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RADIOGRAPHY

Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes


1. PRINCIPLES A source of penetrating radiation is placed on one side of a specimen and a detector of radiation on the other side. The penetrating radiation is absorbed selectively so that more radiation is absorbed through the thicker part of the specimen and less through the thinner part. The variations in thickness, the macroscopic flaws in the specimen, such as cavities, cracks, inclusions, etc. contribute to the selective absorption. Source- A gamma emitter or an X-ray machine. Detector- A photographic film, or a radiation counter, or an ionization chamber, or a fluorescent screen, or a semi conductor / photodiode material. The quality of the recorded image depends upon the nature and the size of the radiation, the atomic number of the specimen, the nature of the recording medium and the geometrical aspects. 2. PROPERTIES OF IONISING RADIATIONS2.1 Nature of X-Rays and Gamma-Rays X-rays and gamma rays are forms of electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the range 10-10 to 10-7 cm. X-rays are produced by allowing a beam of high energy electrons to hit a target and they originate from the electron orbits of the target atoms. Gamma rays are emitted from the nucleus of radioactive elements. The properties area) They travel at the speed of light b) They travel in straight lines c) They pass through materials of low density more readily than through high density materials d) The penetrating ability depends upon the wavelength e) They are invisible. f) They cause ionization of the matter as they pass through g) They can affect photographic emulsions h) They cause fluorescence in certain salts such as calcium tungstate The energy of the electromagnetic radiation is given by:

E=h = hc/

Where h is Planks constant and is the frequency of the radiation, c is the velocity that is 3x1010 c.m. per second and is the wavelength. It is sometimes more convenient to consider the electromagnetic radiation as corpuscular than wave-motion and the -8 term photon is used instead of quantum. The wavelength of the radiation is often given in Angstrom units(A). 1A=10 c.m. and energy of the radiation is measured in electron-Volts (eV), which is the energy acquired by an electron when accelerated through a potential difference of one volt. The electron-volt describes the quality of the radiation and this term is particularly used in the case of gamma rays. In the case of the X-rays, the term kilovoltage is conveniently used. 2.2 Atomic Structure Element- that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler substances. Atom- It has a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons moving in orbits. The number of the electrons determines the chemical properties. Nucleus- Contains protons and neutrons with the exception of hydrogen which has a proton and no neutron. The electrons have discrete energy levels in orbits K, L, M, N, etc. The K-shell, being closest to the nucleus contains electrons of the highest energy and thus these are tightly bound. The electrons in the outer orbits are loosely bound. Atomic Number= Number of protons, indicated by Z. Mass Number= the total number of protons and neutrons, indicated by A. The protons and neutrons are approximately equal in number. Isotopes are varieties of the same chemical element having the same number of protons and different numbers of neutrons and so different mass numbers. Many of the isotopes are radioactive since unstable and these are called radioisotopes. When an electron is removed from an atom, this becomes unstable and an electron from outer orbit jumps into the vacant orbit; the difference in energy between the electron orbits is emitted as a quantum of X-rays, characteristic X-rays. The shortest wavelength of Uranium K radiation is 0.11A i.e., 0.113MeV Isobars - Elements of same mass number but different number of protons. Isomers - Elements of same number of protons and neutrons but different modes of radioactive decay. ELEMENT 1 H1 4 He2 7 Li3 9 Be4 12 C6 27 AL13 59 Co27 59 Ni28 137 Ba56 192 Ir77 U92 K 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 L 1 2 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 M N O P Q

