. While he purfued his march northwards, he
*
. .

was

overtaken

Ionia

by

welcome
a

menenger

of

fr"m T^''nd
-

h"meJ

wno

delivered

him

letter, teftifying
proand had

Grecian

oiyir.p.
r r
"

admiration of his countrymen, grateful of his military command, longing the term the with the
numerous

3* him ^cv,!; entrufting


^
"

Meet, which
the

"

of defigns the enemy This of ninety f7. fleet, confifting commanded was gallics, actually by Pharax, who, of Agefilaus's career victories, duringthe glorious had filently performedvery ufeful and meritorious of Artaxerxes, fervice. The naval preparations
years counteract

failed two

before,to

which,
in Various

as

above
were

excited the alarm mentioned, firft foil carried


on

Greece,

with

activity.
vinces, pro-

were fquadrons

equipped in
other combined But

the harbours

of Phoenicia, Cilicia, and of the which the

maritime

fleet of Greece.

far exceeded ftrength dir the vigilant

ligenceof Pharax preventedtheir union. His victualled by Nephres, the rebellious fhipswere of Egypt j with whom, in the name of viceroy Sparta,he had contracted an alliance. The ports of Cyprus, Rhodes, and the Greek cities in the Carian Cherfonefus, were his cruifers. to open himielf of thofe important he Availing advantages,
*7

Xenoph,

Hellen.

I. iii.p. 501.

fleered

THE
C
H A P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

courted jects,

the

of Agefilaus, protection expeddominion

LXX\I.,.'|. ing that the


be

unknown the and

of Greece

would

than lighter had long felt

yoke of Perfia, of which they the feverity. The regretted


had fhared the out withguilt,

deceitful Ariaeus, who

be had

of Cyrus, could never the punifhment fharing reconciled to a mailer againft whom he heartily
once

rebelled.
him

His actual wealth, and ancient


a

honours, gave
numerous

powerfulinfluence
who
;

over

the

Barbarians

had followed the ftandard and whofe into


a

of

Cyrus and his own be might eafiiy fpirits


The

difcontented
fecond
volt*3. re-

inflamed
was

commotion
as

general in
twenty

Leffer

Afia;

and,

Egypt
head

had of

rebelled,Agealready
about thoufand Barbarian

filaus, at
entertain throne

the

Greeks, and
a

innumerable very rational

allies, might

of his
the ftill

fhake the to expectation of Artaxerxes the experience as ; efpecially friend and admirer, Xenophon, who was

companion of his arms, muft have powerfully a*. encouragedhim to that glorious enterprife of which the fuccefs, But an undertaking howwhich ever fpkndid,could not probablyhave been fol!m"peft* edintdiijewed by any folid advantages,becaufe the diare

gencc

from
.
. , .

Greece,

mmutive
a

territory and
too

population or bparta
to

formed

bafis far

feeble

fupportfuch

was blafted,in the bloom conqueft, intelligence equally unexpected and diftrefsful. the who knew of gold over the power Tithrauftes,

weight of of hope, by
a

21 **

Plut. in

Agefil. Diodor.
ibid. "

1. xiv.

p.

439.

Diodor.

Xenoph.

Agefil. Panegyr.

"

Plut.

in

Agefil.

Grecian

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. the

267

Grecian

councils,determined, with

king his mafter, to Cretan this main-fpring of politics. The carelefsly guarded by the ./Egeanleas were
tion of the

approba-CHAP.. give full play to ^;

'

_f

and
un-

of the new Ticonfidence admiral. iufpecting the negleft;and thrauftes perceived difpatched, \vithout any fear of capture, various

emiflaries into

Greece, well qualified, by bribes


with pra"5life the difcontented and the natural cratic government,

and

addrefs, to

factious demagogues,

enemies
and

Sparta,of ariftoof the public tranquilof thefe fecret negoa


man

of

lity
The

I-

,c

inftru merit principal


was

Means

fey

ciations

Timocrates audacious

of Rhodes,

of

an

p^fiansr
coun-

who carried with kindle a^ fpirit, than fifty lefs a fum talents (above nine that him no try* which he diftributed, thoufand pounds fterling), /* of future bounty, to Cyclon with laviih.promifes of Corinth, of Argos, to Timolaus and Polyanthes and intriguing
to

Androclides
;
names

Ifmenias for the


but

and moft

Galaxadorus

of

Thebes

part obfcure in the


of dohiftory of Sparta was the not hirelings, only the

annals of meilic

war,

importantin
tyranny

faction.

The

theme of thefe venal perpetual but in every in their refpe"ivecommunities, fucceflively quarter of Greece, to which theywere carried with a mercenary diligence.They painted the cruelty^ colours the injuftice, in the ftrcngeil ambition of that haughty and the immeafurable foldiers of her flaves, who had made republic,

*$

Xenoph.

p. 513,

"

ftqq.

that

268
CHAP,
XXVII
.^

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

that flie might

make
"

flaves of her

allies. The

_J_. deftructive and

impious devaftation of the facred with every term of Elis was of arraigned territory it was reproach. The fame calamities, prophefied, the neighbouring muft foon overwhelm countries, imlels theyprepared (whileit was yet time to prepare) defence ; fmce Spartapurfued for a vigorous other view but her conqueftsin Afia with no and rivet the chains, of lull the fecurity, to
Greece *". may appear, and in-

Strong as thefe invectives terefted as theycertainly theTne"were,


Motives

the truth; and, what


were

is of

more

addreffed Since

to

men

well

they did not exceed importance,they believe to difpofed


of the of
to

them.

the

fubverfion

Athenian

government power, the imperious rendered her almoft alike odious


to

Sparta had
old, and
and

her

her

new,

confederates.

The

former,

ticularly par-

the
ans,

Corinthians, Arcadians, and

Achse-

which juftice complainedwith the warmth gives,that, after fharingthe toils and dangersof the Peloponnefian prived dethey had been cruelly war, of the fruits of victory. The and latter, fuch communities had revolted from as efpecially

Athens, lamented
been and

that their blood

and treafure had freedom

fpentin
by
a

vain.

They

had

foughtfor
had

but independence ;
more

their valour

been

warded re-

intolerable fervitude. and Thebes

had

long been

the enemy,

Argos to afpired
all, the

become

the rival, of
*6

Sparta. Above
p. 514.

Xenoph.

Athe

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

269

Athenians, animated

of Thrafy- CHAP. by the patriotifm


^"

bulus, their deliverer from the Spartanyoke, longed


to

1"
"r"

employ

the firftmoments

of

returning vigourin
which
ac-

the

of gloryand revenge. purfuit of thofe morbid humours, The corruption


have foon

Circumwhich

muft

fermented
mercenary

of themfelves,was emiffaries of

en-

celerated thrauftes.

by
The

the

Ti-

occafion, too, feemed


domeftic

favourable

of a republic, ftrength ing whofe arms were ambitioufly employed in extendconduct of the her diflant conquefts.The announced had already this defign. They Thebans not only refufed affiftance to Agefilaus towards his eaftern campaign, but treated him on carrying without refpecl: or decency, while he .croffed their for
the aflaulting dominions have
;

and,

were

not

ambition

blind, he muft

and perceivedand refented their hoftility, his expedition have delayedto undertake againft the feeds of war in Afia, till he had extinguilhed Greece.

But,
haftened

the concurring caufes notwithstanding


a

which
the

Their

cau-

rupture,

fuch

was

the

terror recent

of

be~ *'"" J" the


war*

encreafed by the Spartan name, that none of her numerous Agefilaus, courage

glory of
had their
avow

enemies
to

openly to

take

arms,

and

ences, juilanimofity. After various, but fecret conferheld in the principal it was mined detercities, that republicthrough her allies, to wound the Phocians, who were amidft the diftinguifhed, ment difcontent,by their unfhaken attachvery general and The Locri Ozolce, a fierce fidelity. and

HA

P.

and

infolent

people *7, who


were

lived in the

neighbour-

!LJi\ hood of Phocis,


from
to

eafily tributions perfuadedto levy condiftrict on their eaflern frontier,


not

which

they
the

had

the
had

fmallefl claim, and


been and

of of

which

dominion

long

matter

difputebetween
thefe Hates feem
in the

the Phocians
to

Thebans.

Both

have

been this

and exactly injured,

fame

degree, by
who
to
were

aggredlon
of the

but

the

Phocians,
took
were arms

the

enemies

the

Locri,
who

revenge,

while

Thebans,

their

friends, preparedto abet, their injuflice*


their

They

expected,and
that the

expectation was

fied, grati-

Spartans would
the moil
;
a

quarrelthat affected
their Phocian

quicklyinterfere in a importantintereits of
which and

allies

meafure

tended

that ifTue which to precifely fmce the Thebans required,


to
arm

prudence
would be muft
even

policy

compelled
appear
to
to

in

their

own

defence, and

all the neutral

flates of

Greece, and
to

their

Lacectemonian
into but Campaign
ofLyfancer in

enemies,
not

be
an

undefignedlydragged
inclination
to mit, com-

war,

from

from

the

2S. to repel,injuries neceffity


ever

r^ne

irafcible

pride of Sparta,
the moft Inflead of

prone

to

chaftife the

fmalleft offences with

unbounded

fe-

Bceotia.

verity, confpired with


of Thebes
to

fanguine hopes
of condefcendfatifeva-

and

her allies.

ing

remonftrate, inftead
of

demanding
Thebans
to

faction, inftead

ordering the
4.

*7
as

Thucydid. Xenoph.

1. i. p. Hellen.

"

p. 47. fin.

1. iii.ad

Diodor.

xiv. 82.

Plutarch,

in

Lyfand,

p. 448, "

feqq.
cuate

THE
ate

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
to to

en

the

future marched

of Phocis, and territory the Spartans flew injury,


to

abftain from
arms,

and

invade Bceotia.

On

the

firft rumour had

the of hoftilities,

of Lyfander activity

been

employed to
the Maleans, the

affemble their northern

confederates,
inhabited
He trated pene-

Heracleans, with thofe who


Doris
and Mount Oeta. Theban

of villages
into the

by force, Orchomenus
to

territory, gainedLebadea by addrefs, and prepared


of Haliartus, which,
the Boeotian
next

the walls aflfault


was

to

Thebes,
The

the

of ftrongeft

cities.

of this enterprife made him difpatch difficulty haften the arrival of Paufanias,the a meffenger to had led forth fix thoufandSpartan king, who to Peloponnefians, enced co-operate with this experiThe commander. unfortunate mefienger taken by the fcouts of tjieThebans, and with was his him a letter,in which Lyfander had figniiied purpofe,and appointed the time of rendezvous Haliartus with Paufanias, that they might furprife with At
was

their combined the fame time

forces as".
that this ufeful arrived

brought to Thebes,
their
own

there

intelligence The in that city


the fence

Th

in

"a

reinforcement of Athenian powerful

troops, who,

night
of

though
the

lefs,had been
refentment

unwalled and defencewas capital perfuaded by Thrafybulusto brave of

Haliartus'

Sparta.

To

auxiliariesthe Thebans

committed
every the

thefe generous their city, their

wives, their children, and


moft

tender
*9

concern

-,

while

objectof their warlike youth,

Xenoph. Hellen.

p. 503,

"

feqq. and

27*
CHAP,
XXVII.
V. -^

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
aflembled
.

and almoft

ail thofe of

military age,
.

in

-Jy completearmour,

fet out

in the dead of

night,and

performinga journeyof fifteen miles with filence and celerity, reached, while it was yet dark, the Their unexpected arrival gates of Haliartus. who ftruck a pleafmg terror into their friends, affected ftill more were deeply,when they underftood the caufe of this nocturnal Thebans

expedition.The

their their fear,and animated difpelled not hope, expecting onlyto fave Haliartus, but ta obtain a fignaladvantage over the unfufpecting confidence
Stratagem
1 l
"

of the aflailants.

For
to

detachment this, purpofe, they fent a ftrorig


m

'

tbedcfeat the

^e

ambufh

without

the walls.

The

reft,reirt the

inforced

by

the

townfmen, formed
ftood
to

themfelves
behind

battle array, and gates.


"

their arms, in the

Lyfander
had in the

arrived
not

Paufanias, who
continued

received

morning; but his meffage,ftill

The of Platasa. neighbourhood difdained to Piufhed by recent foldiers, victory, depend on the tardy motions of their auxiliaries. the They requeiled Lyfander to lead them againft otherwife much he was place to which ; a meafure inclined, being eager to fnatch the gloryto himit with Paufanias, his rival without dividing felf, and
Battle and

of

enemy. He approachedthe town,

and

began the boldly


to

death

the walls and battlements attack, perceiving before any breach was different gates at once flew open, while and Haliartians rufhed forth with
But

be

fandeV ""guarded.

made, the
bans the Theone con-

fent, and with irrefiftible fury. Lyfander,with


6

prieft

THE
274

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

CHAP,

capital

punifhment

by
fickened
the

flying
and

to

Tegea,
His

where

he

JTCV11-, f0on

afterwards

died.

fon

Age-,
at

fipolis
that

affumed

Spartan
the

fceptre,
diredion of

which,

juncture,

required

more

perienced ex-

hands31.

s'

Xenoph.

1. Hi.

p-

joj,

"

fcqq,

Plutarch,

in

Lyfand,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE,7

$75

CHAP.

XXVIII.

Recal

from the Eafl. He invades of Agefilaus Views of Evagoras King of Cyprus. Bceotia.
"

"

"

His with

with Friend/hip the


"

Conon.
"

"

The latter entrufted the defeats


"

Perfian Fleet.
Battle

He

monians. Lacede-

of

Coron"ea.

The and

Corinthian Harbours

War.

"

Conon
"

rebuilds

the Walls and

of

Athens.

Conquefts of Conon

Thrajybulus.

of Antalcidas.
H
JL

defeat

at

Haliartus, which
the

without courage

humbling,

CHAP exafperated, confirmed Spartans,


"
r

"_

the

of their enemies, and


The

haftened

the ,The

defection of their allies. ratified and avowed


and

by

the

leaguewas openlyformed of Thebes, Ipana republics


The

Argos, Athens,
Volt feized

Corinth.

of fpirit

re-

obliges
that
re-

Eubcea,
the whole

pervaded the provinces of


the rich cities of

public to

Acarnania, Leucas, Ambracia, Chalcis, and


*. faly

warlike

The

raifed and years,


was

cemented fhaken
were

the of Thefprincipalities fabric of the Spartanpower, of twenty-feven by a war

to
no

the foundation
more;
nor

their victorious refource

leaders

did any

remain, but

that of

Agefilausfrom his, recalling


and

Afiatic victories, that the fortune


"

valour of

Diodor.

1, xlv. p. 443.

Xenoph.

Hcllen. 1. Hi. p. 507.

this

THE
c F

HISTORY

OF

GREECE,

might fuftain the falling general A^P.this accomplifned He received the fatal fey^. ruins of his country. i_'-r"
tale %
his intimating He
i

ecal, at

qf his fortune.
for

had into

important crifls completed his preparations


and his heart

the

marching

Upper Afia,
of

already beat with


and
He
com-

the ardour

promifedconqueft
com-

glory3.
ailembled
th"= revered the

Having
which he

confederates, he
of the

Hiunicatcd hia'rcctf8
fo the

order

eiprefiedhis
1 he

refuiution

with republic, immediately to aflbciated

comply.
their own

generous with

troops,
the
renown

having
of the

honour

theii griefand terrified and his entreaties. But

their

reluctance

general, by tears
firm

Agefilausremained

in,

of Sparta, to purpofe,to obey the command fet bounds to his triumphs in the Eaft, and to turn towards the direction of his arms a lefs promifing

field, to which

he

was

fummoned

by

the

danger

of his country*.
he

Before

the He-llefpont, croffing


veteran

detached

four thoufand

foldiers, to
feveral of which

the Afiat;c garrifons ftrengthen ;


he

vifited in

perfon,

every

where

afluringhis
to

that it was friends, them

his moft

earneft wilh

rejoin

in Afia, whenever

the

troubles

of Greece

Jhould
*

permithis abfencer
Vol.IJ.c. xli. p.
in
60.

See

3 *

Plutarch,

" Xenoph. Agefil.


"

Hellcn.

1. iv. p. 513. Plutarch,

Xenoph. Hellen.
to

Panegyr. Agefil."
on praifes

in Agefil,
;

fceflow feemingly immoderate


is be

this refutation

but

it
of

confidered,
not

that

in

the
to

tumultuary
behold
a

governments

Greece, it was
proud
feeble

uncommon

fuccefsftil
at

general,
defiance

of the zeal

and

ftrength

of his

followers,let

PC

authorityof his republic.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
and

The
the
new

greater part of the army,


levies of lonians
and

C,H particularly
had
"
t

p.
_j

who ./Eolians,

dein arms under his for- JTheir their apprenticelhip paffed with tears of affection, tunate ftandard, declared, low him that they never their beloved genewould abandon ral. which Agefilaus encouraged this difpofition, was extremely favourable to his views ; arid left it might be nothingbut a fally of temporary enfecured its permanence, thufiafm, artfully by propofmg the diflribution of valuable rewards, in the1

Thracian the beft

Cherfonefus,

to

fudi officers as

brought

for the fercompanies of foot or cavalry He vice of his intended expedition. able to was perform his promifeswith a generous magnificence the neceffary i fmce, after defraying expences of the war,
he carried from
an

Afia

above

thoufand

talents, or

hundred

and

thoufand ninety-three

!. pounds fterling

When

the

whole

forces

were

aftembled in the
to

His return

amounted Cherfonefus, they probably

about

ten

thoufand

men.

Their
fame

heareft

rout

into Greece
tra-

laythroughthe
verfed
near a

countries that had been

by Xerxes ; but the of Agefilaus in a month accomplifhed what, activity had been the journey of a to eaftern effeminacy, In the long interval of time between laborious year.
the Barbarians expeditions, of Thrace and Macedon, through whofe countries it was made not to have to march, feem neCeflary

century before

thefe celebrated

Xenoph.

Hellem

"

" Plutarch, in AgefiJ, Panegyr* Agefil.

"

Diodor.

p. 441.

much

THE
c

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

L"

or A^P. much improvement in the arts of war peace. ftillundifciplined '; They were and diiimited; and r" alike incapable of oppoftheir defultory arms were ing the Spartan and the Perfian. Agefilausde'

He

defeats thc Theffaiiaiica-

fcended without
-

refiftance into the

plains of Thefj

where laly,

his

progreis was
acceded

itopped for
to

moment

vafrX'

by

the

numerous

cavalryof

that country, whofe the alliance

petty

princeshad

formed

the ambition of Sparta. By a judicious againft and by evolutions equally of his forces, difpofition furmounted this obIkilful and rapid,he fpeedily the chargeof the ThefTalian cavalry, ftacle. To he oppofed the weight of his heavy-armed men, routed and put to the enemy were by whom horfemen, who would flight.Then with his own nave proved an unequal match for the unbroken vigourof the ThefTalians,he purfuedthem with took many and erected a prifoners, great {laughter, the mountains trophy of his victory,between Prantes

and Narthacium
the extenfive

6,which

form

the weftern

boundary of
Invades Bceotia.

Inftead

of

plainof Coronsea. his journeythrough the continuing'


Locris, whofe
weaknefs lie dif-

hoftile country of dained


to

he marched chaftife,

territories of Doris the fhock of the


war

through the friendly and PhociSi that he might turn lious the daringand rebelagainft
found
them in
arms

Thebans.
their

He

with

than difcourather provoked, powerfulallies, raged,by a bloody but undecifive battle,which, foon

after the

difafter

at

Haliartus" had

been

Xenoph,

Hellen. 1. iv. p, 517,

fought

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
at

479

fought againft the Lacedaemonians


fmall
town
on

Epiecia,

P.

XXVIII.

the

common

frontier of Corinth

and

confederate army ftill about was twenty thoufand flrong; the forces of Agefilaus

Sicyon.

The

had that number, as he received fully equalled from confiderable Sparta and Phocis ; fupplies Orchoand as the fecondarycities, particularly had of Bceotia, and Epidaurus of Argolis, menus joined his arms, prompted by their ufual envy their refpective and refentment capitals. againft hoftile battalions approached thofe of AgefiThe laus marching, in good order, from the banks of while the Thebans dethe CephifTus, impetuoufly
-,

fcended

from the mountains

of Helicon.

Before

they arrived at the fcene of action,in the Boeotian miles diflantfrom of Coronasa7, a citythirty plain of both armies was alarmed Thebes, the fuperftition of the fun j and the wifdom of Agefilaus by an eclipfe was pected alarmed, far more by moft unexjuftly,
from intelligence
Since his unfortunate the Eaft 8.

Lacedaemonian

fleet to

had intrufted die Evagoras partiality and inexpethe obftinacy


ra-

rience of his kinfman


ther Phoenician, the direction
. .

Pifander, the Perfian,or


.

tary dominion m

fquadronshad
a

been

committed

to

Cyprus.

of

far

more

able
at

commander.

jJEgos-Potamos, which followed by the taking of Athens, and was the conclufion of the Peloponnefian Conon, war,
"

After the decifive engagement

The

places diflinguinied by
p. 407.
410,

that

name

are

defcribed

by

Strabn,
8

411,

and

434.

Xtrnoph* Hcllcn.

1. iv. p. 518.

Plut.

in

the

ago
CHAP,
v
v

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
a

the Athenian
'' into the

admiral, efcapedwith
of That

few

gallieS
part

harbour

of the ifle Salamis, the capital

of

Cyprus.

city, and
then

confiderable

to Evagoras, a man fubjed: whom the voice of panegyric as reprefents ing, governwith ctonfummate wifdom9, a kingdom, which he had acquired This admired by heroic valour. turning princeboafted a defcent from Teucer, who, reof Troy eight from the fiege hundred years the before the reign of Evagoras, had founded tirftGrecian ing colonyon the CyprianIhore. Durthat long fpace of time, Salamis had undergone various revolutions. born Evagoras was and educated, under the reignof an ufurper, who fell by the dagger of an affarTm, who in his turn

of the iiland, was

affumed

the the

tained obEvagorasfled to Cilicia, of the fatrap of that province, protection


crown.

returned

to

Salamis

with the

handful

of men,
to

fur-

prifedand
was

dethroned

new

tyrant,

whom

he

not

bound
the

by

any

tie of

allegiance. began
to

Hfe

at^

From

moment

that he

reign,he

difcovered to"Athens,
whofe
fcicndfhip
'

the -moft

fondnefs partial

for Athens, in

f,r CoAthenian.

langua"e" his youth aits, and inftitutions, had been liberally inftru"ed; and which afterwards formed ^ of his manhood, the Rudy and delight
and

amufement
But
ate

confolation of his

for the unfortunately


of gratitude

declining age. and affe"ionfenfibility Evagoras towards a country to


and his

which

he owed

his education

he happinefs,

Ifocrates'spanegyric of Evagoras may


great

be entitled the piflure

of

king

the clwra^r

is only too perfcft.

lived

282
c HAP. Qve

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. that Hate ihe had

IL

"

v-Jy and
re-

parent)topre-eminencefrom which
country
and virtuous and
.

glory miferably
^

of

that

fallen. The
fuch
as

friends (for as patriotic


1

public.

defcribe contemporaries

them)

are

reprefented

pilotsand
and

currents,

watching the tides and catchingevery propitious gale that


mariners

might facilitate the execution of this hazardous The victories of Agefilaus in the Eaft, enterprife.
which
xerxes,
'

threatened

to an

fhake

the

throne

of Arta-

favourable to too opportunity had been already cfcapetheir vigilance.Conon recommended to the great king by Evagoras ; and the recommendation had been enforced by Pharfurnifhed

nabazus, who

knew of

and

admired

his merit.

The

fkill experienced of his countrymen had afiiftedin

the illuftrious

Athenian, and Nicodemus,

Hieronymus
and Phcenician

and

equippingthe

Barbarian

fquadrons
But

in the

Cilician

harbours.

the abilities of the cowardice

Pharax, the Spartan admiral, and


or

of negligence

the
a

Perfian fleet of

manders, comnear

hitherto rendered
three hundred often wanted which fail, money.
was

ufelefs

illmanned,

and which

uuTed""
"with the
"

TIie

"f aftivity He

Conon
'

undertook

to to

remedy
ThapfaL

thefe evils.
CUSj
r-

leftCilicia, travelled
in the

embarked moved and

lian fleet,

was

by

the

oars,

ftream, he

the

winding channel
to

Euphrates; and, as his veffel combined impulfe of winds, defcended with rapidity along to Babylon10. The only obconference
with Artaxerxes

ilacle

his intended

10

Diodorus, 1
10

xiv. p. 443.

was,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

2.83

was,

to degrade the Athenian unwillingnefs the body,bending the knee, character by depreffing of refpectful and paying the ufual marks fubmiffion, which were readily grantedby Barbarians to

his

the

monarch
to

of the Kail;
and

but

which

the

Greeks

refufed

of the majefty at length however, was gods. This difficulty, obviated by thofe whofe mutual intereft flrongly folicited an Conon the interview. to reprefented tremblingmonarch, who was ftillagitated by the of Agefilaus's the neceiiity of oppofterror victories, ing the Spartansvigoroufly by fea. Their fleet and maintained, the command alone had acquired, of the Afiatic coaft. A fingle defeat at lea would
man,
'

referved for the

excite their alliesto revolt,and drive their armies from the great advantage, king muft employ an admiral worthyto command, In looking for the firft, and men to obey. willing could not the valour of Pharnabazus efcapehis notice. The fecond might be purchafed by But
to

Afia.

obtain this

And fhould money. the requifite fum, he foon collect fuch


a

Artaxerxes

entruft him

with

pledgedhis
as iilands)

lifethat he would

number

of iailors

from (chiefly
enable him

the Grecian
to

coafts and

would
to

defeat the fleet of

Sparta,and

abandon her eaftern to republic Artaxerxes, the propofal pleafed and Conon

compel that conquefts. The


was

money

raifed,

returned

to

Cilicia to

his undertaking. accomplifh

From

various the cities,

Greek

of Afia" from the fmaller fea-ports from reluctant fubje"sof Sparta,


towns

He

J
and

feveral maritime

whole

inhabitants

were

take*

ready

THE
CHAP,
XXVIII

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

ready
the

to

ferve any

mailer of

for pay, Rhodes

but chiefly frorrl


and

xcv

A.C.

394-

Cyprus, he foon collected a naval force exceedinghis moft fanguinehopes; and which might have enabled corhof the Barbarian fquadrons him (independent manded by Pharnabazus) to contend on nearly with Pifander. With their combined equalterms and Pharnabazus Conon failedwefhvard in ftrength, that the rafh queftof the hoftile fleet,perfuaded cline deconfidence of the Spartan admiral would not battle with a fuperior As the united enemy. doubled the northern pointof Rhodes, armament fquadron, they perceived the Lacedaemonian in the capacious amounting to near an hundred gallies, bay which is formed between the projections

powerfuliilands

of the Dorian
called

fhore, and the fmall iilands

from the carelefsirregularity with Sporades, which they feem to have been fcattered by the hand fuch
a

of nature11.

The

unexpectedapproachof
not

formidable fleet did


He

(hake the fullen ob-

of Pifander. ftinacy
been

commanded

(as

it had

bore
were

his men foreseen) to prepare the up againft enemy, but


alarmed and

for battle.
a

on

nearer

They furvey
dif-

terrifiedwith
The

the exceiTive

of proportion
their prows,

numbers.

greater part turned


the in

and retired towards

fhore friendly
the admiral defence of the

of Cnidus.
and galley,

Pifander advanced died

in fighting bravely
few

11

VirgilexprefTes,in
text
"
"

words, the geography


terris\

dtfcribed in

the

Et crebris

legimus freta confita

Virg. Jfcueid.

iii. v.

12$.

Spartaii

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

385 maintain,
CHAP,

Spartan honour,

vainlyendeavouringto
his
arm,

by by
the

the the

vigour of
weaknefs and

what

had

been The

betrayed \_' -w
viclors

_t

of his

counfels.

purfued;
enemy,

after

took

of deflroying great numbers ancj carried off fifty gallies ; a

Capture

fufficient

to

decide the fate of any Grecian

ia. republic of this battle, of which intelligence the confequences, in the lofs of anticipated It
was

the

he
the

The

battle

^."r
Qiymp.
xcvi.
3.

Spartan
of

dominions

from
and

Cnidus

to

Byzantium,

alarmed $hatjuflly

Agefilaus.
the

He death

confefled

breaft A. C. patriotic aflembled the troops, honeftly of Pifander, but artfully declared,

afflictedthe

39*.

that, though the admiral


had
obtained
a

was

(lain,his fleet
which it became

complete victory,for
them
to to

himfelf and

pay

the ufual tribute

of
He

thanks

and

facrifices

the with

protecting gods.
a

fhen crowned
and
fet the

himfelf of

example

chaplet of flowers, performingthis pious duty.

?*
sera

Polybius
at

feems

to

confider loft the

the

battle

of of

Cnidus
the

as

the

which

the

Spartans
their twelve

command

fea, which
He

they
their
loo

had

acquired by
lafted
the

victoryat -SSgos-Potamos.
years. This thofe the

fays,
is

dominion

number, battles, as

however,
appears

large for
text.

interval between writers

from

the

Other Greeks

fay,
of
as

that

^Lacedaemonian
wiih the

e"tpiret
of

which the

the

fpeak

fynonymous
from But

the command battle of

fea, lafted
to

thirty years,
defeat
at

reckoning
Leudtra. thofe writers ad

JEgo?_
is too

Potamos
fmall of the

the

this number
; a

again

for the

interval of

between Greek

events

remarkable
of

proof

carelefTnefi de

in

matters

chronology,
"

pee

Ifocrat.

Pace, Sc Cafaub,

Polyb, vol,

iii. p. 97

99.

pdit. Gropov.

The

THE
c IT A XXVI

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. with

P.
II

The

devout

ftrntagem
in
a

was

attended

very

effect ; for falutary

ikirmrfh

between

the

vanced ad-

the

guards,immediatelypreceding the battle, Lacedemonian by their liratroops, animated


the

gined victoryin
the army enemy. advanced

Eaft, defeated
the main

and

repelled
of either

Meanwhile
into the

bodies

in awful filence; but

plainof Coronsa, at firft having approached within a


railed
an

furlongof
verfal

each

other, the Thebans


ran

uni-

fhout, and

bore impetuofity
but the troops

Their to the charge. furioufly down thing before them every commanded

by Agefithe left wing of the enemy, laus, repelled chiefly Already confutingof Argives and Athenians.
immediately
thofe who furrounded and when adorned it was his

perfon faluted
with the

him

as

conqueror,

him

crown

of
had

victory ;
broke
were

told, that the Thebans

by

routed the Orchomenians, and totally advancing to feize the baggage. Agefilaus, them, rapid evolution, prepared to intercept
to

and

in order

fruftrate this
movement,

defign.
wheeled

The

Thebans

perceived this
marched
in
an

about, and

join, and
mountains

that they might direction, oppofite fled towards the who rallytheir allies, of Helicon. is In the
rencounter

which rather

followed, Xenophon
the

to difpofed

admire

valour, than the prudence,of the Spartan king.


the allowing Thebans
to

Inftead of

pafs,that

he

might attack their rear and flanks, he boldly opand aflailed their front. pofed their progrefs, The
fhock
was

terrible; their fhields

clafhed; meeting, they

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

287
voice
was

they fought, flew,


heard, yet
moft
none

and

were

flain.

No

CHAP.
XXVIII

was

filent; the field refounded


_-w"

Jj

with the noife of rage and

battle 13-, and this

was

the

and bloody fcene of an action,itfelf defperate the moft defperate and bloody of any in that age. At length, the firmnefs of the Thebans effected their longattempted paffage to Helicon ; but could
not

encourage
The

their allies

to

renew

the

gagement. en-

Spartansthus remained mailers of of which feems to have deeply the field, the fight affected a fpectator whofe mind habituated to was fuch objects of horror. It was covered with fteel
and

blood, with

the

bodies

of

friends and

foes

heaped promifcuouflytogether, with


bucklers
and broken

transfixed
on

lances, fome

ftrewed the

the

ground,
wounds

others

which the who

deeply adhering in and they had inflicted,


cold had l+. had and

mortal ftill

others

grafpedby
combatants

infenfible hands

of the petuous im-

lately fought with


received
;

fuch

ardour

Agefilaushimfelf
from
various kinds his refentment in the about
a

feveral wounds

of weapons
moment

yet did he reftrain

of

victory. When
enemy

informed

that

fourfcore of the

had

taken
he

temple of Minerva, neighbouring the right of fanctuary, orreligioufly refpected


in refuge

TOi"yT";"

ctav

opyn

xat

f4"^;"} 7r"fa"r;"oiT

"".

Xenoph.
any other

Agcfi-

Jaus,
ihew
'*

c.

xii.

Such

pafTages, inimitable
the Greek.

in

language,

the

of fuperiority

Xenoph. Agefil.c. xii.

dered

288
CHAP,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

dered

his fbldiers

to

abftain from

hurtingdiem,

-L" and v_'-T"

appointed a body of horfe to conduct them to a place of fecurity.The next day was a employed by the victors in erecting trophyon
even

the fcene of this

my importanta"tion ; while the enethe acknowledged their defeat, by requefting his fatigue bodies of the ilain. Notwithstanding and wounds, Agefiiausthen travelled to Phocis, that he might dedicate the tenth of his Afiatic in fpoil (amounting to above an hundred talents)

the

temple of DelphianApollo. Having returned he difbanded his eaflern Cowards the Peloponnefus,
were

troops., moft of whom


cities ; refpedive his

defirous

to

revifit their
even

and Peloponnefian,
to return
I5

cedaemoni La-

forces inclined alfo that

home,
;

theymight

reap the fruitsof harveft

and the

to his general, probablyto avoid a journeypainful bration wouncjs,failed to Sparta,and joined in the cele-

of the
The Co-

feftival. Hyacinthian battle of Codecifive


war,
ac-

The

liJr.131 ronsea,
oiymp.
jcc vi
j
. .

of? Cnidus, and the fea-fight the moil were important and in the Boeotian The
or

tions lafled

Corinthian

which

feem contending republics forth their fting at once to have put "jJ"Pa. and after; 4.0.387. wards to have retained their refentment when they had loft the power of gratifying it. Petty hoftilities indeed were carried on by mutual inroads, and and autumn the Lacedaemonians ravages in the fpring ; from Sicyon, and the Thebans ifruing
A. c. 394.
l*

eight years.

