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Identify the problem

Making hypothesis

Planning an experiment

Controlling variables

Collecting data

Analysing and interpreting data

forming a conclusion

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Physical quantity Length Mass Time Temperature Electric current

SI unit and symbol * metre (m) * kilogram (kg) * second (s) * Kelvin (K) * ampere (A)

Prefix Giga Mega Kilo Hecto Deca Deci Centi Milli

symbol G M k h da d c m

value 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1000 100 10 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000 001 0. 000 000 0001 0.000 000 000 001 000 000 000 000 0.000000 000 000001

Micro

u
n p T1 f

Nano Pico Tera Femto

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Mass is a measure of the amount of material in an object Mass does not change with a body's position, movement or alteration of its shape, unless material is added or removed. Kg,g,mg

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Weight is the gravitational force acting on a body mass Newton'

http://www.scribd.com/doc/42026020/SCIENCE

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Parts of the microscope and their functions

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1.Each animals cell is made up of cell protoplasm (cytoplasm and nucleus) and cell membrane. 2. The protoplasm is a semi-solid or jelly-like substance.

3. The nucleus is the oval or round seen in the centre of a cell. 4. Surrounding the nucleus is the cytoplasm. 5. The cytoplasm is thinner and more watery than the nucleus. The cytoplasm is defined as the material between the cell membrane (plasma membrane) and the nucleus envelope.

. Typical plant cells are rectangular in shape.

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2. The plant cell has a rigid cell wall. A cell wall is made up of cellulose which is a form of carbohydrate. 3. There are regions in the plant cell which do nt contain cytoplasm. These are called vacuoles. Vacoules contain cell sap which is a very dilute solution of sugar and salt in water. 4. In very young cells, the vacuoles may not be seen. But as the cell grows older, more and more vacuoles are formed. 5. Chloroplast builds chlorophyll, a green pigment, only found in plant cells.

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1. The function of cell structures are shown in the table and figure below:

Table: Function of cell structures 2. The function of cell structures can be illustrated as shown in figure below:

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An overview of the comparison of animal and plant cells is shown below:

Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms

1. A living thing (plant or animal) is called an organism. 2. A living thing which can only be seen under a microscope is called a microorganism.

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3. Microorganism are found everywhere such as in the air, water, soil, on plants and in our body. 4. Examples of microorganisms are: a) bacteria b) viruses. c) algae d) yeasts e) amoeba

Examples of microorganisms

1. An organism which consists of only one cell is called a unicellular organism. 2. Unicellular organisms are usually found in water (ponds, lakes, rivers and sea) or on moist areas (tree trunks and in the soil). 3. They are usually very active and are always moving about. 4. Each of them can carry out all the life processes that large organisms do such as moving about, feeding and respiring. 5. Some unicellular organisms are animals such as amoeba, paramecium and plamodium. Some are plants such as euglena, chlamydomonas and pleurococcus. 6. Unicellular organisms which are microscopic in size are also called unicellular microorganisms.

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1. Some organisms consist of many cells. They are multicellular organisms. 2. Most organisms are multicellular including large plants and animals. 3. Multicellular organisms which are microscopic in size are referred to as multicellular microorganisms. 4. Most multicellular microorganisms live in water such as spirogyra (plant) and hydra (animal) 5. Multicellular organisms have different types of cell, each type serving a different function.

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1. Unicellular and multicellular organisms carry out all the life processes in order to live, although they may be very small. 2. Unicellular and multicellular organisms: a) move b) need food c) need air d) grow e) reproduce f) give out waste substances g) are sensitive 3. Organisation Of Cells In The Human Body

1. All organisms including human beings are built from basic units called cells. 2. The simplest organism such as an amoeba consists of only one cell, but is able to carry out all the life processes. 3. Cells are microscopic and can only be seen under a microscope. 4. The human body has different types of cell with each type carrying out a different function. 5. Some examples of cells in the human body are shown below:

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6. Some functions carried out by cells are explained in the table below.

Cells and their functions

1. A group of simillar cells performing the same function forms a tissue.

Two types of tissue 2. The human body is built of four main types of tissue.

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1. An organ is made up of a group of different tissues which carry out a specific function. Example: The leg is an organ formed from different types of tissue (see figure) to perform the same main function, that is to move the body from place to place.

2. Figure in the below shows the main organs in the body and their functions.

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1. A system consists of a group of organs working together to carry out the same function. 2. Figure in the below shows the main organs in some of the systems in the human body.

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Some of the system in the human body 3. The main functions of the different systems are given below.

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The main functions of different systems.

1. The different systems form an organism such as a human being. 2. The different systems in the body functiion and co-ordinate their activities so that the body functions as one whole. 3. The human body is organised as shown in the figure below:

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Organisation if the human body Human Are Complex Organisms 1. Human are complex made up thousand of individual systems. Some of the major systems are the blood circulatory system, the skeletal system, the digestive system, the nervous system and the respiratory system. 2. The human body is a complex system of cells most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialised functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve, deriving energy from food, protection againts injury, internal coordination and reproduction. 3. Humans are unique among Earth's life forms as they have language and thought. 4. Humans have a better developed brain than other life forms. Human are able to create and learn from experience that far exceeds any other species. Humans can use this ability to create technologies and literary and artistic works on a vast scale, and to develop a scientific understanding of themselves and the world. 5. Humans are endowed with intelligence which enables them to think rationally and differentiate right from wrong. 6. Humans are also unique in their profound curiosity about themselves.

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MATTER HAS MASS AND OCCUPIES SPACE

1. A book which weighs 1 kg and takes up space on you desk is said to have mass and occupy space. 2. Non-living things such as books, water, soil and air have mass and occupy space. 3. Living things such as plants, animals, and human beings have mass and occupy space.

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4. Therefore, all living and non-living things are matter.

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THREE STATES OF MATTER

1. Matter is mad up small discrete particles. 2. These particles consist of atoms and molecules. 3. Atoms are the smallest particles. All substances are made up of the smallest particles i.e. atoms. 4. Molecules are made up of two or more atoms combined together.

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5. The following activities are carried out to show that matter is made up of small particles.

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1. Matter exists in either a solid, liquid or gaseous state. 2. Matter may exist in solid form, like gold, iron or soil; in liquid form, like oil or water, or in the form of gas, like air or steam. 3. These forms of matter i.e. solid, liquid and gas are known as the three states of matter.

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1. The arrangement of particles determines the shape of matter i.e. whether it is a solid, liquid or gas.

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2. The following activity is carried out to study the arrangement of the particles in the three states of matter and to explain the differences between them.

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1. The particles in matter are always in a state of motion as shown in the figure below.

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2. Diffusion occurs when molecules of one substance become mixed with the molecules of another substance. This motion of molecules is called Brownian motion. 3. Diffusion occurs much more easily in gases followed by molecules by molecules in liquids and then solids. 4. The following activities are carried out to study the movement of particles in matter.

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The comparison of the three state of matter are summarised as shown below:

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CONCEPT OF DENSITY

1.Different things of the same volume do not have the same mass. 2. For the same volume, iron, for example, has more mass than wood. Therefore, iron is said to have a higher density than wood. 3. Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. 4. The unit of density is g per cm3 (g/cm3) or gram per cubic centimetre. 5. Density can be calculated using the formula shown below.

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Example 1 10 cm3 of mercury weighs 136g. Find its density in g per cm3

6. The density of water is 1 g/cm3 and the density of gold is 19.3 g/cm3. This means that 1 cubic centimetre of water possesses 1 gram of water and 1 cubic centimetre of gold possesses 19.3 gram of gold.

7. The density of a substance depends on the mass of the substance and the arrangement of the particles or the volume of the substance.

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8. From the table above, it can be concluded that (a) different substances have different densities. (b) gold is the densest while cork is the least dense. (c) substances can have similiar volumes but different masses. 9. Denser substances will sink in liquids that are less dense. 10. Substances that are less dense will rise above or float in liquids that are denser. 11. The following experiments are carried out to find the densities of objects with regular or irregular shapes and the densities of different liquids.

Eksperiment 1

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12. The volume of objects that have a regular shape can be calculated. The volume of objects such as cubes and rods or cylinders can be calculated using the following formula.

Eksperiment 2

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13. The following activities are carried out to compare the densities of substances.

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APPLICATION OF THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER

1. The three different states of matter are gas, liquid and solid. 2. Each state of matter has its own characteristis properties which man uses for his own benefit.