3 15 16 18 18 18

2 2 18 32 32

8 15 21

2 2 9

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

2.3. Generation of X-Rays When a filament is heated, it emits electrons. These electrons when accelerated by a potential difference are made to hit a target material of high melting point will produce X-rays. The kinetic energy of an electron accelerated by a potential difference of V volts is: mv2 = eV x 107 where m is the mass of the electron, e is its charge, and v is the velocity (from zero) the electron is accelerated to. An electron that stops completely in one collision on entering the target undergoes a complete energy conversion from kinetic to other forms of energy; gives the shortest wavelength x-ray. This energy is called the quantum limit. The wavelength for the quantum limit is = 1.234/kV where is in nanometers. The electron is decelerated in the electric field of the nucleus and the kinetic energy is partially transformed into a quantum of radiation whose minimum wavelength is, min = he/eV = 12.375/V Angstroms. This radiation is sometimes called bremsstrahlung (braking ray). h is the Plancks constant = 6.624 x 10-28 erg-s; c is the velocity of light = 2.998 x 1010 cm/s; e is the charge on the electron = -10 -28 4.8 x 10 esu; m is the mass of the electron = 9.11 x 10 gm= 1/1840 times the mass of a proton. A part of the energy of the electron is used up in removing an orbital electron. The X-ray photon thus has less energy than the original kinetic energy of the electron. Due to multiple collision of the speeding electron with the target, a continuous spectrum of X-rays is emitted which is also called white radiation. 2.4 Gamma-Rays Radioisotopes emit three types of radiation, namely, alpha, beta and gamma. 2 Alpha radiation- These are positively charged helium ions, He4. Beta radiation- These are negatively charged electrons. Gamma radiation- These are electromagnetic radiation without any charge. A radioisotope may emit one or more of the above radiation until it becomes stable. 2.5 Absorption of Radiation Includes a multiplicity of processes which can be summarized within absorption and scatter, which are interdependent. An incident photon (gamma or X-ray) either transfers its whole energy to the target particle and becomes extinct or transfers part of its energy and then is reflected in another direction. In the second case, the photon is said to be scattered. In both the cases, the target particle which is normally an electron, is dislodged from its orbit and this results in another burst of radiation. The scattered photon suffers another scatter if it has excess energy or else it is absorbed, and it is finally absorbed. The total absorption of the electromagnetic radiation can be expressed by: - x

I = I0 e

Where I0 is the incident intensity, I is the emergent intensity through the thickness X of the medium and called the linear absorption coefficient.

is a constant which is

coefficient divided by the number of atoms per unit volume. The term cross section is also used for various absorption and scattering processes, where the probability that a photon will be affected by the process in traversing a slab of material is called the cross-section for that process, expressed by the unit barn (1 barn = 10-24 cm2). Scattered RadiationA photon undergoes absorption by one or more of the following processes. Photoelectric absorption Raleigh scattering Compton scattering Pair production The total absorption is the sum of the above components. Photoelectric absorptionThe incident photon is completely absorbed as a result of the interaction and an orbital electron leaves the atom or reabsorbed, and any energy in excess of the binding energy imparts kinetic energy to the electron. This type of absorption occurs when the photon energy is proximate to the binding energy of the K and L shells of the target atoms. For materials of low atomic number and photon energies greater than 100KeV, the photoelectric effect has almost negligible effect in absorption. The atom that has lost an electron is said to be ionized and the ejected electron loses energy by producing a series of ion pairs as it travels through the material. At low photon energy, That is 50 KeV for Al 500 KeV for Pb

depends upon Z, density and energy of the medium. The mass absorption coefficient is /, where is the density of the absorbing material. The atomic absorption coefficient a, is the linear absorption

Z ; E being the energy of the photon. The cross section (probability of occurrence) of the event is 1/E Raleigh ScatteringAt low photon energies with high atomic number targets, the photon is reflected rather than absorbed without loss of energy in the forward direction. Compton ScatteringThe photon is inelastically scattered and the electron recoils out of the atom with the photon still travelling in the forward but at an inclination to the primary photon direction at a lower energy. For a high photon energy, there will be multiple Compton scattering ending with photoelectric absorption. Large secondary radiation is associated with Compton scattering. The Compton scattering is predominant in the industrial radiography.
7.5 5