The

folar

eclipfe,mentioned
to

above cf

in the

text, fixes the

battjeof Coronaa

the fourteenth

Auguft.

from

290
CHAP,
TdfVTTI )___"- j"

THE

HISTORY
even

OF

GREECE. adored

perceived that
'' of the
not

the

temples, and
the victims

images

gods (whofe

knees

they grafped), afforded


of this

any

to protection

impious
-,

fury,prepared to fly from


they
were

their country

when

firft, reftrained, by the lamentable


and

cries
die declaration

of their wives

children, and

then

by

of the aflaflins, that

they intended nothing city from


the the traitors, abominable

farther than

to

deliver

the

of Sparta and flavery. This partifans


mafTacre

infected Corinth

with

plague of fedi-

tion, which

lurked, or openly raged, in filently that unfortunate republic, duringthe fix following The Spartans and Argives aflifted their years. factions ; Corinth was alternately fubject refpective the one and the other, but always to a foreign to
power
were j

and

of the
as

two
an

Corinthian

harbours, which

confidered

talj die Lechasum

Spartans,while
fion of the
The

the

importantpart of the capiwas long garrifonedby the in pofiefremained Cenchreas


and

Argives.
battles of Cnidus

Spar-

After
not

the any

Coronasa, there

was cefsfu" hv

general engagement
of obfervation.
...

by

land the

or

fea

land, and
the nians fea" Atlie-

and
_.

it is worthy

that

partial

by

actions, which
followed rally Succefs

genethe bias of thofe importantvictories*


on

happened
moft

either

element,

for the
and the

part

attended

the

failors of

Athens,
naval

foldiers of

Sparta;

though the
of

of Teleutias, the kinfman exploits the furprifed

Agefigallies,

laus,who
took
many

Piraeus with

twelve

merchantmena

dedroyed

feveral

fhips
of

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
an CH
A

291
p.
t

of war,

and

fcoured
i

the coaft of Attica, formed


ui u honourable

exception
mander the
""

extremely
and the

to

L that

XXVIII.
com.

-T

of Iphicrates military advantages

Athenian, though unimportant in their confeannounced

quences, which in

thofe

afterwards rendered

great talents for war, him fo illuftrious. But,

Agefilausand the Spartans maintained general, their fuperiority in the field; while Conon, Thrafybulus, and Chabrias, proved fuccefsful againft
Thimbron, Anaxibius, and
I7.

the

other

naval

manders com-

of the enemy
In the actual

ftate of

Greece,

the

respective Conquefis
"

contending powers were advantages. companied by proportional


derived benefit
account not

fuccefles of the

Conon*

not

ac-

The

cedaemonians La-

any

folid

or

permanent
we

from
as

their fuch the

at victory

Coronasa, unlefs

in

of their revenge, gratification ravaging without refiftance the Argive and


but their defeat at C territory ; them in one day of the fruit of nidus many prived deborious laa

Boeotian

campaigns,fmce,
naval fuperior Perfian Conon treafury,
ever

with the

afliflance of

force,and with the command


found from their dominion This
the

of the

in little difficulty whole

for detaching
weftern

coaft of Leffer

Afia.
uncommon

have

been

effected with

muft enterprife and, rapidity,

unlefs the Perfian of winter

fleet kept the


at

fea in the

middle

(which is not
1. xiv.
ad

could all probable),

only
Hellen.

*7

Diodor,

Olym. U

xcvi.

4-

"

Xenoph.

1. iv. j.
a

employ

THE
CHAP,

HISTORY three months.


to

OF

GREECE. The
f

employ about

meafures
to

taken
recover

by

the

Spartans, either

or preferve

their

in the Eaft, have fcarcely pofTeflions important if we deferved the notice of hiftory, except their

Brave

de-

refiftance at

Abydus,

place lefs famous


love

for this
of fiction,

Abydus.

memorable

defence, (fuch is the


of truth
and

and the contempt


amours

!) than

for the fabulous

of

Hero

Leander. of this

Dercyllidashad ftrqng and


lous popu-

obtained the government


town,
as

the

reward

of his

fervices. military

Inftead of

the pufillanimity of the bouring imitating neighof whom, alarmed by the governors, many C nidus, fled in

from the precipitation afplacesentruiled to their command, Dercyllidas that one the Abydenians; aflured them iembled of Sparta18, naval defeat had not ruined the power before fhe had attained the fovereignty who, even able to reof the fea, now loft,was unfortunately ward

difafter at

her
"

benefactors,and
moment

to

her enemies. punifli


an

The

of

furnifhed adverfity
attachment

occafion
the
public re-

to

dilplaytheir
j

inviolable be

to

and

it would

gloriousfor

them

alone,

of all the inhabitants the power

of the Afiatic coaft, to brave

of Perfia."

of the

rage Having confirmed the couAbydenians,he failed to the town of Sef-

18

The

remarkable

of Xenophon expreffion in the

fhews of the fain

the

ance importit.
tap.it.

of this defeat and


"ri
"

general

eftimation he would

Abydenians,
difiemble
tri

of

Dercyllidas himfelf, though


ara"5

S* "% The

"%"":,

""

T"J

""-" apot "a.viAa.yj.a. UwaTJjSwftw,

matter

(lands
we fight,

not
are

thus,

that

becaufe

we

have been

ed word-

in the

fea

therefore

nothing."

tos,

THE
tos,

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. narroweft the the

293

acrofs the

fageof the place of the


of which the of The

and frequented Hellefpont. Seftos was Thracian owed

moft

paf- cr H
t
___

p-

principal
ants inhabitto fafety

Cherfonefus,

their

protectionand
fecure
amidft and their the of

ufeful labours merit enabled

of

and Dercyllidas19;
to

this claim

him

allegiance.
fection generalde-

of thefe fidelity
of the the coafl

towns,

of

Europe
and had

Alia, prevented
which in

inconveniences

hardfhipsto
been

the the

who expelled Spartans,

employed

of thofe parts, muft have been othergarrifons wife expofed; and delivered them from the neof undertaking a winter's journey to the Peceffity loponnefus, through the territories of many hoftile republics. The unfortunate governors and garrifons,
who the had

fled,or who

had

been

driven from
took

refuge within walls of Seftos and the friendly Abydus. Their numbers increafed the fecurity of thole who excelled in cities,and enabled Dercyllidas, in fuch a pofthe art of fortification, to put them
their

of places

command, refpective

ture

of defence

as

baffled the attempts

of Conon

and

Pharnabazus.
the fuccefs of thefe and commanders
was

But

ftiil their

complete ; diffidently
fervices excited of Artaxerxes.

the

importance of

marriagethe

in the breaft gratitude merit of the fatrap The was knowledged acfoon afterwards,by his obtaining iq daughterof the great king.
'9

the warmeft

See

above,

p.

446.

-3

The

294
c FI A

THE
P,

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

The
ceived
vour

patriotic Conon
any with

neither defired
;

nor

re-

XXVIII
.

_^.^,
re-

reward perfonal
Artaxerxcs
to

but

employed
the

his fa-

Conon

retrieve formed

affairs of

wails" and
'

Athens, the intereft of which


a^e mot^ve ^iat nac^ al"ne retained
tne

the honourthat

engaged, and
He Pharnabazus

ftill

him, in the Perfian fervice.


which both had

inflamed and

refentment

his

303

juftlyconceived againil Sparta, and encouraged them, early in the fpring,to fend
mailer
their victorious the
arms

armament

towards

Greece,

to

taliate re-

ravages

committed he

in the Eaft

by

the that

of

Agefilaus. But
render

inftructed them,
vengeance

if
and

they would
humble for

their the

ever

raife the fallen rival of


The would

complete, Spartanpride,they muft that imperious republic.


fum
the of money, which

difburfement
be

of

felt by fcarcely
to

of Perfia, treafury
and

might
Athens the

fufnce
; a

rebuild

the

walls

harbours
would
as

of

meafure

by

which power, enemy.

they
as

inflict
on

the wound deepe{t on pride,of their ambitious


was

well The

the

propofal

the berally liapprobation ; expence was the Perfian fleet fet fail, fupplied reduced ; tbeCycladesand Cythera, ravaged the coaft of La-

heard with

conia, and, after


whatever feemed afTembled
the

in performing moft in the

detached

fquadrons
vice, ferof

ufeful for the

Peifian

harbours long-deferted
and

Phalerus,Munichia,
of

Piraeus.

There, the

important talk
and

the ancient ornaments reftoring defence of the city of Minerva, was ried begun, carand on, with extraordinary diliaccomplifhed,

genc

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
crews

295

gence.
to

The
numerous

ready fervice of the


whom every
was

beloneinomer-

II A

p.

the

afiifted the induftry fleet, of the

xxvni

t_." J,

cenary had

workmen,
of both

allurement

of

gain

brought from
the

the labour

quarter of Greece ; and fecondecl and encouraged exertions of the Bceo-

by

and voluntary

eager

tians and

but, Argives ;

above

all,by the zeal of

the Athenians actual

who juftly their themfelves, regarded

employment as the fecond foundation of their once capital. glorious of Sparta, The work was completed before the return when thaTmeafpring; and the mortifyingintelligence, f"of that fui;e" brought to Sparta,affected the magiftrates republicwith the crueleft anxiety. They were peace Per" of recoverj["m readyto abandon for ever the profpect ing their loft dominion in the Eaft ; they were de- oiymp.
a-

firous
on

to

obtain

an

accommodation
j

with Artaxerxes

A. c. $92.

they were willing themfelves of the onlyadvantage to deprive yet in of revenge, their power, to forego the pleafure even and abftain from to ravaging the territories of their neighbours and enemies, providedonly the.
terms humiliating

the moft

great

would grant them a condition, fatraps with which it was eafyto comply, fmce it requirednothing but that they fliould ceafe to lavifh their own the dangerous in raifing money this purFor effecting power of the Athenians. pofe,they fent fucceffive embaffies to the court of Perfia, as well as to Teribazus, who had lately

king and

his

fucceeded fouthern

Tithrauftes

in

the

government

of

the

neglected provinces. They induftrjoufly Pharnabazus, from whom they could not reafon. U ably 4

296
CHAP,
XXVIII

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

ably expect
laus had

any

of Agefifavour, as the hoililities


'

excited peculiarly

the

refentment

of that

warlike

fatrap.

das.

a"

Among the minifters employed by Sparta,in whofe this negociation, Antalcidas, a man was [s \\ttlcknown. He njftory ,prjor appears to have intercourfe of hofpitality with feveral noble had an improbablethat he had ferved under the flandard of Cyrus, and perhaps continued in the Eaft during the fucceffive expeditions of Thimbron, Dercyllidas, and Agelilaus. If we except the artful and daring Lyfander, Sparta never employed a more proper agent to treat with
not

Periians40; it is

the Barbarians.

Antalcidas

was

bold, eloquent,
arts

.fubtile, complying, a mafler in all the


nuation and his abilities and

of infi-

well qualified, addrefs,and equally by

vices,to
court.
were

execute

an

infidious comrevered

million
tions

at

corrupt
country

The

inftitu-

of his

well-feigned contempt ; maxims of felf-denying the peculiarly delighted treacherous fatraps and courtiers, when he directed the poifoned fhafts of his ridicule againfl the manly firmnefs,the probity, and the patriotifm of Leonidas and Callicratidas, names equallygloriousto Spartaand difiionourable to Perfia.
His

of real or objects he derided the frugal and the divine Lycurgus3 but and voluptuous, cowardly, the

The
nego-

fuccefs of fuch
own
j

minifler, almofl enfured


haftened bv
*

elation

fa

by
i* the

his
"

character and talents, was


-

ctlitated

by the

un

imprudent
*"

ambition

of Conon

and

the Athe-

Xenoph. Hellen.
nans,

298
c

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
recover

HAP.

fume

her wonted
renown.

power,

and

her

heredi-

xxvin.

tary

The
not \ei-feflares

fuccefs of this

is extraordinary enterprife is the omiffion had of


ma-

defcribed, nor particularly


other

of Conon fmce this laft expedition terial,


any

not

permanent
His

effect but

that

ruining

furnifhed ambition unjuftiriable of Antalcidas, the dexterity to powerful weapons who reprefented him as guiltyof the moft ampled unexby the moft perfidious aggravated audacity, in attemptingto alienate and to ingratitude, by the afiiftconquer the king's dominions, even of the king's try ance forces,to which both his counand fignal fo many and himfelf owed recent accufation was benefits. The probablyrendered welcome more to Teribazus, by the jealoufy which he naturally entertained of the neighbouring rival. the friend of Conon, and his own fatrap,

himfelf.

But

after the laft unwarrantable


he could

tranfaction of the

Athenian, which
folete Greek
a
man

defend

maxim,

that every

only by the obthingis lawful to


even

in the fervice of his country,

his late

Pharnabazus colleague

feems

to

have

withdrawn

from

and friendfhip by which protection he had been fo long diftinguifhed, fo that the influence of that powerful formed not fatrap any opto the negociations and intrigues of Antalcidas. pofition The

him

the

Athenians, however, fent Dion,


with other watch to emiflaries, Conon and
as was

Hermogenes,
counteract head

and
at

his meafures.

named
not

the the and

of this

deputation ;

he knew

full extent

of Teribazus's

inflamed animofity,

exaf-

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
CHAP.

299
ex-

cxafperatedby the addrefs of Antalcidas, he

XXVIII.

of a man, who prefence pectedthat the perfonal had formerlyferved the Perfians with fidelity and fuccefs,might obtain an eafy pardon from the and perhaps prove ufeful to the affairs of fatrap, Boeotians and Argiveslikewife lent The Athens. their
concert overtures

,,,Jf
-v

ambaffadors, who
with Conon
were

had his

inftruclions

to

act in

met

colleagues.But their little regarded, while thofe of Antalcidas from Teriwith warm approbation
ambaffador
to

and

bazus. The
he had
as

Lacedaemonian
been

declared
terms

that of

The

over-

commanded

offer fuch

guraersu

the dignity and the intereft moft ?cequally The of the great king. Spartansrefignedall to the pretenfions to the Greek cities in Afia, which Pe.r(j^n peace fuited
"

rummers.

theyacknowledged to
fian
to

be

of dependencies

the Per-

tinue empire. "Why fhould Artaxerxes, then, con-

lavifh

his treaibre in

vain?

fince

the

Spartans not only ceded to him the immediate defired to promote but earneftly of difpute, object of his dominions, by fettling the future profperity
the
affairs of Greece, this
as

beft

anfwered

his

con-

veniency. For

purpofe they were


each
not

ready

to

declare all the cities and of independent totally of which


there would

iflands,fmall and
other be
to j

great,

in

any

confequence republicfufquillity tran-

thenceforth ficiently powerful of


moft Perfia." Thefe of

difturb the

conditions,which
the
too

the

infolent minifter

great

himfelf have
to

dictated,were
to

king might advantageousnot


was

be liable

But fufpicion.

Teribazus

fo

blinded

3oo

THE
A P.

HISTORY the

OF

GREECE.

c^H

blinded he feems

for by partiality
not to

that Spartan minifter,

have

entertained the fmalleft doubt


terms

of his mitted

fmcerity. The
to

of peace

were

tranf-

the

court

of

Sufa, that they might be

Death
Conon.

of

fubThe approved and ratified by Artaxerxes. rewarded of Antalcidas was by a considerable tlety and the patriotifm fum of money of Conon ; (a had which carried him beyond the patriotifm and propriety) bounds of juftice was punifhedby immediate death 41, or by an ignominiousconfinepj-s fate js var}oufly aa" related ; but his ment rank him with the firftof Grecian actions juftly
names ;

and

the fame

of

an

illuftrious father

was

and rivalled by fupported


theus a3.
obftacks

that of his fon Time*-

It

might have

been fo

clufionof
the

commodation,
for

treaty

perfia^ fhould
But
.
.

oiymp.
scvii. A.c.
?.

Artaxerxes.
feveral years,
r

that a plan of acexpected advantageousand honourable have been readily acceptedby the negociation for languifhed
r
.

390.

partly

on

account

or
was

the temporary

difgraceof Teribazus,
Struthas
;
a

who

fucceeded fome unknown

by

man

who, moved

by

the intereft of the Athemotive, warmly efpoufed 'nians felicitations and ; and partly by the powerful

remonftrances
who fadors,

of the Boeotian

accufed

latent ambition, of
Military

Argive ambafthe fmcerity, and unveiled the Sparta.


was

and

Meanwhile

the

war

carried

on

with and

unre-

The mitting activity. tion"!"


"'

Lacedemonians

their

Ifoc.

Panegyr.
adv.

"

Xenoph.
94. "

Gr.

Hift.

1. iv. in Vit.

*5

Dir.arch. "

Pcmoft.

p.

Corn.

Nepos,

Conun.

Timoth.

allies

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. Sicvon
CHAP.

301

allies Tallied from and the Lechseum,

their
to

ftrong garrifonsin

the harvefts and the deftroy of their Peloponnefian enemies. The villages Boeotians and Argives retaliated thefe injuries by feveral hofiile incurfions while into
as

XXVIII

the

territories of

Sparta;

the Athenians,

if

they had again


the whole element

attained the command

of the fea, bent


an

vigour of
The the

their

towards republic

long

to propitious recent

their anceftors.

fplendourof
and well-merited

Conon
renown

had of

ancient

eclipfed Conquefts Thrafy-

bulus, whofe

country
lamented Athenian

and more abilities, extraordinary traordinary exgood fortune, had twice refcued his from the yoke of tyrants. But after the of the former, the death or captivity

enforty fail,was trufted to Thrafybulus who, having fcoured the j and perfuad^Egean fea,failed to the Hellefpont, ed or compelled the inhabitants of Byzantium, and

fleet, amounting

to

feveral other Thracian ftocratic government, Athens. His

to cities,

abolifh their ari-

and

to next

accept the alliance of


directed the againft

was activity

ifle of Lefbos, in which reft


was

the Lacedaemonian
a

inte-

body of Having landed his men, he joinedbattle troops. in the neighbourhood of Methe enemy with after thymna, and obtained a complete victory, with his own hand Therimachus, the Sparkilling tan and general. The cities principal governor
of the

ftill fupported by

confiderable

acknowledged the Athenian power, reinforced the fleet, and feafonably by the terror of which they had been fubdued. Encouraged by
this

ifland

302
CHAP,
"VVVTTT

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

this fuccefs, Thrafybulus

failed toward

Rhodes, in

'forder
-

to

afTiftthe democratic for the

who faction, Athens

equally
and their

contended
own.

interefb of

He

is fur-

however, to that important proceeding, the refources, ifland,he determined to multiply


Before and
this
to

confirm

the

of the fleet. For affections,

fuppliesof for his expedition whatever feemed moft neceffary of Afia, and at length from the maritime towns of the Eurymedon entered the mouth ous (the glori-

purpofe he

raifed confiderable

fcene of Cimon's contribution and


on

and levied a heavy victories), fea-port Afpendus, the principal

of Pamphylia. But here his good fortune capital ended 14. The of the Barbarians patienttimidity endured the public depredation, had to which they were long accuftomed ; but even their could not brook the privaterapacity and fervility intolerable exactions which
were

of

the

failors and

troops,

imputed (not perhapswithout reafon) avarice of the commander. The to the unrelenting refentment of the Pamphylians overcame their cowardice. They attacked the Grecian tents in the night, and furprifed the fecurity of Thrafybulus, who thus fell a lacrifice to a very unjuftifiabl
defect, which
otherwife

if

we

may

believe the

rary contempohis

debafed writer,greatly

dignityof

illuftrious character **. The

*4
*J

Corn.

Nep.

in Vit.

Thrafybul.
This had

Lyfias againa Ergocles.

Ergocles

was

the friend and

confidant of Thrafybulus-. He

affiftedhim

in

the expelling

thirty

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

303

of AJpendus, which had C H A p. imjufttreatment retorted by fuch fignal been C"y-^j revenge, would never perhaps have reached the ears of Artaxerxes, had Aaivityof been befet by the das at the his voluptuous indolence not of Antalcidas. This active importunity vigilant and artful minifter let flip roufe oiymp. to no opportunity of the great king againft the Athethejealoufy foes,and to obliterate his renians, his hereditary his recent the Spartans, but lefs fentment againft

The

natural enemies.

The

fevere exactions

from Pam-

forded afa acknowledging his authority, phylia, provice the which a topic of perfuafion, powerful SpartanambafTador could not failto employ j but it
is uncertain whether would fian have monarch
even

this

important argument
of the meafures
Perthe

conquered the
to
concur

reluctance with the

of

people,who had enabled his throne, and difpute

Cyrus to who had recently invaded maritime and plundered, rior not a city,but the inteprovinces of the empire. His intereft and combated inclination were by his refentment and
his his fluctuating irrefolution was when pride ; lengthdecided by the Athenians, whofe mad crowned the triumphof Antalcidas.
at

rebellious

prudence im-

thirty tyrants,
to

and
coaft

had of

recentlyaccompanied
Thrace,
mentioned in Thrace in
were

him the

in his
text.

dition expe-

the

The able honour-

exploitsof Thrafybulus military


and meritorious
at

highly
was

; but

his

privatebehaviour
he could enrich
to

the reverfe.
or

'He

Ituck

nothing by Ergocles
taken

which

himfelf for

his dependants. lhare

was

condemned

death

the

which

he

had

in this

and unjuftifiable peculation


and

rapacity.
likewiftf

Orations Lyfias's

againftErgocles
v,

Philocrates. ad locum.

See

AriftophanesEcclefiaz.

356. " Schol.

The

THE
CMi A P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

The and
goras

and Thrafybulus, victories of Conon fignal the rifmg fortune of Athens, encouragedEva-

king of Salamis, who


to difguft,
o

had his

received

fome

late caufe of
the
iiians.

execute

long^meditated
was

Athe-

of revolting from ^efign to

P'erlia.

Egypt
OJ c

actu-

had undertaken in rebellion ; Artaxerxes a war ally the barbarous Carduchians a6, who were by againfl Thefe were a no means contemptible enemy. vciy

favourable

circumltances

-,

but

the

Perfian

the fervice for which fleet, which, after performing k had been

equipped,had
and any
new

continued

to

lie inactive

in the Phoenician
to

Cilician harbours, was

ready

The fkilenterprife. ful and experienced mis, bravery of the king of Salaardour of his fon feconded by the youthful the firfl obtained an eafyvictory over Protagoras, that were fent to invade his ifland. But fquadrons
was

be

employed in

there

reafon

to

dread

the arrival of

far fu-

force. In perior and obtained, the


not

this

danger Evagoras requefled,


;

afiiftance of the Athenians with

who
am-

only enjoyed peace


were

Peiiia,but whofe
that

bafladors

to prevent endeavouring

court

from
The

great

tatesthe
terms
a

making peace with their enemies. This extraordinary meafure of a people,in pretheir gratitude to their intereftj a ferring gratitucje whicn
to

of

they might have forefeen


J

to

be ufelefs

general

peace.

aeetiil. r.
A.c.

388.

and pernicito oblige, they meant t^ie m"ft ous to important intereils of their redetermined Artaxerxes to jjublic, finally efpoufe
*r"

him

whom

Thefe

and
are

the

followingcircumftances
through Diodorus, panegyric
of the

concerning

the

war

of

Cyprus

fcattered

Ifocrates's Panegyric

of Athens, and

Evagoras.

the

3c6
CHAP,
XXVIII

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
not

prefiionof Barbarians,could
ftuence the

indeed

much

in-

councils of thofe republics degenerate ; with reluctance, muft refign, their but the Thebans the inferior cities real or pretended over authority withdraw of Bceotia; the Argives muft unwillingly from their garrifon Corinth, and, leave that of the ariftocratic in the power important capital
or

Lacedemonian

faction

and

the Athenians

muft
recent

abandon, with victories,and

regret, the
the

fruits of their

hopes
The

grandeur.
had
moft been

their ancient recovering of thefe ftates oppolition took


the

of

forefeen

by Antalcidas, who
to

impotent.By the affiftance of Perfian money he equipped a fleet of eighty fail, from the mercenary of fea-ports
Greece
even

effectual meafures

render

it

and

Afia, from the intermediate


the coafts of
was

and ifles,

from

armament

Italyand Sicily.This with independentof the fquadrons

to attack the ifle of Cyprepared prus, if the prefumption of Evagoras, unaflifted and alone, fhould dare to provoke his hoftility. alfo had collected a very confiderable The fatrap ready to embark for Greece, and army, which was had aflembled who to co-operate with Agefilaus, the domeftic troops and allies of Sparta to march, at the firftfummons, againft any cityor republic that might reject the peace of Antalcidas a8. Thefe the weaknefs vigorous preparations, intimidating of the confederates, tant compelledthem into a reluccompliancewith the terms of the treaty. The

which

Teribazus

1r,i iti Aura/to^a "fwjy

xtxtepms,
.

Xenoph.

p. 477.

Thebans

THE

HISTORY made

OF

GREECE.
obftinate
re-

307
CHAP. XXVIII

Thebans

the ftrongeft and moft

but their pretenfions fiftance were ;

filenced finally

by

Spartan king, the inveterate of their republic. The Boeotian citieswere enemy and admitted as acknowledgedto be independent, The in the peace. Argives retired from parties Corinth, which being deferted by the leaders of the democratical faction, became a faithful allyto and naval operations ceafed, Sparta. The military reftored,and the armies and fleets was tranquillity
were,
on

the threats of the

both

fides,difbanded
this univerfal the
court

and

diflblved19.

But

amidft
to

and

moft

obfequious Evagoras
man

fubmiffion

of Periia,one

avowed

fe^Tthe"

his difcontent,and

preparedto maintain his oppo- authority article reflecting fition. The Cyprus was loudly rejected by Evagoras, who afferted the ence independof his native ifland ; and, with a magnanimity
that formed and contrail with the ftriking foftnefs of his Grecian difgraceful
a

generate delies, al-

fet the

power

of

Artaxerxes

at

defiance.

ous vigorEvagoras trufted to the refources of his own fkillof his feamen, and mind, to the fuperior to the afliftance of Acoris king of Egypt. But the of Teribazus over numerous prevailed fquadrons
all his

hopes.
;

He

was

difcomfited in
were

naval and

gagement envaged ra-

his
was

territories
reduced
to

invaded

",

he

even

Salamis

refiftance had

warranted,

or

Salamis ; and capital threatened v/ith a fiege. His was alreadyexceeded what his ftrength His enewhat his dignity required.
his
"c. Kt$"toi,

/x.ivr*

Xenoph.

p. 551.

mies

3o8

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

CHAP.
XXVIII.

mies
'_'

were

incapable
him
to

of

perfeverance,
He in

or

unwilling
his
nume-

"_

to

drive ancj

defpair.
conquefls
*
.

refigned
Cyprus,
...

Tr"

Sub.nitstorous
an

recent

but of

retained

honourcom-

able

pofleffion
wnicn his

of

the

ancient

principality
had recovered

Teucer,
from
an

oiymp!"
xcviii.
4.

fortunate
and

arms

ufurper
s'

fubmitted,
of
many

without

difhonour,

to

L"

imitate

the and

example
to

preceding
himfelf
the

princes

of

Salamis,
of
the

acknowledge
Perfia

tributary

king

of

3".

30

Diodor.

J.

xv.

p.

46*.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

309

CHAP.

XXIX.

Reflections upon
Views

the Peace

of
"

Antakidas.

"

bitious Am-

of Sparta.
"

State

of Arcadia."
"

Olynthian Confederacy."* Siegeof Mantin^ea. 'The Spartansmake War on Olynthus. Submiffion of that Republic.Pella becomes the the Theof Mace don. Ph"ebidas feizes Capital Ian Citadel. The Meajure approved by Agejilaus. Conf piracyof the Theban Exiles. 'The "Thelan Democracyrejlored.
"
"

"

"

"

TH
tory.
the
wars,

E
ant

peace of Antakidas
and

forms

an

CHAP, import-

in sera difgraceful
the

the Grecian

hif.

x
^

_'
^

The

Reflecvaluable colonies in Afia, the caufe,

and object,
were

of fo fcene,

many

memorable
ever

and abandoned for refierned


a

to

the

thc pcace "fAntal" cidas.

kingof Perfia power and condifmembered the diflantdependencies, who trouledthe domeftic arrangements of a people had given law to his anceftors'. Their ancient
Barbarian mailer.
The confederacies
were were

of

diflblvedjthe fmaller cities


on dependence

loofened from

their powerful
j

all ; neighbours
1

were

difunited and weakened

of the See the articles

concluded in treaty

449, A. C. Vol. II.

c.

xii. p. 80.

and

"

3io
CHAP.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

and Greece

felt the
benefits

c"y-1^ joyingthe
But

languor of peace, of fecurity.


Grecian
name
was

without

en-

if the whole

difhonoured

this ignominious treaty, what pecuby accepting liar of infamy muft belong to the magiftrates it was propofedand promoted ? Sparta,by whom of advantagecould balance this motives What ? Or rather, what advantage weight of difgrace derive from fuch ignoble could the Spartans condefcenfion as feemed tual totally unworthy of their acbut far more cient unworthy of their anpower, like mofl political ? This queftion, renown by facts ; and the queftions, may be beft anfwered tranfactions which both preceded and followed difcover and afthe peace of Antalcidas clearly certain the fecret, but powerful, caufes of that difhonourable, and feemingly difadvantageous, meafure.
Motives which
en. . . .

The
the

ambition
it
now

of

making conqueftsin
c ,
,

the Eaft,

gaged

which

appeared impomble
Lacedaemonians

to
an

retain, had

deprived eagerly
to

embrace
'

ty.

or authority, rather dominion, in Greece, acquired by the fuccefs of the Peloponnefian and which they might war, have reafonably and to confirm. expectedto preferve Not only their power, but their fafety, was threatened of a hoftile confederacy, by the arms

tne

of

which

had

been formed

and fomented their

by

the wealth

of Perfia. their

Athens,

rival, their fuperior,

but alwaystheir unrelenting fubject, enemy, had recovered her walls and fleet, and afpired to command the fea. Thebes and Argos had become fenfible of their natural ftrength, and dif-

dained

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

311

acknowledgethe pre-eminence,or to c H A p. The follow the ftandard, of any foreign -w--'_j republic. inferior ftates of Peloponnefus were ing weary of obeyfrom which they to w#r, every idle fummons derived not any advantage but that of gratifying The of their Spartanmatters. the ambition valu*and Thrace, and partiable colonies in Macedon cularly the rich and populouscitiesof the Chalciof the virtuous dic region,the bloodlefs conquefts Brafidas, had forfaken the intereftof Sparta,when Scarcely Sparta forfook the intereft of juftice. trophies any veftigeappeared of the memorable of twenty-feven erected in a war 'years. The Eaftern provinces the moft import(incomparably ant loft and this rapid of all) were irrecoverably had happened in the courfe of decline of power occafioned by the ten years, and had been chiefly of Agefilaus's victories in Afia. fatal fplendour
dained
to
"_.
",

About

century before, and

almoft

on

the fame

Advanwhich

fcene, the Spartanshad been firft deprivedof their fame, hereditary


moft Ionian every and

they

honours prefcriptive

*.

Al-

in peace or war, with the interference, colonies,had hurt the interefts of their re

fore, therebegan to fufpecl:, public. They naturally fuited not the that fuch diftant expeditions inland city, with circumftances of Sparta,an a but deftitute of arts, induftry, fertile territory, and whofe and commerce inhabitants,having ; unable to little geniusfor the fea, were naturally equip,or to maintain, fuch a naval force as might
*

See above, Vol.

II. p.

58.

command

312
CHAP,
v VT -\r

THE

HISTORY the obedience

OF

GREECE. extenfive

command tached
The
not

of
to

an

coaft, atrivals.

by powerfulties

their Athenian
what

abandoning, therefore, of

they could

to preferve, or, if regained, regain, meafure ; fmce, feemed a very prudent and falutary for this imaginary conceffion, they received in return advantages. They many real and important and to direct the to fuperintend were appointed

hope

to

execution of the treaty ; and in order


entitled effectual, authority
ance

to

make
the

their

to

demand which The

affift-

of Perfian

money,

with

they might
condition

Grecian eafily purchafe

foldiers.

the fmaller cities to be declared free and requiring of Antalcidas (althoughthe dexterity independent of preventing had propofedit as the bed means beneficial the future invafion of Afia), was peculiarly the them to the Spartans. It reprefented as and reftored them patrons of univerfal liberty, which that honourable reputation they had long loft. From the
nature

of the

it condition itfelf,

could

placesas being kept in a ftillpofTefied reluctant fubjedion, dicate courage to vintheir freedom. Meflenia
had In

only apply to

fuch

the

and

Laconia, the
the

of towns fecondary ftern policyof Sparta


almoft the

crulhed

hope, and

defire,of

this ineftimable benefit. The obtaining authority of other capitals lefs imperious and impofing was ; the fovereign and fubject more were on a footing of equality; and it was in Greece, a maxim That the juftrights are men to of their difpofed reject rather than to revolt againft the unlawful equals,
"

tyranny

THE
CHAP, XXiX
i_"

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

and fomenting the animofities of the citizens tions,

-.' againfteach _"

againfttheir refpeclive and complaints, which capitals. The jealoufies occafioned had been by theie fecret principally referred to the Spartan fenate ; ufually cabals, were
afrcdted moderation, under
the caufe of the weak

other, and

whofe

pretence

of defending

and the

ways alinjured,

decided the conteft in the way for themfelves.


gus could
not

moft

favourable

But

the warlike

which

long remain They determined to take ufurpations. hoped to employ with they probably

of Lycurdifciples fatisfied with thefe juridical


arms,

fuch

artful
very
as

as might prevent any general,or dexterity with fuch cities dangerous, alarm; beginning

had

not

entered into the late

confederacy againft
the

them, gradually extendingtheir hoftilities to


more

of that confederacy members powerful ; and thus conquering fucceflively entire thofe, whofe have been vain to it would and collective ftrength

aflail 5,
State

of

The

firftvictim

of this ambitious

policy was
ter-

of the flourifhing republic oiyrap!"

Mantinjea, whoi'e
center

^.

was ritory

fituate almoft
center

in the

of Arcadia,

the itfelf

of the
was

Peloponnefus. The
with that of and

of Mantinasa

the fame

origin Tegea,
other

Stymphalis, Hersea,

Orchomenos,
had grown

which neighbouring cities, and power from puloufnefs the jftiephercls inhabiting
s

pothe fcattered villages of


mountains

into

vallies and

of

Xenoph. Hellen.

1.

v,

p. 551.

"

Diodor.