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3. A gas is easily compressed and liquiefied under high pressure. So gases used for fuels such as petroleum gas and butane are liquefied under high pressure and stored in gas cylinders for easy use and transport.

4. Air is easily compressed. So it is pumped into bicycle tyres and motor car tyres to be used as wheels.

5. A liquid takes up the shape of its container. People who sell perfumes and liquor such as wine and brandy make very beautiful container of all sorts of shapes to keep these liquids to attract customers.

6. Water finds its own level. This principle used in the spirit-level. This instrument used to obtain a perfectly level surface such as for the top of a billiard table.

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7. Logs are less dense than water. They floated down rivers to the saw-mills.

8. Iron is very strong. We use it to build bridges and railway tracks.

1. Different substances have different densities. Densities of substances have many applications in our daily life. 2. Collecting hydrogen gas (a) Hydrogen gas is insoluble in water and is less dense than water. (b) In the school laboratory, hydrogen is collected by bubbling the gas through water and displacing it from a gas jar.

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3. Rafts (a) Rafts are formed from logs which are less dense than water. (b) A raft can be used to carry goods and people on a river.

4. Floats and buoys (a) A float is used to keep a person afloat in water. it does not sink in water. It is used on ships in case of emergency and is also used by people learning to swim.

(b) Buoys float on the sea. They are placed in certain parts of the sea to keep ships away from unsafe areas.

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5. Trawling nets. (a) A trawling net has floats attached to it so that it can stay upright in the sea for catching fish. (b) The floats are usually plastic balls which are big enough to hold up the net.

6. Hot air balloons (a) A hot air balloon has a burner to heat up the air in the balloon. (b) The heated air becomes less dense and rises in the balloon, pushing the balloon up.

7. Separating tin ore from the earth. (a) Tin ore is denser than soil. (b) Soil containing tin ore is washed down a "palung": this makes the tin ore sink at the bottom of the "palung" and the lighter soil on top is washed away.

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8. Floating a sunken ship. (a) Large balloons filled with helium gas (second lightest gas) are tied to the sunken ship. (b) When the balloons rise to the surface of the sea, the ship is pulled to the surface as well. 9. Submarines (a) A submarines can move under the sea ot at its surface by changing its density.

(b) It has large ballast tanks. filling the ballast tanks with the sea water makes the submarine denser than sea water and sinks. Emptying the ballast tanks makes it submarine less dense and enables it to rise to the surface of the sea.

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Sinking and floating objects 1. A piece of plasticine sinks in water because it is denser than water. 2. An object which sinks displaces a very small volume of water, which is less than its weight. 3. The piece of plasticine can be made to float by shaping it into a bowl. 4. The floating bowl displaces a large volume of water, which is equal to its own weight. 5. A ship uses the same principle shown by the plasticine. (a) A piece of iron nail sinks in water because iron is denser than water. The iron nail also displaces a very small volume of water (less than the weight of the iron nail). (b) A ship made of iron floats on the sea because its shape enables it to displace very large volume of sea water.

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DIFFERENT RESOURCES ON EARTH AND THEIR IMPORTANCE

1. This chart lists the resources of the Earth. 2. These resources must be carefully looked after abd used because they sustain life and are used everyday. 3. All living things, including man, will die if there were no water or air. Water 1. About three-quarters of the Earth's surface is covered with water. 2. Human beings, animals and plants cannot live without water. 3. Water also a habitat for a large variety of plants and animals. 4. The importance of water to human beings and animals. a) About 70% of the human body consists of water. The main component in our blood is water. b) Water is required to dissolve waste products such as urea and transport them out of the body. c) Evaporation of water (sweat) from the body cools the body and maintains the temperature of the body. d) Water is required to digest food and transport the digested food to the cells of the body. e) Water is required for all chemical processes in the cells such as the process of respiration i.e. burning glucose in the cells to obtain energy. f) Water moistens the surfaces of lungs for exchange of gases to take place during breathing. g) Water maintains the shape and supports the body of animals such as earthworms and caterpillars. h) Aquatic animals such as fish, whales, prawns and cockles cannot live without water. 5. Human beings also use water for: a) turning turbines and dynamos hydroelectric stations to generate electricity.

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b) separating tin ore from earth in a 'palung' c) cooling car radiators in motor cars d) transporting goods and people by rivers and seas. e) washing, bathing and cooking in our homes. 6. The importance of water to plants. a) Plants wither and die if they do not have water. b) Seeds do not germinate without water. c) Green plants need water to make food (photosynthesis) in sunlight. d) Water transport food from the leaves to other parts of the plant. e) Water cools the plant when it is transpired from the leaves. Air 1. Our Earth is surrounded by a layer of air called the atmosphere. 2. This layer of air is important because it protects us from the harmful rays from the sun. 3. Human beings, animals and plants cannot survive without air. 4. Air is important because it is required for: a) repiration b) combusion c) decay d) photosynthesis. 5. Respiration a) respiration is carried out by human beings,animals and plants. b) It is the process of burning food in oxygen (oxidising) in the cells of the body to get energy. During the process, carbon dioxide and water are set free as waste products.

c) The aim of respiration is to get energy for carrying out the life processes. d) Any living thing enclosed in a container will die due to lack of air (oxygen).

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e) Astronauts going into outer space bring oxygen (in cylinders) along with them. f) Mountain climbers and deep sea divers carry along cylinders of oxygen for breathing. 6. Combustion a) Combustion or burning needs air (oxygen). b) No substance can burn without oxygen. c) Burning produces carbon dioxide as well as water and energy in the form of heat and light.

7. Decay a) Decay is a process of breaking up a substance into simpler and smaller parts by bacteria and fungi. b) The process of decay uses oxygen. c) Decay is important because it removes unwanted organic substances from our surroundings. 8. Photosynthesis. a) Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants make food in sunlight. b) This processes uses water and carbon dioxide from the air, and produces glucose and oxygen. c) This process needs the presence of leaf-green (chlorophyll) and light energy.

d) Photosynthesis is important because without it there will be no plants, animals or human beings. e) Photosynthesis balances up the processes of respiration, combustion and decay.

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Soil 1. Soil is the first layer of particles on the surface of the Earth. It is formed from the weathering of rocks. 2. Importance of soil. a) Soil is the habitat for a large variety of plants and animals such as earthworms, insects and microorganisms. b) Soil form the foundation for human beings to build their homes. c) Soil contains spaces which are filled with air or water. This enables plants and animals to live in the soil. d) Soil is rich with mineral salts such as the salts of potassium, calcium, magnesium and nitrates, which are required by plants to grow well. e) Soil is rich in humus (decayed parts of plants and animals.) Humus is a source of food for animals such as earthworms and provides minerals for plants. f) Soil is also a very useful substance for human beings. Soil is used for: i- making bricks for building houses and factories. ii- making utensils such as cups and saucers, bowls, teapots, vases ad flower pots. g) Soil allows us to carry out farming and so produce food to feed and increasing world population. h) Soil stores important fuels such as coal, natural gas petroleum. These fuels support many industries.

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Minerals 1. Soil is rich in mineral ores. 2. Mineral ores are important because they are used to produce metals. 3. Some examples of ores are given in the table below.

4. The ores are heated in large furnaces to obtain the metals. Fossil Fuels 1. Coal, natural gas and petroleum are called fossil fuels. This is because they were formed in the earth long, long ago. 2. Fossil fuels were formed from plants and animals which became buried in the earth. 3. Fossil fuels are important because they are mainly used to run our industries. 4. (a) Coal is actually carbon which has been hardened by great pressure in the earth. (b) Coal is used: i- in furnaces for extracting metals from the ores. ii- for heating boilers to get steam to turn dynamos and produce electricity. iii- for warming bouses in winter in cold countries.

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5. (a) Natural gas is found trapped in the earth. (b) It is used as a fuel and also as a raw material for producing hydrogen, urea, alcohol and ammonia 6. (a) Petroluem supplies about half of the energy needed by the world. (b) It is found as a thick, black liquid in certain areas of the earth. (c) Pertoleum is the source for many products, some of these are shown in the figure below:

Plants and Animals 1. Plants and animals are important to human beings because human beings cannot survive without plants and animals. 2. Plants and animals are the sources for: a) food b) clothes

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c) building materials d) fuel These materials are the basic needs of human beings.

ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES 1. The resources on Earth exist in three differet form i.e. as elements, compounds and mixtures.

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2. Generally, matter can be divided into elements, compounds and mixtures, and classified as follows:

3. An atom is the smallest particle in an element. 4. A molecule is a combination of a group of atoms. A molecule can consist of one or more than one type of atom. 5. There are two types of molecules i.e. molecules that consist of one type of element, like oxygen and molecules that consist of different types of elements, like ammonia. 6. The summary of the classification of a molecule is shown in the chart below.

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1. An element is a substance which cannot be split up into simpler substances by any physical or chemical process. 2. An element is the simplest kind of matter. 3. An element is a substance made up of one type of particle only. 4. The particle in an element consist of atoms or molecules of the same type. 5. Copper, iron, lead, gold oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, etc. are examples of elements. 6. Elements like copper, iron, lead and gold consist of atoms whereas elements like oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen consist of molecules.

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7. Elements can exist in three different states, i.e solid, liquid or gaseous.

1. Elements can be classified as either metallic elements or non-metallic elements i.e metals and non-metals. 2. All metallic elements are solid at room temperature except for mercury.

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3. Non-metallic elements can exist in three states i.e solid, liquid and gaseous. 4. The following shows examples of matellic elements and non-metallic elements.

1. Metals have a shiny appearance. 2. Metals are hard, malleable and ductile i.e. can be knocked into shape and drawn into wires without breaking. 3. Metals conduct heat and electricity. 4. Metals have high melting and boiling points. 5. The density of metals is high. 6. The tensile strength of metals is high.

1. Non-metals have a dull appearance. The surface of non-metals does not shine.

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2. Non-metals are soft and brittle. 3. Non-metals (insulator), except graphite, do not conduct heat and electricity. 4. Non-metals have low melting and boiling points. 5. The density of non-metals is usually low. 6. The tensile strength of non-metals is low. 7. The summary of the differences between metals and non-metals are shown on the following page.

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8. An experiment is carried out to study the properties of metals and non-metals.

Experiment 1

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Below are some examples showing the uses of metals and non-metals and the properties that make them suitable for use.

1. A compound is a substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined together. 2. The properties of a compound are different from those of their constituent elements. A

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compound becomes an entirely new substance and the original substances do not keep their original properties. 3. Examples of compounds are iron rust (iron oxide), magnesium oxide, carbon dioxide and copper sulphate. 4. The smallest possible particle of a compound is a molecule.

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5. A compound may be separated into its elements by using electricity (a chemical process)/ For example, when and electric current passes through a copper chloride solution, the copper chloride breaks up into solid copper and gaseous chlorine. The process in which this occurs is called electrolysis.

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1. A mixture is a substance that consists of two or more substances which are not joined together chemically. 2. There is no chemical reaction in the formation of mixtures. 3. The constituents of a mixture keep their own original properties which are unchanged.

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4. A mixture may consists of elements, compounds or both. Also, the substances in a mixture may be in a solid, liquid or gaseous state.

1. Mixture of sulphur and iron is prepred by mixing iron filings with sulphur powder.

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2. The black iron filings and the yellow sulphur powder can be clearly seen with the unaided eye. 3. The iron sulphide compound is prepared by heating iron filings with sulphur powder. 4. The mixture glows as a chemical reaction takes place. 5. A new black substance is produced. A compound is formed.

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1. The differences between a mixture and a compound can be summarised as follows:

2. The following experiment can be carried out to show the differences between compunds and mixtures.

Experiment 2

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1. A mixture can be separated into its constituents without any chemical changes. 2. The constituents of a mxture can be separated using physical means as described in the following page.

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Experiment 3

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Experiment 4

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PRESERVATION AND CONVERSATION OF EARTH'S RESOURCES

1. The natural resources of earth include: a) air b) water c) soil d) plants and animals

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e) mineral ores f) fossil fuels 2. a) Air, water and soil are recycled in nature. b) plants and animals reproduce themselves. c) These resources are renewable. 3. a) Mineral ores (such as tin ore and iron ore) and fossil fuels (such as coal, natural gas and petroleum) cannot be renewed or non-renewable. b) One day resources will be used up. 4. Our natural resources must be looked after and used carefully because life on earth depends on them. 5. Unfortunately man's activities are fast destroying these resources. 6. These resources must be protected through preservation, conversation and recycling.

1.Preservation is the maintenance of Earth's resources in their natural environment so that the balance of nature is not upset. - Preserving forests enables plants and animals to flourish in their natural environment. 2. Conversation is the careful and wise use of earth's resources so that they are not wasted and can last long. 3. Recycling is reusing things such as paper, plastics, glass and metals. - Recycling paper reduces the cutting down of trees.

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4. Reasons for preserving, conserving and recycling earth's resources include the following. a) maintaining our good health (polluted air and water cause sickness) b) ensuring our air and water are always clean and plentiful for use (to avoid water shortage) c) maintaining the fertility of soil and preventing soil erosion (so that soil is suitable for farming and land is safe for building houses on) d) preventing the extinction of plants and animals such as Rafflesia and orang utan (so that our descendants can enjoy watching and studying them) e) maintaining and replanting our forests (so that logs are always available) f) ensuring that our resources are not wasted and can last (recycling aluminium tins reduces the use of ores)

1. Earth's resources have been badly affected by man's activities. They must be protected before they become harmful (air and water), are used up (minerals ores and fossil fuels) or extinct (plants and animals) 2. Some ways for preserving and conserving them are given in the table below.

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COMPOSITION OF AIR

1. Our Earth is surrounded by a layer of air called the atmosphere. 2. The atsosphere protects living things on the Earth harmful rays from the sun. 3. Air is colourless, tasteless and odourless (no smell). 4. We cannot see air but can feel it when it moves as a wind. 5. Air is a mixture of many components.

6.Nitrogen (a) Nitrogen is a very inactive gas. (b) Nitrogen does not burn and does not support combustion i.e it does not allow things to burn ini it. (c) Nitrogen dilutes oxygen in the air so that processes such as respiration, burning and decay go on more slowly. 7. Oxygen (a) Oxygen is used up during: i- respiration ii- burning iii- decay iv- rusting (b) Oxygen is needed for living things to survive. (c) Oxygen is set free during the process of photosynthesis. 8. Rare gases (a) The rare gases in air are: i- helium ii- neon

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iii- argon iv- krypton v- xenon vi- radon (b) these gases are very incative but have their uses. 9. Carbon dioxide (a) Carbon dioxide is set free during: i- respiration ii- burning iii- decay (b) It is absorbed by green plants during photosynthesis 10. Water vapour, dust and microorganisms (a) These things vary in air. (b) Most microorganisms in air are bacteria and spores from fungi.

Eksperiment 1

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Eksperiment 2

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Eksperiment 3

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Eksperiment 4

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PROPERTIES OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE

1. Oxygen is a colourless, odourless and tasteless gas.

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2. It is not very soluble in water. 3. It is neutral when tested with moist litmus paper. 4. It is slightly denser (heavier) than air. 5. It is an extremely active element. 6. It supports burning, breathing, decaying and rusting. 7. it combines easily with many metals and non-metals. 8. It does not burn by itself.

1. Carbon dioxide is a colourless, odourless gas with a slight acidic taste. 2. It is denser (heavier) than air. 3. It is slightly soluble in water. 4. It does not burn by itself. 5. It does not support combustion. 6. It is very soluble in sodium hydroxide solution. 7. It turns moist blue litmus paper to a faint red; hence, it is a weak acid. 8. It turns lime water cloudly.

1. Oxygen and carbon dioxide have their specific properties. 2. Gases in the air can be identified from their properties. 3. The following experiment is carried out to study the properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide from certain aspects.

Eksperiment 5

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Eksperiment 6

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Eksperiment 7

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Confirmatory tests for oxygen and carbon dioxide are shown below. (a) Confirmatory test for oxygen

(b) Confirmatory test for carbon dioxide.

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OXYGEN IS NEEDED IN RESPIRATION 1. Respiration is carried out in all living cells. It is a continuous process that takes place day and night. 2. During respiration or breathing, oxygen is taken in from the air and carbon dioxide is released. 3. Oxygen is needed for respiration. Oxygen is taken in to oxidise (burn away) the food in cells to produce energy. This process is called respiration. 4. The term rspiration covers the breathing in and out of air and the use of oxygen in the body. 5. Living things use oxygen and release carbon dioxide during respiration. 6. Simple carbohydrates, e.g. glucose, are broken down by making use of the oxygen absorbed by the cells. 7. Energy, carbon dioxide and water vapour are the by-products of respiration.