Probability

Z/E
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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes
Pair ProductionFor photon energies more than 1.02 MeV. In this process, the incident photon disappears, and an electron-positron pairs are produced of 0.51 MeV each and any excess energy is imparted as kinetic energy to the pair. The positrons have short life, and their annihilation is accompanied by the emission of two photons of 0.5MeV each, traveling in opposite directions. The electrons may produce bremsstrahlung (braking ray). Probability Z(Z+1)/log (E0 1.02) For Steel <100KeV, Photoelectric effect 100 KeV to 3 MeV , Compton effect > 3 MeV , Pair production. - x I = I0 B e , where B is the buildup factor which is equal to (1+ Is/Id) where Is is the intensity of the scatter under the broad beam condition and Id is the intensity of the direct radiation. Buildup factor has great significance in the radiographic sensitivity. is also called the total absorption coefficient, as it is the sum of the absorption coefficients due to the three effects. Half Value ThicknessIt is the thickness of the material that will reduce the intensity of the beam to half its value. HVT= 0.693/ Tenth Value ThicknessThe thickness of the material that will reduce the intensity by a factor of 10. Tenth VT = 2.303/ In practice, or HVT is not constant for a particular beam due to inhomogeniety from scatter and hence the thickness of the absorber at which the measurement is made must be stated. For instance, the HVT for steel under practical broad beam conditions is 12.7 mm while the same under narrow beam conditions is 33mm maximum. Scattered Radiation and Radiographic Sensitivity-

x is the minimum thickness that can be detected. D is the minimum density difference GD is the film gradient x/x is called the thickness sensitivity. This equation is of fundamental importance in industrial radiography.
Gamma-ray sourcesIr-192, Co-60, Tm-170, Cs-137 are a few of the industrial isotopes commonly used. Iridium-192 Cobalt-60 Thulium-170 Particles emitted , , , Principal energies 0.296,0.31, 1.17,1.33() 0.968,0.884() (MeV) 0.32,0.47() Half life 74.4 days 5.3 years 127 days Useful thickness range in steel up to 100mm 100-200mm up to 6mm

x = 2.3 D (1+Is/Id) GD

Cesium-137 , 0.52,1.17() 30 years 40-100mm

Selenium-75 0.136,0.265 114 0-35 mm

Half life of other sources: Se-75 - 114 days Yt-169 - 32 days Am 241 Be - 452 years Radium-226 - 1590 years Disintegration Mechanism1. Emission of an alpha particle 2. Emission of a beta particle 3. Emission of a gamma ray 4. Electron capture. Radioisotope decayN = N0 x e - t where N is the number of nuclei at time t and , the disintegration constant. This can be expressed in terms of intensities of radioactivity, that is, in curie strength. I = I0 X e - t Half life T1/2 = 0.693/ Unit of RadioactivityCurie = No. of disintegrations per second = 3.7x 1010 dps -1 SI Unit Becquerel (Bq), is equivalent to reciprocal second (s ), 1 Bq = 2.703 x 10-11 curies 1 Curie = 3.7x1010 bequerels

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes
Rhm = Roentgens per hour at one meter per curie = Radiation output; this is of practical use in industrial radiography. The value is 0.5 for Ir-192, 1.3 for Co-60, 0.37 for Cs-137 and 0.0025 for Tm-170. K-factor = The no. of roentgens per hour at 1 cm from a 1mCi source of a gamma-ray emitter. This is also called specific gamma-ray emission. Specific activity - Measured in curies per gram. Higher specific activity means smaller physical size of source. Other properties of industrial radioisotopesIr-192 Co-60 Tm-170 Cs-137 Chemical form Ir Co Tm2O3 CsCl Density 22.4 8.9 4 3.5 Practical Sp. Activity 350 50 1000 25 Practical Curies/cc 8000 450 4000 90 Practical Rhm/cc 4400 600 10 33

