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Ingles EGA

The Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) is an IBM PC computer display standardspecification which is between CGA and VGA in terms of color and space resolution. Introduced in [1][2] September 1984 by IBM shortly after (but not exclusively for) its newPC/AT, EGA produces a display of 16 simultaneous colors from a palette of 64 at a resolution of up to 640350 pixels. The EGA card includes a 16 kB ROM to extend the system BIOS for additional graphics functions, and includes the Motorola MC6845 video address generator as used in the CGA. Each of the 16 colors can be assigned a unique RGB color code via a palette mechanism in the 640350 high-resolution mode; the 64 palette colors are a balanced RGB color set comprising all possible combinations of two bits per pixel for red, green and blue. EGA also includes full 16color versions of the CGA 640200 and 320200 graphics modes; only the 16 CGA/RGBI [citation needed] colors are available in these modes . EGA 4-bit (16 colors)graphic modes are also [3] notable for a sophisticated use of bit planes and mask registers together with CPU bitwise [4] operations, which constitutes an early graphics acceleratorinherited by VGA and numerous compatible hardware. The original CGA modes are also present, though EGA is not 100% hardware compatible with CGA. EGA can drive an MDA monitor by a special setting of switches on the board; only 640350 high-resolution monochrome graphics and the standard MDA text mode are available in this mode. EGA cards use the PC ISA bus and were available starting in 8-bit versions. The base IBM EGA card came with 64 kB of video memoryinstalled, only enough for 4 colors in high-resolution graphics. Expansion to 256 kB required a daughterboard. Eventually, most EGA cards and clones would come with 256 kB of memory. A few third-party EGA clones (notably the ATI Technologies and Paradise boards) feature a range of extended graphics modes (e.g., 640400, 640480 and 720540), as well as automatic monitor type detection, and sometimes also a special 400-lineinterlace mode for use on CGA monitors. The EGA standard was made obsolete by the introduction of VGA by IBM in April 1987 with [5] the PS/2 computer line. Shortly before the introduction of VGA, Genoa Systems introduced a half-size graphics card built around a proprietary chip set, which they called Super EGA (later cards supporting an extended version of the VGA were similarly named Super VGA).

Espaol EGA
EGA es el acrnimo ingls de Enhanced Graphics Adapter, la especificacin estndar de IBM PC para visualizacin de grficos, situada entre CGA y VGA en trminos de rendimiento grfico (es decir, amplitud de colores y resolucin). Introducida en 1984 por IBM para sus nuevos IBM Personal Computer/AT, EGA tena una profundidad de color de 16 colores y una resolucin de hasta 640350 pxels. La tarjeta EGA tena 16 kilobytes de ROM para ampliar la de la BIOS con funciones adicionales e inclua el generador de direcciones de vdeo Motorola 6845. A cada uno de los 16 colores se les poda asignar un color RGB de una paleta en el modo de alta resolucin 640350; EGA permita escoger los colores de una paleta de 64 diferentes (dos bits por pxel para rojo, verde y azul). EGA tambin inclua la funcin completa de 16 colores de CGA en los modos grficos de 640200 y 320200; slo los colores 16 CGA/RGBI estaban disponibles en este modo. Los modos CGA originales estaban presentes, pero EGA no era 100% compatible con CGA. EGA tambin poda controlar un monitor MDA ajustando los jumpers de la placa; slo a 640350. La tarjeta IBM EGA bsica inclua 64 KiB de memoria de vdeo, suficiente para controlar un monitor monocromo de alta resolucin (y permitiendo todos los colores a 640200 y 320200), si bien la mayora de las tarjetas EGA y sus clones incluan 256 KiB de memoria. Algunos clones de EGA de terceros fabricantes (principalmente las tarjetas de ATI Technologies yParadise) incluan un rango de grficos ampliado (por ejemplo, 640400, 640480 y 720540), as como deteccin automtica del monitor, y algunas un modo especial de 400 lneas para usar con monitores CGA.