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8. The following experiment shows that living things use oxygen and give out carbon dioxide.

Eksperiment 8

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Eksperiment 9

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1. In the process of breathing, air from the surroundings is inhaled or sucked into the lungs. This air is known as inhaled air. 2. Air that is exhaled or breathed out from the lungs is known as exhaled air.

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Breathing process 3. The exhaled air of humans can be collected by breathing out air through a rubber tube into a container filled with water and overturned in water (method of water displacement) as shown in the figure below.

Collection of exhaled air

1. The quantities of nitrogen and rare gases in exhaled air stay unchanged i.e. 78% and 0.9% respectively. 2. The quantity of carbon dioxide in exhaled air is 4%, which is over a hundred times greater than normally present in the atmosphere. 3. Exhaled air is saturated with water vapour. 4. Exhaled air is warmer than ordinary air due to the release of energy during respiration.

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Eksperiment 10

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Eksperiment 11

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Eksperiment 12

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OXYGEN AND COMBUSTION

1. Combustion is a chemical reaction which takes place when a substance combines with oxygen and produces: (a) an oxide (b) heat energy (c) light energy Examples: (a) Carbon dioxide, heat energy and light energy are produces when carbon burns in air.

(b) Magnesium oxide, heat energy and light energy are produced when magnesium burns in air.

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2. When a hydrocarbon (a compound containing hydrogen and carbon only) such as a candle burns, the products are: (a) water (b) carbon dioxide (c) heat energy (d) light energy

3. The reactions in the above examples show that combustion needs oxygen. This can also be shown in the following ways: (a) i. If a gas jar of oxygen is inverted over a burning candle, the candle goes on burning until the oxygen it used up. ii. If a gas of nitrogen or carbon dioxide is inverted over a burning candle, the candle flame is extinguished at once.

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(b) i. If two glass jars, one small and one big, are inverted over two similiar burning candles, the candle in the large jar burns longer. This is because the large jar contains more oxygen than the small jar.

(c) Combustion uses one-fifth of the air.

Eksperiment 13

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1. Materials which are easily burnt are called fuels. 2. The fuels used come mainly from three materials, as given below.

3. Three conditions are required for combustion: (a) fuel

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(b) oxygen (c) heat.

4. Combustion cannot take place if one of these comditions is not fulfilled. 5. The principle in fire fighting is to remove one of these factors from the fire. 6. (a) Oxygen The supply of oxygen to a fire can be stopped by using a fire-extinguisher to spray foam or carbon dioxide on the fire. The foam or dense carbon dioxide surrounds the fire and prevents air (oxygen) from getting to it. (b) Fuel If a fire is caused by a gas, stopping the gas supply will put out the fire. For example, a Bunsen burner flame is extinguished when the gas tap is turned off. (c) Heat A fuel cannot burn if its temperature is not high enough. Water can extinguish a fire because it lowers the temperature of the fuel to below its ingition point i.e. below the temperature at which it burns. 7. The method for extinguishing fire depends on the source of the fire.

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Combustion plays a very important role in our everyday life.

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AIR POLLUTION

1. Unwanted and harmful subtances are added to the air by factories, motor vehicles, forest fires, the development of large housing estates and the extensive use of chlorofluorocarbons. 2. The addition of unwanted and harmful substances to the air is known as air pollution. 3. The unwanted and harmful substances are called the pollutants. 4. The air such as dust and sulphur dioxide harm our health and the environment. 5. The air in industrial areas because there are more factories, motor vehicles and development projects going on in industrial areas. 6. Air pollutants are due to man's activities. 7. Man must control his activities so that they do not pollute the air, because clean air is essential for a healthy life.

The main air pollutants, their sources and effects are given in the table below.

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1. Air pollution causes harmful effects on living things, including man and on the enviroment. 2. Some of these harmful effects are explained below. 3. Health problems (a) Harmful gases, dust and soot in the air cause several health problems such as: i. headaches ii. skin diseases iii. asthma

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iv. bronchitis v. lung and throat cancer. (b) Radioactive wastes thrown into the environment cause: i. giddiness and vomiting ii. infertility iii. cancer iv. defects to unborn babies. (c) Haze caused by dust and smoke: i. reduces visibility ii. increases the risk of road accidents. 4. Depletion of food resources (a) Dust and soot on the leaves of plants reduce the rate of photosynthesis, causing less food to be produced by plants. (b) Acid rain causes plants to die because they become unable to absorb water. (c) Acid rain causes aquatic animals such as fish and prawns to be lkilled. 5. Destruction of habitats. (a) Acidic gases such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide which dissolve in water to form acid rain have destroyed large areas of forest and made ponds and rivers unsuitable for plants and animals. (b) As a result the natural habitats are destroyed. 6. Extinction of species (a) Destruction of natural habitats has caused many plants and animals to die and several species become extinct. (b) Plants and animals in danger of going extinct include Rafflesia, orang utan, tapir, hornbill and leathery-back turtle. 7. Destruction of property (a) Acid rain is corroding buildings and important historic monuments. (b) Smoke and soot have turned many buildings black. 8. Global warming (a) The Earth's atmosphere now contains excess carbon dioxide. This is due to fewer forests to absorb the gas and industries releasing a lot of it. (b) This layer of carbon dioxide traps heat from the sun and prevents it from escaping into outer space. As a result the Earth's temperature is rising. The phenomenon is called the green house effect or global warning. (c) Global warning causes: i. icebergs in the poles to melt quickly ii. level of sea water to rise iii. floods in low-lying areas such as some coastal regions

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9. Thinning of the ozone layer (a) The ozone layer on the atmosphere of the Earth protects us from the harmful rays of the sun.

(b) Harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun can cause: i. Cataract The eye lens becomes opaque and the patient cannot see. He has to replace the lens with a synthetic one. ii. Skin cancer Constant exposure to harmful ultraviolet rays can causes cancer of the skin. general cancer of the skin, known as melanoma, cannot be cured. iii. Lowering of the body's defence system Harmful ultraviolet rays make the body less able to resist diseases such as tuberculosis and diphtheria. iv. Reducing the yield from plants Plants crops such as paddy give lower yields when exposed to harmful ultraviolet rays. (c) Air pollutants mainly chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), have made the ozone layer very thin, allowing a lot of harmful ultraviolet rays to reach the Earth.

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1. Air pollution must be controlled so that its harmful effects can be reduced. Some ways for controlling air pollution are explained below. 2. Rubbish (a) Do not allow open burning in residential areas. (b) Burning should only be done in approved sites or in incinerators built for the purpose. 3. Motor vehicles (a) Fix catalytic converters to the exhaust pipes of motor vehicles so that harmful. exhaust gases can be converted to harmless substances. (b) Use unleaded petrol in motor vehicles. (c) Ensure that the engines of motor vehicles do not give out excessive exhaust gases and black smoke. 4. Factories (a) Build tall chimneys in factories so that smoke and waste gases are discharged high up in the air and can be easily blown away by wind. (b) Build electric precipitators on the chimneys to attract particles in the waste gases to prevent them from escaping into the air. (c) Treat waste gases in air cleaning systems before releasing them into the air. 5. Agriculture (a) Advise farmers to reduce the use of pesticides.