PRODUCTION OF GAMMA-RAY SOURCESNaturally available radioisotope - Radium-226 (half-life 1590 years). Artificial sources are produced by (n, reaction in a nuclear reactor. 59 e.g., + 0n1 27Co60 + 27Co Other (n, ) reactions are, 77Ir191 (n, ) Cs-137 is a fission product.
77Ir 192

69Tm

169

(n, )

170 . 69Tm

Approximate HVL for Various Materials When Radiation is from a Gamma Source Half-Value Layer, mm (inch) Source Iridium-192 Cobalt-60 Concrete 44.5 (1.75) 60.5 (2.38) Steel 12.7 (0.5) 21.6 (0.85) Lead 4.8 (0.19) 12.5 (0.49) Tungsten 3.3 (0.13) 7.9 (0.31) Uranium 2.8 (0.11) 6.9 (0.27)

Approximate Half-Value Layer for Various Materials When Radiation is from a X-ray Source Half-Value Layer, mm (inch) Peak Voltage (kVp) 50 100 150 200 250 300 400 1000 Lead 0.06 (0.002) 0.27 (0.010) 0.30 (0.012) 0.52 (0.021) 0.88 (0.035) 1.47 (0.055) 2.5 (0.098) 7.9 (0.311) Concrete 4.32 (0.170) 15.10 (0.595) 22.32 (0.879) 25.0 (0.984) 28.0 (1.102) 31.21 (1.229) 33.0 (1.299) 44.45 (1.75)

Note: The values presented on this page are intended for educational purposes. Other sources of information should be consulted when designing shielding for radiation sources.

The approximate half and tenth thickness values for various shielding materials for 75Sentinel source capsules was calculated using the MCBEND code. These values are shown in table 3. 1/2 Thickness Value 1/10th Thickness Value (mm) (inches) (mm) (inches) Aluminum 27 1.06 80 3.15 Steel 8 0.315 27.5 1.08 Lead 1 0.0394 4.75 0.187 Tungsten 0.8 0.0315 4.0 0.157 Concrete 30 1.18 90 3.54 1 th 75 ntinel Approximate 1/2 and /10 Thickness Values for Various Shielding Materials for Se Sources Shielding Material

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes
APPROXIMATE RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENCE FACTORS To radiograph 0.5 inch of Cu at 220 kV, multiply 0.5 inch by the factor 1.4, obtaining an equivalent thickness of 0.7 inch of steel. Therefore, give the exposure required for 0.7 inch of steel. APPROXIMATE RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENCE FACTORS

Material Magnesium Aluminium 2024 Al Alloy Titanium Steel SS 304 Copper Zinc Brass * Inconel X Zirconium Lead Uranium

50 kV 0.6 1.0 2.2

100kV 0.6 1.0 1.6 12 12 18 16

150kV 0.5 0.12 0.16 0.45 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.4 2.3 14

220kV 0.08 0.18 0.22 0.35 1.0 1.0 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 2.0 12 25

400kV

1000kV

2000kV

4 to 25MeV

Ir 192 0.35 0.35

Co 60 0.35 0.35 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.3 2.3 3.4

1.0 1.0 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3

1.0 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.0 5

1.0 1.0 1.2 1.3 2.5

1.0 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 3 3.9

1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 4 12.6

ALUMINIUM is taken as the standard metal at 50 kV and 100 kV and STEEL at higher kV. Tin and lead alloyed in the brass will increase these factors.

IQI SELECTION (Ref: Table T-276 of ASME Sec.V- 2001 Edition) Nominal Single-Wall Material Thickness Range (mm) IQI Source Side Hole-Type Designation Up to 6.4, incl. Over 6.4 through 9.5 Over 9.5 through 12.7 Over 12.7 through 19.0 Over 19.0 through 25.4 Over 25.4 through 38.1 Over 38.1 through 50.8 Over 50.8 through 63.5 Over 63.5 through 101.6 12 15 17 20 25 30 35 40 50 Wire-Type Essential-Wire 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Film Side Hole-Type Designation 10 12 15 17 20 25 30 35 40 Wire-Type Essential-Wire 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Set A Diameter 0.08 0.1 0.13 0.16 0.20 0.25