1. xv.

p. 448.

Arcadia,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. inland fitua- "


H

315
A P.

Arcadia.

The

exuberant

the fertility, yet

tion, the generous

warmth,

verdure6, lively

with the pic~lurefque and animating together fcenery of this delightful region,feemed peculiarly adapted the love of rural hapand to gratify, infpire, and to afford, in all their eleganceand pinefs ; fublimeand Jacred dignity, thofe joysof the country which the genius of ancient poets hath felt, and defcribed with fuch affecting fenfibility. Every marked diftricl: of Arcadia and diverfified by was
to
,

fome hills, of
miles in

of which, could

we

credit the, inaccuracy

afcend two defcription, geographical 7, and which fupply perpendicular height

innumerable

ftreams, that

water

and

fertilife the

they inclofe and defend. This fecure and infulated pofition of their territory long the Arcadians ignorant preferved anduncorrupted; before the periodof hiftory and a little under now review, they were diilinguilhed by the innocent of their manners, and by their fond at-, iimplicity tachment life. But the turbulent a to paftoral of their neighbourshad often obliged ambition them to employ the fword inftead of the fheephook. taken arms; They had reluctantly yet, when compelled or excited by honour, by neceflity, the mountaineers of Arcadia had dilplayed fuch ilubborn valour, and exerted fuch efforts of vigour and activity, made their fervices eagerly as defired,
6

rich vallies which

Thefe

circumftances
diftrifts of

are

common as

to

Arcadia
as

with

the other

mountainous
the
7

Greece,

well

with

the iflands of

Archipelago. TOURNEFORT.
Grsec. apud Gronov. Defcript. vol. I.

and

3i6
CHAP,
T_

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. the

and

with emulation, by purchafed Nor had

ftates. -^JLj

they

trufted

to

furroimding their perfonal

"

and bravery alone for the defence of their ftrength beloved pofieffions. Having quittedtheir farms and villages, they had afiembled into walled towns, from which their numerous were garrifons ready to forth againft an fally hoftile invader. The

ous dangerthe
panions com-

of Sparta had vicinity of Pan


woods and the

earlydriven Nymphs from


8, into

the vocal

of

mount

Maenalus

the fortifications

of

of the procity Tegea, formerlythe principal vince9, rivalled and furpafled but afterwards by
was

The

proud

of jealoufy object and envy, not cities of only to the neighbouring Arcadia, but even to Sparta herfelf. ^n tne Year immediately the treaty of following

Mantinsea, which

become

an

meffage of the Spartans to

Antalcidas, Lacedemonian
"
.

ambuiladors
very

were

fent

the
'

to

Mantinsea,

to

difchargea

extraordinary

ans?
"yrop-

A. C. 386.

audience of an Having demanded the aflembly, the refentment of their theyexpreffed a live who, pretending to republic againft people, in friendlhip with them, had in the late war peatedly refurnifhed with
the
corn

commiffion.

their avowed

enemies

Argives. That, on other occafions, the Mantinasans had unguardedly difcovered their lecret hatred to Sparta,rejoicing in her misfortunes, and it was That time to anticipate envying her profperity. this dangerousand unjuft animofity for i
8

Msnalus

argutumque
habet "c.
j

Semper Panaque,
9

pinofque loquentes Temper paftorum ille audit amores ViRC. Eel. viii/v, a*.
nemus

Herodot. 1. vi.

c.

105.

which

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
them
to

317
C
'

Which

purpofe the Spartans commanded


their walls, to
to

p.

demolifh
and
to

return

thofe

proud city, -r-[j in which villages peaceful


.

abandon

their

their

anceftors had
received

lived this
",

and

flourifhed I0. the

The

Mantinseans which

with propofal

nation indigretired

it merited

the ambafiadors
war;
;

declared the Spartans indilguft; the affiftance of their confederates army,

fummoned
a

commanded

the hoftile
But

by territory.

powerful invaded kingAgefipolis,

and

the moft

deftructive ravages Mantinseans.

could The

not

bend

Mantinaea
t

the refolution of the and


nor

ftrength
to

loftinefsof their walls bade


could
a

defiance

aflault;

tain regularfiegebe undertaken with cerfuccefs,as the magazines of Mantinaea were the abundantlyftored with various kinds of grain, ly crops of the former year having been uncommon-

however, plentiful. Agefipolis,


doubtful mode
a

embraced firft a

this

of attack, and

drew the

ditch,

and then
one

round wall, entirely

place,employing

part of his troops in the work, and another in guarding the workmen. This tedious fervice exhaufted
the the

patienceof
firmnefs afraid
to

the

without befiegers, Mantinseans.


The

lhaking
their

of the
detain

Spartans were
reluctant

longer in the field confederates; but Agefipolis prowith river from

attended meafure, which was pofed a new The fuccefs. complete and immediate Ophis, formed by the collected torrents
10

"

Xenoph. Hellen. feqq.

1. v,

c.

jt,"

fcqq.

Diodor,

1. xv.

c.

jt

mount

318.
CHAP,
XXIX mount

THE

HISTORY
a

OF

GREECE.

Anchifius,

river

broad, deep, and rapid/


.

--'
i__

^.

and the city of Man-' plain, to ftopthe tinasa. It was a laborious undertaking fooner no courfe of this copiousftream ; which was flowed

through

the

effected, than the lower parts of the walls of Mantimea ufual


were

laid under

water.

According

to

the

of the Greeks, the fortificationsof* practice built of raw this placewere bricks, which being into chinks, and to flyout of lefs liable to break the beft defence their courfes, as were preferred then in ufe. But it the battering-engines againft is the inconvenience of raw bricks, to be as eafily is melted diflblved by water, as wax by the The walls of Mantincea fun ". began to yield, of the (hake, to fall in pieces. The to activity inhabitants propped them with wood, but without fo that, delpairing of ; any permanent advantage being able to exclude the enemy, they fent to cathat they might be permitted The town requefting pitulate, of their city, condition that to on fates?" keeP poflefii011 their fortifications, and followed, they demolifhed the fortune of Sparta. in peace and war, Hard and his counfellors refufed to grant Agefipolis
con-

ivhich

the

them

any been

other

terms

of peace

than the

thofe which

^ad ants'ale
compelled
tofubmit.

originally propofedby
/
...

republic.He
in
to
one
"

obferved, that while

they lived together


numbers

Olymp.

populous city,

their

expoied

them

the

l's 85

delufions of feditious

demagogues, whofe
in Arcad.

addrefs.

11

This the

is the
name

exprefiion of Paufania?,
of the

who

tions men-

river Ophls, omitted

by Xenophon

and

Diodorus.

and

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. the multitude

3i9 from
C

feduced find eloquence eafily


and their real intereft, their
on

II A
XXIX

p.

deftroyedthe influence of
in wealth, and alone the in wifdom,

in rank, fuperiors attachment

whofe

Lacedaemonians

could

fafelydepend.

that the Mantinaeans the and

therefore, They infifted, fhould deilroy their houfes in

into four diftinct communities '*$ city;feparate which their anceftors return to thofe villages The
terror

had inhabited.
made demand it

of

an

immediate this

aflault

to

the

humiliating zealous partifans of demobut the mod cracy, ; of fixty, afraid of trufting the number to from their allowed to fly were capitulation,
j

to comply neceffary

with

country

which
*3

is mentioned the

as

an

inftance of

deration mo-

in

Lacedsmonian
to

who foldiers,

might have put


the gates. This

them

death

as

theyparled through
"

when finifhed, fcarcely feized an opportunityof Spartan magiftrates


was

tranfaction

the
the

The

fate3,
hand,
the affairs of

domeftic

difcontents amono;
7.

ftron" the Phliafians, to dif- j1


. .

but with ftill play the fame tyrannical fpirit, greater exertions of feverity. The little republicof

oiymp.
xcix*"

Phlius, like every

ftate of Greece

in thofe
was

un-

fortunate, at

leaft turbulent The

times,

diftracled

by factions.
opponents,

the

prevailing party baniihed their friends of Sparta and ariftocracy.


to return

They
quence
11

were

allowed

from
and

exile,in confeof

of the

commands

threats

Agefi-

Xenophon
Or rather

faysfour, Diodorus
of
ot

five.

J*

the vide

Mantinaeans,

nobles of good difcipline;TraOa^a- The G'eAnro* Mct"THtuvt were T"" not fo temperate ;

Xenoph.

p. 554.

laus;

320
c H A

THE
P.

HISTORY
met not

OF

GREECE.

laus

'* :

but

with that refpe"fultreatment


to

XXIX.

perfonswho enjoyedfuch powerful prote"ion.They complained, and Agefilaus again interfered, by appointingcommifiionwhich feemed due
ers

to

try and
j
"

condemn odious

to

death

the

obnoxious muft have the

Phliafians been

an

office, which

executed with

unexampled rigour,fince

of Phlius, which had hitherto been divided by city variably thenceforward continued inof interefts, a variety of Sparta15. the ftedfaftally
Embafly
thus

Meanwhile

ambafladors

arrived from

Acanthus

and" and

two Apollonia,

cities of the

Chalcidice, re.

Apoiionia to Sparta.

quefting the Lacedemonian

afliftance againft the b

dangerous
which towards
was
we

ambition

or

Olynthus.
to

had the

occafion

mention the

city, or the foundation

I his

"

beginningof
miles

Peloponnefian war,
the

fituate nine

from

fea, in
rivers

fertile

and and
name

between fecure diftridt,

the

Amnias,

which

flow

into

the lake

Olynthus Bolyca, a
recefs
ment govern-

of the

improperly bellowed on Toronaic gulph. The


firil drove

the

inmoft

vexatious

of Athens
of the

the maritime

ties communi-

region within the walls of Olynthus; the oppreilive .tyranny of Spartaobliged them to ftrengthen thofe walls, as well as to provide fufficient garrifons defend them j and the to publics, fubfequentmisfortunes of thefe domineeringreof Macedon, with the weaknels together encouraged and enabled the inhabitants of OlynXenoph.
in

Chalcidic

" Agefil.

Hdlen.

1.

v.

p.

Ibid. !. vii. p. 624.

thus

3ia
CHAP,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
a

diforder which
and

like threatens,
The with

to infeA peftilence,

pervadeGreece.
has increafed

ambition

of the

Olynthe

thians

their power.

By
to

voluntaryfubmiffion

of the fmaller cities in their enabled


fubdue

they have been neighbourhood, the more powerful. Emboldened of ftrength, they have wrefled

by
from

this acceflion
the

king of valuable his moil Macedon provinces. They Pella, the greateft city in that poflefs actually kingdom ; and the unfortunate Amyntas is on the nions, point of abandoningthe remainder of his domiwhich any he is unable
to

defend.

There

is

not

community

in Thrace

capableto flop their

progrefs.The

tribes of that warlike independent divided but and country, relpectthe authority, of the Olynthians, will the friendship who court doubtlefs be tempted to extend their dominion on

that fide,in order which

to

augment

the great

revenues

theyderive from their commercial harbours, by the inexhauftible mines Pangasus. felled,what
ikcifive If this extenfive
can

cities and in mount

plan

Ihould

be

ef*

prevent

them

from

acquiringa
Ihould
and Athens

fuperiority by
into
an

fea and
alliance

land ? and

they
Thebes what

enter

with

(a meafure will become,

pre-eminence of
and

? The fafety folicits, by every motive of interefband of honour, the activity and valour of your republic. By feafonable affiftance to Acanthus and a yielding

in contemplation), actually we fay not, of the hereditary Sparta, but of its independence therefore, prelentemergency,

Apollonia,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

323

c ri A p. which, unmoved by the pufillanimous Apollonia, r^' example of their neighbours,have hitherto fpurned the yoke, and defied the threats of Olynthus, you ties, communiwill fave from two peaceful opprefilon the ambition of check and an ufurping of the Olynthians reluflant fubjefts tyrant. The and the Chalcidian will court protection ; your cities will be encouraged to revolt, eipecially as linked with the capital they are not yet infeparably and confanguinity, and by the ties of intermarriage of rightsand poffelTions l6. by the interchange fhall take place (forthe fuch a connection When have made a law to encourage it),you Olynthians will be unable to break the force of this powerful and dangerous confederacy." The Ipeech of Cleigenes, and the ambitious The Spar* views of the republic which it was to addreffed, -fylffie afford reafon to conjecture that the ambafTadors arequeft neither afked any thing in favour of their own communities, nor urged any accufation againft Olymp. Olynthus,which had not been previoufly fuggefted The A.' reby the Spartan emirTaries in Macedon. ".383. of the tends to given to ception propofal Cleigenes
"_"
*

confirm with the


own.

this

conclufion.

The

Lacedsemonians,

and indifference, defired impartiality before declaring their opinion of their allies,
affefted But
none

there could

was

not

any
as

occafion
to

to

declare
The

what

be
one

fo blind

miftake.

confederates with

thole confent, but eipecially


Xenoph.

i;

xai

t"/x7r,"r"7t 7r*^aM"Aa",.

p. 555.

who

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

who

wifhed

to to

themfelves ingratiate
undertake the

determined
Their
pre-

SpartaI7, expeditionagainft
with their
parations re-

Olynthus.
.

The

Spartans
,
.

commended
.

for

the

folutionj and
the

proceeded
the army the time

to to

deliberate

concerning mode field.


amount

of ftrerlgth

be

the raifed,

of
It

levyingit, and
was

for

takingthe
j

refolved,that the whole -forces fhould


ten

to

thoufand

effective

men

and

liftwas

pared, prebe

the refpective to containing contingents

furnifhed
be unable money half
a

by
to

the feveral cities* the fupply

If any ftate fhould

fullcomplement of foldiers,
rate

would drachm
man;

be taken in their ftead, at the


a

of

halfpenny) day (or three-pence


if neither
the troops nor time, the Lacedemonians the

for each money would

but

were

fent in due

punifh the difobedience of the obftinate or them neglectful, by fining eight times the fum which tribute. they had been originally required to con-

The

ambarTadors

then

rofe up,

and

Cleigenes,
were fortunately, un;

for againfpeaking indeed

the reft,declared that thefe

noble

and could

generous
not

refolutions executed

but,
with

be the

fuch

promptitude as
crifis. The

fuited

urgency

of the

prefent
and He

dangerousfituation
immediate

of Acanthus afliftance.

Apollonia demanded

that thofe troops which were propofed,therefore, take the field and infifted ready,fhould inftantly
-,

Kas

TO*?

Xcnoph.

p. .555.

on

THE
On
ance

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

this meafure
to

as

matter

of the utmoft
war.

import- CJ* A
A
"

P.

the future fuccefs of the Lacedemonians advice


j

VMcam-

The

acknowledged
and
men,

the

ex-

Firft

pediency of the
midas, with
out two

commanded
to

Euda-

a" P3.'""

thoufand

proceed withPhcebiorder
to

oiynthus.

das

delayto Macedon, while his brother in collected a powerful reinforcement,


A very ftiall have

A-

c-

383*

follow him.
we

extraordinary event, which occafion fullyto explain, retarded


nearly{pent.
But

the

arrival of thofe auxiliaries, until the feafon for had his been

action with

Eudamidas,

performed very efiential fervice. the garrifons He of fuch ftrengthened moil expofed to affaults from the placesas were the appearance of a Spartan army couraged en; enemy of revolt among the allies and the fpirit of Oiynthus; and foon after his inarch fubjects
little band, into the

'

Chalcidice, Eudamidas

received

the

voluntaryfurrender of Potid^a, a city of great in the ifthmus of Pallene. importance


Such
was

the

firft

campaign
was

of
on

war

which

Eudamifeated and flauu

lafted four years, and fuccefllve

carried

under

four

elated generals. Eudamidas, too much ritory, by his firft fuccefs,ravaged the Olynthian terthe city. He and unguardedly approached was conquered^ and flain, and his intercepted, army
or difperfed

loft '5. brother


been

Teleutias, the
naval have exploits

of

Agefilaus,
.

whofe
,
.

Second
campaign

already

mentioned

with
ex-

under

Te-

afTumed applaufe,
""

the conduct

of this diftant

ther of

Xenoph.

p.

556.

Agefilaus,

pcdition,

3*6
c

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

HAP"

",'
y"

with a body of ten thoufand men. pedition, aflifted by Amyntas, king of Macedon, '_t was
ffjn
more

Ho
and

oiymp.
3CC1X.

effectually by Derdas, the brother of


and the governor, weftern
or

3.

A. c. 381. tnat

prince,

rather

fovereign,

of

Elymea,

the moil in

which

abounded

of thefe formidable had been

of Macedon, province cavalry. By the united efforts who enemies, the Olynthians,
in various
rencounters,
were

defeated
within

(hut up
marched
or

their

their cultivating

with his
an

prevented from territory. Teleutias at length in order to inveft, whole forces,


walls, and

to aflault the place, opportunity, excited by the His and indignation were furprife boldnefs of the Olynthianhorfe, who ventured to of fuch a fuperior the Amnias in fight pafs army;

if he found

and

he

ordered

the

targeteers, who

were

manded com-

The

by Tlemonidas, to repeltheir infolence. made an artful retreat acrofs the Amnias, cavalry monians. and were fiercely purfued by the Lacedaeconsiderable part of the latter fudlikewife paffed the river, the Olynthians
When
a

had

denly faced about,


with above
an

and

chargedthem.
of his

das, Tlemoni-

hundred The

fell in the
with

aftion.

companions, Spartan general beheld

and rage the fuccefsfulbravery of the, grief manded Grafpinghis fliield and lance, he comenemy. the cavalry,and the remainder of the and, intermifliqn ; targeteers, to purfue without the head of his heavy-armed men, advanced at The with lefs order than celerity. Olynthiansattillthey arrived femptednot to floptheir progrefs, under the walls and battlements.
At that
moment

the

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

327

the townfmen
the enemy every kind
to

mounted
a

their ramparts,

and aflailed
arrows,

?rA,p-

with

fhower

of darts and

and

y,n-t,-T,l

which greatly of mifiile weapon, added of their the confufion occafioned by the rapidity

march.

Meanwhile
had been

the

flower

of the

Olynthian
up behind
;

troops, who
the

drawn purpofely

gates, fallied forth with


the

irrefiftibleviolence
men,
was

to Teleutias, attempting

his rally

flain him

Telemias

in the firftonfet

Spartans who
f

attended

Llk5wjf*.
defeated

and repelled, while they fled in with great (laughter, pjrfued Scattered the friendly of diforder towards towns

gave

ground; the

whole

army

was

andOain.

and Potidsea '9. Acanthus, Apollonia, Spartolus,


cool the ar- Third difafter did not mortifying of dour of the Spartans for gaining pofieffion AgefiOlynthus. In the year three hundred and eightyThis
one

before Chrift,which fent

was
a

the third of the war,

oiyrop.
*c'x-

they
ment,

with Agefipolis, The

into Macedon.

revived earlyin the fpring, and confirmed the quifhed,


allies. He

powerfulreinforcearrival of this prince the hopes of the vanattachment and

*"

of the Lacedaemonian

invaded

ravaged fuch

had been as parts of the Olynthianterritory and took by ftorm the in former incurfions,

(pared ftrong
who of
a

cityof

preparedto avail his fucfor rendering himfelf of thefe advantages cefs complete,he was feized by a calenture, a
Torona.
But

while he

dies
ture. calen-

difeafe incident

to

warm

climates,and,
a

as

the

name

with the patient exprefles, affecting

fenfapainful
to

tion of

burningheat, which
"9

he
/

is eager

extin-

Xenoph. y

p.

561, "

THE
CHAP,
XA.I.X
" .

HISTORY the moft

OF
violent

GREECE. and

guiih by
medics 40.

dangerous

re~

had lately vifited the temple Agefipolis of Apollo at Aphytis, a maritime the town on Toranaic gnlph. In the paroxyfm of his diforde^ he

longed for

the

and groves, deiio-htful


"_j

and
retreat.

breezes, the fhady walks fanning the cool cryilalline flreams, of that
His
not

attendants
i

indulged his
-'" i

CJ

but could inclination,


on

fave

his life. He

died

the feventh

day

of the

within difeafe,

the precincts

of the coniecrated
embalmed in

honey, were

ground. His remains, conveyed to Sparta".


fucceeded
to

His
and

brother

Cleombrotus

the

throne;
pacity, ca-

and a Polybiades, generalof experience


was

inverted with the

command

in Ma-

cedon.
the example of his prePolybiades, imitating wn'dcr deceflbrs,conducted a powerful reinforcement furrounded againft Olynthus,which was completely by land, while a fquadron of Lacedaemonian Olymp, harbour of blocked up the neighbouring A. C, 380. ga^^es

Mecyberna.
lafted

The

events

of

the

fiege, which

eightor ten months, have not been thought worthy of record. It is probable that the Olynthians no forth againft longer ventured to fally fuch a fuperior force : ceedingly yet they muft have been exdiltrerTed by famine before their obftiwith that the ;"It is Aippofed, great probability, fuddenly difappear in the Mediterranean, during failors who the heat

of

fummer,
have The

have

been

attacked into

in the the Dr.

night by

the calenture, and

thrown

themfelves

fea.

diforder

is examined
*"

by

Cyclopsed. Par. ad voc, Shaw, Phil. Tranf. Abridg

vol. iv.

Xenoph.

p. 564.

nacy

THE
CHAP,

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

cruel

and fyftemof policydeferved the indignation

refentment
at

of the whole

Grecian

name,
a

who very

were

lengthexcited againftSparta by
tranfaction,to
which
we

ordinary extraoc-

alreadyhad
it

cafion the

to

allude.

When

Eudamidas
was

undertook
intended
him
at

Olynthus, againft expedition


Phcebidas
fhould
men.

that his brother the head of

follow This

eight thoufand
marched

powerful
die
torn

reinforcement in
their

from

Peloponnefus, and,

journey northwards, encamped in then neighbourhood of Thebes, which was


by
the

inveterate

of contending factions. hoftility


name

Ifmenias, whofe
very

has

alreadyoccurred

on

difhonourable

occafion, headed

the democraintereft

tical party;

Leontiades

the fiipported both


were

of

Sparta
with

and

and ariftocracy ;

invefted
the that

the

the archonjhip,
It is
not

chief

magiftracy in

commonwealth. Phcebidas

certain abfolutely
to

had

previousorders
he him
was

interfere in this

diflenfion a3, when


"c

accofled feize

by Leontiades, opportunity,
of He

who

exhorted fortune had

to

the

which

thrown
to

in his way,

perform^
then
plained ex-

ing
of

fervice fignal
to

his

country.
the

the and

Lacedaemonian
the

diffracted he

ftate

Thebes,

with facility

which

might
his

become

mafter Eudamidas

of the citadel j fo that while


was on carrying

brother

the

war

againft
orders
were

2*

Diodorus

boldly
that
to

afferts that
the

Phcrbidas

afted

by

of

his republic, and

feigned complaints againlthim


to

nothing but

mafli

difguife or

conceal

the

of injuftice

the

community.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
a

331
C H
A

he Olynthus,
much
1

himfelf would
"

of acquire poffeffion

p.

greater city "*.

"A.

"

.X..XIX.

\^^~^j

whofe known hiftorian, contemporary him for the Lacedaemonians difpofed tiality
A
as an enterprife gard this fingular Phcebidas as a audacity, reprefents

parto
re-

in time

of

fazS the

private of a lightOlymp. man loved the fame of a Iplendid and vain mind, who ^c, 383. and who than life itfelf, action more embraced, of joy 255 the propofalof with childifh tranfports of executingtheir plan The mode Leontiades.

aft of

fufpithe ufual preparations made cion Phcebidas for when he was his journey, called recontinuing fuddenly by his aflbciate. It was the month of July; intenfe ; and, at mid-day, few or no the heat was
was

foon

fettled between

them.

To

elude

were paflengers

to

be

feen in the roads celebrated


the

or

ftreets.

The

Theban

matrons

feftival of
prepropriated ap-

Ceres, and
ferve the

prayed hope of a
or

that bountiful

to divinity

favourable

harveft.

The

fcene of their female

worihipwas
was

the

Caasdma,

of which the gates had been citadel,


open, and
were

purpofelythrown
as defencelefs,

which

totally

from
ftance

excluded univerfally this venerable ceremony. Every circumfacilitatethe defign of Leonto confpired
the males

tiades,who
He

conducted

the Lacedaemonians

to

the

without fortrefs,

findingthe
to

fmalleft

oppofitiori.

immediately defcended
Xcnoph.
p. 297, "

the fenate, which,


in

*+

feqq. Plutarch,

Pelopid. Diodor.

P-

457*
r,

is the

ufed by Xenophon. expreflion

though

THE
CHAP,
XXIX.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
was

though
'

it

ufuallyafiembled
the

in the Cadmsea,
-,

v'

'

*
_

then

in fitting

Lacedaemonians without with his any


own

market-place declared that the had acted by his advice, and feized Ifmenias purpofe of hoftility; hand diflurber of the public as a
leaders into of the
publican re-

the other peace, and ordered faction to be taken

fafe

cuftody.
four

Many
The

were

hundred
mea-

and caughtand imprifoned, 26. to Athens efcaped the


news

about

When

of this

event

reached

Sparta,

the fenate and

refounded with real or wellaflembly of Phcebithe madnefs againft feigned complaints had violently das, who, unprovokedby any injury, feized a placein alliance and amity with the his defence however, undertook republic.Agefilaus, mind had long fomented the ; his ambitious he domineering arrogance of his country ; poflibly of Phcebidas, which had prompted the enterprife he warmly approved; and his influence being as extenfive as his abilities, he eafily perfuadedhis of the fortunate rafhnefs to juftify countrymen that commander, of the by keepingpoffeflion
*7

Theban
The cruel-

citadel.
five years the

Spartans maintained, in the Cadmasa, a garrifon of fifteen hundred men. Sparta s6 Protected by fuch a body of foreign troops, which Theban to defpair. might be reinforced on the Ihorteft warning,the
*6

During

Xenoph.
To fave

p. 557. appearances,
were

*7

however,
at

Phcebidas
his

was

fined.
at

Even

his accufers

offended, not

but injuftice,

his

ading
P.

without

orders.

Xenoph.

ibid,

^c

Plutarch, vol. ii.

356.

partifana

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
CHAP,

of ariftocracy abfolute afcendan partifans acquired in the affairsof the republic, which they conant dueled in fuch
a manner
as

beft fuited their of

own

and the convenience intereft,


to pretending

defcribe

the

Sparta. Without banifhments, confifcathey were


it guilty,

tions, and

murders, of which

is fufficientfor the

to purpofeof generalhiftory

obferve,that

the miferable

victims
to

of their
thofe

geance ven-

fuffered fimilar calamities afflicted Athens under the

which

thirty tyrants. The of the government at length drove the feverity and both the perfecu Thebans ted exiles to defpair ; at home, preabroad, and the opprefTed fubjects pared
to

embrace

any

meafures, however
them promifed
a

and

hazardous, which

daring faint hope

of relief28.
the Thebaii fugitives, who had taken ConfpJAmong now refuge in Athens, and whofe perfonswere the by Sparta,was loudly demanded Pelopidas, fon of Hippocles, a youth whofe diftinguilhed ad3. A* 37 rendered him an object vantages might havejuftly
c.
'

of envy,

before he

was

involved
to yielded
j

in the misfortunes
none

of his country.
all in furpaffed

He

in birth ; he

fortune

he

excelled in the

manly

exercifes fo much
was

unrivalled

and generofity attachment


to previous
to

by the Greeks, and ftill more in qualities eftimable, He had an hereditary courage.
efteemed form of and; policy; late

the democratic the

melancholy revolution,was
c.

28

Xenoph.

Hcllen. 3*3,

1.

v.

iv.

Pint, in Pelopid. idem

de

Ccnio

Socratis, p.

"

fcqq.

marked

334
CHAP, XXIX

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. adherents

marked
as

out

by his

numerous

friends and of

perfon moft worthy Pelopidashad government.


the

the adminiftering with

often conferred
about the
means

his fellow-fufFerers

at

Athens

of

mocracy their country, and reftoring the deto returning encouraging them by the example of j the patriotic Thrafybuius,who, with a handful of
men,

had

irTued from

Thebes,

and

effected

more limilar,but flill

While difficult, enterprife.


on

deliberated they fecretly

this

importantobject,
to

Mello,

one

of the exiles, introduced

their had

turnal noc-

lately whofe arrived from Thebes a man enterprifmg addrefs, and crafty boldnefs, activity, fingular of hiflory. entitle him to the regard juftly
",

his aflembly

friend

who Phyllidas,

Affiftedby
tne
to

was Phyllidas
"

the

and

attached to the caufe of ftrongly ex^es complaifance, 7et" by ^s infinuating officious fervility, he had acquired the entire

council,

confidence

of Leontiades, Archias, and


rather

the

other

or magiftrates,

In

bufinefs

and

tyrants 29, of the republic. in pleafure, he rendered himfelf


his matters the and
;

alike

to necefTary

his

and diligence

abilitieshad
to fecretary

procuredhim
the council and
;

important office of he had lately protwo

mifed

to

Archias

the Philip,

moft

ous licenti-

of the tyrants, that he would

during which
converfation
in and the

tertainment, give them an enthey might enjoy the

of the finefl women perfons Thebes. The famous day was appointed for this inthefe magifterial derendezvous, which
Xenoph.

bauchees

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

33$

bauchees

with the greateft expected impatience ; CHAP. fet out for Athens, and, in the interval,Phyllidas bufinefs 3". on pretence of private In

Athens, the time


for
exiles afTembled

and

the

means

were

ad-

The

time

jufted
Theban

the confpiracy. A executing

body of
*ion ad-

in the Thriafian plain, on

the frontier of Attica, where of the


and youngeft
to

feven 31, or twelve 3i,

jufted.

moft
enter

offered themfelves
with

enterprifing, voluntarily the capital, and to cooperate


the

Phyllidasin
diftance

deftruction of the
Thebes The and

The magiftrates. Athens


was

between

confpirahdd thirteen miles to march througha hoftile tors themfelves in the garb They difguifed territory. arrived at the city towards evening of peafants, the gates with nets and huntingpoles,and palled without fufpicion.During that night,and the fucceedingday, the houfe of Charon, a wealthy and refpectable and citizen,the friend of Phyllidas, determined of the ariftocracy, afforded a enemy till the favourable moment them a fecure refuge,
fummoned
The them
to

about

miles. thirty-five

action.
of Fidelity

the when important eveningapproached, artful fecretary had preparedhis long-expected entertainment in the treafury.Nothing had been omitted that could flatter the in
a

Sjeract""
to
"

each

fenfes,and
of

lull the

of activity

But pleafure. had fpreadin which obfcure rumour, a fecret and the city, luptuous hung, like a drawn dagger,over the voIt had been darkly joysof the feftivity.
s"

the mind

dream

Xenoph.

p.

566.

J1

Ibid.

3*

Plutarch, in Pelopid.

reported,

336
CHAP,

TH"

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

that fome unknown ftrangers, fuppofed reported, had been received into ^.-^-Jjto be a party of the exiles, the houfe of Charon. All the addrefs of Phylliof his guefts. das could not divert the terrors They
one difpatched

of their lictors or

attendants

to

de^-

The prefenceof Charon. were mour, confpirators alreadybucklingon their arin hopes of being immediately fummoned their their purpofe. But what to execute was mand the immediate

aftonilhment
was

and

terror,

when

their hoft and

tector pro-

before the ordered to fternly appear ! The moil magiftrates perfuaded fanguinewere that their defign had become public,and that without they muft all miferably effecting perifh, After a moment any thingworthy of their courage. of dreadful reflection, they exhorted Charon to without delay. But that obey the mandate firm and patriotic the apartfirftwent Theban to ment of his wife, took his infant fon, an only
him child,and prefented
to

Pelopidasand Mello,

them to retain in their hands this dearefl requefting ed pledge of his fidelity. They unanimoufly declartheir entire confidence him who infant, the avenger
was never

in his honour,

and

treated en-

to

remove

from
in

danger
fome

might become,
of his
"

helplefs future time,


an

country's wrongs.

But

Charon could

inflexible, declaring, That

his fon

Their

cHf0"

at a happier fortune,than that of dyafpire ing honourablywith his father and friends." So faying, he addrefTed a Ihort prayer the to and departed. Be""ds"emkraced his aflbciates, fore he arrived at the treafury, he was met by

Archias

*
THE
CHAP,
xxix.
,__ -,-,_/

HISTORY
**
to
*

OF

GREECE.

ters
f

were a

now

come j

a
c

crifis j Phyllidas retired


"

for

moment

the

comparators
concealed

were

put
the

tion; mo-

their weapons

under

flowing
over-

and their fwell of female attire,

countenances

fhadowed

and garby a load of crowns lands. In this difguife to the theywere prefented with intoxicated wine and folly. magiftrates fected At a givenfignal theydrew their daggers,and efCharon their purpofe ". and Mello were the .principal actors in this bloodyfcene, which directed by Phyllidas.But a more was entirely and hid

difficult tafk remained.


abettors murder of the

Leontiades, with
The

other the

lived,to avenge tyranny, ilill

of their affociates.

by their Phyllidas, gainedadmiffion into their houies fucof the unfufpected fecretary. cefiively, by means
On the appearance of diforder and tumult, Leontiades feized his fword, and boldly for his prepared

couraged enconfpirators, firft fuccefs, and conducted by

defence.

Pelopidashad the merit of deftroying the principal author of the Theban fervitude and His affociates perifhed without refiftdifgrace. whofe names be configned ance to juft ; men may fmce tliey oblivion, were diftinguilhed by nothing
memorable but their cruel and

opprefiive tyranny.

were confpirators equally the city, vig"r"usand prudent. Before alarming aTiibert'yt which were theyproceededto the different prifons, crowded with the unfortunate victims of arbitrary

Thepri-

The

meafures

of the

"

Xcnoph.
4/0.

p.

567.

Plutarch,

in

Pelopid.

Diodor.

1.

xv,

P-

power.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
CHAP,

*" O Jx

power.

Every door was open to Phyllidas, The with joy and gratitude, intransported captives, of their deliverers. They the ftrength creafed and provided themfelves broke open the arfenals,
with
arms.