El estndar EGA qued obsoleto con la introduccin del VGA por IBM en abril de 1987 con los IBM Personal System/2.

Ingles VGA
Video Graphics Array (VGA) refers specifically to the display hardware first introduced with [1] the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, but through its widespread adoption has also come to mean either an analog computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiatureVGA connector or the 640x480 resolution itself. While this resolution was superseded in the personal computer market in the 1990s, mobile devices have only caught up in the last few years. VGA was the last graphical standard introduced by IBM that the majority of PC clone manufacturers conformed to, making it today (2013) the lowest common denominator that almost all post-1990 PC graphics hardware can be expected to implement. For example, the Microsoft Windows splash screen, in versions prior to Windows Vista, appears while the machine is still operating in VGA mode, which is the reason that this screen always appears in reduced resolution and color depth. Windows Vista and newer versions can make use of the VESA BIOS Extension support of newer graphics hardware to show their splash screens in a higher resolution than VGA allows. VGA was officially followed by IBM's Extended Graphics Array (XGA) standard, but it was effectively superseded by numerous slightly different extensions to VGA made by clone manufacturers that came to be known collectively as Super VGA. Today, the VGA analog interface is used for high definition video including 1080p and higher. While the VGA transmission bandwidth is high enough to support even higher resolution playback, there can be picture quality degradation depending on cable quality and length. How discernible this quality difference is depends on the individual's eyesight and the display; when using a DVI or HDMI connection, especially on larger sized LCD/LED monitors or TVs, quality degradation, if present, is prominently visible. Blu-ray playback at 1080p is possible via the VGA analog interface, if Image Constraint Token (ICT) is not enabled on the Blu-ray disc.

Espaol VGA
El trmino Video Graphics Array (VGA) (Adaptador Grfico de Video) se utiliza tanto para denominar a una pantalla de computadora analgica estndar, al conector VGA de 15 contactos D subminiatura, a la tarjeta grfica que comercializ IBM por primera vez en 1988 o con la resolucin 640 480. VGA fue el ltimo estndar de grficos introducido por IBM al que se atuvieron la mayora de los fabricantes de computadoras compatibles IBM, convirtindolo en el mnimo que todo el hardware grfico soporta antes de cargar un dispositivo especfico. Por ejemplo, la pantalla de Microsoft Windowsaparece mientras la mquina sigue funcionando en modo VGA, razn por la que esta pantalla aparecer siempre con reduccin de la resolucin y profundidad de color. Ingles Super VGA Super Video Graphics Array or Ultra Video Graphics Array, almost always abbreviated to Super VGA, Ultra VGA or just SVGAor UVGA is a broad term that covers a wide range of computer display standards Originally, it was an extension to the VGA standard first released byIBM in 1987. Unlike VGA a purely IBM-defined standardSuper VGA was never formally defined. The closest to an "official" definition was in the VBE extensions defined by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA), an open consortium set up to promote interoperability and define standards. In this document, there was simply a footnote stating that "The term 'Super VGA' is used in this document for a graphics display controller implementing any superset of the

standard IBM VGA display adapter." When used as a resolution specification, in contrast to VGA or XGA for example, the term SVGA normally refers to a resolution of 800x600 pixels. Though Super VGA cards appeared in the same year as VGA (1987), it wasn't until 1989 that a standard for programming Super VGA modes was defined by VESA. In that first version, it defined support for (but did not require) a maximum resolution of 800x600 4-bit pixels. Each pixel could therefore be any of 16 different colours. It was quickly extended to 1024x768 8-bit pixels, and well beyond that in the following years. Although the number of colours is defined in the VBE specification, this is irrelevant when referring to Super VGA monitors as (in contrast to the old CGA and EGAstandards) the interface between the video card and the VGA or Super VGA monitor uses simple analog voltages to indicate the desired colour. In consequence, so far as the monitor is concerned, there is no theoretical limit to the number of different colours that can be displayed. Note that this applies to any VGA or Super VGA monitor. While the output of a VGA or Super VGA video card is analog, the internal calculations the card performs in order to arrive at these output voltages are entirely digital. To increase the number of colours a Super VGA display system can reproduce, no change at all is needed for the monitor, but the video card needs to handle much larger numbers and may well need to be redesigned from scratch. Even so, the leading graphics chip vendors were producing parts for high-colour video cards within just a few months of Super VGA's introduction. On paper, the original Super VGA was to be succeeded by Super XGA , but in practice the industry soon abandoned the attempt to provide a unique name for each higher display standard, and almost all display systems made between the late 1990s and the early 2000s are classed as Super VGA. Monitor manufacturers sometimes advertise their products as XGA or Super XGA. In practice this means little, since all Super VGA monitors manufactured since the later 1990s have been capable of at least XGA and usually considerably higher performance. SVGA uses a VGA connector, the same DE-15 (a.k.a. HD-15) as the original standard. See also Digital Visual Interface which is a common non-analog cable for SVGA and other resolutions.
[citation needed]