WIRE IQI DESIGNATION, WIRE DIAMETER AND WIRE IDENTITY Set B Set C Set D Identity Diameter Identity Diameter Identity Diameter Identity 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.25 0.33 0.41 0.51 0.64 0.81 6 7 8 9 10 11 0.81 1.02 1.27 1.60 2.03 2.54 11 12 13 14 15 16 2.54 3.20 4.06 5.08 6.35 8.13 16 17 18 19 20 21

Radiographic sensitivity and sensitivity to defects are NOT the same. Better radiographic sensitivity will allow adequate defect images to be seen more readily and/or clearly, but will NOT allow inadequate defect images to be seen. The adequacy of image quality in respect of defect detection depends upon both the nature and orientation of the defect. For volumetric defects, defect size and the difference in absorption between the defect and the background control the adequacy of

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes
the image. For planar defects, defect size and orientation dominate in determining the adequacy of an image and indeed whether an image is formed. Thus large planar defects oriented at unsuitable angles relative to the beam, can give no visible image even with very high radiographic sensitivity. IQI is measure of the photographic sensitivity of the radiograph (not sensitivity to defects).

EN 462 WIRE DIAMETER Wire No. Wire Dia(mm) 1 3.2 2 2.5 3 2.0 4 1.6 5 1.25 6 1.0 7 0.8 8 0.625 9 0.5 10 0.4 11 0.32 12 0.25 13 0.2 14 0.16 15 0.12 16 0.1 17 0.08 18 0.062 19 0.05

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V GEOMETRIC UNSHARPNESS LIMITATIONS Level 2 Notes

Geometric Unsharpness = Ug = Focal Spot Size X b/a

Effect of Source size and Distance on Penumbra-

Material Thickness (mm) Ug, Max. (mm) Under 50.8 0.51 50.8 to 76.2 (incl) 0.76 76.2 to 101.6 (incl) 1.02 Greater than 101.6 1.78 Material thickness is the thickness on which the IQI is placed.

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

FACTORS INFLUENCING SENSITIVITY

CONTRAST Contrast is the difference in density between adjacent areas on a radiograph. The greater the difference in densities, the greater the contrast. Subject contrast is the ratio of beam intensities transmitted by two selected portions of a specimen. It depends on the nature of the specimen, the energy of the radiation used, and the intensity and distribution of the scattered radiation, but is independent of time, mA or curie, and distance and of the characteristics or treatment of the film. Film contrast refers to the slope of the characteristic curve of the film. It depends on the type of film, the processing it receives, and the density. It also depends on whether the film is exposed with lead screens (or direct) or with fluorescent screens. Film contrast is independent, for most practical purposes, of the wavelengths and distribution of the radiation reaching the film, and hence is independent of subject contrast. DEFINITION Definition is the sharpness of the dividing line between areas of differing density. It is a function of film, type of screen used, the radiation energy and geometry of image formation, and can be assessed by measuring the width on the film of the region over which the density change occurs. Film unsharpness can be assessed by taking a radiograph of a sharp edge as in a step wedge with the beam accurately aligned with the step, and then measuring the variation in density with a micro-line densitometer. Density can be plotted against distance.

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

DENSITY

Film Percent Transmittance Density Transmittance (I0/It) Log(I0/It) 1.0 100% 0 0.1 10% 1 0.01 1% 2 0.001 0.1% 3 0.0001 0.01% 4 0.00001 0.001% 5 0.000001 0.0001% 6 0.0000001 0.00001% 7

FILM UNSHARPNESS VALUES Radiation 100 kV X-rays 200 kV X-rays 400 kV X-rays 2 MV X-rays 8 MV X-rays Iridium-192 Cobalt-60 Yb-169 Uf (mm) 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.32 0.60 0.17 0.35 0.07-0.13

RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS CONSTRUCTION Generally coated with Silver halide both sides of the base.