The and

ftreetsof Thebes
terror;

now

refounded and

with
were

alarm

every

houfe

family

filled with
were

confufion and uproar ; the inhabitants in motion ; fome providing univerfally

others running in wild diforder to the lights, and all anxioufly the return publicplaces, wifhing of day, that they might difcover the unknown caufe of this nocturnal tumult. of dreadful

During a moment terruptedthe noife


claimed, with
of
a

which infilence, herald proinfur~

of

fedition, a
loud
to

clear and fummoned

voice, the death


arms

of the tyrants, and

the friends

others who and the republic.Among liberty invitation was obeyed the welcome Epaminondas, the fon of Polymnis, a youth of the moft illuftriof the fage, merit ; who united the wifdom ous and the magnanimity of the hero, with the practice of every mild and gentle virtue; unrivalled in birth,valour, in knowledge and in eloquence ; with inferior to Pelopidas, and not patriotifm, The he had contracted an early whom friendfhip. of the Pythagorean 3*,which philofophy principles he had diligently ftudied under Lyfisof Tarentum, rendered

Epaminondas averfe to left he might embrue confpiracy,


But when
41.

engage

in

the in

his hands
was
once

civil blood".
J+
3*

the

fword

See

Vol. II. p. 18" de Genio

Plutarch,

Socratis,p. *79" " paflim,


2

drawn,

340
CHAP,
XXIX.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. in defence

drawn, friends '_'

he and

appeared with ardour


country;
and and his brave

of his

"J -T-

example was
youths who

followed
had
luctantly re-

by

many

generous

endured

the double

yoke

of domeftic

and

The
ban
cracy

Thedemore-

foreign tyranny. The approach of morning


fheban The

had

brought
r
,

the

exiles,in
'
_

arms,

from
_

the Thriafian

plain.

ftored.

c.

A.

of the conipirators were continually partifans j"1 increafed by a confluence of new auxiliaries from 0.378. of the city. EncompafTed by fuch every quarter of adherents, Pelopidas and invincible band an fumhis afifociates to the market- place proceeded ; of the people; explained moned a general aflembly the the object,and neceflity, with the the
extent

of the

con-

fpiracy;and,
of government
Thp
re.

univerfal

of approbation form

reftored the democratic their fellow-citizens,

36.
valour
J

of Exploits covered
.

and

intrepidity may
every J

be But

difthe

voiution
comrnum-

in the

hiflory of
-r

nation.

cated the

to

revolution
"" "~

of Thebes
"

not difplayed
11

lefswifdom
"

of

Athe-

Tiians.who
affiftinex-

delign,
Amidft

tnan

enterpriimg gallantrym execution, of action, and ardour of victhe tumult

pellinerthe Laced^-

fufHcient coolnefs poilefled confpirators anc^ ^ore%nt to reflect that the Cadmasa, or citadel, garribn. which held by a Lacedaemonian of was garrifon fifteen hundred
men,

tory, the

would

be reinforced,on

the

of danger,by the refentful firftintelligence

of

this participate which mull have rendered the confequences of the and precarious, incomplete conlpiracy they com-

.Sparta.

To

activity alarming event,

sfi

Xenoph. Diodof.

"

Plutarch,

ibid.

naanded

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

341

after c HAP. immediately of the tyrants, they had difpatched the deftru"ion rto their friends in the Thriafian to plain, proceed manded
the

whom, mefTenger,

"

to

Athens, in order
that

to

communicate
not to

the

news

of

revolution which
to

'could

fail to be

highly able agreeimmediate

ftate,and

folicit the

afliftance of the

Athenians, whofe
This

fortified placeswas attacking

Greeks

and

Barbarians.

fkill in fuperior acknowledged by tended atmeffage was

effects. The acute falutary difcernment feized the of the Athenians eagerly of weakening opportunity whichj precious Sparta37, if once Several return. might -never neglected, thoufand time
was men were

with the moft

ordered

to

march

and

no

in the loft,either in the preparation, or

fmce they reached journey, had re-eftablifhed Pelopidas The

Thebes
the

day after democracy.


the
The
Cad-

whofe feafonable arrival of thofe auxiliaries, the moft

exceeded celerity

fanguine hopes of
of the latter of the
to

the
at-

^nders^"
O!vmPC" ^"

Thebans,

increafed

the ardour
events

tack the citadel.

The

ouflyrelated

Accordingto the feeble refiftance, made the garrifon a very account, and being intimidated by the impetuousalacrity numbers of enthufiafm, as well as the increafing who amounted fourteen the affailants, to already
thoufand
men,

3S.

are var,iliege A.C. moft probable

378.

and received continual

accefllons

of

cities of Bceotia. from the neighbouring ftrength when the LacedasOnly a few days had elapfed,
37

Dinarch. Diodorus 1 have

Orat.

contra

Demoflh.

p. 100.

J*

diffrrs

entirely from

Xenophou

and

Plutarch,

whom

followed. chiefly

monians

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

344

CHAP,

monians allowed

defired

to

capitulate,
in

on

condition their but

of

being
Their

to

depart

fafety

with

arms.

propofal
to

was

readily
or

accepted
at

they
have

feem

not

have

demanded,
of

leail

not

to

obtained,
thofe
the
fortunate un-

any

terms

advantage
whofe

or

fecurity
attachment
their thefe had

for

Thebans,
intereft

to

tan SparAt

flrongly
alarm wives

folicited

protection.

the
with

firft their citadel.

of
and

fedition, families,
greater
of

unhappy
taken
of

men,

refuge

in

the

The
the

part
their

them

c/uelly
; a

perifhed
remnant

by only

refentment
faved

countrymen

was

by
So

the

humane had could

interpofiEpaminonnot

tion das

of

the

Athenians that the

3S.

juftly

fufpected,

revolution effufion

be

ac-*

compliflied

without

the

of

civil

blood,

59

Xenopb,

"

Plutarch,

ibid.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

343

CHAP.

XXX.

Bceotian drias

War.

"

Unjuccefsful Attemptof SphoPiraeus.


"

againftthe Account Xenophon's


laus invades
"

Doubts

concerning
"

of
"

that

Bceotia.

'Tranfattion. AgefiMilitary Succefsof the


the Athenians.
"

I'hebans.

Naval

Succefsof

for Peace under the Mediation of ArCongrejs taxerxes. Deputyfrom Thebes. Epaminondas,
" "

Cleombrotus
"

invades Greece.

Bceotia.
"

"

Battle

of Leuttra.
"

State

of
and

Jajon of Thejfaly.His
"

Character

Views.

in the midft Affajfiqated

of

his

Projects.
E
A p.

TH

of Thebes emancipation gave a deep c n the prideand tyranny of Sparta;^ wound to and the magiftrates of the latter republic preparedThe what they affedted to to punifh,with due feverity, the unprovoked rebellion of their fubjects. term Thebans The firmly refolved to maintain the freedom which they had aflumed ; and thefe 'difboth fides occafioned memorable a on pofitions which, having lafted with little interruption war, during feven years, ended with the battle of Leucfairs tra, which produced a total revolution in the afc-

""

of Greece. The
or

ardent mind

the directed,

had long infpired, Firft Agefilaus ambitious views of his country, ^a"-" of
cam-

He

omb.-ctus.

344.
*

THE
A

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

P,

He

enjoyedthe glory, but


attached
to to

could

not

avoid

the

odium,
of

his exalted fituation ; and

ing fear-

increafe the latter,he allowed


war

the conduct
to

the Theban

to

be

committed

the inexperience the heart

of his of
a

unequal colleague. In
with
a

fevere winter, Cleombrotus,


army, the entered obedience

well-appointed Bceotia. His prefence firmed conof Thefpiae, Plat^ea, and


He

other

inferior communities.

defeated

fome

of the Thebans, repelled their parties ftraggling their burned incurfions, ravaged their territory,
but attemptednot villages,
to

make

any

fion After

on a

the

well-defended

of flrength

impreftheir city.

campaign of two months, he returned in Thelpias, home, leaving a numerous garrifon commanded a generalof great qnby Sphodrias, but littleprudence. terprife, Meanwhile the Athenians, alarmed Sphodrias by the view of danger, publicly difavowed the g^rlfon in nearer Thefpise. affiftance which they had given to Thebes ; and banifhed, or put to death ', the havingdifgraced, advifers of that daringmeafure, renewed their aK Stratagem liance with Sparta. The Thebans felt the full importanceof this defection,and left nothingunfor widen^"ata^ tr^ to Prevent 'lts" tendency,a defign(could breachbebelieve tradition) in which they fucceeded by a tween we and rafh chaande" verv fmgularftratagem. The light Sparta* rafter of Sphodriaswas well known, we are told,
to
*

the Theban

who chiefs,

employed fecret emiiTato

"

Xcnoph.
and

p. 334.

I have

endeavoured

reconcile Xeno-

phon

cited above. Dinarchu;-1,

ries

346
CHAP,
XXX
u

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. But

before die dawn

of the

fucceeding day.
of

he

'_' was
-T"

fian

by the return furprifed plain. The borough


to

lightin
was

the Thriaalarmed
;

of Eleufis
the

the report flew their ufual

Athens, and

with citizens,

and

the

feized their arms, and prealacrity, pared The mad for a vigorous defence. defign, of Sphodrias, in rathe ftillgreater madnefs vaging the country during his retreat, provoked They immediately fury of the Athenians. of perfons fuch Lacedaemonians
as an

feized the
to

pened hapem-

refide in their

city. They

fent

in baffy to Sparta, complaining,


terms,

the moft The

of the infult of
his conduct

Sphodrias.
He
was

indignant Spartans
tried,

difavowed but faved

recalled and

of Agefiauthority obtained by laus. This powerful protection was the interceflion of his fon Cleonymus, the beloved companion of Archidamus, the fon and fucceffor
death

from

by

the

of the

Spartan king. Archidamus

with pleaded,

the modeft

eloquenceof tears, for the father of a friend,his equal in years and valour, with whom he had been long united in the moft tender affection. Cleonymus
he Ihould
the
never

declared

on

this occafion, that attachment


as

the difgrace and

ardent

of

royal youth :

illuftrious

Archidamus his
not

afterwards

became, Xenophon
unalterable love of the faired

affirms, that

earlyand
and

Cleonymus forms
of light,

the fhade, but rather

able his ami-

exalted character 3.

Xenoph.

p. ,570.

Such

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

347

Such

is the

account

of this and

transaction, given CHAP.


But there
not
unwar.

by Xenophon, originally
other fome
J

faithfully copiedby
is
ing
to-

writers,ancient and modern.


reafon
L

to

that Agefilaus fufpect was the ambitious


.

Xe"~
of

"~

tallyunacquainted with
rantable would crowned

and the had the

n"Phon's
account

defign of Sphodriasj that have approved the meafure,


with

Spartans
it been

thistranf'"n*

fuccefs; and that


a

even

admirer of partial and the Lacedsemonians, has employed the perfuafive fnnplicity of his inimitabk ftyle, to varnifh
a

phic Xenophon,

philofoAgefilaus

tranfadion. it Such, at leaft, unjuftifiable appeared to the Athenian afTembly, who, offended flillmore at the acby the crime, were quittal, indignant of Sphodrias. From that time theybegan
very
to

prepare
to

their fleet, to

enlift failors, to

colled
a

and

employ

all the materials of war,

with

re-

folution their
own.

to firmly

maintain the caufe of Thebes

and

bufied in fuch preparations, they were Agefilms invaded Bceotia,without per- j^Se?1'' Agefilaus repeatedly Boeotia. forming any thingworthy of his former renown. amounted His to eighteenthoufand foot, 4^p" army
c.

While

and

fifteen hundred
a

horfe.

The

enemy

were

^'of377*
i.
'

affifted by
commanded

confiderable

body

of

mercenaries, ci.
final-

by

Chabrias

the Athenian, who

'37

'

the Spartan king from Thebes, by a ly repelled lefs fimple than uncommon. not The ftratagem Theban prepared to act on the defenfive army a fuperior force,and occupied a rifmg againft ground

neighbourhoodof their city. Agefilaus detached a body of light-armed troops, to pro-

in the

voke

I
348
CHAP,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

yoke

them

to

the Thebans
and

; but quit this advantageouspoft their ground, maintained cautioufly

obligedthe
to

enemy

to

draw

out

their whole

forces, in order
their
execute
a

them. diflodge approach, commanded


movement,

ing Chabrias, waithis he

troops

to

new

which

had

taught them ported their


extended maintained

for fuch
advanced

an

emergency.
on

recently They fupfirmly


which

bodies

their left knee, thus


at

their fhieids and their ranks *. boldnefs

and Ipears, Alarmed unufual

the

termined de-

of

an

array,

feemed

to

bid

him

withdrew defiance,Agefilaus contented


on

his army from the capital, and with committingfarther ravages


4

himfelf

the country.

The

words
"

of

Nepos,
genu

in Chabria,

are

better explained

by

reading,
in much

Qiii obnixo

fcuto, proje"flaquehaft?., impetum


This
agrees

excipere hoftium
the Villa
to

docuit."

with

the ftatue cf has

brias Cha-

Borghefe, whofe
antiquaries,
to

attitude fingular Winkelmann ancient

given fo
this from

trouble

conjectures
ftatue in Rome, with which

matter-piece of
the form fcribed. He

art

be the moft
name

of the letters in the

Agafias
honoured

it is into

obferves, that
the Greeks the and the

it is
never

erroneoully fuppofed

be

gladiator,fince
monuments ;

gladiatorswith
proves

fuch
more

ftyleof
of the
arm

the of

workmanfhip
that inhuman

it

ancient Greece. left

than The

introduction

fpedacle
and

into the the

body right

ftatue is advanced,

refts

on

thigh ; the

grafps a javelin,or fpear ;


or

around It
on

left is feen

the leather the

thong,
What

handle

of of

a a

fhield. warrior
was,

feems,
fome

fays Winklemann, dangerous


and

particularattitude
this

emergency.

emergency

the

learned of
eo

ingenious Lettingfortunately difcovered, by the words Cornelius V Hoc (the ftratagem of Chabrias) ufque Nepos.
tola Grascia
tuam

fama

celebratum

eft, ut

illo ftatu Chabrias ab

fibi fta. in foro

fieri

voluerit, quaj

publice ei

Athenienfibus

eft." conftituta,

la

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
re-

349
CHAP.
XXX
-

In

the fkirmifhes Thebans

which

happened after his

victorious. '_j proved repeatedly of and continued He returned home, dur- Sllc5efs at Sparta bans, ing the following year, to be cured of his wounds; where he fuffered the mortifying of his ^iy"p* reproaches A. 0.375. for teaching the Thebans Antalcidas, adverfary
treat, the
-r "

to

conquer."
not

The

generalswho
who
was

fucceeded

him

had

better

fuccefs.

Phcebidas, the original


had been

author

of the of

war,

appointedgovernor
with (lain,

Thefpke,

defeated and

greateft part of the garrifonof that place. with his own hand, killed the Spartan Pelopidas, in the action at Tanagra ; and in the commander pitched battle of Tegyra, the Lacedaemonians, in number, were broken and put though fuperior which, they reflected with to difgrace flight j a
the

forrow, %kad

never

befallen them

in any former

gagement. en-

While

the

war

was

thus carried

on

by land,

the

Navaifuc-

Athenians

put

to

fea, and gained the moft

diflin-

AtHerfinans-

guifhed advantages on
The manded
Lacedasmonian

their favourite element.

fleet, of fixtyfail,com-

ci7i!P'

A-c-37$' defeated near by Pollis,was fhamefully the ifle of Naxos, by the fkilfulbravery of Chaand with equal brias, who performedalternately, the duties of admiral and general s. But abilities, the Ionian fea, the principal fcene of action was where Timotheus and Iphicrateswhere every
6

prevailed
5
6

Xenoph.
Corn.
was

p. 577. in

Diodor.
Vit.

1.

xv.

ad Sc

Olymp.

ci. I. adv.

Nep.
the

Timoth.

Dinarch.

Demoflh.
fatirical

Such

good

fortune

of Timotheus,

that

the

artifU

350
c

THE
A
'

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
who

P.
t

over prevailed

i__

y-

oppofedthem. ruined by the victors, The fleet of Sparta was totally who ravaged the coafts of Larepeatedly conia7, and laid under heavy contributions the iflands of Corcyra, Zacinthus, Leucadia, and mote reCephalenia.Even the iiles and cities more from the fcene of this naval war, particularly ifland of Chios, and the important the valuable connection cityof Byzantium, deferted their involuntary fortune of Sparta, and with the declining once more acceptedthe dangerous alliance of the
the commanders Athenians 8. hoftile operations, which Thefe
out

The

weakened, with-

r-

taxerxes

Egyptian

the fpirit of the vanquished, fubduing, were by the felicitations and bribes of the interrupted king of Perfia, who earneftly promoted the domeftic tranquillity of Greece, that lie might enjoy the affiilance of its arms in crufhing lion rebela new emifTaries met in Egypt. His with equal and Sparta,which fuccefs in Athens alike were the former having littlemore toweary of the war, hope, and the latter having every thingto fear, from its

continuance.

Many

of

the

inferior

ftates, being implicitly governed by the refolves of


thefe

powerful republics, readilyimitated their and miferable was example. And fo precarious
condition of them

die

all, in

that
men

diforderly
abandoned
with

period,that
artifts of the which the

about

twenty thoufand
him

times

painted
iflands odio.

afleep,covered
and

net,

in

cities and

entangled

caught
Id. ibid.

themfelves-

Phitarch. de invid. "


7

Xenoph.
i

p. 578.

their

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. ftandard
CHAP.
XXX
.

35I

their homes of the

and

and followed the families, The merit

Perfians.
to

of

Iphicrates juilly

-v

'_,

entitled him which the


was

of his countrymen, But unanimoufly conferred on him.

the command

produced nothing expedition worthy of fuch a who in a few months returned to Athens, general, with the ignorantpride, and flothful difgufted of the Perfian who durft commanders, timidity, undertake without not any important enterprile, the flow inftructions of a diftant court 9. receiving the Thebans, who, elated by a flow The TheMeanwhile had proudly difregarded of unwonted pj"^"^ profperity, of the Olymp. of Artaxerxes, profited the reprefentations diverfion made by the Egyptian war, to A!C! 374. temporary
reduce walls Platsea

feveral inferior cities of


of
met

Bceotia.
the

The

Thefpiaswere
with the fame

rafed

to

ground;
driven

fate; and its inhabitants,


be

after

the fufFering

cruelleftindignities, were
It

expected that the have unfortunate exiles Ihould fought refugein they had uniformlyacknowledged, Sparta,whofe authority might
flnce the

into banifhment.

dilhonourable
were

peace

of

Antalcidas. of politics

But Greece

fo diflimilar
to

the

fluctuating

regulartranfactions of times (governedby the lifelefs modern but fteady that the Plat^ans of intereft), had reprinciple in alliance with courfe to Athens, a cityactually the people by whom they had been fo unjuftly perfecuted. Their eloquence, their tears, the
the memory
Corn.

of

paft fervices,and
in

the

promife
xv.

of fu-

Nepos

Iphicrat. Diodorus,

1.

ad

Olymp.

c.

iv.

ture

35*
CHAP.
XXX.

THE
.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

tnre

on prevailed gratitude,

the Athenian into the bofom

aflembly',
of their

who

kindlyreceived
infolent

them

republic,and
their againft
Congrefs

exprefledthe

warmeft

indignation
to

I0. oppreflbrs

This the

tranfaction affecting of an Thebans to ally, indebted

threatened whom

deprive

great meafure
of Ana-

for their

in a they were Their profperity.


to

fubfequentconduct
the with heard breach.
an

tended marched
to

ilill farther

widen

oiympl

They

troops
that

into

Phocis,

^'-

*-

intention

reduce

country.

They
of their
Their

with

equal difdain, the


the

remonftrances

friends,and
unufual who peace

threats of their enemies. alienated totally

arrogance

the Athenians,
a

feemed
with

difpofedto conclude finally of Sparta,on the principles


that their from
as

lafting
treaty

the

of

Antaicidas,
be

reipeclivegarrifons foreignparts,
and the

fhould

withdrawn fmall

communities,
to

well

as

great, be

permitted

of their own enjoythe independentgovernment laws. The intereft of the king of Perfia, equitable ftill needed who the frefh fupplies to carry on Egyptian war, induced him to employ his good offices for promoting this fpecious purpofej and a

convention

of

all the the

Hates

was

fummoned

to to

Sparta,
fend
a

whither

Thebans

deigned indeed

but a reprefentative, whofe representative ; firmnefs and well fitted to magnanimity were fuftain and elevate the afpiringpreteniioni of his republic.

10

Diodor.

I. xv.

ad

Olymp.

Sc llocrat- Orat.

pro

Plat.

In

354
c HA p.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

to lofophyof Lyfis the Pythagorean, preferthe mind to the body, merit to fame, and the rewards of virtue to the gifts of fortune. refifted the He

generous

felicitationsof his friends

to

deliver

him

from

the honourable

continuingpoor
in delighting
a

born j poverty in which he was from tafle and clioice, and juftly
more

which is fituation,

favourable,

in a democratical dom to that freerepublic, efpecially of mind which wifdom and independence commends rethe greateil as good. Nor was he more

carelefs of money he
and

than

avaricious
to

of time, which of

dedicated continually

the

ftudy
in the
to

learning
of

philofophy,or employed virtue. Yet public and private


he
was

exercife

become fame

ufeful
folici-

not

defirous others

to

be great.
to

The

tude fhewed

which
to

felt

obtain, Epaminondas
of his been would have

avoid, the dangejroushonours


His ambitious temper
a

country.
better with

fatisfied to

direct, by

perfonalinfluence
of government
retirement

the

the magistrates,

adminiftration

from the bofom


when
more

of his beloved voice of

iay
(till
to

the unanimous the urgency and

of the citizens,and

the
was

times, called
his

him

public life; glory of by


a

fuch

contempt
a

for the

name,

that had exalted

he lived in

lefs turbulent admired


known un-

period,his
to

however qualities, have

felect friends, would his

remained probably and pofterity. contemporaries

'**

The

cor.dudl
account

of

firms, the

with, and above given of the Pythagorean philofophy.

Epaminondas

csincides

Such.

355 Such
was

the

man

to

whofe

abilities and
the
D

elo- CHAP. of
*
"

quence

the

Thebans
r

committed

defence
con-

'_j
T-

their moft

important interefts in the general


the Grecian
and

Conference

at

grefsof
Antocles

ftates.

The

Athenians

fent Sparta.

the firfta fubtile13, the Calliftratus;

"$**'

orator1*. affecting Agefilaushimfelf A'c'37aappeared on the part of Sparta. Matters were between thofe leading who eafily republics, adjufted feltequal refentment at the unhappy fate of Thelpise and Plataea. They lamented their mutual jealoufy,

fecond

an

and

unfortunate

ambition, which
and fhort deftructive but

had
wars;

occafioned and
memorated com-

fo many

bloody
the and

gloriousintervals of
which
had tended fo Inpublicfelicity.

moderation

concord,
own

to their evidently

and

the

ftructed

it was by fatal experience, their arms, and heal


to

time for them


that

to

lay down
to

and their

to

allow

tranquillity
was common or

themfelves

which neighbours,

to neceflary

the

wounds

of their
not

country.

The unlefs

peace
it
were

could

be

ufeful
on

manent, per-

eftablifhed

the
to

liberal all
the

and of equality principles the Grecian

freedom,

which

communities
It

were was

alike entitled

by

treaty of Antalcidas.
to renew

that

therefore, propofed, contract, which was accepted falutary


confent of Athens, of

by
and

the

unanimous

Sparta,

of their

confederates. refpective
Xenoph.
1. vi.

f.

The

Oropus,

for the citizens o" pathetic pleading of Calliftratus, of eloquence. the wrth ambition Demofthenes firft infpired Plut. in Dcraofth.

Epa-

3S6
CHAP.
1_

THE

HISTORY
IS

OF then flood up,


to ftgri offering
"

Epaminondas
.

/_'

the

treaty in the

name

of the Boeotians.

The
all

Demands miuondas.

Athenians," he

took

notice,
j

"

had

fignedfor

the inhabitants of Attica


not

the

Spartanshad figned
for their
the fame Pelorogatives pre-

only

for the

cities of

Laconia, but
of provinces
to

numerous

allies in all the


was

ponnefus. Thebes
over

entitled

the

her

dependent cities,which

had

ancientlyacknowledged the power of her kings, the .arms of her had recently fubmitted and to infteadof anfwering citizens." Agefilaus, directly which neither be granted with demand could a
honour,
turn,
nor

denied

with

alked, juftice,
intention of the

in

his

Whether
to

it

was

the

of the Thependence inde-

bans

admit, in
of

terms

treaty, the

Bceotia ?
was

Epaminondas
of
"

demanded,
admit tians/' Boeo-

Whether
the

it

the

intention

Sparta to
"

"

of Laconia ? Shall the independence faid the king, with emotion, be Whenever," repliedEpaminondas with
"

free ?"
firm-

nefs,

you

reftore

freedom
and

to

the

Lacedsemo-

nians, the
of
of

Meflenians,

the

munities opprefled com-

under the name whom, Peloponnefus, and rigorous allies, you retain in an involuntary

fervitude."

*s

The

convention and
to

of

Sparta is
Cornelius

noticed

by Xenophcn,
The and of

Diois

dortif, Plutarch,
filent with

Nepos.
I have

firft writer Cornelius in the

regard

Epaminondas.
which there
were

Plutarch made
uie

Nepos
It is

furnifli the

hints that

text.

notimpofiible
omitted totally

two

at conventions,

different muft

times, refpecling the fame


iiave
one

objed.
of
them.

In that

cafe, Xenophon

Then

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

357

of the allies, he c H A p. turningto the deputies them the cruel mockery by which to reprefented '_j infuked. Summoned deliberate *le ad' to they were the general freedom and independence, concerning deputies al" called to ratify which, inftead jf a peace, they were Jhe of eftablifhing thefe invaluable and facred rights, confirmed the Hern imperious tyranny of an Then
.
--

"f

mafter." fhould be

That

ct

the the

cities, fmall
verbal

and

great,'
of the
that

free," was

condition

treaty;
Thebes

but fhould

its real drift and

import

was,

weaken

her

by give freedom to Bceotia,and therewhile Spartakept in own ftrength,


extenfive
name

the fubjection in whofe

territories of her confederates,

that perfidious figned and contract, and whofe affiftance Ihe expected, effect. could demand, towards givingit immediate in their actual refolution, If the allies perfifted they confented to deflroythe power of Thebes, the only bulwark which was to defend them againft they confented to continue Spartan ufurpation: fliehad the payment

of thofe intolerable contributions

with

which
every

they had
the

long been opprefled and


-,

idle fummons

to

war,

of which

obey they chiefly


to

fuffered

while the adand dangers, vantage fatigues and the Spartans to glory redounded If they felt any refpect for the glorious alone. of their anceftors ; if they entertained any name moil fenfe of their own interefts, they precious tion would be fo little the reducto difpofed promote of Thebes, that they would imitate the auexample of that ancient and noble city, fpicious the dignity of independent had acquired whjiclj goA
a

vernmenta

358
CHAP,
i_

THE
vernment,
not

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

16 and treaties, but by by infcriptiom

arms -T-'_J

and The

valour.

Perma"
ft

of his

re-

remonftrances of Epaminondas made a juft deep impreffion on the deputies. Agefilaus,


at

alarmed ttons.nta~

its effect,anfwered

him

in

a
"7

drain very

different from

defpotic brevity which the Spartans ufuallyaffected. His fpeech was long and eloquent. He reafoned, prayed, threatened. awed into fubmiffion, lefs The were deputies haps perby the force of his eloquence,than by the of the Spartan armies terror ready to take the field. But the words of Epaminondas funk deep into their hearts. They communicated, at their their conftituto return, the powerfulimpreffion
ents
-,

that

and

its influence in the

was

vifible in the which

field of

Leuctra, and
memorable
Reflections
on

events

followed

that

engagement.
Hates
were

AS
more

the Grecian
unreiervecl
r
,

accuftomed
to

to
,

errant
*-

bis con-

powers
are

their

generals and
of practice
to

dudl;

minifters, than
modern

allowed

by

the

times,
in

we

muft

be

contented

doubt,

whether,

important negociation, minonda Epaacted merelyby the extemporary impulfe of his own mind, or only executed, with boldnefs the previousinftructions of his reand dignity, public.
It is the

this

certain,that his refufal to


of

ledge acknowexcluded

freedom

Bceotia, not
tranfacYions of

only
the Greeks

16

The

public

deeds

and

were

/'/?-

of fcribedon pillars
*7

marble.

Thucyd.
more

"Xenoph.
it
was

paffim.
faid for him,

Epaminondas

faid,

or

probably
to

that he had

compelled

the

Spartans

lengthen their monofyl-

lables.

Plut. in

Age

Ql.

Thebes

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

359

Thebes
immediate

from

the treaty, but expofedher to the CHAP, cording vengeance of the confederates ; and acthe received of principles modern

to

there is reafon to accufe both the prudence policy, of -the admired Theban and the juftice his pru; dence, in provokingthe flrength of a confederacy, with which the weaknefs of any finglerepublic unable to contend; and his juftice, feemed totally in denyingto fever al communities of Bceotia their laws and government. Yet the conduct hereditary of Epaminondas has never been expofed to fuch odious reproaches. Succefs juftified his audacity; and the Greeks, animated by an ambitious entheir refpedive thufiafm to aggrandife cities, were of patriotifm and by the names taught to dignify which, in the fober judgment magnanimity,qualities would be degradedby very different of pofterity, There reafons,however, not are appellations. by which Epaminondas might merely fpecious, his conduct He bar. could at an impartial juftify that Thebes, unaffifted and alone, be ignorant not unable to cope with the general of confederacy was would Greece : but he knew that this confederacy exift but in words, fince the jealoufy of never -of Athens, would and particularly fever al flates, rather to commiferate, than to increafe, be difpofed at variance with Sparta18. the calamities of a people the effect of his fpirited He remonperceived ftrances
j on

the

moft

ftedfaft adherents

of that

public re-

and

the contemplating
hints at this

circumftances

of

18

Xenophon

1. vi. p. 608. difpofition,

his

360
CHAP,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

*L_

he found feveraj country, and of the enemy, the feemingly motives of encouragement to -T-'_equal un-

his

conteft.
which is

The

had Spartans

been

by the
ftate

^on

^fld l"fs "f their

by the defecdominions, and dejected by


weakened
to
recover

of

their unfortunate attempts

them.
*

They

had

been

of deprived

and had forfaken

honours, prefcriptive Their their hereditary maxims.


laws had
;

their

ancient and venerable


ceaied
to

in

great meafure
ruptions cor-

govern
were

them

and

the feeds of thofe

have been already fown, which cenfured by philolbphers and ftatefmen with equal *9. Nor and feverity were theyexpofedto juflice the ujual misfortunes, only, of a degenerate

of Lycurgus formed one people; the infljtutions which could not be confiftent plan of legiflation, and partially obferved partially neglected.While the fubmiffive difciples of that extraordinary giver lawremained
manners,

fatisfied with and

their

of fimplicity
had

their poverty, other

their virtue, and

in view, but to refillthe object of pleafure, and to repel folicitations the encroachments of enemies, the law, which a difcouraged intercourfe with foreign commercial nations,and excluded which whatever merit they ftrangers, from afpiring to the rank of citizens, might poflefs, eftablifhment conformable was an the to ftriftly of the Lacedaemonian conftitution. peculiar fpirit abandoned the fimplicity But when of her Splrta maxims, became ambitious, wealthy, primitive

.fcarcely any

J? Aviftot. Politic. 1. ii. c. 9.

triumph-

362
CHAP,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
allies and

reluctant afllftance of infulted

oppreffed
fr

fubjects
The could

l_-

o_

10

confideration of thefe circumftances, which


not

ComparC

d with

that

of

Thebes.

themfelves to the fagacity prefent of Epaminondas, might have encouraged him to fet the threats of his adverfaries at defiance, efpehe reflected on the actual condition of when cially inftitutions had Thebes, whofe civil and military and frefh vigour. acquirednew fpirit recently The Thebans, with their fubjects or neighbours in Bceotia, had been worthy long regarded as an unand faithlefs race, with ftrong bodies but the Greeks, on fouls, and infamous among ignoble fail to
account

of

their ancient
The

alliance with

Xerxes Pindar
a

and had

the Barbarians.
not

divine

geniusof

redeemed

them

from

the character of

and

noted even to a heavypeople, the age of that inimitable writer, dity". From they appear, indeed, to have been little addicted formly of mental excellence but they unito the purfuit with peculiar continued to cultivate, care, the gymnaftic exercifes, the addrefs which gave and dexterity of art to the ponderous ftrengthof their giganticmembers. in To acquire renown
-,

fluggifh proverb for ftupi-

10

The

condition

of

Sparta, reprefented in
in

the

text, is taken
from and

f'ltoi the

hiftoryof

the times
9.

Xenophon
Oration The

and

Diodorus,

Ariftotle's Politics, I. ii. c. the Panathanxan


the number of Oration

the

of Archidamus, laft writer


;
a

of liberates.
to two

reduces

Spartan citizens

thoufand

diminution

occah'oned principally
which

by

the

battles of Leuclra time

and

Mantinaea,

happened
Boeotum

conQderable

before

the

compolitionof

that difcourfe.
"'

in craflb

juraresacre

naturn.

i. 1. ir. Hor. Epift.

war*

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. that

363
c

war,

Rich

people only wanted


is kindled

fparkof etherial

H^A p.

fire which
The

tyranny

emulation. generous of Sparta firftanimated their inactive


a

by

languor. Having fpurned an opprefilve yoke, they boldlymaintained their freedom ; and, in the exercife of defenfive war, gained many honourable enemies who had long defpifed them. over trophies Succefs enlivened their hopes, inflamed their ambition,
and gave
a

certain

elevation them had

to
as

their

tional na-

character, which
of
war

rendered

ambitious
been

and

as victory,

they

formerly

troduced They had inprefervation. of military a fevere fyftem difciplinej they had and exercile confiderably improved the arms of arof cavalry they had adopted various modes ranging their forces in order of battle,fuperior to thofe practifed by their neighbours. Emulation, of combination, ardour, mutual efteem, and that fpirit which often prevails in turbulent and difanxious
",

for peace

and

tracted times, had united

confiderable number

of

and intheir citizens in the clofeft engagements, them with the generous refolution of braving fpired every

danger
in

in defence

of each

other.

This

af-

confuted ibciation originally


men,

of about three hundred

prime of life,and of tried fidelity, and commanded reby Pelopidas, the glorious lable freedom. itorer of his country's the invioFrom called of their friendfhip, fanctity they were
the the Sacred
as

Band, and

their valour

was

as

nent perma-

During 2* long fucceffion friendihip. of years, they proved victorious wherever they with immortal fell together, fought j and at length

their

THE
CHAP,

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

glory,in
Thebes,

the of

field of

Chseronasa, with the fall of


and of Greece.