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(b) Encourage farmers to use biological control ways to kill pests. For example, suitable owls can be reared in oil palm plantations to catch rats. 6. Chlorofluorocarbon (a) Reduce the use of chlorofluorocarbon and other gases which destroy teh Earth's ozone layer. (b) Use ozone friendly gases such as hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) 7. Nuclear subtances (a) Store and throw radioactive wastes in the recommended ways. (b) Ban nuclear tests through an international aggrement to be organized by the United Nations. 8. Reforestation (a) replant forest for absorbong carbon dioxide. This reduces global warming. 9. Educating the public (a) Educate members of the public to be aware of the dangers of air pollution and how to control them. (b) This can be done through campaigns in school and talks over radio and television . 10. In order to control air pollution effectively, everyone in the world must co-operate and play his part. IMPORTANCE OF KEEPING THE CLEAR AIR

1. Smoking is the cause for many deaths through disease such as: (a) bronchitis (b) lung cancer (c) heart diseases (d) emphysema 2. Emphysema is a condition in which the air-sacs in the lungs are demaged by cigarrate smoke and cannot function properly. As a result the patient is short of breath. It cannot be cured. 3. Cigarette smoke contains over a thousand poisonous chemicals. Some of them may cause cancer of the lungs. 4. Nicotine in cigarrate smoke: (a) stimulates the nervous system. (keeps you awake) (b) damages brain tissues (c) hardens blood vessels (makes blood difficult to flow) 5. Tar in cigaratte smoke: (a) consists of tiny black particles

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(b) forms in the lungs as a sticky liquid (blackens the lungs) (c) corrodes the lungs (acidic) (d) contains 17 chemicals which causes cancer in animals. 6. Carbon monoxide given out during smoking: (a) is a poisonous gas (b) combines with heamoglobin in the blood, causing the body to lack oxygen. 7. A person who is a non-smoker may inhale cigaratte smoke given out by someone smoking. This is called passive smoking. 8. Passive smoking can be more harmful to a non-smoker than a smoker. 9. Pregnant women who smoke heavily have the risk of having smaller babies, premature birth or still-birth. 10. Smokers must be considerate and not smoke in public places or near non-smokers.

Eksperiment 14

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1. There will be plenty of health problems without clean air. Patients suffering from breathing difficulties, asthma, bronchitis and skin diseases will increases. 2. Haze will reduce visibility and more accidents will occurs. 3. Less food will be produced as crops affected by acid rain, soot and dust cannot carry out photosynthesis effectively. 4. The air will become warmer with more carbon dioxide in it, causing global warming. 5. Warmer air in temperate countries will cause tropical diseases to spread to them.

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6. The ozone layer will be depleted and more people will suffer from cataract and skin cancer.

1. Run campaigns to discourage cigarette smoking. 2. Run campaigns to explain what individuals must do to keep the air clean. 3. Ban smoking in public places such as in hospitals, cinema halls, supermarkets and offices. 4. Ban open burning of rubbish. 5. Prevent forest fires. 6. Introduce laws to force factories to treat their waste gases before releasing them into the air. 7. Ensure motor vehicles use catalytic converters. 8. Fine motor vehicles which give out excessive black smoke. 9. Practise reforestation- trees cut down must be replanted. 10. Keep a strict watch on the disposal of radioactive wastes.

1. Do not smoke in public places. 2. Do not burn rubbish in open air. 3. Use less electricity. This will reduce the use of fuels in power stations and so reduce air pollutants. 4. Walk or cycle instead og going by cars. This will reduce exhaust gases from motor vehicles. 5. Reduce the use of insecticide sprays and hair sprays. This will reduce chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) in the air. 6. Ensure your motor vehicles do not give out excessive black smoke. 7. Plant trees in your house compounds and in open spaces.

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VARIOUS FORMS AND SOURCES OF ENERGY

1. Scientists define energy as the ability to do work. 2. The word "work" has a different meaning in science. According to scientists, work is done when an object is moved over a horizontal or vertical distance. Examples: (a) Work is done when Fadhli pulls a tree runk away from blocking a road. (b) Work is done when Fadhlina pick up a book on the floor and places it on a table. 2. Whenever work is done, energy is used. 3. Energy is very important. Not work can be done without energy. 4. All the activities that go on around us will come to stop if there is no energy.

Energy exists in different forms. The main forms are illustrated below:

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1. A hot object has heat energy. 2. An object becomes hotter when it absorbs heat energy. 3. An object becomes cooler when it loses heat energy. 4. Heat energy is set free when a material burns. 5. Heat energy flows from a place or material of high temperature to a place or material of lower temperature. 6. The following objects give out heat energy: (a) the Sun shining on the Earth. (b) firewood burning (c) a lighted filament bulb (d) an electric iron in use. 7. Heat energy is used: (a) to dry wet clothes (b) to boil water and cook food.

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(c) to start some chemical reactions (d) to warm our bodies.

1. Any object that gives out light possesses light energy. 2. Light energy is given off when an object is red-hot or white rod. 3. We will not be able to see things if no light energy reaches our eyes. 4. Light energy travels at a speed of 300 000 km/s. 5. Some sources of light energy are: (a) the Sun (b) cooking gas burning (c) a lighted bulb (d) glow worms 6. Light energy is useful. (a) It enables us to see things. (b) It supplies energy to solar cells. (c) It is used in traffic lights to control traffic. (d) It is used in light-houses to guide ships. (e) It is used for screening films. (f) It is used by green plants in photosynthesis.

1. Chemical energy is present in chemical substances. 2. This chemical energy is usually released in a chemical reaction. 3. This chemical energy from a chemical reaction may appear in different form such as: (a) heat and light from a burning candle. (b) sound (from an exploding fire cracker) (c) electricity from a battery. 4. Our energy comes from the chemical energy in the food we eat. 5. Some sources and uses of chemical energy are: (a) food- to supply energy to living things so that they can carry out their activities. (b) fuels- to supply energy for cooking and for machines and vehicles to work. (c) batteries- convert chemical energy to electrical energy to work machines and light up lamps.

1.Electrical energy is the energy produced by an electric current or electric changes.

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2. Care must be taken when using electrical energy for it can kill a person if the electric current is very high. 3. Soucers of electrical energy include the following: (a) lightning. (b) batteries (c) bicycle dynamos (d) solar cells (e) electric generators in power stations 4. Among the uses of electrical energy are: (a) to light lamps such as fluorescent lamps. (b) to turn electric motors in fans and engines. (c) to produce heat in appliances such as electric irons and stoves. (d) to operate appliances such as radios, televisions and computers. 5. The amount of electrical energy used in our homes is measured by a meter.

1. Sound energy is produced by vibrations. 2. Sound energy travels outwards in waves and can be detected with our ears. 3. Sound energy can travel through solids, liquids and gases but cannot travel through a vacuum. 4. Sound energy travels at a speed of 300 m/s in air. 5. Sources of sound energy include: (a) thunder (b) horns (c) voice boxes of humans and animals (d) musical instruments

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6. The uses of sound energy include: (a) singing for entertainment.. (b) talking for communication with people. (c) giving warnings such as by ambulances and police cars. (d) receiving news through the radio and television.

1. Any object which is moving possesses kinetic energy. 2. The greater the speed of a moving object, the greater is its kinetic energy. 3. Objects which have kinetic energy include: (a) wind (b) waves (c) a spinning fan (d) an aeroplane in flight (e) an orbiting satellite. 4. Kinetic energy is useful in everyday life. (a) Kinetic energy of a river is used to turn turbines and dynamos for generating electricity. (b) Kinetic energy in the wind is used for sailing ships. (c) Kinetic energy in the wind is used for turning windmills and dynamos for generating electricity. (d) Kinetic energy in an aeroplane enables it to transport passengers.

1. Potential energy is stored in an object because of its condition or position. 2. A compressed spring or a stretched spring has potential energy because of its condition. 3. The greater the spring is compressed or stretched (provided not overdone), the greater is its potential energy. 4. A durian on a tree has potential energy because of its position. 5. The higher an object is raised, the greater is its energy. 6. The bigger the mass of a raised object, the greater is its energy. 7. Potential energy is present in objects which are: (a) compressed (b) stretched (c) raised from its useful.

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8. Potential energy is useful: (a) The potential energy in a compressed spring is used to operate an alarm clock. (b) The potential energy in a spring (which is easily stretched and compressed) is used to move a baby's cradle up and down. (c) The potential energy in a pile driver is used to hit a concrete pillar into the ground.

1. Mechanical energy is the total potential energy and kinetic energy possessed by an object. 2. Mechanical energy is sometimes referred to as driving energy. 3. An object possesses mechanical energy because its position is changing. 4. Your legs have mechanical energy when you are pedalling a bicycle because your legs are moving up and down. 5. A falling object has mechanical energy. Half way through its fall, it has both potential energy and kinetic energy.

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6. Examples of objects which have mechanical energy include: (a) a swinging pendulum (b) a see-saw in use (c) a machine in use

1. Nuclear energy is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. 2. Nuclear energy is released in two ways: (a) it is released when an atom of a heavy element, such as uranium, splits into lighter elements. This process is called nuclear fission. (b) It is released when the atoms of a light element, such as hydrogen, combine to form a heavier element. This process is called nuclear fusion. ("Fission" means breaking up) 3. Nuclear fusion is taking place in the Sun where hydrogen atoms combine to form helium atoms. 4. Nuclear energy is released in the form of: (a) heat energy (b) light energy (c) sound energy (d) harmful radiations. 5. Nuclear energy can cause great destructions, as happens when an atomic bomb explodes. 6. Nuclear energy is also very useful. (a) It is used to power submarines. (b) It is used to turn generators in power stations to produce electricity. (c) It is used to keep satellites in orbit.