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

BaseCellulose nitrate is flammable and hence not used now. Instead, polyester is used; this has good transparency, high tensile strength and dimensional stability. Substratum (subbing layer)It is the adhesive between the emulsion and the base. It is composed of emulsion and base solvent. Prevents separation of the base from the emulsion. EmulsionIt consists of silver halides suspended in gelatin. Silver halides are produced by adding a solution of silver nitrate to a solution of potassium bromide, potassium iodide, potassium chloride or some combination of these. This is then mixed with gelatin. Silver halides from minute crystals or grains throughout the gelatin as it solidifies. The rate and method of mixing with the gelatin determines the speed and characteristics of the emulsion. The silver halide crystals are produced with a negatively charged bromide ions, a bromide barrier. During exposure, the barrier is broken or weakened and free electrons are produced either within the emulsion or specks of metallic silver which form development centers. Each development center consists of a few atoms of metallic silver and therefore cannot be seen. This is known as the latent image. The metallic silver of the latent image acts as a catalyst, causing the developer to convert the rest of the grains containing these silver specks to metallic silver. This process is aided by the breakdown or weakening by the radiation, of the bromide barrier around these grains. SupercoatThis is a protective layer of clear gelatin. A hardener may also be added to provide abrasion resistance. Film Characteristic Curve (also called Sensitometric Curve)-

Slope of the Curve gives the gradient or the contrast of the film; steeper the slope, better the contrast.

The film characteristic curve is independent of the quality of radiation. Page 10 of 63

RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V
SCREEN TYPE FILMS Uses fluorescent salt screens short exposures used in the medical field DIRECT TYPE FILM Known also as non-screen type. Used with or without lead screens requires long exposure records fine details FILM STORAGE Base fog level shall not be increased. 1. Keep away from radiation sources 2. Keep films cool 3. Keep dry 4. Keep away from chemicals and fumes 5. Store on edge to prevent pressure marks FILM PACKAGING 1. Boxed films2. Envelope Packed with/without lead screens 3. Roll Pack (Ready Pack) with/without lead screens DARKROOMS AND FILM PROCESSING The size, layout and equipment of a darkroom will depend on its use, the number of operators working at any one time, available space. Each room must be away from radiation sources and lightproof with no stray light from around or under doors. Drainage and a hot and cold water supply are essential as well as heating for the processing unit. Ease of cleaning is important. Safe lighting should be provided. The processing unit should be as far away as possible from the loading or dry bench. Access to darkrooms should be possible without interrupting work by opening doors. DEVELOPMENT Actions and chemicalsThe primary purpose of the developer is to amplify the effect of exposure by converting the latent image into black metallic silver. There are four constituents of a developer bath. Developing AgentConverts the exposed silver halides into black metallic silver. Metol-hydroquinone or phenidone-hydroquinone. AcceleratorA buffer which keeps the solution alkaline, which is the condition required if the developing agent is to continue working. Sodium carbonate. RestrainerControls the activity of the developing agent and ensures only the exposed silver halides are converted to black metallic silver. Potassium bromide PreservativePrevents the developing agent from being oxidized by air and thus rendering it useless. Sodium sulphite Developers must always be mixed with warm water and dilution rates must be in accordance with manufacturers instructions. Replenisher contains the original mix of chemicals augmented by additional chemicals to prolong the life of the developer. Method of Development3 to 5 minutes at 20C. Higher the temperature, the more rapid its action. Above 25C, the emulsion becomes soft and swollen. Below 14C, time and temperature cease to have a relationship. Brisk agitation for 10-15 seconds every minute so that there are no air bubbles trapped on the surface. During agitation, the by-products released will not leave flow marks. Agitation should be in the up and down movement. Another method of agitation is by using frequent bursts of inert gas, usually nitrogen. Compressed air should not be used, as it will increase oxidation. Drain the excess developer. Replenish the tank as per manufacturers recommendation. RINSE Rinsing is done in running water to remove the developer from the film. STOP BATH An alternative to rinsing is to use a stop bath. This is typically a 3% solution of glacial acetic acid. The acid neutralizes the alkalinity of the developer. Litmus papers can be used to check the state of the stop bath. Do not top up the acid to avoid staining.