Ingles LCD
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly. LCDs are available to display arbitrary images (as in a general-purpose computer display) or fixed images which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words, digits, and 7segment displays as in a digital clock. They use the same basic technology, except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of small pixels, while other displays have larger elements. LCDs are used in a wide range of applications including computer monitors, televisions,instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, and signage. They are common in consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches,calculators, and telephones, and have replaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications. They are available in a wider range of screen sizes

than CRT andplasma displays, and since they do not use phosphors, they do not suffer image [1] burn-in. LCDs are, however, susceptible to image persistence. The LCD screen is more energy efficient and can be disposed of more safely than a CRT. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-poweredelectronic equipment. It is an electronically modulated optical device made up of any number of segments filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source(backlight) or reflector to produce [2] images in color or monochrome. Liquid crystals were first discovered in 1888. By 2008, annual sales of televisions with LCD screens exceeded sales of CRT units worldwide, and the CRT became obsolescent for most purposes. Espaol LCD Una pantalla de cristal lquido (LCD ) es una pantalla de panel plana , representacin visual electrnica, o pantalla de vdeo que utiliza las propiedades de modulacin de luz de los cristales lquidos . Los cristales lquidos no emiten luz directamente . LCDs estn disponibles para mostrar imgenes arbitrarias ( como en una pantalla de ordenador de propsito general) o imgenes fijas que se pueden mostrar u ocultar , como palabras predefinidas , dgitos y 7 segmentos , como en un reloj digital. Ellos usan la misma tecnologa bsica , excepto que las imgenes arbitrarias se componen de un gran nmero de pequeos pxeles , mientras que otras pantallas tienen elementos ms grandes . Pantallas LCD se utilizan en una amplia gama de aplicaciones, incluyendo monitores de ordenador , televisores, paneles de instrumentos , pantallas de cabina de avin , y sealizacin . Son comunes en los dispositivos de consumo tales como reproductores de video , dispositivos de juegos , relojes, relojes , calculadoras y telfonos, y han sustituido el tubo de rayos catdicos ( CRT) muestra en la mayora de las aplicaciones. Estn disponibles en una amplia gama de tamaos de pantalla de la CRT y pantallas de plasma , y ya que no utilizan fsforos , que no sufran imagen burn-in. LCD son , sin embargo , susceptibles a la persistencia de la imagen . [ 1 ] La pantalla LCD es ms eficiente y puede ser eliminado de forma ms segura que un CRT . Su bajo consumo de energa elctrica permite que sea utilizado en equipos electrnicos a pilas. Es un dispositivo ptico modulado electrnicamente compuesto de cualquier nmero de segmentos llenos de cristales lquidos y dispuestos en frente de una fuente de luz ( luz de fondo ) o reflector para producir imgenes en color o monocromo . Los cristales lquidos fueron descubiertos por primera vez en 1888. [ 2 ] En 2008 , las ventas anuales de televisores con pantallas LCD superaron las ventas de unidades de CRT en todo el mundo , y el CRT se convirtieron en obsoletas para la mayora de los propsitos .