Athens,

Such, in
condition

and the circumftances were general, thofe rival republics *a, when theywere

of

encouraged

by by
Cleombrotus va"'es
m-

their the In

chiefs to refpeclive
of
a

decide their pretenfions

event

battle. between the

the

interval of feveral months,


at

conorrefs

Sparta
"

and
i
-

the
A

invafion

of Bceotia,
collected the

Hceotia.

Agefiiausand
domeftic

his

fon Archidamus

A. C. 371-

TheSpar-

of their republic, and fummoned ftrength Sicknefs prethe tardyaid of their confederates. vented the Spartan king from taking the field in with the Ephori but his advice prevailed perfon ; his colleagueCleomand fenate, to command brotus (who, in the former year, had conducted a confiderable body of troops into Phocis, in order from that country) to march the Thebans to repel with afiurwithout delayinto the hoftile territory, of beingfpeedily ance joinedby a powerfulreinin the The rendezvous forcement. was appointed

ihe!r*con. P^n "^


federates aflcmble in the Leuflra
D

Leu"nij

which
name,

furrounded
fituate
on

an

obfcure
Boeotian
ten

village of the fame frontier,almoit


from
tne at

the
of

the

equal
Platsa.

durance The

miles

plainwas enall fides by the lofty of Helicon, on ridges compafifed and the vilCithasron, and Cynocephala; ; only for the tomb of lagewas hitherto remarkable Theban damfels, the daughtersof Scedafus, two had been violated by the brutality who of three
youths. Spartan
2Z

f~ea an(i from

The

difhonoured

females

had

Flat,

in

PclopiJ. v.

n.

p. 355

"

366.

ended

THE

HISTORY

OF
a

GREECE.
c H

365
A p-

ended

death ; and the voluntary afflicted father had imitated the example of their in vain from after imploringvengeance defpair,

their

by difgrace

v"

-v-l^"

gods and
The

men

a*.

Spartans

and

their

confederates

joined
camp
on

"

forces in this
Theban Mount

few a neighbourhood,after repelling detachments which guarded the defiles of


Their army amounted
to

touring
mountain-

Helicon. thoufand Thebans

twentyhorfe.

four
The

foot, and
could
not

fixteen hundred

mufter

half that

ftrength,
had been

after

all afiembling
over

their troops, which order


to

fcattered

the

in frontier,

oppofe the

of the enemy. irruptions defultory thofe of however, nearlyequalled

number,
valour. and

and

far excelled them

in

cavalry, the Spartans in and in difcipline


to

Their

Epaminondas exhorted them the invaders, if they would repel


avoid the

march,

prevent the

defection of Bceotia, and

dangers and of a fiege. They readily obeyed, and difgrace proceeded to the neighbouring mountains, on which having encamped, they obtained a commanding view of the forces in the plain. of the fuperior numHaving heard an account
bers of the
to

Proceed-

enemy, battle.
L the r r

the Thebans But


as

ftilldetermined
are
"

^^.
"ondas before the battle,

give them
c

the eyes
r
"

the moft
terror

timorous

or

ienies, they
at

were

u leizedi with

of the mafly extent beholding of the Spartancamp. Several of the colleagues he had no fewer than fix)were Epaminondas (for the averfe to an engagement, ftrorigly diffuading and confternation
*J

Xcnoph.

p. 595.

general

"3

^66

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

from this dangerous meafure, and artfully general the panic of the troops, by recounting uJL^iLL; increafing The and prodigies. mous magnanimany fmifter omens the dangeroustorrent of fuperchief oppofed ftitious terror, by a verfe of Homer a4, importing, ing that to men engaged in the pious duty of defendindication was their country, no particular neCHAP,

.of ceflary

the

favourable

will of Heaven,

fmce

immediatelyemployed in a fervice peculiarly At the fame time, to the gods. agreeable of their imaginary he counteracted the dejection It fears,by encouragements equallychimerical. was circulated, by his contrivance, that the Theban temples had opened of their own accord, in
they were
of confequence that a victory;
which the the had prieflefles announced

repofited if in the Cadmaea, had fuddenlydifappeared, as that invincible hero in perfon had gone battle to
armour

of Hercules,

in defence of his Theban


an

countrymen

above

all,

ancient

oracle

was

handed carefully

about,

denouncing defeat and ruin to the Spartansnear of the daughters tomb of Scedafusthe indignant Thefe artifices gainedthe multitude, while arguments rational prevailed with their leaders, more of whom the majority at lengthranged themfelves
on

map-

by for-

general. them to battle, Before conducting Epaminondas his confidence of victory, difplayed by permitting who either difapproved an thofe to retire, his caufe, averfe to fliare his danger; a permiflion were or
*+

the iide of the

""f

ciw"c{

""iros

tftMiffei ?r:p

TftTjr-.

II. xii.

T.

24?.

which

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
to emc

367
H
A

which
brace.

the

Thefpians firft thought proper


unwarlike

p.

The
were

crowd

of attendants,whofe

_^^'_f

fervices feized

ufelefs in time fame

of action', gradually

leave the camp. to opportunity multitude The {welling as a fecond army appeared fent a powerfuldetachment who to the Spartans, The fear of beingcut off by the to oppofethem.

the

enemy

threw

them enlivened

back

on

the Thebans,

whofe

hopes were
fuch
a

return by the unexpected

of

confiderable

reinforcement.

Thus

raged, encou-

they
their admired
or

determined

unanimoufly to
either
to

fland

by

chief, and
to

defend

their

country,
ardour

of

the

perifhin the attempt ; and the troops equallingthe fkill of the


of fuch

the general,
them

union

advantages rendered

invincible. had

his forces in the form DHpofidifpofed of a crefcent,according to an ancient and favourite fo""e" 00" of the Spartans. His cavalry were practice pofted both fides, in fquadronsalong the front of the rightwing, where he commanded in perfon. The alliescomthe left wing, conducted by Archidamus. "pofed The Theban this difpofition, general, perceiving and fenfible that the ifTue of the battle would chiefly mined depend on the domeftic troops of Sparta,deterwith his left, in order to charge vigoroufly feize or to deftroythe perfon of Cleombrotus; thinkingthat fhould this defignfucceed, the Spartans muft be difcouraged and repelled; and that
even

Cleombrotus

the

attempt
as

muft

occafion

great diforder

in

their ranks,

the

braveft

would

flatten,from
every

368
CHAP,
v_

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. facred

every

quarter,

to

defend

the

perfon of

their king. Having refolved, therefore,to commit -v-'_/ the fortune of the day to the bravery of the it with left divifion of his forces, he ftrengthened whom he armed of his heavythe choice men, drew up fifty placedin deep. The cavalrywere the van, to oppofethe Spartan horfe, whom they valour. and in experience excelled Pelopidas, with the Sacred

Band, flanked
no

the

whole

on

the

left ; and their

deeming

ftation worthy of particular


were

prepared to appear in of the field,whither they might be every tumult of fuccefs,or by called,either by an opportunity of diiiinguifhed the profpect danger. The principal
inconvenience
to

they prowefs,

which

the

Thebans

were

cx-

that of pofed, in advancing to the charge,was of arms by the wide-extended being furrounded This the Spartan crefcent. danger the general forefaw j and in order to prevent it, he* fpreadout

right wing, of which the files had only fix the ranks in depth, and men proceedingin an obliqueline,divergedthe farther from the enemy, in proportion as theyextended in length.
his
Battle of

The the

action

began

with

oiymp.'

Spartan fide, confided

which, cavalry, of fuch horfes chiefly

the

on as

were A!"371.

by the richer citizens in pleafure time of peace j and which, proving an unequal match for the difciplined valour of the Thebans, were broken, and thrown back on the infantry. fpeedily Their repulfeand rout occafioned conkept
in the Lacedaemonian

for

fiderable diforder

ranks,
which

370
CHAP,
'

THE

HISTORY of

OF

GREECE.

or

expiring bodies

his
new

generous
rage
to

defenders*
the battle.

The

fallof the chief gave

by turns agitated Anger, refentment, and defpair, ideas the Spartans. According to the fuperftitious
of

paganifm,the death of their king appearedto misfortune, compared with the difthem a flight mains impiety of committing his mangled re-graceful
to

the infults of

an

enemy.

To

prevent

this abomination,,they exerted and

their utmoft

valour,,
But

their ftrenuous
not
was

efforts

were

fuccefsful.

theycould
minondas

obtain any further advantage. Epacareful to fortify his ranks, and to


;

maintain

his order of battle his

and

the firmnefs and

afiault gaineda complete regular the defperate and decifive victory refiftance over of broken troops. The of the principal ftrength allies had hitherto remained inactive,unwilling the motives of which to rafhly engage in a battle, they had never heartily approved. The defeat of the
tus,

of rapidity

Lacedaemonians,

and

the death

of Cleombro-

decided their wavering irrefolution. almofr, with


one

They
with

termined de-

accord,
was men ;

to

decline the

engagement
lofs of about remained
The
tatis

their
two

retreat

effected

the

thoufand

and the Thebans

fole mafters of the field2"5.


care

Sparcrave

The
1-1

of

buryingthe dead,
".

and
to

the fear of
i

pe

reducing
v"ntec*
to

the

enemy

to

defpair,leem
as

"

have

pre-

the vanquifhed Epaminondas from purfuing


j

their camp
not

which,

it was

could
~6

be taken without
" 396, " feq^.

fortified, ftrongly of the great flaughter


feqq.

Xenopb.

p.

Plut" vol. ii.p, 366, "

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
had affembled and
C H XXX A

371
p.

affkilants. When
within their the

the Lacedaemonians their ditch

defence of

rampart,
them
on

from fecurity
to

immediate

danger allowed
and forrow
recent

time

reflect with aftonifhment

the

of humiliatingconfequences
Whether
or

their

difafter.

they confidered
on

the number

of the (lain, of national

reflected it
was

the

lofs mortifying
them
to

honour,
on no

eafy for
fuch
their

that, perceive,

former
ever

occafion, the glory of their country


a

had

received

fatal wound.

Many

too difgrace heavy to be borne ; that they never would permittheir ancient laurels to be buried under a Theban trophy and their dead under the prothat, inflead of craving tection of a treaty (which would be acknowledging their defeat), determined into to return they were the field, and to recover them by force of arms. This demned conmanly, but dangerousrefolution,was in the council of war, by the officers of moft experienceand authority. They obferved, that of feven hundred Spartanswho fought in the
",

Spartansdeclared

four hundred engagement, Lacedasmonians had loft


allies two

had
one

fallen ; that the the


deed inbut

thoufand, and
Their
army
;

thoufand

fix hundred. that

ftill outnumbered their

of the

enemy

domeftic

forces formed
nor ftrength,

the fcarcely

tenth

part of their
confidence

could

they repofe any by


the tunes misfor-

in die forced afliftanceof their reluctant emboldened


their

confederates,who,
of
renew

Sparta,

declared

to unwillingnefs

the battle,and
B

concealed fcarcely
b
2

their fatif-

faction

37*
C
H XXX

THE
A P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. and

faction

at

the

humiliation

difgrace of that

fore, iJ-r-'_' republic. Yielding,therehaughtyand tyrannical


to

the

of neceflity

this miferable

juncture,
a7.

the
to News of

Spartansfent a herald to crave of the acknowledge the victory Before they found it convenient
their

their dead, and Thebans


to return

home,

at

Leudra
to

had reached the fatal tidings


tnis memorable that

brought

occafion, the
the

capital ; and, on Spartans exhibited


which
turally na-

of behaviour, peculiarity flriking


refulted from

Lycurguswhich refpect Availinghimfelf of the extraordinary uncultivated nations beftow on military courage, virtues and accomplifhin preference to all other allowed to the man who had that legiflator ments,
loft his defenfive
armour,
one or

inftkutions of

who

had

fled in the

day of battle, but


more

melancholy alternative,
to
a

dreadful

than

death
was

generous

mind.

The

unfortunate foldier

either driven into petual per-

banilhment, and which, in


inflicted
a

to fubjected

by
was

the
;

age, refentment

rude

indignity would be naturally of neighbouring and


every
to

hoftile tribes

or,

if he

fubmitted
the
or

remain

at

home,
from

he every

excluded

from

publicafiemblies,
the
the

office of power and

honour, from
of

of the laws, protection

almofr. from
a

fociety
to

of men,
amend

without

the

fhadow The have

hope ever

his condition.
Jeeins
to

influence of this ftern been

law, which
field of
manner,

Leuctra, was

in the forgotten illuftrated in a very ftriking

after that unfortunate battle.

a"

Xenoph.

p-

596, " fcqq." Plut.

vol. ii.p.

566, " fcqq.

The

THE The

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

373
CHAP.
XXX.
"

mefienorer

of bad

news

arrived, while the

celeaccordingto annual cuftom, were Spartans, of July, gymnaftic and in the month brating, and invokingHeaven mufical entertainments, to

-r

*_j

?inhgu!a
of the

the fruits of the approaching autumn, on^'*"3 preferve Being introduced to the Ephori, he informed them occafion. of the publicdifafter. Thefe manded commagiftrates the feftival to proceed however, ; fending, it had each familya liftof the warriors whom to and enjoining the women abftain from unto loft, availing lamentations. Next day, the fathers and in the field other relations of fuch as had perifhed of battle, appearedin the public dreiled in places, and congratulating their gayeft each attire, faluting other on the braveryof their brethren or children. But the kinfmen

of thofe who

had faved themielves

either remained at home, by a lhameful flight, their domeftic affliction, brooding in filence over if they ventured abroad, difcovered every or, Their fymptom of unutterable anguifhanddefpair. their garments were fhamefully neglected, perfons
rent,

their

arms

folded, their eyes fixed immove-

in humble ground ; expecting, refignation, the fentence of eternal ignominy ready to the unbe denounced worthy by the magiftrate againft

ably on

the

caufes of their furrow as, critical emergency,


was difcipline

But,

on

this

rigour of the Spartan the whom by Ageiilaus, mitigated


the of the criminals the

number

and

rank

deterred from

on inflicting

them

merited

He punifhrnent.

"s

Xenoph.

p.

^596.

B b

endea-

THE
c H

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

of abandoningthe fpirit ex-v-' the laws, by what may appear a very puerile t_ faid he, the facred Pecifion pedient; Let us fuppofe," inftitutions of Lycurgus to have flept duringone refume unfortunate day, but henceforth let them fentence extheir wonted a vigour and activity:" the field of by many writers,as preferving praifed travagantly of the laws, while it fparedthe lives the authority
A
P.

endeavoured

to

atone

for

"

"

"

of the
cannot

citizens.
difcover

But

as,

on

the

one

hand,

we

the admired act of


as

in
we

difpenfmgthis
cannot

condemn

of Agefilaus fagacity the other, lenity ; fo, on imprudent the act itfelf,

prefentcircumftances of his country but neceffary.If rendered not only expedient, of an exSparta had been the populous capital the lives of three hundred citizens tenfive territory, facriticed to might, perhaps, have been ufefully
which the

the honour

But a munity commilitarydifcipline. weakened fmall, and actually exceedingly

of

by

the lofs of four hundred

members,

could

fcarce-

ly have furvived another blow equallydeftructive. of advantage, diftant profpect No could therefore,
have
State Grcece battle of

fuch juftified

an

unfeafonable

feverity.
Greece,

of

When that

the

was intelligence

clirFufed over
lofs of

the

Thebans,
men,

with

the
an

hundred

had

raifed

immortal

only three trophyover

*ne Oiyropl
cii.
".

and ftrengtn this


event

renown

of
The

became

Sparta,the importance every-where confpicuous.

of

and de-fire,

filled the affairs,

hope, of a revolution in public and Peloponnefuswith agitation

tumult.

Cleans, Arcadians,and Argives,every people

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

375
H A p.

who people
or

had been influenced

councils,c by Spartan
"

at

by Spartan power, openly afpired independence. The lefs conftderable Rates expected
to

intimidated

^1^

remain

thenceforth

unmolefted,

no

obeying every idle fummons The to war. more publics powerful rebreathed hatred and revenge, and gloried of taking in an opportunity the proud on vengeance fenators of Sparta, for the calamities which they had fo often inflicted their neighbours. on But amidft this general ferment, and while every Affetf ed other people were {^no? guided rather by their pafiions of juftice than by the principles and animoiities, the Athenians exhibited an illuftrifound policy, or moderation **. diately Immeous example of political
"

longer paying contributions,nor

after the battle of Leuctra,


adorned had the the been with the emblems

Theban
and

herald,

of peace

victory,
to to

to Athens, in difpatched of the engagement, particulars

order and

relate invite

Athenians which
as

to

an

offenfive alliance againft a republic,


ever

had

proved the

moll

ous, dangerof their

well

as

the moft the


,

inveterate enemy

aflemblyof Athens, governed by the magnanimity,or rather by the prudence, determined and of Timotheus to Iphicrates, them. their rivals,not to deftroy humble The ancient and illuftriousmerit of the Spartans, views their important fervices during the Perfian war, which and the fame of their laws and difcipline,
country.
But

of

rendered them
*9

branch of refpectable
p.

the Gre-

Xenoph.

598.

E b 4

cian

376

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
a

might CHA^P. cian confederacy,


in

have

confiderable

fluence in-

this refolution. But it chiefly producing of the growing power proceeded from a jealoufy of Thebes, the fituation of whofe territories might foon render her
even
a

more

formidable

opponent

to

Athens, than

Sparta herfelf. This political a deep-rooted conflderation for once over prevailed Theban herald was national antipathy. The not with decency. He received with refpect, even nor entertained in public,accordingto the not was of the Greeks ; and although eftablifhed hofpitality Hundred the fenate of the Five (who ufually then aflembled anfwered foreign was ambafiadors)
in the

citadel, he

was

allowed

to

return

home
the

without
,

the receiving

fmallefl fatisfaction on

the Athenians, fubjecl of his cfcrnand. But though unwillingto fecond the refentment, and of Thebes, prepared to the profperity promote (derive every poflible advantage from the misfor-' and diftrefs of Sparta. Convinced that the tunes inhabitants of

Peloponnefus would
her

no

longer be
fhare her

inclined

to

follow

ftandard, and

feized the opthey eagerly adverfity, portunit of delivering them for ever from her yoke ; and, left any other peoplemight attain the rank which the Spartans held, and raife their once own importanceon the ruins of public freedom, fent fuccefllvely the feveral ^mbafladors were to their respective cities, requiring compliance with the treaty of Antalcidas. Againftfuch as rejected

danger

and

this overture,

war

was

denounced
was

in the

name

of
all

Athens and her allies 3 which

to declaring

Greece^

378
CHAP,
"^

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

vernment

of

mind. afpiring

his city could not fatisfy fingle or By flratagem, by furprife, by


his dominion
over

force, he
parts of

extended

the

richeft

TheiTalyj and was ready to grafp the his deiigns were obftructed whole, when by the of Polydamas the Pharfapowerful oppofition
lian 34.
His

ambi-

Next

to

Pheras moft

and

Larin%

Pharfalus that

was

the

and targeft poftd'by


Poiydamaa.

fiourifhing cityin
But

northern

divifion of Greece.

the inhabitants, detracted

by factions,exhaufted
until cord and fedition, both and

th'sif ftrengthin civil difa

ing illuminatray of wifdom their differences, they committed parties,

themfelves, to
which For

Polydamas,
and

abroad.
the

of probity and patriotifm home at were i efpected equally feveral years Polydamas commanded and juftice and diligence as fidelity, entitled him to the ous gloriadminiftered

the

citadel,and
with
fuch

the finances
-

have might reafonably of Father of his country. He appellation firmlyoppofed and counteracted the fecret practices, well the of Jafon, who as as open defigns, by every motive eagerlyfolicited his friendfhip that could actuate
a

mind

of

lefs determined

integrity.
Conferat tweenC"

-At

conference which

was

held had

between
alone

them and
of
a

Pharfalus, where

Jafon
to

come

them.

unattended, the better


generous

gain the
Pheraean

confidence

adverfary,the
Xenoph, Hellcn.
i

di {played the

1, vi. c. i.

magnitude

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

and refources, which it of his power rnagnitude fjr the weaknefs of Pharfalus to feemed impofiible the and that, on reiifr. furrendering promifed, j mufl othenvife foon citadel of that place,which to force, Polydamas ihpuld enjoyin Theffaly yield the fecond him

rank
as

afcer himfelf

that

he would
nor

gard re-

his friend and


a

colleague ;
their

could

there remain

doubt
common

that

united
to

labours

might
m

raife their which

country
been

that ftatiou

long entitled to hold. ftates of the neighbouring That the fubjugation forced themfelves which opened vafter profpects,
Greece it had his mind, when on irrefiilibly of Theflaly, natural advantages the foil, he the

confidered the

fwiftnefs of
martial nation

the

of the fertility horfes, the difciplined of


the
or

bravery and
with whom able
to
no

ardour

inhabitants,
in Afia,
was

in Europe,

contend.

Polydamas
,
.

heard
i

with
i
"

pleafurethe praifesof
T

De
mined

in-

-11

nis

native

land, and
But he him him

Jafon.
had

magnanimity obferved, that his fellow-citizens


with
ever a

admired

the

of teprftyof

honoured

trull which

it

was

im-

for pofllble community from


That which he
was

to

betray ;

and

that their of

ftill enjoyed the

alliance had

Sparta,

the

cities neighbouring
to

revolted.

determined

demand

the

protection

of that

and if the Lacedaemonians republic were j and able to afford him willing any effectual afliftance,

he

would

defend

to

the

laft

extremitythe

walls

of Pharfalus.
and

tegrity his inJafon commended which, he declared, inpatriotifm, Ipired

380
C H XXX
'

THE
A

HISTORY with the


an

OF

GREECE. defire
to

P.

fpiredhim

warmer

obtain

the

v
^

_'

of friendfhip Soon

fuch

illuftrious character,
went

jafbn
leader

dc-

afterwards
demand

Polydamas

of

propofedhis
but
to

in the council undertake

fclUns.

not only to magistrates

Sparta,and the ; exhorting the expedition,


to

qiymp.
cii. 3.

undertake

it with

vigour;

for if

they
their

exun-

A.

c/370. peeled to oppofethe

forces of

Jafon by

half-armed flaves, they or peafants, difciplined would themfelves, and on infallibly bringdifgrace ruin
were
on

their confederates. the


on

The

Lacedaemonians
war,

deeply engaged in
been hitherto carried

Theban

which

had

unfuccefsfully. They
of
a

prudently declined, therefore, the invitation held Polydamas ; who, returningto ThefTaly,
fecond conference with Jafon. furrender the citadel, but
endeavours their
own

He

flillreflifedto

promifedto
his

ufe his beft

for

making
j

the

Pharfalians fubmit

of
a

accord

and

offered

only

fon

as

pledge

the offer, Jafon accepted fidelity. foon and, by the influence of Polydamas, was afterwards declared of Pharialus captain-general and all Theflaly; a modeft. appellation, under tfhich he enjoyedthe fullextent of .royal power 3S.

of his

His

admif~

with equity began his reign by adj lifting, anc* Precifi"n" the proportionof taxes, and the of troops, to be railed by the feveral contingent He cities in his dominions.
to

The

new

levies,added
to

his

{landing army

of mercenaries, amounted thoufand

eight thoufand
3*

horfe, twenty
1. vi.
c.

heavySicul. 1. xv.

Xcnoph. Hellen,

I,

"

feqq."

Diodor.

p. 48!?.

armed

THE

HISTORY

OF
a

GREECE.

armed

foot, and

fuch

body
match

of targeteers,
36. But

as

no

P.

riation of formed
army in

could antiquity leaft

numbers of tlie

^.-y-.'_i

the

advantageous diftinction
and

Jafon, Every day he rewards perfon; difpenfed


the and

of

exercifed his troops

punifhments;
and

cafhiered die brave treble with

flothful and

effeminate; honoured
fometimes
and

with double, diligent

pay,

with

large donatives

in money,

fuited their as peculiarly prefents relpectivetaftes. By this judiciousplan of came adminiftration,the foldiers of Jafon bemilitary alike attached to their duty, and to the perIon of their general, whofe ftandard they were ready to follow into any part of the world ". He the fmall

fuch other

began
but

his

military 'by fubduing and operations


the

rapid

Dryopes 38,
warlike

Dolopians,
Oeta of

and

the

other

fuccefl-

the long and tribes,inhabiting


mounts

intricate chain form the

of

and Pindus, which

fouthern

frontier

Theflaly.

Then

turningnorthwards, he ftruek terror into Macedon, and compelled Amyntas to become his ally, and moft probablyhis tributary.Thus fortified
on

both

fides,he
had

retaliated

the

inroads
the

of the

Phocians, who
and infuked

of long profited

divifions,
;

the weaknefs, of his country fmall

and

by

conquering the

and formed

'uncultivated
a

diflrictof

Epirus, which
3*
HTivor

then

barbarous

princiyt

Xenophon
Ttpo;
7raiT"j

exprefTcsit
p. 600.

more

ftrongly ;
"00.

WElVrarixer

prt

anrtrct^r^cHf otnQfuva; p.
**

*7

Xenopli.

Strabo, 1. viii.

p. 299,

pality

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

HI?

views
"

palityunder Alcetas 3S",an anceflor of the renowned of the dominion Pyrrhus, he extended from the JEgean to the Ionian fea, and Theffaly encompafied, as with a belt, the utmoft breadth of the Grecian republics. It cannot be doubted that the fubjugation, or
at

leaft the command,


was

of thofe Immortal of
the Thefialian

wealths, common-

the
to

aim

prince,

who the

declared

his friends, that he


to

expected,by
the

afliftance of Greece,

imitate

and to example of Cyrus and Ageiilaus, of the confederacy, what thefe the united ftrength generalshad nearlyaccomplifhedby a body of
ten
or

glorious effect, by

twelve

thoufand

foldiers 4".

While

the

their long-boafted Spartans,however, preferved pre-eminence,and regarded it as their hereditary and unalienabie rightto conduct their confederates to Jafon could not hope to attain the principal war,

expedition.As the natural enemy of that haughty people, he rejoiced in their unprofperons war againftthe Thebans;
an

command

in

Afiatic

nor

could

he

receive

fmall

fatisfaction from

holding bein
a

the

fouthern

ftates of Greece he

engaged
maintained

perpetualwarfare, while an'd tefpected neutrality,


39

himfelf

watched

the firft favour-

In

fpeakingof Arrybas (the fon of received Pyrrhus), who


"

of
his

Alcetap, and
education

the
at et

father grand-

Athena,
gratior

Juftirt fays,

Qtnnto
Primus form ab

dotfior

majoribus fuis, tanto


Icriatum

populo
tus

fuit.

itaqueleges"
am

annuofque magiftraut
a

"

reipublicx

compofuit.
ftatuta."

Et

Pyrrho fedts, fie

tita cultior
4"

populo

Arryba

Xenoph.

p. 6co.

able

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
CHAP. decifive effect:,

able occafion

of

with interfering,

in the final fettlement of that country.


He nefus
;

feldom

ventured
to

indeed

into the
matters

Peloponmore

but, in order

examine

nearly, he undertook, upon very extraordinary Athens and Thebes, to pretences, feveral journeys he From policy,and perhaps from inclination,
had formed
an

intimate

connection

with

the moil

characters diftinguifhed

of thole

and republics,

with Pelopidas and Timotheus. The particularly after ferving his country with equal glory latter, and fuccefs,was, accordingto the ufual fortune of Athenian commanders, expofedto a cruel perfecution

of

his

rivals and and

enemies, which
the

dangered en-

his honour
trial the admirers the

his life. On

day of

appearedin

friends of that great man Athenian aflembly,in order to and

intercede with

his

judgesj

and

among

the

reft

Jafon, habited in the robe of a fuppliant, humbly the releafe of Timotheus, from a people foliciting would who not probably have denied a much of fo greater favour to the fimplerecommendation he en4I. In a vifit to Thebes a prince deavoured powerful

gain or fecure the attachment of and promifes;. Epaminondas, by largeprefents and but the illuftrious Theban, whofe independent the afllftance of honourable poverty had rejected his friends and fellow-citizens, fpurnedwith diCof a ftranger 4*, Yet, dain the infolent generofity Jafon contracted by the intervention of Pelopidas,
to
*f
*l

Demoflhenes
Plut.

"

Cornel.

Nepos in Ticioth.
aa

Apophtheg.

THE
CHAP. aft

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. the

engagement

of

with hofpitality which their he


was

Thebans,

i_

'_iin
-w-

confequence of
arms,

invited

their

after

memorable

join victory at
to

Leufbra.

Rapidity
move-

ments.

prince acceptedthe invitation, Greece were not though his defignsrefpecting yet He was rjpe for execution. actually engaged in with the Phocians, of which, whatever war might be the pretence, the real objedt was to obtain the of the Delphic oracle, and the fuperintendence
The

Theffalian

adminiflration

of the

facred

treafure.

To

avoid

he ordered marching through a hoftile territory, if he had intended to his gallies as to be equipped, His naval by fea to the coaft of Bceotia. proceed amufed the attention of the Phocians, preparations while Jaibn entered their country with a body of
two

thoufand

lighthorfe, and
he
was

advanced

with fuch

that rapidity of his


His
views
own

every where

the firftmeffenger

arrival.

without he joined, enBy this unufual celerity, of the Thebans, coimtering an7 obftacle,the army who
were

between
Thebes and

encamped
at
an no

in

the

neighbourhood fc
from the

of

Spar-

-L^uctra,
Inflead

great

diitance

enemy. it
more

of

auxiliary, Jafon thought


the part of
to
a

iuitable to his intereft to ad


He exhorted the Thebans

mediator. the

with reft fatisfied

which they had already out obtained, withadvantages that the drivingtheir adverfaries to deipair ; of their own and of Sparta, recent hittory republic fliould teach them
to

remember

the

viciffitudes of
on

fortune.

The

Lacedaemonians,
of the

the

other
a

hand,

he
iS

reminded

difference between

victorious

386
c

THE
P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE:

HA

place of fuch ftrengthon his frontier,which, if feized by a powerfulneighbour, might obftrucn


his
to at
as

pafiageinto
at

Greece.

Thither

he

determined

return

the
meant

celebration
to

of the
the his

which
an

he honour He

claim
to

Pythian games, rightof prefiding, piety and


to

due

both

his

power.

commanded,

the therefore,

cities and

of Theffalyto villages
and
oxen,

fatten

iheep, goats, fwine"


rewards
to

and
as

propofed honourable
furnilhed Without
any

fuch

diilricts

the beil victims burthenfome


a

for the
im-

altars of

Apollo.
his

on pofition

he fubjects,

collected
the

thoufand

oxen,
ten

arid, of fmaller
thoufand.
At

cattle,to

number

of

the fame

time, he prepared the


whofe
merit

whole

of his kingdom, by military ftrength frill more than by the afliftance, effectually of his facrirkes,he
to

might

maintain games,

his

pretenlions

the

of fuperintendence

the

the direction,

of the

oracle, and the adminiftration of the facred


he

treafure,which

regardedas
Greece

fo

many and

previous
But,

Heps
amidil

to

the thefe

conqueil of

Afia.

Jafon, while 'reviewing lofty projects, the Pheraean flabbed by feven youths, was cavalry, who approached him, on pretence of demanding the affaffins Twovpf againfteach other. juftice were difpatchedby his guards. Five mounted fleet horfes, which had been prepared for their in which ufe, and efcaped to the Grecian republics, received with univerfal acclamations of they were joy, and honoured as the faviours of their countiy
from

the formidable

power

of

brave

but

ambi-

tious

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

387

tious

tyrant

4J.

The
with
to

projects
himfelf
;

and

the

empire
as

of
jfhall

CHAP.

Jafon
have
ftate nefs

perifhed
occafion

Thefialy,
into

we

explain, relapfed
and

its the

former
bufi-

of
of

divifion

weaknefs
not

but

it is

hiftory
;

to

relate
even

only great
the

actions,
of

but
nounce an-

great

defigns
the

and

defigns
of

Jafon

approaching

downfal

Grecian

dom. free-

4*

Xcnoph.

"

Diodor.

ibid.

"

Valerius^Maxitnus,

1. ix.

Cc

3*8

CHAP.
in the

XXXI.

Iwvafwn of LacoPeloponnefus. tion nia. Epaminondas rebuilds MeJJene. Foundathe Arcbi damns ores reft of Megalopolis."and Fortune of Sparta. Affairsof 'tbeffaly "The PreMacedon. for Peace. Negotiations invades tenjions of 'Thebesrejefted."Epamincndas -^-Revolutions in Achaia.-^the Peloponnefus.
" "

"

"

"

"

Speechof

Archidamus
"

of Thebes. "Defigns "be Arcadians Expeditionin 'Tbejjaly. Pelopidas's Battle of feize the Olympic Treafure." Mantin"ea. into Egypt. Expedition Agefilaus's
" "

Spartan Council. by Athens.-" Difconcerted


in the
"

CHAP,
Y"V "Yl

f B 1H

death of Jafon removed


but
arm

the which

terror

of its

Ji Greece; _u_'_ii
to fafety

of of
an

country

owed

Hiftory of

the

the Condition may aflaiTin,

Grccian

as regarded extremely unftable and precarious. There elapfed,however, thirty-three before the Greeks years of difcord and calamity, in Philipof Macedon, fuch finally experienced, ambition and abilities as enabled him fully to acof the ThefTalian. The defigns complifhthe lofty of tumultuous of this laft ftage prehends comliberty hiftory the bloody, but indeciiive wars, which vened exhaufted Greece during eleven years that inter-

between
ceflion

the battle of LeucTrra,and the


the Macedonian

ac-

of

to Philip

throne,

gether to-

with the active

reignof

that

prince ;

morable me-

of twenty- two period

years, illuminated

by
the

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. and

3g9
clouded
CHAP.
XXXT
'
'

the fuccefs and

glory of Macedon.
"

by

the

and difgrace

ruin of the Grecian

republics.

"

The
was

iflue of the batde of Leu6tra unexpected to the Spartans, doubly prejudicial by weakentheir
.

tkms

in"

ing

own

and ftrengthenino; that confederacy,


"
-

the Pel"*

of their enemies.

In lefs than the alliance in

two

years after that

ponnefus after the

important event,
was

over Peloponnelus,
an

which Sparta had fb long maintained

afcendant,
en.