Level 2 Notes

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes
There is a commercially available stop bath solution that contains a dye that is amber while the solution is acid, but as the solution nears neutral or alkaline, the colour turns purple. FIXER Used to remove the unexposed, undeveloped silver halides so producing a stable image. Sodium thiosulphate or ammonium thiosulphate is used as a silver halide solvent. Acetic acid is also included to toughen the emulsion against abrasion and reduces the volume of water absorbed by the emulsion. Generally, the hardeners used are aluminium potassium sulphate (potash alum) or potassium chromium sulphate (chrome alum). The fixing time shall be twice the clearing time; general fixing time is 8 to 10 minutes. Prolonged fixing in excess of 30 minutes will result in the thiosulphates dissolving the black silver image causing the bleaching of the image. Bleaching occurs very rapidly in the presence of air. WASHING After fixation, the film emulsion is saturated with fixer solution. The thiosulphate complexes in solution are unstable and would cause discoloration and bleaching. It is essential, therefore, that all films are thoroughly washed before drying and storage. The most common method of washing is by using running water. Cascading. Typical washing times are in the order of 20 to 30 minutes. WETTING AGENTS Used to reduce the surface tension of the water and so to reduce the thickness of water layer on the film. This will reduce the probability of drying marks and give a slight decrease in drying time. Immersion time 10-15 seconds. DRYING Excessive drying can cause the emulsion to become brittle. Temperatures of 30-40C and a relative humidity of less than 60% are sufficient for practical purposes. TESTING FOR FIXER REMOVAL ARCHIVAL WASHING Hypo test solution Water 28% Acetic Acid Silver Nitrate (Crystals) Water to make - 750 mL - 125 mL - 7.5 grams - 1 litre

(To make approximately 28% acetic acid from glacial acetic acid, dilute 3 parts of glacial acetic acid with 8 parts of water. Store the solution in a screw cap or glass-stoppered brown bottle away from strong light. Avoid contact of test solution with the hands, clothing, negatives, prints, or undeveloped photographic materials; otherwise black stains may result. The KODAK Hypo Estimator consists of four colour patches reproduced on a strip of transparent plastic. It is used in conjunction with KODAK Hypo Test Solution. For use in the test, an unexposed piece of film of the same type is processed with the radiographs whose fixer content is to be determined. After the test film is dried, one drop of the solution is placed on it and allowed to stand for 2 minutes. The excess test solution is then blotted off, and the stain on the film compared with the color patches of the Hypo Estimator. The comparison should be made on a conventional X-ray illuminator. Direct sunlight should be avoided since it will cause the spot to darken rapidly. For commercial use, the test spot should be no darker than two thicknesses of Patch 4 of the Hypo Estimator. Two thicknesses can be obtained by folding the estimator along the center of the patch. RECIPROCITY LAW FAILURE The Bunsen-Roscoe reciprocity law states that the resultant of a photochemical reaction is dependent only on the product (I x t) of the radiation intensity (I) and the duration of the exposure (t), and is independent of the absolute values of either quantity. Applied to radiography, this means that the developed density in a film depends only on the product of x- or gamma-ray intensity reaching the film and the time of exposure. The reciprocity law is valid for direct X-ray or gamma-ray exposures, or those made with lead foil screens, over a range of radiation intensities and exposure times much greater than those normally used in practice. It fails, however, for exposures to light and, therefore, for exposures using fluorescent intensifying screens. The logarithms of the exposures (I x t) that produce a given density are plotted against the logarithms of the individual intensities. It can be seen that for a particular intensity, the exposure required to produce the given density is a minimum. It is for this intensity of light that the film is most efficient in its response. For light intensities higher and lower than this, the exposure required to produce the given density is greater than (I x t). Phrased differently, there is a certain intensity of light for which a particular film is most efficient in its response. In radiography with fluorescent screens, the failure of the reciprocity law sometimes gives results that appear to be a failure of the inverse square law.