Eksperiment 1

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1. The primary source of the energy for the earth is the Sun. 2. The Sun generates a large amount of energy by nuclear fusion. During this reaction, hydrogen atoms combine to form helium atoms, setting free a large amount of heat energy and light energy. 3. The Earth receives heat energy and light energy directly from the Sun. 4. Life on Earth depends on energy from the Sun. (a) In fact without energy from the Sun, green plants cannot make food by phtosynthesis. (b) Without plants no human beings or animals will live. (c) In fact energy from the Sun is being transferred to plants, animals and human beings. 5. Energy in the wind, waves and rain comes indirectly from the Sun's. For examples, wind is due to the Sun's heat energy causing air to move. 6. Energy in natural gas, petroleum and coal originated from the Sun. 7. Many appliances used in everyday life make use of energy from the Sun or solar energy e.g. solar cells and solar heaters.

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The Sun is the primary source of energy.

1. There are several sources of energy.

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1. Solar energy is energy from the Sun. 2. Solar energy is used for: (a) heating water (b) producing electrical energy. 3. Solar cookers and heaters convent solar energy into heat energy. 4. Solar cells convert solar energy into electrical energy. 5. Green plants use solar energy to make food and then store it in the food as chemical energy.

1. Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the Earth's surface by the Sun. This causes air to move from a cool place to a warmer place, creating a wind. 2. Winds possess kinetic energy. 3. Energy in the winds is used for: (a) moving sailing ships

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(b) turning windmills to grind corn (c) turning wind turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy.

1. Waves moving in and out from the seashore have potential energy and kinetic energy. 2. Waves can be used to turn turbines and then dynamos to produce electrical energy. 3. Tides flow in and out from the shore twice a day. These moving tides posses kinetic energy while the high tides contain potential energy. 4. Some countries use tides to turn turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy.

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1. Water from a river can be blocked to form a dam. 2. Water stored in a dam has potential energy, and it has kinetic energy when it flows out of it.

3. In hydroelectric power station, energy from the water in a dam is used to turn turbines. The turbines turn dynamos for producing electrical energy.

1. "Geo" means "Earth" and '"thermal" means "heat". Geothermal energy is heat energy obtained from deep in the Earth. 2. Hot springs, geysers and volcanic eruptions show that the Earth is very hot deep inside it. 3. Sometimes steam or hot water trapped in the Earth is pumped to the surface by boring holes in the ground.

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4. Sometimes water from a lake is channeled inside the Earth to be heated by hot rocks and is then pumped out again as steam.

5. The steam is used to: (a) heat houses and factories. (b) drive turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy.

1. Biomass energy is the energy obtained from plant and animal materials by: (a) burning them (b) decomposing them using bacteria. 2. In some countries, rubbbish from houses is burnt in special incinetarors and the heat is used to produce steam to warm houses or drive turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy. 3. In India, dried cow dung is burnt as a fuel 4. In Malaysia, organic materials from rubber estates and oil palm plantations are decomposed in tanks by bacteria to generate methane gas for us as a fuel.

5. In, Brazil, sugar cane juice is fermented to produce alcohol for use as a fuel in vehicles.

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1.Fossils are the remains of plants or animals burried in the Earth long ago. 2. Fossil fuels consist of coal, natural gas and petroleum which were formed by the remains of plants and animals buried in the Earth long ago. 3. More than half of the energy used today comes from fossil fuels. 4. Coal is used in temperate countries for warming houses. It is also burnt in some power stations to get steam for driving turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy. 5. Natural gas is mainly used as a cooking fuel. It can be liquefied and stored in cylinders. It is also piped to houses and factories for use. 6. Petroleum is a very important source of energy in modern times. It contains many types of fuel such as aviation fuel, petrol, kerosene and diesel.

1. Nuclear energy is obtained by splitting the atoms of uranium or plutonium. 2. The splitting of the atoms is done in a controlled way in a reactor. 3. The heat energy released is used to produce steam under high power. The steam is used to drive turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy. 4. In submarines using nuclear energy, the turbines drive propellers which move the submarine.

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1. The principle of energy conversation states the following: (a) Energy cannot be created or destroyed. (b) Energy can be changed from one from to another. 2. During energy changes, the total energy before changing equals to the total energy after changing. So energy is conserved.

3. During an energy change, some energy may be wasted (usually in the form of heat), but not destroyed.

1. Energy conversion or energy change is the changing of one form of energy into another. 2. Energy conversions can be observed by carrying out simple experiments.

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1. Every day we use converters which change energy from one from into another. 2. Examples of these converters are given below.

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3. The following models show how large converters work.

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RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY 1. The sources of energy in the world can be classified into two groups. (a) Renewable energy sources. (b) Non-renewable energy sources. 2. Renewable energy sources are those that can be replenished or renewed when they have been used. 3. Non-renewable energy sources are those that cannot be replenished or renewed and will eventually be used up and exhausted. 4. The chart below shows the classification of energy sources.

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5. Renewable energy sources have less environmental impact than fossil fuels and nuclear energy.

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6. All non-renewable energy sources create pollution, in part, due to their extraction from the crust of the Earth but mainly from burning them. 7. Sources of energy that pollute and do not pollute the environment are shown in the chart on the following page.

8. The chart below shows reasons for conserving energy.

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9. The ways to use energy efficiently are shown below.

IMPORTANCE OF CONSERVING ENERGY SOURCES 1. Since the Earth has limited amounts of non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, they must be conserved in order to avoid: a) future energy crises due to a shortage or overuse of fossil fuels

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b) a growing exploitation of natural resources c) atmospheric contamination that causes global warming and climatic change, acid rain and smog. The resulting impact damages water sources and groundwater, soils, crops, wildlife and wildlife habitats, building materials and man's health. 2. Responsible use and management of energy sources is fundamental for a sustainable future. 3. Energy management must balance energy demand with energy supply. 4. Here are some ways to use and manage energy sources efficiently: a) Recycle material

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HEAT AS A FORM OF ENERGY

1.The sun is a very, very hot object. 2. It gets its heat energy from nuclear reactions taking place in its centre. 3. The temperature at its centre is about 15 000 000oC, and its surface temperature is between 10 000oC and 500 000oC. 4. The Earth receives heat energy and light energy from the sun. 5. Only a small portion of the sun's energy reaches the Earth. 6. Without heat energy from the sun, the Earth will be a very cold place. 7. Without light energy from the sun, the Earth will be forever in darkness. 8. Without energy from the sun, there will be no living things on the Earth.

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1. Heat is a form of energy. 2. Heat can travel through a vacuum. 3. Heat causes things to become hot. 4. Heat moves fom a hot place to a cooler place. 5. Heat is measured in units called joules (J). 6. Heat has different effects on different substances. Examples: (a) Heat causes metals to expand. (b) Heat causes air to expand and rise. (c) Heat can causes things to burn and give out light e.g. oil. (d) Heat can cause a change of state e.g. ice to melt and water to boil.

1. All forms of energy can be converted to heat energy. 2. As a result, heat can be produced in many ways from different forms of energy. 3. From mechanical energy. (a) Mechanical energy, such as the energy in motion, can be converted into heat.

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(b) Rubbing our hands together produces heat. i- This is due to friction between the hands. ii- Friction changes mechanical energy into heat. (c) Heat produced by friction creates problems in our daily life. i- A dentist's drill in use has to be cooled by water. ii- A metal drill in use has to be cooled by oil. iii- High speed aircrafts and space vehicles have to be protected from heat produced by friction with the air. 4. From electrical energy (a) Heat is produced whenever electrical energy passes through a wire. (b) A thin high resistance wire produces a lot of heat when an electric current passes through it. i- This principle is used in an electric iron, electric toaster and electric kettle. ii- the filamentin a bulb becomes while hot and gives out lght when an electric current passes through it. 5. From chemical energy. (a) Heat can be produced from chemical energy during a chemical reaction. (b) Heat is produced when a fuel burns.