3.

and moft cities had changed A. diffolved, totally not connections,but their doonly then: foreign meflic laws and government, During the lame the confederacy, of which Thebes was the period, head, had, on the contrary, been very widely extended. of the Peloponnefus Many communities north of Greece, courted her protection ; and, in the

0.370.

the Acarnanians, Locrians, Phocians, the whole breadth of the continent,from


the Ionian
to

the

./Egeanfea,and
the power, and

even

the ifleof

Eubosa, increased

the acknowledged The of thefe redominion of Thebes. volutions hiftory related by ancient is very imperfectly able remarkwriters but their confequences were too be attended to and explained. The to not after beingdelivered from the opPeloponnelians, of the Spartanyoke,were to the ful?jeded preffion
""

in

fqme meafure

more

torn

deftruftive tyranny of their own ungovernable paffions1. Every ftate and every city was blazed forth into by fadions which frequently
exiles from feveral
as

the moft violent feditions. The


were republics

nearlyas
p. 3?i" "

numerous

thofe who
dc

Diodorus, 1. xv.

feqq. Ifocrat- In Archidara. " C


c

Pace.

THE
CHAP,
XXXI.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

had

expelled them.

Fourteen

hundred

were

ba^

^1^"^

nifhed from.

(lain in were Tegea; two thoufand* placesthe contendingfactions Argos ; in many and thofe who, in the firft alternately prevailed ; of the government had got pofTefiion encounter, and the

fometimes attacked and conquered were capital, who formed a, fugitives, by the numerous Mantiin the adjoining territory The camp alone feem to have acted wifely.With one nseans accord, and with equaldiligence, they laboured to rebuild their walls,which the infolence of Sparta The foon brought to work was had demolilhed.
3
.%

conclufion

and the Mantinasans, united in

one

democracy,
ferve the

fullydetermined

thenceforth

to

pre-

of their city, which appeared ftrength to maintain their political necefiary independence,

The

exiles

Neither

the Thebans

nor

the

SpartansimmeThe
arms
",

interfered in S7arta diately former


and

this fcene of diforder.

found fufHcient employment for their


northern fo much
v

in the negociations

and the latterwere


at

parts of Greece feat humbled by their dethemfelves

Leuctra, that they contented

with and

For

of the Eurotas, to defend the banks preparing to repelthe expectedaflault of their capital. this purpofethey had armed the aged and infirm, who were legally exempted from military
number
one

This

is made view
the

out

by comparing

different

authors,
Paufaniaa

and

uniting in
the

different fcenes Diodonis word

of the fedition, which

5s called

Scytalifmby
the Greek the

(ubi fupra),and
of

from (Corinth),

cxvro$"r.t

a club, which, fignifying

it feems,
3

was

inftrumcnt principal

(laughter.

Diodorus,

1. xv.

p. 371, 5c

feqq.

fervice,

THE

HISTORY

OF commanded
were are

GREECE. into the


field CHAP.
XXXI
.
-

icrvice *.
even

They
i

had

thole

citizens who
as

employed
deemed mofl

in fiich ufeful

-.L*

facred and civil offices


in

and, fbciety ;

as

their laft refburce,they talked

the Helots. But the convulto givingarms fions of Peloponnefus them with lefs icon fupplied The ir.cenfed partifans 5. dangerousaiixiliaiies who had been expelled of ariftocracy, from Arhad recourfe to the Achaia, and Arcadia,, golis, moft ancient and diftingmfhedpatrons of their principles. Encouraged by this leafbn- That political able reinforcement, the Spartans fet at defiance fji^s jf," the Theban invafion, by which they had been fo vain long threatened, and fent a confiderable detach- authority their loft authority in Arcadia. ^niaArca merit to recover the fate of Sparta, But it was to regainneither in in any other ftate of the Peloponnefus, that, nor
reto
re-

of

the influence Leuclra. in this

which

me

had

loft in the field of her allies flain in the

who commanded Polytropos, defeated and was expedition,

firft rencounter their

with the Arcadians

and

Lycomedes,

Nor and magnanimous leader. did intrepid the perform any thing decifive againft Agefilaus lages He contented with ravagingthe vilwas enemy. fields of Arcadia, in which he and delightful
met

with littlerefiftance from


an

the inhabitants, who

they Ihould be whofe affiftance by the Theban confederacy, joined and had juftreafon to exthey had fent to folicit,
declined engagement,
until

peft*.
+

Xenoph. 1. vi. p. 597.

Id. p. 603.

Id. p. 605.

At

THE
CHAP.
XXXI.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

The bans the


at

Thetake field the of

head lits.

their al-

Olymp.
cii. 4. A. C.

369.

Thebans took the lengththe far-renowned field, pondered their own ftrength^ haying~carefully and collected into one body the flower and vigour of their numerous allies. They were accompanied of and villages by the warlike youth of the towns Bceotia,by the Acarnanians, Phocians, Locrians, of and Eubceans, and by a promifcuouscrowd attracted to their camp who were needy fugitives, by the allurement of plunder. They had no fponer arrived on the frontier of Arcadia, than they were joinedby the inhabitants of that country, as well as by the Elians and Argives. This united At

mafs

of
or

war

exceeded
ever

any

numbers,

that

either
der un-

before
one

afterwards

affembled

in Greece

ftandard,amounting to
men

fome fay to fifty,

feventy thoufand
minondas admiration and

7.

The

Thebans, and
whom

the

reft of the Boeotians, were


to Pelopidas,

commanded

by Epathe generous

The
tans

had voluntarily recolleagues fignedtheir authority.Apprifedof the march of fuch a formidable army, conducted of by generals Spar- fuch to merit, Agenlaus prepared unqueftionable cadia. evacuate ArArcadia, a meafure which he fortunately
cuate eva-

of their

before his foldiersbeheld the fires kindled effected,


in the hoftile camp, and thus avoided His

the

clifgrace

of

before retiring

the enemy

8,

unrefifted de-

vaflation of the
well
as

which territory

he had invaded, as

his fuccefsful retreat, gave frefh fpirits to. his followers, them with better and made return
7

The

numbers

differ in 1. xv. "

Xenoph.

Hcllen.

1. vi.

Paufan.

Bcco"

tic.
*

Diodorus,

Plut. in

Pelopid.

Xennph.

p. Cc6,

hopes

394
CHAP,
XXXI
'

THE
routes

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. But -when

which

had

been

afiigned them.

the

Arcadians, who

formed the fourth

diviiioa

of

.thearmy,

attemptedto traverfe the diftrict Sciritis, who the brave Ifchilas" guarded that important determined to repelthem, or to periih. The pals, example of
generous

Thermopylae kindled a enthufiafrn in the breaft of this gallant


Leonidas
at

Spartan,
reward
to

The

number

of

the Arcadian

levies fb the fure


all thofe
to

far exceeded

his own,

that death, feemed


Yet
were

of his courage.

he
not

exhorted ambitious

decline He

danger who
even

fhare his

It. camp
too

commanded

the

youth

to

leave

before

the engagement,

rifked in to be precious prife. He, with the old Ibldiers who followed him, chofe the prefentopportunityto meet a; But gloriousdeath in defence of their country. action was fold dearly. The their lives were long

deeming their lives ib defperate enteran

doubtful
die

the lofs of the Arcadians

great

nor

did

battle ceafe till the laft of the

Spartanshad

1". pertthed The


tlon of

confederates

having foon after afiembled

at

the placeof rendezvous, marched Sellafia,


to

forward

all before them, burning and deflroying Sparta, had not perienced exDuring five hundred years Laconia fimilar calamity. The a guards who defended The
.women

the

citywere
were

thrown

into

confternation.
fmoke

terrified
the invaders

by
;
a

the

and

tumult

railed

by

conipe6lacle,

10

Xenoph.
adds,
n

1. ""!.p. 607. "


^n-

Diodor.

1. xv.
"

p.

376.

The

former feme

indeed
one

ap$r/vor.Qii:".t$vyi. Unlefs, perhaps,


through the

efcaped unknown

enemy,*'

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

395

cerning which

it had been all the

their ufual

boaft, that
never

CHAP. XXXI.

they alone of
beheld it in which

Grecian

females,had
Alarmed
which

.__

L*
_y"

their native

land.

by

the

danger

they the feniihle of their own to were inability repel, of giving Spartansembraced the doubtful expedient and flaves, whom to their peafcnts monly arms theycomtreated with fuch an excefs of cruelty. Not of thefe unhappy men lefs than fix thoufand were undertake the to engaged, by threats or promifes, reluctant defence of the proud tyrants, whom they
detefted.
Their formidable had did numbers increafed the which panic, general

threatened

them, and

feized the
not

citizens,and
arrival of
a

which

and magiftrates ceafe until the finally

from Corinth, powerful body of men Phlius, Epidaurus, and Pallene ; cities which, were though they had ever oppofedthe defpotifm, of Sparta. to permit the deftruttion unwilling
This feafonable reinforcement of the
not

removed only '

y^''nr*
mtrcpidill"lus*

the condensation

them but made tyofA.;cSpartans, from the depths of defpondency pafswith rapidity The to the joysof fuccefs. kingsand magiftrates reftrain their impetuofityfromrufhing could fcarcely into the field : and this martial enthufiafm,guided enabled by the confummate prudenceof Agefilaus, them affaults of the enemy, and to repelthe firft them that every fucceeding to convince attempt to of the city, muft be attended with get poiTeflion fuch fatigue, and danger,and lofs of men, could as be compen fated by the fuccefs of that enternot prife. The conduct of Agefilaus, during this crihas been highly extolled by all {ical emergency,

writers.

THE
CHAP,
XXXI

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

writers

", and

never

beyond its merit.


in the

By

well-.

contrived

ambufh

1Z,he defeated the


very
uncommon

temple of the Tyndaof the affailants : by deiigns


mind
a '% he quelled or

of prefencc infurredion
;

dangerous

and

while, by force

he overcame the united efforts of doftratagem, the moft meflic and foreign enemies, he negociated afiiftance for the relief of his country. powerful
The

Spar-

Immediately
and confirm

after

the

battle

of

Leuftra
to

the
renew

their

Athenians antes

na"3 declared
the treaty of the

their refolution

negotiate
a

Antalcidas,which, though

treaty of

grandeur,yet fecured the tranof of Greece, and prevented the weaknefs quillity from falling to the ambition a prey republic any one
it diminifhed this declaration, notwithstanding which was univerfally approved by their neighbours, they had, either from refentment or from of the remained above two years fpeclators policy, decline of the Lacedaemonian, and the growth of the Theban uneafinefs might league. Whatever of their be occafioned by the increaling flrength

pf another.

But

11

Xenoph.
Caftor

"

Plut. in

Agefilao. Diodorus,

1.

x\v

"

Paufanias

Lacon.
12

and

Pollux,
had

fo called from

their mother

Tyndaris,
fci3;e an

or

Leda.
*J

The

mutineers

entered

intp ^ copfpiracy
as

to

portant im-

pod thither, and

in the

city. Agefilaus obferved.thern fufpe$ing


orders;
different The of their their
his

they

marched out, that

immediately
miftaken

defign, called
his

they they
thided he feveral

had

adding

meaning

to

be, that
to

fliould

feparate into
which he knew he

divifions, and

repair

the

pods
that

named.

confpirators naturally conpurpofe,


find and
an

nothing
never

as feparating,

commanded,

could
as

afterwards them

opportunity

to

linitein fuch

numbers

rendered

dangerous.

tHE
new

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
the decay CHAP.

j97
XXX-I
"_.-"

rival,was

balanced by fufficiently

and But

downfal of their ancient and inveterate enemy.

jj T'"

defired the though, doubtlefs, they ardently ruin of the Spartanpower, they could not fincerely and approve the cruel deftruction of their perfons, of their city. When informed of the terribledevaftation of Laconia, they naturally o" felt a return

companion for
memorable
to

people whofe

occafions, had done


name.

on exploits, many fuch fignal honour

the Grecian The

emifiaries of

whofe fuperior mind Agefilaus,


amidft the diftrefs of
.rj

Argu-

had aflfumed dictatorialpower


his country,
.

^kh
they employed for
this pur-

feized the favourable opportunity to '


, *

urge, with the Atnenians, many


which feldom

"

motives

or

action,

pofe* politics operate amidft the cold lifelefs

of modern
Athenians

times.

They

took

notice

that the

and Lacedemonians

had often

mutually
that

afiiftedeach the moft

other in feafons of

and diftrefs,

of their ftorywas that in sera glorious had united their councils which the two republics meafures and That a common againft enemy. and ambition had unof rivality when the fpirit happily
'

divided

Greece, and

the Athenians

were

to the calamities of a long and unfortunate expofed by the humanity of they had been protected war, the implacable "Sparta againft rage of the Thebans, of Athens, and to who wilhed to demolifh the city

reduce CriiTean

its

to territory

the

barren folhude

of the

plain.

the Athenians

vengeance of the yoke of domeftic tyrants, and the cruel tyranny

by the moderation of Sparta, had not only been fa"ved from the enemies, but delivered from foreign
That

of
,

39*
c H
A

THE
P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
of thefe fervicea

of the Pifiitratidse. the reward

The of

merit

XXXI.
v
r

IP deierved
renown

able and

the hereditary gratitude ; of Athens urged her to proteclthe miferand juftice demanded that {he fhould affertj of
a

maintain, the conditions


(he herfclf had

recent

treaty^

which

Thebans,

after

propofed,and which the had fo manifeftly lated. vioaccepting,

How

re-

loud and difcordant

murmur

ran

throughthe

theAthe-

approved the demand, others obferved that the Spartans changedtheir language with their fortune; that they had formerly, and they became probably would again, whenever
afiume powerful,

arTembly. Some

of

by colouring

very different tone, and, inftead falfe difguiies, in its native difplay
a

their inveterate force, late treaty of peace

enmityto
could
not

Athens. entitle them had

That
to

the
any
war

fmce they themfelves affiitance,

begun

the

by the invafion of Arcadia ; a war undertaken from the tyrannical motive of lupporting the unjuft ufurpthe rights of ation of the nobles of Tegea over
tfieir fellow-citizens.
Speech of
th

Togetherwith
come

the Lacedemonian

ambarTadors,

"f Corinth t1ll"fe

and Phlius, cities emi-

thian.

by an diftinguilhed nently
ancient confederate
and

to their fidelity protector.Cleiteles the

unlhaken

Corinthian, obfervingwhat
to take, ftood likely

turn

the debate it
a

was

cc up and faid, Were the ! who of doubt, Athenians are

ter mat-

aggreffors,
move re-

the

of melancholy experience the Since difficulty.

our

ftate would

the renovation

of the

have the Corinthians, furely, peace of Antalcidas,


not

THE
not

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
power
our

committed
Yet

hoftilities agamft any


the Thebans
our

in
ter-

Greece.
cut ritory,

have

entered
our

down

trees, burned effects.


to

houfes, then, can


been

our plundered

cattle and

How,

you fo

refufe your

afliftance

thofe who

have

In injured, manifeftly
at

direct violation

of the

ceded defire"they acexprefs and fwore ?" The affembly loudlyapproved and which was the difcourfe of Cleiteles, fupported of Paconfirmed by the arguments and eloquence

treaty, to which,

your

trocles the Phliafran.


"

It is manifeft, I think, to

all of you,

Athe-

of

P*tro-

nians ! that

fhould
next

mult be the
fmce of that her

Athens Sparta be deflroyed, of the hoftility of Thebes, object


would The then irand in caufe of the
own.

cityalone

the way

ambition.

monians LacedaeYou

therefore is, in
murl

fact,your

embrace
which

it with the

ardour, as the lafl opportunity

gods perhapswill afford you, of the generalfreedom at the head of defending your of and the domination allies, preventing dangerous
of the Thebans the effects of which, you, who are would feel with peculiar their neighbours, feverity\
;

which By taking this relblution,


and

is

equally rous gene-

falutary, a fund of merit, you will acquire than whom not only with the Spartans, none were mindful of favours, more ever ambitious or more of honeft fame, but alfo with us their allies, who,
fmce
we

have

continued

faithfulto

our

friends in

their
,

be fufpected of ingratitude cannot adverfity, benefactors. I have heard with to our profperous admiration how, in ancient times, the injured and 5

afflicted

400
CHAP,
xxx*
never

THE

HISTORY

OF recourfe
to

GREECE. Athens,
now no

afflidbedalways had

and

wer6

of difappolnted

relief. I

longer4

ful hear,but fee,the Lacedsemonians, with their faiththe protection againft could not perThebans, whofe unrelenting cruelty fuade Sparta, in the height of her refentment and

allies, foliating your

of her power, you


renown jufb to gives,

to

dcfolate your Your

country, and
anceftors bodies Thebes much when

to

duce re-

into fervitude.

acquired
the
nown re-

the dead by faving of the impiety whom How you,

of the Ardenied

facred

rites of burial '*. will redound


to

greater
the

monians, Lacedae-

by your
from
to

death.

ihall be faved generous affiftance" It was deemed meritorious in them the children of Hercules

have

defended

againft

the

unnatural far
more

will be
not

of Euryftheus but it perfecution ; for you to have defended glorious

only the

defendants

of that hero, the

ditary here-

of Lacecbemon, kings
the

but, alongwith them,


one
a

the people; in fenate,the magiftrates,


to

word,

have

delivered

the whole

nation

from

and otherwife inevitable. danger dreadful in itfelf, of their empire,the Lacedemonians During the profperity prevented your deftruction by a decree, which their humanity, without difplayed expofing their fafcty.You daemonians, called to defend the Laceare not by inactive decrees,but by arms and courage.

Arm,

then, in their behalf

of recent forgetful
J4

animofities, repay the


The fads alluded
to

and^ important
""

See vol. i. c. i. p. a6. in all the

in the text

are

lated re-

of Athens, panegyrics

by Plato, Lyfias, liberate^

andThucydides.

fervices

402
c
H

THE
A P.

HISTORY

OF under the

GREECE.

before the
been had

now period demolished by

review, their city had


their

Spartans ;

beer*

and feized,

divided

the ancient

inhabitants had

among been reduced

territory that peoplej


into fer-

vitude, and
in miferable

compelledto
banifhment,

cultivate their paternal

fields for the benefit of cruel matters


over

difperfed and Greece, Italy,


; or

Sicily.After two centuries of humiliation and of the humanity,or perhaps the policy calamity, Athens, took companion on this unfortunate race,, of Naupactus, and and fettled them in the territory iQand of Cephalenia.TheMefthe neighbouring ferfenians difpkyedtheir gratitude by important but then: vices during the Peloponnefian war j exertions could not long retard the mofl vigorous of that The fortune of Athens. event declining rendered Sparta die arbiter of Greece ; and war of her memothe firftobjects the MefTenians were rable enflaved, banifhed, tyranny, beinguniverfally It is probable that the fcattered or put to death. remains of this miferable community would flock from every quarter to the ftandard of Epaminondas in an retaliate the unreto lenting rejoicing opportunity of a people,who fuffered now perfecution the calamities which they had fo often inflicted. voice of hiflory But the general afcribes to Epaminondas the merit of affembling the MefTenians l6. It is certain,that he rebuilt their city, and put them in pofleffion of their territory act of ge; an nerous compafiionwhich inflicted a moft unex16

Plutarch, in

Pelopid.

Diodor.

xv.

p. 491.

Paufan.

Mef-

fen. p. adj.

pected

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. the

403

who CHAP. Spartans, beheld the afhes of a nation,which theyhad twice revive and flourifh in endeavoured to extinguiili, their neighbourhood increafe by the continually ; and (laves j and, enacceiTion of Spartan fubjects couraged and their own garrifon, by a Theban watch inveterate hoflility, favourable ocevery
-,

and pected

cruel

punifhmenton

-T-

'j

cafion

to

exert

the full power

of their vengeance

I7.

TlieAtheEpaminondas had accomplifhed this extraorwhen he received intelligence of the field. dinaryenterprife, the motions of the Athenian by army commanded That illuflrious generalhad allowed Iphicrates. the ardour of his troops to evaporate, by purfuing which it is impoffible, a conduct at this diilance of but which the military hiflorian time, to explain, condemns, as highly unworthy of his former renown. of the utmoft When he was celerity importance, feveral precious wafted days at Corinth, without or even any neceflity, pretence, for this unfeafbnable delay. His foldiers loudly demanded to meet the enemy, to affault the walls of Argosj or even the ftrongeft in Peloponand moft populous city nefus,and not inferior to Thebes itfelf in active their common foe. Iphicrates, animofityagainft
I8

however, embraced

none

of thofe

meafures, but led

his army Arcadia ; expecting, towards perhaps, what of his arthat the news rival actually happened,

there would
invader. It
nondas
cannot

deliver Laconia

from

the hoftile

be

imagined, indeed, that Epami0

The
bans cuate

Theeva~

feared the ifTue of


l8

an

engagement

with the

"11

La-

conia.
'7

Diodor- 1, xv.

c.

16.

Xenoph,
2

1. vi. verfus finehi.

Athe,

THE CHAP.
XXXI

HISTORY But he
was

OF

GREECE. with

Athenians.

alarmed iuftly

the

that peoplehad taken in the n__w-n^ intereft which even and refentindignation danger of Sparta. The jured, the rivals and enemies of the inwhich they, ment him what difcovered on this occafion,taught fentiments his conduct rnuft excite in more tial imparin his original dates, fhould he perfift plan, and, as the capital, deftroythe Lacedemonian orator it, pluck out an eye of expreffed Leptines caufes tended alfo to Greece 19." Many concurring ed callThe Arcadians were accelerate his departure.
"

home Elians

to

defend their houfes and families.

The

anxious to fecure their Argiveswere Even the Theretreat. booty by an expeditious which had conbans were weary of an expedition and

fumed

feveral winter
not

months,
to

feafon in which

keep the field. Provifions likewife grew fcarcej and Epaminondas, by difficultieson every fide, preparedto prefled
they were
accuftomed
evacuate

the Lacedaemonian
words of been down

but territories ;

not

(in the
out,
The
Theor

Xenophon)
confumed *"."
or

until

of value had
burned

thing poured plundered,


"

every

At the fame

time that the Thebans

leftLaconia,

Athenian*

refpecaclively
cufe their

withdrew the Athenians from the country Iphicrates which they had invaded. armies filed The two off,as by mutual confent, and returned to their cities by feparate tempt roads,without any atrefpective of each other. to the progrefs interrupt blamed for allowing an was Iphicrates enemy, and exhaufted by the fatigue heavy with plunder,
J
,

*9

Ariftot.Rhetor. 1. iii.c.

10.

*"

Xenoph.

p. 6ia.

Of

THE of
the
a

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

405

winter's
Ifthmus
were

campaign,
of

to

pafsunmolefted

Corinth.

through CHAP. Pelopidas and Epatheir The have

'

minondas
ban

accufed and

tried before the The-

the term of afiembly,for protracting command beyond the time limited by law. former been difcovered lefs courage
his had
at

than

might
and

expected from
He,
who enemy,

impetuous
never

daring
of his

character.

feared the fword


angry voice

of

an

trembled
But

the

infolent accufers.
on

this occaiion, the

Epaminondas diiplayed, of philofophical fuperiority


to

firmnefs, feated in the mind,


courage
The which is the latter is fufficientfor
can

that conftitutional
and
",

refult of blood
a

fpirits.
but the

day

of battle

former alone
of fortune.
Inftead of

yield fupportin

every ykifiitucje

the formality of obferving undertook


own

regular
the indefends
con'

defenee, the illuftrious Theban


vidious tafk of pronouncing his

panegyric *\ his his exploits, without amplification, After relating and without diminution, he concluded ing, by obfervu
"

that he could fubmit fecure

to

death

without

luctance, re-

of immortal

fame, earned

in the

fervice of his country." The


were

feditious demagogues
",

by his magnanimity the anger of the himfelf and his colleague diflblved aflemblyagainft in admiration j and Epaminondas was conducted
awed

from

the tribunal with

as

much

gloryas

from

the

field of Leuctra,

"*

Plutarch,

de fui

Laude,

p. 540.

From

406
C
II A

THE
P.

HISTORY the invafion


at

OF

GREECE.

From

of Laconia

to

the

general

XXXI.

engagement
intricacy fequent
events.

fix years Mantinasa, there elapfed and tumultuous

of indecifive war
loft and

battles activity;
and
",

made gained,conquefts and broken

abandoned,

alliances concluded

and accepted, propofed, felt the

treaties of peace violated, by thofe who

unhappy effects of diffenfions which their unwillingto terminate. rancorous animofitywas of this period; In examining the hiftory we maywhich the fame confufion in the relation, perceive appears at firft fightto have been in the events
themfelves.
them into

Jt is
the

however, to reduce neceffary, In form of a regular narrative.

of men, bodies numerous important concerns, be however they may act without effect,cannot without defign tives, : their mofuppofe to act entirely as unfteadyand capricious they often are,

form

the invifible chain which


to

it is the
to

buiinefs of
-,

the hiftorian is otherwife


he
or

and inveftigate that the impoffible

follow

fmce

it

tranfactions which

fhould afford either real inftruction, defcribes,


any fational entertainment. Early in the enfuingfpring,the with the few allies who

The
tw'cen

ance allibe-

nians, Lacedemoto

ftilladhered

their
order

Athens
and

caufe, difpatched an
to

the with ftrengthen republic. In the conference held for that purand tended. either very were poie, it appearedthat the Spartans Olymp. affected by the repent obligations conferred on deeply fiii. 4. c. 368. them, or that they very earneftly defired the continuance of fimilar favours. They acknowledged that the experience, the bravery, the naval victories and
con-

ta Spar-

firmed that
ex-

embaffy to Athens, in bands of amity and union

i.

fortune

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
to

407 the fove- CHAP.


XXXI

fortune of Athens, ittftly entitled her


of reignty the Grecian had
.

feas

and been

when

this

'

con-

cefiion, which
fuch
or

hitherto
not

withheld
more

with

difdain,could

the fatisfy members

patriotic,

rather the lefs generous,


to

of the arTem-

bly, they condefcended


flillmore their

acknowgrant another ledgment inconfiftent with the prideof

that in fuch military hereditary pretenfions; undertaken forces as were expeditions by the joint of both republics, fhould be equal the command and alternate
j

fo that

an

army

of Lacedaemonians
would be
manded com-

(a thing hitherto

unexampled)

during half the campaign by Athenian whofe eloquence Patrocles the Phliafian, generals. and addrefs had been diftinguilhed in the former lefs active in the prefent; not was negociation, were chiefly by his intervention,matters finally intimate kind alliance of the moft an adjufted ; concluded between the two was republics ; and, by the Sparthe afliftance of. the generous Phliafian, tans without obtained this importantadvantage, the difgrace ineffectual overtures, die of many or which mortification of long fupplicatory fpeeches, **. the moft grievous they deemed of all things
The fo Spartan negociations,
were

fortunate

in The Spar-

equallyfuccefsful with Dionyfius and Artaxerxes king of Perfia. tyrant of Sicily, lamented and The former, himfelf a Dorian, naturally the humiliation and diftrefs of a people, who,
Athens,

Ar.

Curing feven
"*

hundred

years,
613"616.
4

had

formed

the

Xenoph.

p.

JD d

principal

4oS
CHAP,
'

THE

HISTORY and

OF

GREECE.
the

ornament principal race;

defence of

Porian
in order
to

and

the

latter

purfued his ordinaryfyftem


petuate per-

of
to

the weaker party, of afiifting politics, and balance the contending powers, the hoftilitiesof Greece.

While thefe

the Lacedaemonians

by gained ftrength

took the their enemies important alliances, Arcadians field. The began the campaign by of Pallene, an Achasan public, reenteringthe territory ftill remained faithful to Sparta. which The

country the city taken of


three

was

burned, wafte, the villages ing confidby ftorm, and the garrifon,
laid hundred
men,

nians, partlyLacedemo-

put

to

the fword.
were

Soon

after this fuccefs,

joinedby the Elians and Arfouthward gives. Epaminondas likewife marched the head of the Thebans, their foot amounting at feven thoufand, and their cavalryto five hun^ to
the Arcadians

dred.

Before he reached had been

the

daemonians Ifthmus, the Lacea

reinforced by

body

of two.

thoufand
with

Sicilian troops, agreeably to

theirtreaty

had taken the Dionyfius ; an4 the Athenians under the command of Chabrias, actually field, the moft refpected, at leaft the mofc popular, or of their generals. It was of the the object naturally to commanders, Spartan and Athenian prevent

junctionof Epaminondas with his fouthern allies. For this purpofe they flrongly guarded, and even fortifiedthe Ifthmus which an expedient had not been put in practice fince the expedition
the
""

of

Xerxes.

The

Thebans,

however,

broke

through, took

Sicyon, and

aflaulted Corinth.
But

THE
CHAP,
XXXI
'

HISTORY and
.

OF

GREECE.

and

numbers

when, together with


.

their Pe-

allies, loponnefian they ferved ftandard, their prowefs had


and admired

under been

the Theban

acknowledged

by

the united
'retreat

The
by Lycome"ks.

and repulie

army. of Epaminondas gave


recent

reiiefancl fplendourto the r


and he

glory of Arcadia,
o /

infpired Lycomedes
communicated eafily
to

with his

an

ambition

which He

countrymen.
moft

told the

them,
moft

the they were not populous,and furely


"

That

ancient,
like war-

the leaft

but that they Peloponnefus ,had hitherto neglected of the advantages to profit which of war they pofiefled.In the memorable twenty-feven years, they had joinedwith the Larity, cedsemonians, whom they had raifed to an autho-

community,

in

of which

the

Arcadians,
intolerable had acted

as

well

as

the reft That

of Greece,

felt the

oppreffion.
with the

of late years

they

Thebans,
attained
a

who, by their
very

affiftance

had chiefly, which fuited

alarming degree of power, exerted or remitted, as cafionally


convenience, without
the intereft of their confederates. be increafed,might
as

they
their
to

oc-

own

fmalleft

regard

the

not

If this power fhould the yoke of Thebes come be-

grievousas
to

that of know

Sparta?
their
own

It

was

time
to

for the Arcadians


difdain

worth;

followingthe ftandard of any foreign Hate ; and not only to vindicate their freedom, but claim their juft to pre-eminence." The affembly applaudedthe manly refolution of Lycomedes ;
as

*$
4t

Xenophon's

exprefiion is lively ;
"

thinkinghim

the only man."

L. vii. p. 618.

THE

HISTORY
to

OF

GREECE.
to

4rt
CHAP.

and, in order

determined render it effectual, fuch


as places they had or

of keep poflerTion
rom

taken
w

,jj

the Lacedasmonians
to

their allies in Elis and

in thefe complete their conquefts of Peloponnefus. and the neighbouring provinces For feveral months they met with little inter- The Sparafter the de- J the Spartans, ruptionin this defign, not to take to oppofe venturing parture of their auxiliaries, of the enfuing the field until the beginning year, fignsOf of troops from when they received a new fupply from qiymp. and and both troops Dionyfius, money Theban The Artaxerxes. arms were emA'.'C! actually 367. and Macedon, as we fhall have ployedin Theffaly

Achaia, and

*6

occafion hereafter fiance

to

to confpired

relate ; fo that every circum* haften the march of Agefilaus


"

and the Lacedaemonians.


to

But

the infirmities incident

which

was

him decline the command, old age made entrufted to his Ion Archidamus his ;

not colleague Agefipolis

poffeffing great
who

abilities-

either for
The

war

or

government.
of Archidamus, feemed
Glorious

rapidfucoefs
to

fortune of Sparta, declining S^he'811 .the prudent choice of the magiftrates juftified and Spartans the hoftile garrifons from Archidapeople. He expelled the inferior cities of Laconia, ftormed Caryas, deftined reftore the
mus*

and From

put the rebellious inhabitants


thence
he

to

the fword.

haftened

to

Arcadia, laid wafte

the fouthern
to

frontier of that

attack

when
4(5

the united
Thefe

and preprovince, pared the populouscityof Parrhafia, of the Arcadians,comftrength

were

not

but fmxo", " Greek mercenaries." Perfians,

Xenoph.

1. vii. p.

619.

manded
4

4i2
c
H

THE
A P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

by Lycomedes, and reinforced by the its relief. Their arrival to Argives, approached
manded made Archidamus the obfcure withdraw
to

the hills that Midea. While

hang over-

of village

he the

encamped there, Ciflidas, who


declared Sicilians, abfence
was

commanded limited

that

the

time

for his

expired,and,
his forces
march
to to

without prepare Laconia. had

anfwer, ordered
and nearer!

waiting an their baggage,


But been the

towards

paflageinto
Meflenians.

that country
In this who

feized
plied ap-

by
The

the
to

Ciflidas difficulty
to

Archidamus,
and The

haftened

his defence.

Arcadians

Argives at
roads which
As

the fame

time decamped.
near

hoftile armies
two

encountered led towards

the

of joining from
Midea

the

Sparta

and the

Eutrefios. enemy

foon

as

mus Archida-

beheld
he when
as

commanded

prepared for an engagement, the Spartansto form, and


addrefled them friends ! if with
we

they were
:
tf

ready to advance,
Fellow-citizens
we

follows

and

are

ftill brave,
;
we

may

look
retrieve

forward
our

fidence con-

may

yet

and affairs,
we ceived re-

deliver down
it from

the
our

to as republic pofterity

anceftors.

Let

us our

ftrive, then,

by

one

effort, to glorious
;

recover

Battle of

the
Un"

Sparwith-

being the ftead of what the Spartansonce the ornament were, of our friends, and defence) our parents, our and our families, country." While he yet fpoke, it thundered the right, on though the day was clear and ferene. The foldiers, roufed by the noife,looked towards the direction
renown

and

let

us

ceafe

hereditary reproach(in-

from

THE

HISTORY it came, and

OF

GREECE.
a

413
c

from
grove

which
at
no

beheld, in

confecrated ftatue of

J*,4P.

great diftance,an
the

altar and

Hercules,
and the

great progenitorof Archidamus


Animated

Spartan kings.
of fuch

by

the wonder-

man.

ful

concurrence

circumftances, auipicious

with an enthufiafm of valour, they were tranfported rufhed againft their opponents, in, .and impetuoufly of victory. The full confidence who enemy, and thought that they had to do with a vanquifhed aftonifhed at their mien and people,were fpiritlefs as they advanced to the attack. The few afpecl: who waited their approach, were totally deftroyed i in the purfuit thoufands perifhed ; it is faid many loft not by ancient hiftorians *7, that the Spartans Archidamus erected a trophy, and difa man. to Sparta. The a meffenger people were patched

afifembled,when

he

communicated

his extraordinary
tears

The intelligence.
of

fhed aged Agefilaus and

joy.