Ingles Touchscreen
A touchscreen is an electronic visual display that the user can control through simple ormultitouch gestures by touching the screen with a special stylus/pen and-or one or more fingers. Some touchscreens use an ordinary or specially coated gloves to work while others use a special stylus/pen only. The user can use the touchscreen to react to what is displayed and to control how it is displayed (for example by zooming the text size). The touchscreen enables the user to interact directly with what is displayed, rather than using a mouse, touchpad, or any other intermediate device (other than a stylus, which is optional for most modern touchscreens).

Touchscreens are common in devices such as game consoles, all-in-one computers, tablet computers, and smartphones. They can also be attached to computers or, as terminals, to networks. They also play a prominent role in the design of digital appliances such aspersonal digital assistants (PDAs), satellite navigation devices, mobile phones, and video games and some books (Electronic books). The popularity of smartphones, tablets, and many types of information appliances is driving the demand and acceptance of common touchscreens for portable and functional electronics. Touchscreens are found in the medical field and in heavy industry, as well as forautomated teller machines (ATMs), and kiosks such as museum displays or room automation, where keyboard and mouse systems do not allow a suitably intuitive, rapid, or accurate interaction by the user with the display's content. Historically, the touchscreen sensor and its accompanying controller-based firmware have been made available by a wide array of after-market system integrators, and not by display, chip, or motherboard manufacturers. Display manufacturers and chip manufacturers worldwide have acknowledged the trend toward acceptance of touchscreens as a highly desirable user interface component and have begun to integrate touchscreens into the fundamental design of their products.

Espaol Touchscreen
Una pantalla tctil es una pantalla de visualizacin electrnica que el usuario puede controlar a travs de gestos simples o multi-touch al tocar la pantalla con un lpiz / bolgrafo especial y - o uno o ms dedos . Algunas pantallas tctiles usan un guantes ordinarias o con un recubrimiento especial para trabajar , mientras que otros utilizan un lpiz / bolgrafo especial solamente. El usuario puede utilizar la pantalla tctil para reaccionar a lo que se muestra y para controlar la forma en que se muestra ( por ejemplo, mediante el zoom el tamao del texto ) . La pantalla tctil permite al usuario interactuar directamente con lo que se muestra , en lugar de utilizar un ratn , pantalla tctil , o cualquier otro dispositivo intermedio (distinto de un lpiz , que es opcional para la mayora de las pantallas tctiles modernas ) . Las pantallas tctiles son comunes en los dispositivos tales como consolas de videojuegos, ordenadores todo-en- uno , computadoras tablet y smartphones . Tambin se puede conectar a ordenadores o , como terminales , a las redes . Tambin juegan un papel destacado en el diseo de aparatos digitales como asistentes personales digitales (PDA), dispositivos de navegacin por satlite, los telfonos mviles y los videojuegos y algunos libros (libros electrnicos ) . La popularidad de los telfonos inteligentes , tabletas, y muchos tipos de dispositivos de informacin est impulsando la demanda y la aceptacin de las pantallas tctiles comunes para los dispositivos electrnicos porttiles y funcionales . Las pantallas tctiles se encuentran en el campo de la medicina y en la industria pesada , as como para los cajeros automticos ( ATMs) y quioscos , tales como exposiciones de los museos o de automatizacin de salas , donde los sistemas de teclado y ratn no permiten una interaccin adecuada intuitiva , rpida , o exacta por parte del usuario con el contenido de la pantalla. Histricamente , el sensor de pantalla tctil y su correspondiente firmware basado en controladores han sido puestos a disposicin de una amplia gama de integradores de sistemas en el mercado secundario , y no por los fabricantes de pantallas , chips, o la placa base. Los fabricantes de la pantalla y los fabricantes de chips en todo el mundo han reconocido la tendencia hacia la aceptacin de las pantallas tctiles como un componente de la interfaz de

usuario altamente deseable y han comenzado a integrar pantallas tctiles en el diseo fundamental de sus productos.