(c) Heat is produced during respiration in the cells of the body.

(d) Heat is produced when zinc reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid.

(e) Heat is produced when quicklime reacts with water to form slaked lime.

6. From Sound energy (a) Heat is produced when sound energy such as a loud noise, is absorbed by the wall of a room. (b) The heat produced is so little that it is difficult to detect. 7. From nuclear energy (a) A tremendous amount of heat is produced when a nuclear explosion takes place. (b) The heat produced during a nuclear explosion is so strong that it melts metals. (c) The heat produced in a nuclear reactor is used to produce steam to drive turbines and generators for producing electricity.

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8. From solar energy. (a) Solar energy is converted to heat for use in some hot water systems in Malaysia. (b) Solar cells are used to produced electrical energy, which is then converted to heat. (c) In cold countries, houses are designed to make the best use of the sun's heat during winter.

1. Heat is a very useful from of energy. 2. Heat is widely used in everyday life. Heat has made our work easier and so our life more comfortable. 3. Some uses of heat are stated in the table below:

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1. Temperature measures how hot a substance or object is. 2. A hot object has a higher temperature than a cooler object. 3. The temperature of an object rises when heat is added to it, but falls when heat is removed from it. 4. The temperature of a substance or an object is measured using a thermometer. 5. Temperature is usually measured in degrees celsius (oC).

6. Heat is a form of energy. 7. It is measured in joules (J).

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8. An object becomes hotter when heat is added to it (temperature rises), and cooler when heat is removed from it (temperature falls) 9. Heat flows through a solid, a liquid, a gas and vacuum. 10. Heat flows from a hot place to a cooler place. 11. The amount of heat in an object depends on: (a) its temperature (b) its mass (size) (c) its capacity to hold heat (different substances have different capacities). 12. Two objects in a room have the same temperature (the room temperature) but may contain different amounts of heat.

Eksperiment 1

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HEAT FLOW AND ITS EFFECT

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1. Matter is made up of particles. 2. When matter is heated, the particles receive energy and move faster. This causes the distance between the particles to increase. 3. The volume increase and the matter expands. 4. When matter is cooled, the particles lose energy and move more slowly. The particles become closer to one another. The volume decreases and matter contracts.

5. The summary about the expansion and contraction of matter is shown in the chart below:

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6. All forms of matter expand when heated, and contract when cooled. 7. Gas expands the most while solids expand the least, for the same amount of heat.

1. A solid expands when it is heated. it contracts when it is cooled. 2. When a solid is heated, the heat energy causes the particles in the solid to vibrate faster. The particles stay further apart. So the solid increases in length or size (expand).

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3. The expansion of a solid can be shown by a metal ball ring apparatus as shown in the experiment below.

Eksperiment 2

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4. Different metals expand at different rates as shown below.

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5. Different metals expand unequally when heated to the same temperature. This is illustrated by heating a bimetallic strip as shown in the figure below.

6. The laboratory activity below shows the expansion of the different metals.

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1. Liquids expand when heated and contract when cooled. 2. The volume of all liquids changes as the temperature of the liquids is altered. 3. Like solids, different liquids expand and contract at different rates as shown below:

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1. Gases expand when heated and contract when cooled. 2. The following experiment shows the expansion and contraction of gas.

Eksperiment 3

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3. Different gases expand at the same rate. 4. Unlike solids and liquids, all gases expand equally. 5. The following laboratory activity shows that different gases expand equally when heated.

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Heat can be transferred from a hot to a cold place by the process of: (a) conduction (b) convection (c) radiation

1. When heat flows through solids, the process of heat transfer is called conduction.

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2. Conduction requires a medium for the heat energy to pass through. 3. Heat passes through a metal rod when one end of it is heated in a flame. For example: (a) heat from a fire passes through the frying pan to cook food. (b) a metal spoon in the hand becomes warm after sometime because heat from the body passes to the metal spoon to warm it. (c) a chair becomes warm after a person has sat on it for some time. Heat from the body passes to the chair to warm it. (d) the handle of a spoon becomes warm after some time if the spoon is left in a cup of hot water. This means that heat from the water passes through the spoon to the hand. 4. The particles in a solid lie very close to each other. 5. The particles which are in actual contact with the source of heat transfer some of the heat to the neighbouring particles. This process goes on until heat is passed from one end to the other. 6. The transfer of heat by conduction takes place from particle to particle in a solid and is summarised as shown in the chart below.

7. The following experiment shows the method of heat transfer in a solid.

Eksperiment 4

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8. The following laboratory activity shows the transfer of heat through conduction.

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1. Convection is the transfer of heat in fluids (liquids and gases) carried out by moving particles. 2. Hot fluids become less dense and move upwards. 3. Cold fluids that are denser move down to replace the hot fluids. 4. A convection current is produced in this way. 5. In the process of convection, heat is transferred upwards only.

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6. The fluids from hot areas move to cold areas.

7. The following experiment shows the transfer of heat by convection.

Eksperiment 5

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8. The following laboratory activity can be carried out to show the process of convection that takes place in gas.

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1. Radiation is the transfer of heat from a source of heat to another area in its surroundings without involving a medium. 2. Radiation can take place through air space or a vacuum. 3. In radiation, particles do not carry heat energy from one place to another. In other words, particles are not needed for the process of radiation. 4. Radiation heat moves at the speed of light.

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5. Radiation heat can be absorbed or reflected. 6. The following experiment shows the transfer of heat by radiation.

Eksperiment 6

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7. The following laboratory activities show the transfer of heat through radiation.

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1. Convection is the process by which heat is carried from one place to another by moving fluid matter. 2. Heat that is carried from one place to another by moving hot liquid or gas can be used to explain the occurrence of certain natural phenomena such as: (a) land breezes (b) sea breezes (c) the morning of the Earth by the Sun. 3. Wind is caused by the uneven heating of air over the surface of the Earth. 4. Uneven heating of the land and sea causes land sea breezes.

1. Land breezes blow during the night. 2. At night, the land loses heat faster than the sea.

3. Thus, the land becomes cooler than the sea. 4. The warm air above the surface of the sea becomes less dense, and rises. 5. The air above the land that is denser (cooler) flows in the direction of the sea, causing what is know as a land breeze.

1. Sea breezes blow during the day. 2. During the day, the land heats up faster than the sea. 3. As a result, the air on land becomes less dense and rises.

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4. The cooler air over the sea which is denser (cooler) flows in to take the place of the warm air, causing what is known as a sea breeze.

1. The heat from the Sun reaches the earth by radiation through a vacuum in space (no medium) 2. The radiation heat which is absorbed heats up the Earth.

1. Substances that conduct heat are called conductors of heat. 2. Some substances conduct heat readily. They are called good conductors of heat. 3. All metals such as iron, magnesium, aluminium and zinc are good conductors of heat. 4. The metal that conducts heat best of all is silver. Copper is the next best conductor, followed by aluminium, brass, zinc, tin, iron and lead, in that order. 5. The following laboratory activities show that metal is a good heat conductor.

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1. Substances that conduct heat poorly are insulators or called bad conductors of heat. 2. Non-metals such as glass, wood, cork air, water and wool are insulators. 3. Fluids, i.e. liquids and gases are poor conductors of heat. 4. The following activities are carried out to study the flow of heat through fluids (liquids and gases).

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Exampels of the uses of heat conductors in daily life are shown below.

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Examples of the uses of heat insulators in daily life are shown below.

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Examples of the uses of convection in everyday life are shown below.

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An example of the use of radiation in every life is shown below.

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EFFECT OF HEAT ON THE STATE OF MATTER

1. Matter exists in three states: (a) solid (b) liquid (c) gas 2. Heat can change matter from one state to another 3. A change of state of matter involves: (a) an obsorption of heat, or (b) a release of heat. 4. Physical processes that can be change the state of matter are named below.

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1.Melting takes place when a solid is heated and changes into a liquid. 2. Heat is absorbed during melting. 3. When ice is heated, its particles (molecules) receive more energy and viberate faster. The energetic particles move away from their originally arranged positions. When this happens the ice melts. 4. A solid melts at a definite temperature called its melting points. (a) Ice melts at 0oC. (b) Iron melts at 1540oC.

1. Boiling takes place when a liquid is heated until it changes to a gas at its boiling point. 2. Heat is absorbed during boiling.