The

Ephori

with the emotions

of their

fympathifed king. The patriotic


from breaft
to

fenators

weaknefs

was

communicated

breaft ;
bers mem-

the amiable

of this

contagionfpread ; the Itemed numerous aflemblydiflblved

in foft-

*'. nefs, and melted in fenfibility

preventedfrom reapingthe full fruits of this victory, by a confiderable reinThe

Spartans were
which

tion of

forcement ceived

the Arcadians

foon afterwards

re-

from

Thebes.

By the affiftance of thefe


and Parrhafians, who, from
Diodor.
"ra

troops, the Menalians


*7 *8

Xenoph.
Xenoph.

1. vii. p. 620.

"

Plat,
xomw

ubi
TI

fupra,
%a^"
"""

ibid.
iN '*

He So

obferves,
are

",-"

common

tears

to

joy

and

furrow,"

their

4,4
C
H A p.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

their fituation
were

on

the fouthern

frontier of Arcadia,

molt
means

expofedto
to execute

found

the incurfions of the enemy, faid to have been a defign

doned by Epaminondas. They abanformerlyfuggefted and defencelefs villages ; twenty flraggling and choofmg an advantageous fituation in the erected a fortrefs there, of their territory, centre which they furrounded with a ftrong wall. The attracted new inhabitants ; the benefit of fecurity the placeacquired extended the magwalls were nificent
-,

the laft city built Megalopolis*9, of the dignity by the Greeks, while theypreferved independentgovernment 3".
name

of

Hevolu-

The

temporary
which

fuccefs of the

under Spartans
to

Ar-

chidamus, ThVffaiy.
of that the

is generally aicribed
was

the valour

commander,

withdrawing from the numerous critical juncture,


was
an

occafioned by principally Peloponnefus, at a very army

of Thebes,

which
to

at

that time

called

northward, in order
part in the

take

important and
and

honourable

affairsof Macedon

Since the atrocious ThelTaly. murder of the heroic Jafon, the latter kingdom had been afflictedby a continued train of crimes and diforders. and refpect towards the Juftgratitude and warlike
mory me-

of their generous
the Theffalians He
was

chief,engaged

to

family.
dore and

perpetuate the honours of his fucceeded by his brothers Polyof whom the
not latter, being

Polyphron;
great
mdttd

*9
3"

"

The

city."
together Paufanias
the
in Boeotic. and

I have

Diodorus,

l.xv. p. 384. but followed

chronology of

the latter.

able

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
a

4?5

able

to

endure

the reftraint of

limited, much
of

lefs CHAP.
VYY!

of his

divided

rule, attained,by the aflaiTination of


fole dominion

!
.

'^

the colleague,

ThefTaly.
the hand his

His

ftern

defpotifm was
3I

abolifhed

by

of

Alexander, who
man

avenged the blood of Polydore,the only meritorious


Alexander

kinf-

action is

of
re-

his life. For

(as his

character

prefentedto us) exceeded the phron, and of all the deteiled


ever

cruelties of

Poly-

tyrants that have

been

condemned
were

to

the

infamy

of

hiftory.
fuch his
a

The

ThefTalians

delivered

from

monfter

by
the

the

domeitic

of confpiracy

wife

of Jafon, and her brothers daughter Tifiphonus,Pithokus, and -Lycophron; who governed with precarious fway, tillthe power and addrefs of Philipdeftroyed and their ufurpation, rendered their diftracted
a

Thebe,

country,

which

feemed

of freedom, incapable

provinceof
were

Macedonia.

Such,
demands

in

few
but
more

words,
the

the

revolutions

of

Theffaly j

with the
A cautious

bloody reign of Alexander nected attention, being conparticular revolutions of Greece. general
receive,with fome always tranfmitted by ancient re'

reader will
accounts

Tyranny
of Alexander.

the diftruft,

publicansof
"f '*

the

lives and. actions

of tyrants 3*.
different authors.

His The

brother,uncle, or father,according to acceptation of


The the word

tyrant in Greek
"

hiftoryis well

known.

Greeks

called r^awtoi,

in acquired fovereignty Corinth, "c. were Sicily,


"

tyrants,"thofe who had ftates formerly republican. Theflaly, governed, not by #"wtf"K" but ivytw,t
whereas

not

by kings, but tyrants ;"


been

Macedonia, which
"

had

never

ruled, -not

was of popular government, fubjeclto any fpecies not by tyrants, but by Tt/g*woi, but jSawtAa?,

The

416
CHAP.
XXXI
._

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
remind
or us

The

popular hiftories of Alexander


fanciful
it cannot of Bufiris defcriptions be doubted
to

of

the -w"'_" Yet

Pygmalion.

that the tyrant of Thef-

his to fubje"s,perfidious to his enemies, a robber by land, allies, implacable

faly was
a

cruel

his

pirateat fea diverfion to bury men


and ikins
to

"

but

that it

was

his ufual in the

alive,to inclofe them


a

of wild

beafts, as
torture

prey

to

ravenous

mutilate and

children in the

dogs, of prefence

their parents 34, can

be reconciled with his fcarcely of for the imaginary fufferings fhedding tears Hecuba and Andromache, during the reprefentation of the Troades
to

35.

It is true,

that he

is faid
to

have

been

afliamed theatre

of this weaknefs, and


with

have
could

left the have

confufion; but what

engaged a monfter, fuch as Alexander drains of the is defcribed,to liften to the pathetic
tender could
? What what pain, or Euripides pleafure, for human blood, receive a tyger, thirfting
an

from fuch
from
his

entertainment

Althoughwe

abftradt

ftory many

Alexander incredible fidtions, the refentment

might
lians.

well deferve His

of the Thefla-

The

injuredfubje"stook arms, and foliof Thebes, whofe juilice cited the protection or embraced ambition readily their caufe. As Epaof ftillcontinued the difpleafure under minondas conducted by affairs his country, the Theban army was
and

Ifmenias.

Their

arrival

ftruck

by Pelopi- terror
das.

into the confcious breaft of the tyrant, who,


3* 14

Thefe

are

the words

of Xenophon,
"

p. 601.

Plut. in

Pelopid.

Id. de Fort. 41exand.

without

4,8
CHAP.
XXXI

THE

HISTORY of Thebes.

OF

GREECE.
Macerous nume-

and don

power
at

Pelopidas entered
;

the head

of his army

reftored

the
;

exiles whom the

Ptoiemy

had
to

banifhed

aflerted

juft rightsof Perdiccas from after receiving noftages


brother and

the 'throne; and,

tions, faccontending whom was Philip, the younger among of Perdiccas, afterwards king of Macedon, the

conqueror

of Greece, returned

towards

Thef-

re-eflablifhed the tranquillity faly, having finally of the neighbouring kingdom 37. In his journey Istreachethrough a country where he had acted the part of a judge and mailer, it f" lately fdzed and imprifon- feemed as if little danger could reafonably be apAlexanprehendcd.Pelopidashad fent before him a con-

fiderable detachment fourney113


through

of his army,

to

conduct

the

towards Thebes. With the hoftages remainder he marched oiymp.' fecurely through the terri-

Macedonian

^"'r-*'
A.
C..

3"7*

/:"

tory of his TheiTalian

when confederates, had


come

he

was

informed
at
ous

that Alexander

to

meet

him

the head

of his mercenaries.
could

circumftance

of credulity

the Theban

fufpiciundeceive the fanguine not chief. He imaginedthat


in order
to

Even

this

the tyrant had taken this meafure

(hew

him

and to juftify himfelf againft fome refped:, recent complaintsof his injured With fubjects. an imprudencewhich all hiftorians agree to condemn and Ifmenias threw them3*,both Pelopidas
'7

Diodor.

!.

xv.

c.

xvii. "
and

Pint, in

Pelopid.
fage Polybius feverely Pelopidas. Polyb. Cafaub.
the

3* Refidcs

Diodorus

Plutarch, the
of

the imprudent arraigns


t.
an

confidence

ii. p.

98. Polybhis
J have

in that

paflagefpeaks of

expeditionas

emb-ifly.

and

the different writers, carefully compared adopfedtheaccountthat feemed raoft probable and confident.

felves

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. in gloried They were inC H

4,9
A p.

felves into the hands

of

who traitor,

laws human and divine. defpifmg ~^it feized by his order, carried to Pheras, ftantly and expofed to the infulting bound, imprifoned,
.

eyes of It

an

invidious multitude.
be

might
have the But
at

expected that
animated

the with

Theban

foldiers Delivered

fhould
rage

been

and indignation of their beloved


too

unexampled

treatment
were

chiefs. with

their numbers

fmall
;

to

tend cona

the Theflalian

mercenaries arrived from

and when

powerfulreinforcement in fatally experienced,


enemy,

Bcebtia, they
with the

the firfcencounters

and the degradaPelopidas, tion of his magnanimous friend. The army was reduced to the utmoft difficulties, encompafTedon and unable to fly. to fight, every fide,unwilling The accufed the inexperience of their troops juilly commanders, paigns remembering their gloriouscamin the Peloponnefus, where theycontended with far more formidable enemies. Epaminondas, who had commanded them
on

the abfence

of

thofe the

memorable The

ferved occafions, actually foldiers with


one

in

ranks.

accord

ialuted him

general. The

foon man fmgular abilities of this extraordinary of affairs; the tyrant was feated dechanged the pofture in his turn, and compelled to retire. Kpato minondas, inftead of pufhing him extremity, which might have turned his defperate furyagainfl hovered the valuable lives of the Theban prifoners, round with a victorious army, oftentatioufly Ikill and conof military the advantages duct difplayed in continual while he kept Alexander i and E e 2 refpect

420
p.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

and fear, yet refpecl:

left him

fufficienttime
This

for

re-

pentance

and

fubmiflion.

judicious planof

attended with fuccefs. The was operations tyrant implored peace ; but he only received a truce of the perfons days, on condition of reftoring thirty of Pelopidas and Ifmenias39.
interview

Thofe

who

an^ orcfrnary
ing
his

mL,,t,

queen

of

omittingto during his imprifonment, with the Thefialian The daughterof the heroic Jafon united queen. fex with the courage of the the beauty of the one beloved other, and was by her hufband with fuch which is always corrupted love as a tyrant can feel, At her earnefl and repeated ties, entreaby fufpicion. Thebe was permitted to fee, and converfe whofe merit and fame with, the Theban general, did not fhe had long admired. But his appearance anfwer her expectation. At beholding his neglected Ihe was feized with an emotion and fqualid figure, of pity,and exclaimed, How much, Pelopidas, do wife and I lament Ton, family." your Thebe ! are be lamented," repliedthe to more Theban hero* who, without being a prifoner^ continue the voluntary(lave of a perfidious and cruel tyrant." The is faid to hav" expreffion funk deep into the heart of the queen, who membered rethe reproach of Pelopidas, when, ten fhe fupported the courage, and years afterwards, urged the hand, of the aflafllnsof Alexander 4".
" " Cf

extraevents hiftory excufe my romantic, would not eafily of Pelopidas, mention the interview

love

to

find

in

I?

Pint, in

Pclopid." Diodorus, ibid.

*"

Xenoph.

p. 601.

But

421

But this moral

narrative, however be
"

ftrongly authen-

CHAP.
XXXI
.

ticated,cannot

fome fioning of Alexander. hiflory

read without occa attentively degreeof fcepticifm concerningthe Had he been the monfter

lv '-,"

which
to

refentment

or

have credulity
entered

taken

pleafure
a
a

who delineate,
an

never

the apartment of
in flept mounted by fierce

his wife without

armed
to

who attendant,

inacceffibletower, lofty

which he
a

ladder, and which


interview between
Nor will it be

was

guarded by
Ihould

it is incredible that he
a

have

dog *', permittedan


the fierce- Anecdote
picksand

fecret and open

enemy.

eafyto

reconcile with

nefs of the Thefialian, another

anecdote,which has

the magnaniprobably been invented to difplay flillmore but which mity of Pelopidas, difplays of Alexander. the patience ftrongly During the confinement

of the former
exceeded

at

Pheras, the latteris


cruelties towards

faid

to

have

his ufual

confoled city. Pelopidas their affliction, and encouragedthem to hope for fent to reproach the abHe even vengeance. of the tyrant, in deflroying furdity dailyfo many he had nothing innocent from whom to fear, men,
'

the inhabitants

of that

while he allowed the

an

enemy

to

who live,
to

would

ploy em-

firft moment enormities. die ?"


was
"

of freedom
And

manifold
firous
"

punifh his is Pelopidasfo deof the ThefTalian.


you

to

the anfwer
"

the prifoner, that Yes," replied


4'

may

the

Cicero

de

Offic. 1. z.

Plot,

related

by Xenophon, is diverted Xenophon feems hardly to believe


VTTO

as Pelopid. But the ftory, offuch and improbable fictions;

in

all that he relates.


a

He

fays,
fen-

heye-rat
tences

TUWI",

"

and

repeats that it was

hearfay,a few

below.

fooner

422
~c

THE
P.
'

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

I^A

fooner

flillmore perifh, having rendered yourfelf obnoxious The refentment 4V to gods and men of Pelopidas, if ever it was exprefied, proved an empty boaft; for immediatelyafter his deliverance, the Theban
army
was,

for very

urgent

reafons,

withdrawn The

from

ThefTaly.
north
recover

in the expedition in fome degree, t^ie Spartans, to deputies"


in

Theban

had

allowed
their inhad

Pcrfia.

flucnce in the fouth of Greece.


:

Archidamus the

Oiymp.
ciii. 2.

obtained
7'

complete victory
moft

over

Arcadians,

'L'3

of the confederates. powerful The crafty43 Antalcidas,with Eu thy a cles4"4, tan Sparof abilities and intrigue, had been fent as ambaflTadors to Perfia, in order to hailen the fupplies of troops, or money, expectedfrom that country. the It
was

bravefl and

time

for Thebes

to

affert her intereftin the

and counteract: the dangerous to Peloponnefus, with Artaxerxes. negociationsof her enemies and illuftrious merit Epaminondas, whofe recent of f iclion, was had filenced the unjuftclamours command and Pelopiconfirmed in his military das, ; whofe unfortunate
own

adventure

in

ThefTaly was
to

aici ibed lefs to his

imprudence than
was

the

chery trea-

to the Eaft, as difpatched beft qualified the perfon conduct to a negociation with the minifters of the great king. He was companied acby the ambafladors of Elis,Argos, and

of Alexander,

Arcadia
; a

thofe

of

Athens

followed the

foon

wards after-

fo that there

for appeared, the Grecian

firfttime,

of congrefs general
4*

to fettle ilates,

Plutarch,

in

Pelopid.

4"

Plutfin Artaxerx.

4+

Xenoph. Hclleu,

THE and

HISTORY
at

OF

GREECE.
court

423
a

adjuft their interefts

the

of

foreignc

p-

XXXI

that a fcene fo new prince. It mightbe expected, fhould have excited the attention and intereiling in of hiftorians ; yet they have left us ignorant what city of his dominions Artaxerxes received the the king treated AnGreeks. At their arrival, kindnefs due to an ancient talcidas with that partial gueftand favourite ; but at their public audience, the fame, and the eloquenceof the appearance, than that of Athens, more Pelopidas, majeftic than that of Sparta more 4S, entitled him nervous which the king, whofe rank to a juft preference, and temper alike difdained reftraint, at no was pains
to

!""
-y-

conceal.

The

Theban

that reprefented,
a

in the battle of Reprefent*


ever

above Platsea, fought that memorable

century ago, and

fince

had his countrymen engagement, adhered to the intereftof Perfia, the at uniformly

narch.

rifk of

hold mod whatever men lofing precious. the dangerous war in which That they were actually engaged, had been occafioned by their and iieady to the meafures of the oppofition open their deftructive invafions of to Spartans, previous Afia. The imperiouspride of Agefilauscould never forgetthe affront offered him at Aulis, when, in imitation of Agamemnon, he intended to

offer facrifice before

his embarkation.

He

had

and without juftice, begun hoftilities


on

carried them had been

without fuccefs.
to

The

fieldof Leuclra

alike fatal
nor

the

would

that

and glory of Sparta ; ftrength ambitious have reafon to republic


45

P!ut. in

Ptlopid.
e

boaft

424
C
H
"trVVT

THE
A

HISTORY
recent

OF

GREECE.

P.
j
_

boaft

of its

fuccefs in Arcadia, if, at that

./v

unfortunate

Behaviour
other

de-

puties.

had not been the Thebans juncture, nourable, by reafons equallyimportantand hoprevented, their Peloponnefian from affifting confederates. Timagoras the Athenian, guided by condehas not ancient46 hiftory motives which fcended to explain, feconded, with vigourand ad-

drefs, the arguments of the illuftrious Theban. of Timagoras, In vain did Leon, the colleague
remonftrate
his perfidy. The other deputies againft confounded were by his impudence; and their aftonifhment before theyhad time to exprefs the king cleared Pelopidas and indignation, to ex4"

The
He

behaviour extraordinary

of

Timagoras
with

deferves

tion. atten-

co-operated
of
a

with

the
war

enemy

of his country,

and

the

ambafiadcr motives his

ftale

at actually

by

his reward, and

departure, gold
abed

guefs his may received from the king of Perfia, tie at and other valuable lilver, prefents, ticularly parto

it.

We

of curious

conflrudlion,with Perfian flaves

make and

it,the Greekb
he Yet
was

being
a

little

acquainted
to

with
afc to

that the

operation;

carried in
man

fedan

to

the fea-fhore
return

king'sexpence.
to appear

this in

had

the

efTiontery

Athens, and

the

public afiembly.
the of practice

He

knew

the force of

eloquence
; he

anil knew

intrigueover
that the had

capriciousminds
bribes receiving

of his countrymen
was

fo ufual, that He

the

Athenians remembered
nine

loft the proper the

fenfe of its bafenefs.

perhaps
inftead of

pleafantpropofal of Epicrates,that
Athenians the

Archons,
Perfia.

the from

fadors, chofen
from wealth

annually who pooreftcitizens, might

fhould

elect nine ambafreturn

rich

Epicrateshad

acquireda

very

undue

proportion of

learn from an as oration of by this infamous means, we Athenians lefs indignant at his guilt, were Lyfias. Yet the than delighted with his humour. fo Timagoras, however, was not fortunate
;
to

he

was

acmfed

by
may

his

death, not, if we truft,and

credit

colleague Leon, and condemned Plutarch,becaufe he had


the nians Athe-

betrayed
were

his

accepted bribes, but becaufe Pelopidas had


at

extremely difplenfed that

effected the

of his commiflion object:

the Pcrfian court.

Plut. in Pelopid.

plain

426
c H A p.

THE

HISTORY the his

OF

GREECE.

with quainted

'_'commended \^-r"
tion of the Grecian

happy fruits of his embafiy,they and dexterity.Without diligence


were

lofmg

day, meffengers
/

difpatched to demand
r

the attendance whofe ftates,

of

from reprefentatives
were

the Grecian

interefts

all alike concerned does


not

in
pear apto

the late

important negociation.It
or

that either Athens

Sparta condefcended
Perfian read

obey
v/as

the

fummons.
numerous.

The The

convention, however,
the treaty,

very

{hewed

the

king's feal, and,


oaths

in the
to

name

of his

the agreement matter, required


the

be ratified with

of formality

occaftons.

declared
fwear
;

employed on fuch ufually almoft unanimoufly The reprefentatives that they had been fent to hear, not to
that before the treaty could its conditions muft be ratified be pre-

and

by general confent,
viouflydifcufied

affemblyof each particular the firm, but independent republic. Such was moderate anfwer of the other deputies but the j farther than his colleagues. Lycomedes went high-fpirited
His who
at

in the

friend and
as

countryman,

Antiochus,
of Arcadia

had the

acted lately Perfian fhewn


court,

the ambaflador returned his


to

contempt

towards
not

difgufted by the country by the great

king,who hefitated In giving an account


thoufand

(thename

Elis to Arcadia. prefer of his embafTy to the Ten beftowed the Arcadians on ufually

fince the tinaea and


many

re-union

of their

tribes in Man-

and

indulged himfeif in contumelious Artaxerxes exprefiions againft his fubjects, which were liftened to by greedily
and envy

he Megalopolis),

the refentment

of his hearers.

"

Neither

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

427

the wealth fo great in

nor

the power

of the

great

king were

H
"

P.

and falfehood as reality flattery repreThe which had fented them. golden"plane-tree, often been fo oflentatioufly defcribed,could fcarce

,--'y

afford fhade
been
an

to

grafhopper. He
obferver
;

himfelf

had
find

attentive
was

yet all he could


and

in Perfia

the idle retinue of vice

luxury,
fervile

bakers, butlers, and


train
;

cooks,

ufelefs and
with the it

but

men

fit to contend

Greeks, he
for pofiible
of An-

neither others

himfelf
to

faw,

nor

thought proud

difcover."

The

difdain
to

tiochus had been


of
not
were

communicated
He

entire

the bread needed and that


not

Lycomedes.
any

declared,that Arcadia
the

alliance with
a

great

king;

fuch
the

matter

in

Thebes agitation, determine

would

be

proper

place to
a

it, fince every

convention held

tendingto

general peace ought ttrbe


had been the

in that country
war.

which

principal

fcene of

difcovered the mingled and by magistrates fymptoms of difappointmenr, grief, indignation, pllyjc;"n and rage. They accufed Lycomedes as a traitor p*r*'cu-

The

Theban

to

Thebe$,

and

an

enemy

to

his country

but

he

their empty clamours, and, without deign-* defpifed and was ing an anfwer, walked from the aflembly, followed by- all the deputiesof Arcadia. Notthis fevere mortification, the Thebans withflanding did not which abandon the ambitious at project they had long aimed. Nothing favourable,they could be expected in the generalconperceived, fo that they allowed the aiiembly grefsof the flates, p

break

up

without

farther infilling

on

their de-

428
CHAP,

THE

HISTORY But
at

OF

GREECE.
a

mands.
renewed

the diftance of
to propofal

fhort time, they

the fame

the feveral republics,

beginningwith Corinth, one of the weakeft,yet moil wealthy,in hopes that whatever oppofition of the king of Perfia, and their own, the overtures and confidence had found in the united flrength few fmgle Hates at of the affembled confederacy, leaft would venture to provoke the indignation of fuch powerfuladverfaries. But in this,too, they The Corinthians declined enwere tering difappointed. into any alliance with the king of Perfia, The and fet his power at defiance. magnanimous example was imitated by their neighbours; the of the Thebans fruitfecretpractices were equally
lefs with their open declarations and demands.

Epaminondas encouragedhis countrymen to acby arms, that pre-eminencewhich theyhad quire, vadMthe" Pciopon- vainly to obtain by negociation.His reexpected increafed by the recent tranfadtions in oiym'p. nown, juftly

S"c3' 66

rendered his ThefTaly, inftruftedwith was again


army, the with

influence

irrefiftible. He
of
a

the command

ful power-

he invaded which, for the third xtime,

dians, Peloponnefus.The Elians and Arcathough hofrile to each other, were alike difThebes but inilead of pofedfor rebellion againft meafure which a marching into their territories, might have engaged them to fettle their private differences, and to unite againftthe common Epaminondas endeavoured to quafh their enemy, difaffecStion by the rapid conqueft of Achaia, gulph, which, ftretching along the Corinthian the northern frontiers of Elis and Arcadia. (lifted
-,

'

From

THE
From the

HISTORY
nature

OF

GREECE. the Achaeans their


town,
c

429

of their government

*L A

?.

than more tranquillity enjoyed ufually not hours. any great They poffeflfed

neighwhofe

"

J1-L"

{j"empd*
Achx."* T

needy
to
arms

and

turbulent

inhabitants, feduced
roufe the whole Towards

by

po-

pular demagogues, could


and ambition. ifthmus

province the

the eaft and the

Sicyonand Phlius had long been regarded as connected unfeparate republics, with the general body of the Achsean of connation. ./Egium enjoyedthe prerogative for the the ufual place of convention itituting
ftates of Achaia
j

of Corinth, the citiesof

but

Dyme,

Tirtaea,and Pellene,
in

yieldedto fcarcely

and populoufnefs with feveral placesof inferior power, and feem, fo many formed and independent feparate note, to have to the fame communities, all alike fubject fyftem of Achaean laws. Immediately equitable invafion the ariftocracy before the Theban had acquiredan undue weight in the constitution of nobles and magifAchaia, fo that the principal fooner informed of the approachof trates were no than they flocked from all quarters, of an enemy, the provinceto meet his Epaminondas, foliciting favour and friendfhip, and littleanxious about the independenceof their country, provided they their perfbnal and primight preferve privileges vate fortunes. The themfelves peopleperceiving betrayedby thofe who ought to have been their abandoned all thoughtsof refiftance. protectors, the fubmiflion of the magifEpaminondas accepted trates, and received pledgesof their engagement,

^Egium

that Achaia

fhould

thenceforth adhere

to

the in-

tereft

430
CHAP,
AXXI.
""

THE

HISTORY and

OF

GREECE.

tereft of Thebes,
,
..

follow the ftandard of that

v-^

RevoiuAchaia.

republic48. which was This conqtieft, effected without ftriki"g a blow, and without producing any internal
revolution
of

."

government,

was

deftructive

and

bloody
reafons
army
to

in

not

confequences. Epaminondas, for returned with his fufficiently explained,


its
;

Thebes

but before he arrived there,various

his conduct had been complaintsagainft in the Theban made affembly. The Arcadians that a people, knew who and Argives complained the inconveniencies recent experience by their own fhould have confirmed that fevere of ariftocracy, in a dependent province. of government form fent The democratic faction in Achaia fecretly enemies emifTaries to fecond the complaint. The of Epaminondas feized the favourable opportunity that illuftrious comand calumniating of accufing multitude were rnander, and the capricious perhis proceedings, and to fend fuaded to condemn commiflioners of the into Achaia, who, with the afilftance v/ell as of
a

as populace,

confiderable

body
a

of mercenaries, diffolved the


or

banifhed ariftocracy, instituted mocratic dehad

put

to

death

the

nobles, and
when and

form of

policy. The

foreign troops
the

returned powerful, with common confent, and, after a bloody and recovered their ancient influence defperate ftruggle, in their refpeclive cities. The leaders of the populace
were

left that country, fcarcely were extremelynumerous

exiles,who

now,

in their turn, put


*"*

to

death

or

ex-

Xenopb,

p. fai.

pelled j

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
and the

re-eftablifhed; was the ariftocracy A P. c H ; pelled *XXXI. to deknowing that it was dangerous magiftrates, of Thebes, craved pend on the unfteadypolitics which was of Sparta, readily granted the protection their gratitude The Achseans by approved them.

ravagingthe northern,

while

the Lacedaemonians
;

infeftedthe fouthern frontier of Arcadia


felt unhappy province of its
and

and that

the inconvenience regretted fituation between two implacable

enemies 49.

though governedby Sicyon,


follow, on

the Achaean

laws,
Enplirnn

example of uiurpsthc did not which had ^entof That unfortunate city, its neighbours. long been the feat of luxuryand the arts, was re- Sicy"ncalamities. ferved for peculiar Euphron, a bold, ciii. 3*3v and ambitious demagogue,having already crafty,
this occafion,the

acquired great
was

credit with

the

Lacedemonians,
confideration fo

defircus

of

obtaining equal
of that
render

among many

the enemies

people,hoping,by
himfelf

foreignconnexions, to

ab-

For folute mafter of his little republic.

this purAr-

reminded the Arcadians and pofehe fecretly that Sicyon, havingthe fame laws and gives,
"

would

embrace naturally

government, the fame alliance

with the
event

cities; neighbouring
to

but the

dangerof
The
men

this

he would undertake

remove,with very (lender


nition admoarrived

afiiftancefrom
was

Argos

and Arcadia."

not
",

loft; a body of armed

at

Euphron afTembled the people; the were changed; new magiftrates government was and Euphron was entrufted with the appointed, of the national force,confiding command chiefly
Sicyon
"

Xenoph.

p.

623.

of

432
CHAP,

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

Having obtained this, he obtained all. By careiTes,bribes,and flattery, the to his party, and became gainedover troops were attached to his perfon. His colleagues in the government removed were by fecret treachery or His private enemies were held the open violence. of the ftate, accufed,condemned, enemies and
banifhed
;

of mercenaries.

and their confiscated eftates augmented

knew no Euphron, whofe rapacity viduals bounds, {paringneither the property of indithe public the confecrated nor nor treafury, gold and filver which adorned the templesof SiThe amafied by fuch impiousmeans lums cyon. his ufurpation. He enabled him to confirm mented augthe number of his mercenary who, guards, the republic, while ufeful were they opprefTed auxiliaries ever Whatto the Argivesand Arcadians. thele nations thought proper to command, the foldiers of Euphron were readyto obey ; and in their fervice, partlyby this alacrity partlyby in Argos and Arcadia, men bribing the principal the crafty to bouring prevent thofe neightyrant expected communities from interfering in the domeftic affairs of Sicyon.
5"

the wealth

of

Such
ation overturn-

was

the
.

venality and
J

corruption of the

attended Greeks, that this deteftable policywas until .^Eneas, w^ the Stymphalian, obfuccefs" ^ae-is
the

Stym-

tained
man,

the

command

of

the

Arcadians.

This

of Sicyon to himfelf of the vicinity availing the place of his birth and refidence, Stymphalus, citizens had formed a connexion with the opprefled Xenoph.
p" 624.

of

434
CHAP,
XXXI.
*
w
1

fenators

were

afTembled

within

the walls of that

edifice 53. The


as

This

tion ac-

murderers
the

were

publicly jof- well


tified.

and the atrocity, feized, as

of their crime, was indignity ftrongly of the archons, to the fenate by one reprefented the death of Euphron, as who probablyregretted the lofs of a wealthyclient. The criminals denied the fact,till one, bolder than the reft, not only the afiafTination as equally avowed but juftined and honourable. And fo lawful, advantageous, in litde horror do men feel at crimes which prevail
age, and with which that the arTaffins were familiar, their
own

their fancies

are

quitted acunanimoufly

The
of

allies

fenate,whofe by the Theban 5*. approved by the aflembly Meanwhile the war languifhedon
and the hoflile confederacies
were on

award

was

both
the

fides,

Sparta
of

afkpermiffion that

pointof

being difiblved. The with equally public difgufted to


re-

Athenians their

and

Arcadians,

negociate
a

peace

with

the who

Thebes.

Olyrap.
ciii. 3.

allies, cluded conreipeclive and mutual defence,by a treaty of peace intervention of Lycomedes the Mantinsean, from Athens by a party (lainin his return was
exiles.
;

of Arcadian
alarm

This

negociation gave
had
;

neral ge-

A. C. 366.

the Arcadians, who


were

entered into
and
at

treaty with Athens,


the united that time fufHcient The

the alliesof Thebes thefe three

of ftrength
to

was republics

fubdue
was

and

enflave

the reft it appeared


to

of Greece.

terror

increafed when had

that the Athenians


evacuate

littleinclination

feveral

in places

the Corinthian
to

territory

which

they

had

undertaken

defend

the againft

Xenopb, 1.vii, p. 630.

Id, ibid. p. 631, " feqq.

Area-

THE

HISTORY and Thebans.

OF

GREECE.

435

Arcadians
the be

By feafonable vigilance to too a defign, Corinthians anticipated unjuft diffem'oled avowed they cautioufly publicly j
thanked gracioufly
an

their fears ; arrived with them him

Chares, who

had

Athenian

fleeton

his

but took fervice,


;

offerpretence of ing admit not to care

within their harbours

and

by

extreme

kindwarm

nefs and

condefcenfion, accompaniedwith

hitherto of gratitude for the protection profeffions afforded them, they got rid of the foreign garrifons, without coming to an open rupture with the Athenians. the narrow But efcapewhich they had made, and the dread of beingexpofed in future them to any fimilar danger,made extremely folicitous to promote a generalpeace on the terms tives Moand the Thebans. propofedby Artaxerxes

of

the

fame
the

kind

influenced

the

cities of

Achaia, and

of little republic the


A

Phlius,which,

with Corinth, were together

faithful
terefts occafioned and meafures

to
a

Sparta.

mained only allies that reof infimilarity

clofe communication all thofe communities

of views
;

among

who

eman confent, to difpatch agreed,by common that fhe would baffyto Sparta,requefting accept the conditions of peace lately offered by Thebes, or

if fhe

cede would into


a

thought it inconfiftent with honour to her juft pretenfions MefTene, that fhe to allow her faithfulbut helplefs allies to enter with the Theban public. refeparate negociation
and reafonablenefs,

The

even

modefty, of this
to

ReafonLl /*

f*

muft requeft

have been

apparent F f 2

the

jee.30 *hisc Spartans,


when
raand-

THE
CHAP,
XXXI.
i__
, '

HISTORY
on

OF

GREECE.

when

they reflected
confidered

the ufeful fervices of the much The

and allies,

how

they had already


Phliafians,in particular,

fuffered in their caufe.

had, during five years, given fuch illuftrious as

proofsof

their unfhaken

adherence

to

Sparta,
enemies,

ftand unrivalled in the

of hiftory the

national honour of

Situated in fidelity. fmce they had continually, and

midft

the battle of Leuctra,

fuffered the invafions and

afiaults of the Thebans,

Arcadians, and

tally towas Argives. Their territory wafted ; their city clofely befieged their than once, furprifed their and taken more citadel, wealth, public and private, exhaufted, and was on they fubfifted precarioufly brought provifions of which theyhad from Corinth, for the payment pledgedtheir beads of burden and inftruments of agriculture.Yet, under the preffureof thefe their multipliedcalamities, they had preserved inviolate; they had difdained to accept fidelity
", ",

the peace which

the Thebans

offered them

on

dition con-

forfaking Sparta; even, at laft, determined with Thebes to they were negociate for neutrality alone ; nor had they humbly fblicited permifnon to embrace this meafure, until Corinth, the onlyfource of their fubfiftence, feemed readyto forfake them ".
of fuch arguments ftrength urged by the of Patrocles the Phliafian, eloquence might have berate tf any thing foftened" flexible could have foftened, the inje"at.fub"
The

of

their

Sparon

The

temper
"

of

the

Spartan fenate,and dif-

Xenoph. 624. " 634.

pofed

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

437
CHAP.
".

the pofedthat affembly to prefer and allies,


on filling
a

intereftof their
to fafety,

their

own

immediate
to

the inaided un-

'__"

claim fruitlefs

Meffene, which,

tain. expectto mainof this extraordinary the pretenfions But in promore lofty, peoplefeem to have become portion them their to to and, inability fupport j that particular on occafion, the proud obftinacy, increafed by an natural to the Spartans,was mated anifpeech of Archidamus, full of the moft confident hopes,and glowing with all the warmth and
never

alone, they could

of his age and character.


