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Introduction to Infrared Thermography

OBJECTIVES:
To know the basics and fundamentals of Infrared Thermography. To know the techniques and considerations on Infrared Thermography. To know the basic operations of the Flir thermal camera including the software manipulation.

To know the preparation of Infrared Thermography report making analysis.

Fundamentals of Infrared Thermography

INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY
INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY is the science of acquisition and analysis of thermal information from non contact thermal imaging devices.

Disciplines that connotes Thermography

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Radiation science Thermal science Analysis techniques Camera handling Inspection routines and reporting Applications

INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY
SPAN and LEVEL

SPAN is the range of the temperature. Thermal contrast

LEVEL is the middle part of the span. Thermal brightness

INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY
Three (3) important aspects that can never be change after storing an image: 1. Temperature range The appropriate temperature range (-20 to 120, 0 to 350) that is set on the infrared camera. 2. Optical focus Proper focus on an image gives a quality result and accurate data gathering for better analysis of a thermal image. 3. Image composition The distance of the target object gives an overall contribution in analysing an image.

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Temperature range

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Optical focus

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Image composition

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Types of heat transfer modes 1. Conduction The direct transfer of thermal energy from molecule to molecule that is caused by collisions between the molecules. 2. Convection This is a heat transfer mode where a fluid is brought into motion, either by gravity or another force, thereby transferring heat from one place to another. 3. Evaporation/condensation 4. Radiation The transfer of heat by means of emission and absorption of thermal radiation. Emission Absorption Reflection Transmission

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Conduction and radiation

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Conduction and radiation

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Convection

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Factors that effect emissivity 1. Material 2. Surface structure 3. Geometry 4. Angle 5. Wavelength 6. Temperature

Getting to know the Flir T250 device

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Visual/IR/fusion image toggle Electronic zoom Auto/Manual toggle Navigator mini joy stick Display screen (touch screen)

Tools setting button


Info button Global set up button Recall button Power button

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Screen stylus Laser button LED lamp Save button Auto/manual focus toggle SD card slot Lens cover

Laser diode
Germanium lens

Camera strap

USB connector slot

Infrared Thermography report format

Date: March 24, 2012 Location: Perimeter area Equipment: MERALCO post cut out fuse Hot spot component: None Probable root cause: N/A Recommendation: N/A

Hot spot temp: deg. Celsius Reference temp: 38 deg Celsius Temp diff.: deg. Celsius L1= L2= L3=

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Example of Flir Quick report software

Tips during IR thermal scanning

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Tips during IR thermal scanning: 1. Always check the settings of the device before conducting an inspection.

2. Bring the necessary tools upon inspection (clamp meter, clip board, pencil, leather gloves).
3. Protect and avoid cleaning the lens to prevent scratch on the surface of the lens (scratch lens will give inaccurate reading). 4. Must able to distinguish a hot spot vs. a heat reflection from a source. 5. Must able to have the proper viewing angle on the target object. 6. Keep a safe distance to avoid any electrical accidents (approx. 1 meter as much as possible). 7. Do not conduct scanning during heavy winds or in rainy conditions. 8. Develop a quality and quantitative analysis approach.

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Reflection or Hot spot? Answer: Reflection

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Whats your analysis? The generator is running for 2 hours and the area outside the office is warm. Will the camera see the radiation emitting from the genset?

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Reference: Cronholm, Mikael (2001). Infrared Thermography Level 1 Course Manual. Infrared Training Center, Sweden.

Thank You!