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3. When water is heated, its particles (molecules) receive more energy and move about very actively. When they get sufficient energy, they escape into the air as gas particles and boiling takes place. 4. A liquid boils at a fixed temperature called its boiling point. (a) Water boils at 100oC. (b) Ethanol (alcohol) boils at 78oC.

1. Evaporation is the process of changing a liquid into a gas at a temperature below the boiling point of the liquid. 2. Heat is required for evaporation to occur. 3. When a little alcohol is exposed to the air, its particles receive more energy from the heat in the air. The particles escape into the air when they gain sufficient kinetic energy. This happens below the boiling point of the liquid. 4. Different liquids evaporate at different rates e.g. alcohol evaporates faster than water. 5. How fast a liquid evaporates depends on: (a) wind movements (b) amount of water vapour in the air. (c) temperature of the air. (d) Surface area of liquid exposed to the air.

1. Condensation is the process of cooling a gas into a liquid. 2. Heat is removed from the gas during condensation. 3. When steam (gas) is cooled, its particles (water molecules) lose kinetic energy and come closer to one another. eventually the particles group together to form water. 4. Oxygen gas can be cooled and condensed to form liquid oxygen.

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1. Freezing is the process of cooling a liquid to form a solid. 2. Heat is removed from the liquid during freezinf. 3. When a liquid is cooled, its particles lose energy to the surroundings, move more slowly and come very close to one another. When the particles arrange themselves in an orderly manner, the liquid turns into a solid. 4. Different liquids turn into solids at different temperatures called freezing points. - Freezing point of naphthalene = 80oC. - Freezing point of water = 0oC. - Freezing point of nitrogen = -210oC.

1. Sublimation is the process of changing a solid to a vapour and then from the vapour into a solid, without going through the liquid state. 2. Heat is absorbed when the solid changes to vapour, and is lost when the vapour changes to a solid. 3. Ammonium chloride sublimes when it is heated. When heated, the particles of ammonium chloride gain energy and overcome the attracting forces between them. 4. Eventually the particles have sufficient energy to escape directly into the air without forming a liquid. 5. When the vapour particles are cooled, they lose energy and regroup themselves into a solid. 6. Examples of other substances which sublime are: (a) iodine (b) solid carbon dioxide (dry ice)

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7. Sublimation is used for purifying substances.

APPLICATIONS OF EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION OF MATTER

1. The expansion and contraction of matter is made use of in some gadgets such as thermometer, fire-alarms and thermostats. 2. Mercury thermometers. (a) A mercury thermometer has a bulb and a capillary tube filled with some mercury. (b) On a hot day, the mercury expands and rises in the capillary tube, showing a rise in temperature. (c) When it is cold, the mercury contracts and falls in the capillary tube, showing a fall in the capillary tube, showing a fall in temperature.

3. Fire-alarms (a) An automatic fire alarm has an electric circuit as shown in the diagram below. (b) In case of fire, the temperature in the room rises. The brass on the bimetallic strip expands more than the iron, causing the strip to bend towards the metal contact. (c) The circuit of the fire-alarm is closed and the alarm bell rings, warning people of the fire. 4. Thermostat in an electric iron. (a) A thermostat is a device used to keep an appliance or a place at a required

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temperature. (b) Thermostats are used in electric irons, electric kettles, refrigerators, ovens and air-conditioners. (c) An electric iron has a bimetallic thermostat which serves as a switch. (d) When the temperature of an electric iron in use gets too hot, the brass on the bimetallic strip expands more than the iron. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend upwards and break the circuit. (e) When the electric iron cools, the bimetallic strip returns to its former position and closes the circuit. (f) The required temperature is controlled by changing the gap between the bimetallic strip and the contact point. 5. Bimetallic thermometers (a) Bimetallic thermometers are used in ovens and motor vehicles. (b) A bimetallic thermometer has a bimetallic coil made of brass on the outer side and invar on the inner side. (c) When the temperature rises, the brass expands more than the invar causing the coil to bend inwards. This action turns the pointer to show a rise in temperature on the temperature scale. 6. Rivets (a) Rivets are used to join two metal plates. (b) The rivets are heated until red hot and are then harmmed into holes drilled through the metal plates. (c) The two metal plates become tightly joined when the rivets cool and contract.

1. Expansion and contraction of matter due to temperature changes gives rise to problems. 2. Railway lines. (a) Railway lines will buckle on a very hot day due to expansion of the lines. (b) To solve this problem, railway lines are laid in sections with gaps between them to allow room for expansion. 3. Steel bridges. (a) The expansion of a steel bridge on a hot day can exert great force which may demage the bridge. (b) A steel bridge is built with one end fixed and the other end resting in rollers. (c) This allows the bridge to expand on a hot day and contract on a cool day. 4. Telepgraph wires (a) Telegraph wires are put up so that they sag on a hot day. (b) This allows for the wires to contract at night when it is cold. 5. Concrete roads. (a) Roads built of concrete expand on hot days and crack.

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(b) To solve this problem, concrete roads are built with gaps in them to allow for expansion on a hot day. 6. Steam pipes. (a) Steam pipes made of metal become very hot and expand when they carry steam. They contract when they are not carrying steam. This expansion and contraction can break the pipes. (b) So steam pipes have expansion joints. These joints allow the pipes to expand and contract without breaking. ABSORPTION AND RADIATION OF HEAT

1. All objects can absorb, radiate (release heat by radiation) and reflect heat. 2. A black, dull object absorb heat better than a white, shiny object. 3. A black, dull object radiates heat better than a white, shiny object. 4. A white, shiny object, reflects heat better than a black, dull object. 5. Heat radiated or given out by an object depends on the following factors: (a) Temperature of object: the hotter the object compared to its surroundings, the faster it gives out heat. (b) Surface area of object: the bigger the surface area, the faster is the heat given out. (c) Type of surface of object: a dark, dull surfaces gives out heat faster than a white, shiny surface. (d) Material of object: different materials give out heat at different rates e.g. metals give out heat faster than non-metals.

Eksperiment 6

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Eksperimen 7

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1. In everyday life, white shiny surfaces are used to reflect heat or absorb less heat. (a) White clothes People in tropical countries wear white or light-coloured clothes because they absorb less heat than dark-coloured clothes. (b) White walls. The walls of houses are painted white so as to absorb less heat and keep the houses cooler. (c) Petrol storage tanks. These tanks are painted with aluminium paint so that they are shiny and reflect heat. This prevents the petrol inside the tanks from becoming too hot.

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(d) Iron helmets of fire-men These helmets are well polished so that they are shiny and reflect heat. With less heat absorbed, a fire-man wearing the helmet does not feel so hot. (e) Aluminium foils below roofs. Aluminium foils are placed below the tiles on a roof to reflect heat. This keeps the house cooler. 2. White shiny surfaces are used to reduce heat loss by radiation. (a) Tea pots Tea pots are made from shiny aluminium. This is to reduce heat loss by radiation from the hot tea in the pots. (b) Boilers Boilers for keeping hot water are painted with shiny aluminium paint to reduce heat loss by radiation from the hot water. 3. Black dull surfaces are used to absorb or lose heat quickly. (a) Solar water heaters. The pipes on a solar heater are black so that they can absorb heat quickly from the sun. (b) Back of refrigerator The black of a refrigerator is hot. By painting the back surface black, heat is quickly lost to the air. THE BENEFITS OF HEAT FLOW Using the Principle of Heat Flow 1. Heat flowing from one place to another is made use of to make our lives more comfortable. 2. Ventilation in a hot room. (a) Vertilation in a room uses the principle of convection. (b) Used hot air in the room rises and escapes through ventilators (air holes) in the upper section of the room. (c) Cool air from the outside enters the room through the opened windows, refreshing the air in the room. 3. Air-conditioners (a) An air-conditioner cools a room by convection. (b) An air-conditioner is fixed on the uper wall of a room. (c) The cold it produces is dense and moves downwards to push out the warm air in the room. (d) The warm air which is less dense rises and leaves through the air holes in the walls.

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4. Chimneys in cold countries. (a) In cold countries, the sitting room usually has a fire-place burning coal to warm the room in winter. (b) The heated air, being less dense, rises up the chimney and cooler air comes in through windows to take its place. (c) A convection current which is set up carries heat to all parts of the room. (d) The room is also warmed by radiation from the fire.

^-^ Writing by Andi nur aqilah 1rk4 Smk seri perling 1 nov-11 nov 2010