He

fpoke

with

contempt
and

the concerning
"

de-

Speech of

fection of

the

confederates,

The

Phliafians, mus.
out with-

the inhabitants of Corinth

Achaia, may,

for peace ; an furprife, exciting exprefs anxiety not fafety, glory,is their aim. But the Spartans

have

character
to

to

which fuflain,

it would

be infamous

exift,but
fweeteners

they muft : a iperate

They expect not barely to relinquifh. to enjoy fame and honour, the true of exiftence ; and, if that be impoflible, is not their fituation deT ! Yet perifh
nation
cannot

be
a

reduced
warlike

to

any

dition cona

in which pf diftrefs,

and genius,

afford relief! not well-regulated government, may ftill and abilities, But in military we are experience unrivalled ; and fuch a fyftemof policy joy, enas we boaft. We beother people can no enjoy,

fides, temperate
of

and

laborious habits, the

tempt con-

are

and wealth, an ardour for martial pleafure Thefe and an ambition of honeft fame. glory, when by the protected powerfulauxiliaries,

F f 3

immortal

438
CH
A

THE
P.

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

immortal
our

gods,whofe of juftconqueft
and

oracles Meflene.

anciently approved Nor, though the


us,

Corinthians

Achseans allies.

forfake
The

fhall

we

be
ever

deftitute of warlike

Athenians,

of Thebes, their mod formidable neighjealous bour, will again take arms in our caufe. Dionyus fms, the tyrant of Sicily, gives hope of farther affiftance ; the king of Egypt, and many princes

of Alia, declared
our naturally

enemies
We

of Artaxerxes,

are

all

friends.

befides,though poflefs,
is moft eminent in

not

the

and perfons
at

the hearts and actual fervice,

affections
Greece.

of whatever leaft,
all the

In

whoever republics,
or our

is diftinhis

guifhed by though he

his fame, his wealth, may


not

virtues,
ftandard,
of

accompany
to
our arms.

wifhes fuccefs fecretly too, that the mob


on

which

we

opinion, that crowd s6 of Peloponnefus, will at at firft too relied, vainly


I
am

length return
none

to

of thofe

duty. They have obtained of the vain profpect advantages,


Inftead of of their

their

which
the

urged them to revolt. independentgovernment


have

acquiring
laws,
been

own

they

fallen a prey

to

lawlefs

or anarchy,

of tyrants. The to the inhuman cruelty fubjected the knew of which they once bloody feditions, nature by report only, they have long experienced ; exiles from particular and there are actually more from all Peloponnefus. than were cities, formerly is happinefs baniihment thofe who, But even to
56 O%xo?.

Ifocrat. in Archid.

He

means

the

Arcadians,Elians,

"c.

alliesof formerly

Sparta,

while

THE

HISTORY
at

OF

GREECE.

439

while
other

they remained
at

home,

butchered

each

CHAP.

the altars

abundance

and who, inftead of that ful peacewhich they enjoyed under the Spartan
-,

government,
Such lands and is the have

of bread. perifhedfor want condition of the Peloponnefians, whofe been laid wafte, their citiesdefolated, thofe laws, under which
men,

that conftitution and lived the

they once
from

of happier!
We

overturned

might fubdue them by force ; but that is not luntarily neceflary ; they will votheir allegiance, and folicit to return our alone capable to alleviate their as protection, and prevent their total ruin. mifery, But had we nothing of this kind to expect, half of Greece not more and were the one difpofed to injure us, than the other to abet their injuftice, harlh indeed refolution to propofe, I have ftillone but becoming thofe fentiments which and fevere, have ever animated the Spartans. Prolperity, that conceals the infamyof cowardice, robs fortitude of alone that can half its glory. It is adverfity difplaythe full luftre of a firm and manly characterthat rather than cede a terI propofe, ritory, therefore, which your anceftors acquired by the blood and labour of twenty victorious campaigns, you fhould remove from Spartayour wives, children,
"

the foundation.

pnd parents, who


in Thofe

will be

received with
many muft

kindnefs

Italy, Sicily, Cyrene, and


who
are

parts of Afia,
alfo leave the

fit to

bear

arms

and carry nothing from thence that may not city, be tranfported. eafily They muft, then, fix on well fortified fome poft by nature, and which art
(

F f 4

"

may

440
CHAP.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

againftevery hoftile aflauk. muft be their cityand country ; c^^^li This, thenceforth, and from this, as a centre, they muft on all fides
may

render

fecure

infeft the enemy,


"." perifh
The

until
or

either the

the

Thebans

mit re-

their arrogance,

laft of the

Spartans

Spar-

The

ipeech of

Archidamus The

the exprefied allies beft


that
were

gedif-

termineto the

nera^ fenfe of his country.


r
.

mifled with permiffion to perfevere


in war.

act

as

iuited their

convenience,
never

but

with
terms

aiiurance

Sparta would
while the
am-

liften to

any

of accommodation With
this anfwer

deprivedof

Mefiene.
to

cities. Soon refpective afterwards they were to Thebes, where, difpatched their demands, they were offered having propofed admiffion into the Theban confederacy.They anfwered, that this was not peace, but onlya change of the war ; and at length,after various propofitions and reafonings, they obtained the much-des8. fired neutrality

bafTadors returned

their

Spartans, thus deferted on every fide, would view's probably have been the victims of their of Epamiif circumilances, unforefeen pride and obftinacy, and the by Archidamus, had not preventedthe Thebans the war with their from carrying and Arcadians on Oiymapns" civ. of glory and ambition ufual animofity. Projects the refentment of Epaminondas. had difarmed active and enterprifmg That leader,who thought that nothingwas done, while any thing was neglected,
Ambii.

The

had

fet himfelf

to

render
*8

Thebes

miftrefs

57

Ifocrat. in Archidam.

Xenoph. ubi fupra.

Of

441
c

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

the perfonal enemy H^A p. trufted to Pelopidas, But the day appointedfor the ander. ,^_ "__'_,

of Alexmarch
was

darkened

He

is (lain

tie of

Cynofcepha-

of the fun, which greatly eclipfe climinifhcd the army, as Pelopidaswas unwilling exact the reluctant fervices of men to diipirited Such by the imaginary terrors of fuperftition. vain omens, defired to follow only as, defpifing conducted into Theftheir beloved general, were and beingjoinedby their alliesin that country faly ; of Pharfalus,they encamped at the town near the foot of the mountains of Cynofcephalas. The tyrant approached with an twenty army them battle. Nor thoufand ftrong, boldly offering decline the engagement, did Pelopidas though

by

an

his foot were,

in number,

inferior to the
and cavalry,

The

action
to

began
the

with

the
;

enemy, vourable fawas

Thebans

but the mercenaries of

Alexander

having gained the advantageof the with vigourthe Theban and Thefprefled ground, In this emergency, rode falianinfantry. Pelopidas troops with his up, and encouragingthe retiring voice and action, that gave them fuch frefh fpirits, doubt their having received a Alexander did not
confiderable reinforcement,
The mercenaries
were

in their turn, and thrown into diforder, preffed Pelopidasdartinghis eye through their broken Alexander in the right ranks, efpied wing rallying and preparing advance with his ufual his men, to At this lightthe Theban was no intrepidity. longermailer of his paflion, Naturallya foe to foe in the tyrant tyrants, he beheld a perfonal Alexander. Accompanied by a few horfemen, he jmpe-

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

443

rufhed forward,calling aloud to his ad- cJJr^p" impetuoufly him and challenging to fmgle combat. t^~- '_f verfary, whom he had the man to Alexander, fearing meet who received, retired behind his guards, firft injured, with a Ihower of javelins, and then with their Ipears, the little band of Pelopidas who, after producing
",

fuch

60

carnage
or

as

Homer

afcribes
to

to

the

rage of

Diomed
his
own

Achilles,fella victim

the blindnefs of his troops

ungovernable fury. Meanwhile,


the relief of their
were

to advancing

the guards general, the

of

the

tyrant

repelled ;
were

Thebans, with

their

allies, proved victorious in every part of the


the enemy in flight, and difperfed
men.

battle;

with purfued But the

the lofs of three thoufand of Pelopidas threw


was
a

the death

gloom

over

Honours.
paid to
Ins memory,

victory. He
Theffalians

lamented immoderate

by

the Thebans

and
of

with

demonftrations

Accompanied by an innumerable his body was carried in crowd of real mourners, in whole The Thebes. to Theffalians, proceffion fervice he had fallen, requeuedthe honour of fupwhich was the expences of his funeral, brated celeplying of lad magnicircumftance with every ficence. The multitude recollected the eclipfe which preceded his departure, and which, as they
announced believed,
60

forrow.

his misfortune

-,

and, in allufion
whom he flew

Diodorus
a

fays, that
traft

the bodies

of

thofe is

covered

long

of ground.

Plutarch
the

The

battles of Homer

rendered

cal. equallyhyperboliin marvellous military


Diodorus, knew
their

too defcription

familiar to the Greek

hiftorians, I mean,
and

Plutarch,

Paufaniasj Thucyduks

Xenophon

duty better.
to

444.
C H XXXI
v

THE
A P. to

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
"

that fatal omen,


was

exclaimed,

that the

fun of

L
v
"

Thebes
The

and her glory departedfor ever." fet,

Thebans

The

ty-

to

the command

"5"defeated,and ped'of
his
con-

wha{; appears while the in Pher^ 6I, and reign


entered into
a

appointedMalcitas and Diogeiton in Theffaly. The tyrant was again of all his conquefts. But flripped he was allowed to live extraordinary,
cities neighbouring
clofe alliance with Thebes.

The

which expeditions foreign moWh*" fcribed,were not the only caufes


The-

The

have

been

de-

that diverted the

Orcho-

attention of the Thebans

from

the affairs of Pelo-

ponnefus. While

Epaminondas was employed and Pelopidas in ThelTajy, the abroad in the fleet, the point of being was on government of Thebes ariftocratical faction. The habitant inoverturned by an in Bceotia, of Orchomenus, the fecond city the rival of Thebes entered into, and anciently ftl, be executed which was this confpiracy, to at the
annual the review of the Orchomenian

troops.

But

plotwas

The

by the who of fome accomplices, cavalryof Orchomenus,


difcovered
were

fears* or became
to

the repentance

informers.
number
cut
to

the

of

three hundred, in the Theban

furroun^ed

and

pieces
geance ven-

market-place. Nor did the enragedmultitude,who fatisfy


to

this

marched took of the

in

body

Orchomenus,
to

befiegedand
the
men

rafed city,

ground, put age to the fword, and dragged 63. children into captivity
61

it

the

full

their wives

ancl

Diodor.
Diodor.

!. xv.

c.

ao.

6l

Paufanias

Bccotic-

6*

l.xv.c.

ao.

While

THE While

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
C
t
"

445

deftructive or fruitlefs, emoperations, of Thebes, her allies in Ardaployed the activity


dia
were

H^A p.
.'_"
y"

occupied with defigns flill more


r D

blame-

fhe^a"
diansleize

able. with
.a

Their

own

and numbers, together ftrength in

confidence

Athens,
the
.

their
to

new

con-

federate,encouraged
. .

Arcadians

give full celebra*e


thegames. oiymp.

icope

to

their ambition,

by

which

they had been

To the way for the totalA! long animated. ("'3 pave 64* in which Conqueftof the Peloponnefus, they had obtained a dangerousafcendant, already theybegan by wreftingfeveral placesfrom the Elians,the leaft warlike, and moft wealthy, of their neighbours.

The with

Elians, worried
craved

in every

encounter

Sparta, which being reinforced by the Achsans (notwithfd recently ftanding the neutrality ftipulated), but unfuccefsful efforts, feveral vigorous, made for the defence of the Elian territory. The Arcadians
in that country, gaining ftill pufhedtheir conquefts after another, and at lengthOlympia ittown one

the enemy,

the afTiftanceof

jewel of the Elians,and precious of the Peloponnefus. the greateft ornament As and by virtue of a of the facred city, pofleffors derived from the inhabitants of pretendedright Pifa, an ancient but decayedplace in the neigh of Olympia, the Arcadians bourhood preparedto and fourth Olympiad, the Celebrate the hundred At the approach of at hand. time of which was the concourfe, as ufual, was this auguft folemnity,
the felf, moft
-

great fiom

every

part of Greece
all

hoftilities were
in
common

fulpendedjand
amufements, and

united parties

common

ceremonies

of

religion.
The

446
CHAP.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

and performed, had begun, when the performers {_^y^j the military games Which alarmed by the fudden clafhing. an(j fpectators were of a real battle* The of armour, and the fight ed by the
The
prayers and facrifices were
are

Elians had theEiiarfs


in
arms,

marched

forth with

their whole

forces,

the Arcadians, who, with two thoufurprifed fand Argives, and a body of Athenian cavalry amounting to four hundred, guarded the facred vigourof groves and templesof Olympia. The thefe their unexpectedaflault fucceffively repelled intruders,who fled in diforder throughthe flreets, and were purfued by the Elians with an infyired Heaven alone valour, "fmce," fays Xenophon, do, in one day, what no other power can accan complifh but in great length of time; make cowards ever, courageous6*."The Arcadians, howfrom their confirmation, began recovering refitted with obto rally. The affailants were but did not retire, tillhaving loftStratolas flinacy ; their commander, with other brave men, treated they rein good order, after giving a confpicuous proofof their courage and intrepidity to thofe who had long defpifed the foftneis of their unwarlike character. The Arcadians renewed the guard with double vigilance that led to ; fortified the avenues the Stadium and Hippodrome ; and havingtaken thefe neceflary a fecond furprife, precautions againft proceeded with the remainingceremonies of the feftival, which, though brouht undifturbed to an and
cc

ToMm"i ypegat,

ympnn

oi"?

e"

cttQ~ cnrc"u"xi* P.

conclu-

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. the records


CHAP.

44.7

conclufion, was
of the Elians 6S.
After

never

acknowledgedin

'--r--lr

TbeArcathe Olympic games, the mixed celebrating concourfe of people returned their refpective to theOlym-

homes,
mailers

and

the

Arcadians

found

themfelves

fole

PIC

trea'

fore.

of the
the

city and

taining temple of Jupiter,con-

collected

treafures of many

centuries,

of vanity and fuperftition. gifts Opportunity, the mother of joinedto want, is naturally The Arcadians, who, to promote their injuflice. ambitious had raifed a body of {landing defigns, laid hold of the facred treatroops called Eparitoi,

the rich

fure, in
without

order

to

pay

thofe mercenaries, whofe

mands de-

they were
great

otherwife

of fatisfying, incapable
The Mantinasans
The Man-

inconvenience.

firft proteiled againflthis unwarrantable

accepting their plunder, they impofed, for


mercenaries,
tranfmitted
a

Inftead

of

rapacity. proportion of the


payment
which of the piety,

the

tax

on

themfelves, of

they

produce to the archons, or maadto appointedby the Ten Thoufand giftrates, of the Arcadian miniiler the general concerns nation. The archons, who had themfelves freely
the
to their conreprefented ftituents the affected delicacy of the Mantinasans as an obftinacy extremelydangerous to the flates of

handled the facred money,

Arcadia, and infmuated


for fome

that

this unfeafonable

gard re-

and pietymoil probably concealed juflice very criminal defign.

6s

Xenoph. 1. vii. p. 638, " feqq. " Diodorus, 1, xv.

c.

ar.

The

448
CHAP.
XXXI
'

tHE
The
_,

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. fhould
.

Ten

Thoufand,

or,
to

as

we

fay,
.

i_

States-General, liftened
and fummoned
to

this infidiousaccufation;
Man-

.-T_

The StatesGeneral Arcadia


approvc

the

of municipal magiftrates and anfvver


;
a

of

tinrea

appear
to

for

their

condu6h

They
*

refufed
fent

obey
J

detachment

of the Epathe Mantiroufed the

therefoiu-

ritoi was
naeans

to

bring them
This

by force ;
firmnefs many
to

Manti-

fhut their gates. of the that

attention

States; and

members that fufpecl:

of
the

weight in
Mantinseans

afiemblybegan

"

fome fecret ground of poflefs them to fet at defiance confidence, that encouraged which bound to an revere. authority they were They reflected firfton the alarming confequences which Arcadia to might be expofedby plundering the fhrines of Jupiter;and then on the injuftice and impietyof the deed itfelf. Thefe fentiments, of the age, fpread enforced by the fuperftition with in the allembly determined forth thencerapidity ; it was muft
to

abftain from

confecrated fund, the violation


prove
on

of which

might
a

dangerous
their the

to

them-

felves,and
to

entail the bad

curfe

and,pofterity;
defertiori
di-

prevent

of confequences pay muft

of the

whofe Eparitoi,

thereby be

minifhed, many
fubfift
on

their

wealthy Arcadians, who privateincomes, enrolled

could them-

felves in their ftead. ?nd Thefe


re-

meafures, though approved by the States y


to

"ave oTvmpia
to

great uneafinef"s
to

the had

archons,

to

the

mer-

the

cenaries,and

all who

fhared the
to account

Olympic
for their
which

left theymight be called fpoil,

and compelled to refund rapacity,

the fums

they

450
c

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
was
mea-

HAP.1

felfmade

free with

the facred treafure,and


to

_w"

therefore eafily .' on prevailed f


fure that

embrace

any

into that enormous might prevent an inquiry crime. Nothing appeared fo proper for
to

purpofeas who deputies,


this

feize and detain the

confifted

of the
This

unfufpecting from leadingmen


fchcme
was no

moft
fooner

cities of Arcadia.

execution. 'than carried into propofed, fecured The a body of gates of Tegea were furrounded the placeof entertainment ; armed men who had prolonged to a late hour the deputies, taken unprepared,and the joysof feftivity, were conducted to various placesof confinement, their number to contain 66. being too great for one prifon
-,

of day, the Mantinasans, being apprifed manding detn*s unexpe"ed event, difpatched mefiengers, aTYiberty fome few of their citizens who happened remain of their at Tegea, after the departure to time acquainting the at the fame companions ; and of that place, the archons, and the magiftrates
ThepriNext

Theban

that general,
a

no

Arcadian open

could

be put

to

death without

They likewife, without lofs of time, difpatched an embafly to the feveral cities of Arcadia, roufingthem to in their own them to arms defence,and exhorting
refcue their
infult When and to avenge the citizens, imprifoned offered to the generalbody of their nation.

fair and

trial.

thofe who

had

committed

the outrage,

and

the Theban efpecially general,were acquainted with the vigourof thefe proceedings, they begaa
*6

Xenoph.

p.

640.
to

THE
to

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
As

451

be

more

alarmed

than

before.

they had

CHAP,

theycould derive little -,-'j whofe of that city, advantage from the hoftages refentment they had moft reafon to fear. They of Arthe indignation cadia fenfible of deferving were voice of Greece mufl and that the general j and violence of their the irregularity condemn Intimidated meafures. the by fuch reflections, fet the prifoners commander Theban at once at next and, appearing day before an aflfembly liberty;
feized but few Mantinasans,
as numerous as

could

be collected in fuch troubleto

fome

times, endeavoured
he had army

excufe

his conduct,

that by faying,

heard

of the march

of the

Lacedaemonian feveral of the

towards

the frontier, and that

whom he had feized, were deputies, preparedto betray Tegea to the public enemy. the dupes of this (hallow The Arcadians were not artifice yet they abflained from punifhing their
-,

own

wrongs,

and

fent ambafladors

to

Thebes,
mitted, com-

who

that had might defcribe the injury and impeach the criminals67.

been

Upon
who
was

hearing the accufation,Epaminondas,Epamithen general of the Boeotians,declared, p"enpda


had done better in
to march feizing,

that his countrymen than


was
i
.

in

the Arcadians, whofe difcharging


peace
r i
"

conduct

peu"Poothe head

highly blameable in making


of

without the ncfus" at


of the

advice

their confederates.
to

/"

:t

Be

allured,"con-

tinued he
will march in

the

ambafladors,

"

that the Thebans

JiS"thS
ffltCS

into Arcadia, and

fupport their friends confedewhich refolution,


ex-

that

province." This

oiymp.
cir.
a.

"7Xcnoph.p.64i. G
g
2

A.C.36j

prefled

452 CHAP,
T_

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

fenfe of the republic, heard the general was prefled and by the Arcadian ftates, --'.,'with great indignation their allies of Elis and Achaia. They obferved,
that have the Thebans could
hot

have

felt,much

lefs

the at exprefied, any difpleafure if they had not deemed Peloponnefus,

of peace it their

intereitto perpetuate the divifions and hoftilitiesof


a

country which

they wiihed
into
a

to

weaken

and

to

fub-

due.

They

entered

ftricter alliance with


a

each other, and

prepared for

vigorousdefence

Athens and Sparta,that to fending ambafladors the former might be ready to thwart the meafures of and rival ftate, and that the neighbouring maintain the independto latter might take arms ence of which the of that portion of Greece, the ftrength and valour of Spartahad long formed
a
.

bulwark.
Hishftex-

During
the

thefe hoftile preparations, Epaminondas


field with and with all
a

peditien took
country.

the

Boeotians, with
of
and

the

Eubceans,

ftrong body

Theflalians,

by 9jymP'partly fupplied
A. C.

363.

raifed by partly had recently delivered the cities which Pelopidas from the yoke of that cruel rival tyrant. Upon his arin the Peloponnefus, he expectedto be joined munities by the Argives, the MeiTenians, and feveral comof Arcadia, particularly the inhabitants of Tegea and thefe hopes, Megalopolis. With he proceededfouthward ancient city to Nemea, an in the Argive territory, diftinguifhed by the games
celebrated in honour

Alexander,

of Hercules.

There

he
to

camped en-

for feveral

days, with

an

intention
route

tercept in-

the Athenians, whofe

neareft

into

Pdo*

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.
CHAP.

453

Peloponnefus lay through the diftrift of Nemea ; convinced that nothingcould more contribute,than
an

advantage over

that

people in

the

of beginning
as

the
to

campaign,

to

animate

the courage,

well

as

increafe the number part of Greece.

of the Theban

in partifans
wa.s

every

But

this fcheme

feated de-

by
inftead of the coaft
to

the

prudence

of the Athenians,

who,

marching throughthe Ifthmus, of Laconia, and proceeded from

failed to
thence

jointheir confederates at Mantinasa. Apprifed of this defign, Epaminondas his camp, moved forward and marched to being Tegea, which and central and enjoying a lofty fortified, ftrongly chofen the place of fituation, as was judicioufly rendezvous for his Peloponnefian confederates. Having continued feveral weeks at Tegea, he was of the neighbouring much that none difappointed
towns

fent

to

offer their

fubmifiion, and
arms.

to

folicit

the time

of protection
gave
was

the Theban
more
a

This wafte of
as

him

the
to

uneafmefs,
fhort
was

his

mand com-

limited
at

term.

of the enemy

Mantinasa

ftrength increafcontinually
daemonians the Lace-

The

ing. Agefilaushad
to

alreadyconducted
frontier of Arcadia.

the

If they

forces would join,the combined of Epaminondas, the to fupefior prove army in number, which amounted to thirtythoufand of which three and the cavalry alone exceeded thoufand. Confideringthefe circumftances, he an which, if fuddenlydetermined on enterprife, render with fuccefs, would die prefent crowned
likewife fliould

hitherto

454CHAP,
XXXI.
"

THE

HISTORY

OF
not

GREECE.

hitherto fruitlefs expedition


former
r

unworthy

of his

fame.

Fails in

tenmt"
furprife

Having decamped with his whole army in the miles, night,he performed a haftymarch of thirty in order to furprife traordinary Sparta j and had not the exfwiftnefs of of Agefilaus
taken the
a

Cretan

deferter

apprifed

danger, that citywould have been fence incapable of deunprepared, and totally
The bulk of the

6S.
had

Lacedaemonian

army

proceededtoo far on the road to Mantinasa, but the the defign of the enemy to anticipate ; aged king, with his fon Archidamus, returned,
with
a

fmall but

valiant

band,

to

the defence

of

which followed, as related Sparta. The engagement traordinary by Xenophon, appears one of the moft exthat hiftoryrecords. Epaminondas had employed every precaution which his peculiar

could fuggeft fagacity ; he

did

not

by thofe
numbers

narrow

roads, where
afford him

approachSparta of a fuperiority
advantage ;
been he

would draw
up

fmall

did

not

his forces in the


town,

plain,in which,
noyed an-

while

the entering with

they might have


nor

miflile weapons ; of furprifing him opportunity

did

he

allow
am-

an

or by ftratagem

bufcade^in the management


were

of which

the

tans Sparmined deter-

at

all times

fo dexterous.
the town, every

an Seizing

eminence
to

which

commanded into it with

he

defcend

on advantage

Xenophon fays, utrirtf tfefka Tiy.Yra.-n as vi eprftov run Xenophon, p. 644. *' As a neft. quite deftitute pivut,.
defenders,"
.
"

68

oc^ws-

of its

his

THE his

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

455

ofCHAp' feeming pofiibility But the iffue ^^-^J being expofedto any inconvenience. of fo well- concerted the hiflorian an enterprife, hefitates whether to refer to a particular providence of the gods, or to afcribe to the invincible courage of men actuated by deipair. Archidamus, with hundred of an oppofed the progrefs fcarcely men,

fide, and

without

the

the enemy,
to

cut

down

the firflranks, and

advanced relate !

aflault the remainder.

Then,

to ftrange

thofe

Thebans, fays Xenophon, who


had

breathed

fire,

conquered,who were far fuperior in number, and who the advantage of pofiefled the ground, fhamefully The Spartans gave way. but were foon repelled purfuedthem with impetuofity, with lofs; for the divinity, whofe affiflance had produced this extraordinary feems alfo victory, the limits beyond which it was to have prefcribed
not to

who

fo often

extend

69.
foiled in
an

Epaminondas,
mifed fuch
under his
a

attempt which
not

pro-

and

in

fair

did of fuccefs, prolpecl: As


at

fink
to

gain^
Mai1t!nxa

difappointment.
from
that

he

had

reafon

believe that the whole


be withdrawn

forces

Mantinsa the

would
of

place to
a

defence

he immediately founded Sparta,


69 Plutarch named tells

retreat, returned

ftoryon

this cccafion, of

young

Spartan
with

Ifadas, who
with
his
a

dripped naked, anointed

himfrlf fword

oil,

Tallied forth and He traced returned

fpear in
was

one

hand,

and

in the other, of the er"emy. fined tor


a

path in blood
his (hield.

through
Plut.

the thickefl

unhurt,

crowned

for his in

valour, hut
To

fighting without

Agefil.

modern
pompons

reader, Xenophon's

account

of the battle will appears

the defcriptionof the effect of panicterror with which of inftead ":"T/I*V a were infpired,by finding, fgrj/o.', of in the men arms. lefs neft," vigorous oppofuion
"

Thebans defence-

to

456

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

to Tegea CJ14rP'

with the utmoft take time

and allowing expedition,

his infantry to w-y..!,.

for reft and refrefhmentj


the

he, with admirable prefenceof mind, ordered


horfe
to

advance

forward

to

Mantinsea
to

(whichwas
their

diftant

only

twelve

miles),and

maintain

ground until his He expectedto

arrival with find the


a

the reft of the army.


prepared untotally was

Mantinseans
as

for fuch
he doubted would be

vifit;and

it

then

tumn, au-

not

that moft

of the townfmen in

employed
corn.

in the country, His

reapingand
Mantinasans
as

in the bringing

planwas
of But the

wife, and well


it feemed

executed.

The

fituation

to correfponded which
f 4 K

his
^^

hopes.
at

if

is

fortune had
Theban and

delighted to baffle his fagacity. Before


forces arrived

^ thcVtbcca-

Mantinasa, a

nume-

powerful fquadronof Athenian cavalry entered that place,commanded by Hegelochus, of the allies to who then iirftlearned the departure
rOus

the Lacedaemonian He had fcarceprotect capital. when the, Thebans. ly received this intelligence, with great rapidity, appeared,and, advancing pared pre.effect the purpofe of their expedition, to The

Athenians
eat

had

not

time

to

refrelh themfelves

they had

nothingthat day ; they were inferior in number ; they knew the braveryof the Theban and TherTalian cavalry, with whom tend they muft conof every confideration but ; yet, regardlefs the fafety of their allies, they rufhed into the field,, of the afliiilants, (boppedthe progrefs and, after a fierce and which bloody engagement, dilplaycd
great courage
ori both

fides,obtained enemy

an

ledged acknow-

victorv.

The

craved the bodies of

their

458
CHAP.
XXXI

THE

HISTORY in the main

OF

GREECE. and Elians

Athenians

left, the Achsans

formingthe
das
as

marched

Epaminonbody. Meanwhile his circuit, (lowlyalong,extending


to

if he wifhed

decline the engagement.

ing Haywhich
to

approachedthat part
faced the hoflile army, and
to

of the mountain
his
men

he ordered
arms.

halt,

lay down
had it feemed

their

His

former
and

ments move-

occafioned

great doubt

perplexity;
laid afide all

but

now

evident

that he had

that day, and was preparing thoughtsof righting This opinion, conceived, to encamp. too lightly They abandoned their proved fatal to the enemy.
arms

and
not

their

in their ranks, dilperfed external

tents,

and

loft

only that

arrangement,

but that

inward which of
an

cifive

73, that martial ardour of mind, preparation ought to animate foldiers at the near profpect Epaminondas feized the deengagement. of attack. moment Facing to the right,
the column His of march
thus into
an

he converted of battle.

order

troops

were

inftantdifpofed
he
meant
con-

aneouflyin

the fame the head flower

order

in which

to

fight. At
as

of his left wing, which


of the

fifted of the
at

Boeotians,and
into

which,
a

the battle of
a

Leuclra, he formed

firm

fharp point, and with fpreading and Manthe Spartans flanks, he advanced againfl the event of the battle to tinaeans; and trufting the rapid impulfe of this unexpected onfet, he the centre commanded and right wing, in which
(/.a
t\VffS
ruv riftv irofa'puv tn

wedge, with

T"I?

\/y^atr

TTJO?

tr,v

Si

TW

IV

T""J

ffWalsT-tf. XCHOph.

p.

645.

he

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

459
a

he placed lefs confidence, to


pace, that the

proceed with
up and

flow

CHAP.
XXXI

they might

"

not

come

grapple
,

it

with the

oppofmg victoryof his

divifions of the enemy, until left wing had taught them to

conquer. crowned with was judicious defign The fuccefs. the perceiving enemy, Ihock to which expofed,flew they were This
arms,

merited dreadful
to

Battje Manti-

Of

their oiymp.

put

on

their bucklers

and

helmets, bridled

^v'ca" $"

their

refumed their ranks j fuddenly but thefe different operations with were performed the trepidation of furprife and hafte, rather than of hope and with the ardour courage; and the whole had the appearance of men prepared army rather to fuffer, than to inflict, any thing cruel or terrible74. The Spartansand Mantinaeans, drawn waited the firftbrunt of up in firm order, flernly battle was fierce,and bloody, the aflailants. The and after their fpearswere broken, both parties had recourfe to their fwords. The wedge of Epaminondas the Spartan line, at lengthpenetrated and this advantage and right his centre encouraged divifions the correfponding wing to attack and repel

horfes, and

of the

enemy.

The

Theban

and

Theflfalian

valry ca-

fuccefsful. In the intervals of equally their ranks Epaminondas had placed a body of whofe miflile weapons noyed angreatly lightinfantry, the enemy's horfe,who were drawn up too to deep. He had likewife taken the precaution
were
7*

Flam?

Si Tiirc/XEroi;T" jita^ot "

wowag-it

cuma-xvt

Xenoph*

p.

646.

occupy

460
CHAP,
XL

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE.

occupy

with a conright nians detachment, which mighttake the Athefiderable in flank and rear, fhould theyadvance from a their poft. Thefe prudent difpofitions produced did riot live to comwhich Epaminondas plete victory, or improve. In the heat of the battle he
a

rifmggroundon

his

received a. mortal wound",

and

was

carried to

an

eminence, which
tower

was

afterwardscalled the Watch-

that he might the better obferve 76,probably

the

of the field. But with the fubfequent operations withdrawn the fpirit of their leader was departure which animated the Theban Having imarmy. the hoftile ranks, they broke through petuoufly of this advantage. The knew not how to profit
enemy ralliedin different parts of the in feveral partial encounters. prevailed
terror.

and field, All


was

confufion and
75

The

which infantry, light

in Arcad. fays, killed by that Epaminondas was Paufanias, of the fon the Athenian Gryllus, Xenophon ; and, as a proof of this aflertion, mentions a beautiful piftureof the battle of

Mantinaea, in the Ceramicus


of creeled by Gryllus, in the both fubfifting battle;

of Athens,
the time of of

as

well
on

as

the the

ment monu-

Mantinasans

field of

and both afcribPaufanias, killing Epaminondas. Plu~ a tarch, in Agefilao, fays,that Anticrates, Spartan, killed with fword that his a thence were Epaminondas ; pofterity called Machairionides ; and that,as late as the days of Plutarch, certain immunities and honours as a recompence they enjoyed

ing to this Athenian

the

honour

for the merit of their anceftor of

Anticrates

in

the deftroying

worft

Sparta. Xenophon enemy of Mantinaea ; and the words, or rather the filence of his father, is very remarkable concerning the death of Epaminondas :
'

the fon of Gryllus

fellin the battle

The

Theban

column

broke
not

the how

Spartans,hit iuhen Epaminondas


to

the reft knew fell,


in iublimity

ufe the

victory."What

this

if Gryllusreally flew Epaminondas! paflTage,

/6 Paufan. ubi

fupra.

had

'.

THE

HISTORY

OF

GREECE. and

461
Theflalian
CHAP.
XXXI

had been

pofted amidft the Theban


in the

horfe, being left behind


ceived and
cut to

commanded

piecesby the by Hegelochus. Elated


turned

rewere purfuit, v Athenian cavalry,

.-T-

'_f

with this fuc-

ce(s, the Athenians

the againft the heights, detachment placed on chiefly confuting of Euboeans, whom they routed and put to flight, fuch alternations after a terrible (laughter.With
arms

their

of victory and

defeat ended

this memorable conquerors,


as

gagement. en-

Both

armies,

as

erected

atrophy;
and
was

this

conquered77; the greateft, battle, which beingcertainly

both

craved

their dead,

to have proved the moft dec