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

In most industrial radiography, the brightness of fluorescent intensifying screens is very low, and the exposures used lie on the left-hand branch of the curve.

METAL INTENSIFYING SCREENS RADIATION SCREEN MATERIAL FRONT SCREEN THICKNESS (mm) None 0.025-0.05 0.05-0.15 1.5-2.0 1.5-2.0 1.0-1.5 0.05-0.15 0.05-0.15 0.5-2.0 BACK SCREEN THICKNESS (mm) (Minimum) 0.2 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.5-2.0 None 0.15 0.15 0.25-1.0

120 kV Lead 120-250 kV Lead 250-400 kV Lead 1 MV X-rays Lead 5-10 MV X-rays Copper 15-31MV X-rays Tantalum Ir-192 Lead Cs-137 Lead Co-60 Copper Steel

FLUOROMETALLIC SCREENS SPEED FACTORS MATERIAL THICKNESS (mm) 25 37 50 60 LEAD SCREEN EXPOSURE TIME 50s 260s 15 mins 24 mins FLUOROMETALLIC SCREENS EXPOSURE TIME 5s 38s 3 mins 8 mins SPEED FACTOR 10:1 7:1 5:1 3:1

METAL SCREENS Intensification is due to the photoelectric, and Compton scattering processes; electrons are emitted by the screen. Lead, being of high atomic number, releases high quantity of electrons. The lead is alloyed with antimony or bismuth to harden and improve abrasion resistance. The intensification is about double thus halving the exposure time. For RT with Co-60, copper or steel screens produce a better image, but the exposure time is doubled. Additionally, scatter is absorbed. In addition to the intensifying effect, metal screens have an important part in the reduction of scatter reaching the film by absorbing the low energy scattered radiation. SALT SCREENS Fluorescent salts, usually calcium tungstate, emit visible light when exposed to radiation. This offers higher intensification at the cost of definition. Scatter is not reduced with salt screens. The light emitted is not directly proportional to the intensity of radiation and so the reciprocity law fails. FLUOROMETALLIC SCREENS A thin layer, typically 100-200 microns thick, of calcium tungstate is coated onto a lead screen. The film receives light and electrons from the screens. Only a few films are suitable for use with these screens. Reciprocity law fails. These screens respond better at low temperatures. Salt screens if contaminated with dust or fibres will reveal them in the radiograph. Scratches or cracks will show indication on the radiograph. CONTROL OF SCATTER This is the secondary radiation emitted from any source other than that giving the primary desired rectilinear propagation. The effect of scatter is poorer contrast and definition and spurious indications; also creates difficulties with radiation protection. Scatter is produced by low energy radiation. Scatter is produced as an effect of Compton and photoelectric effects. After a few collisions of the photon with the electrons in the medium, the direction of the scattered radiation may be in a direction that is opposite to the original direction of the primary beam. Scatter from the side as well as from the backside (back scatter) will cause fuzzy image. It is the electrons created in the lead intensifying screen that help in the formation of the image in the film. Hence the thin front screens of 0.005 inch thickness in general are useful in producing image forming electrons while cutting off the scattered radiation. A screen thickness of 0.005 inch in the front and 0.010 inch thick in the rear may also be useful in the 1 to 2 Mev X-rays. Thicker screens will produce high energy electrons in the multimillion volt X-ray radiography that can cause further secondary radiation. However, thicker screens prohibit intimate contact with the film thus affecting definition and this may warrant the use of vacuum cassettes.

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes
Scatter originating from matter outside the specimen is more serious. Here, filters made of lead or copper are useful in reducing the diverging beam. Filters help in reducing excessive subject contrast by absorbing soft components of the radiation. However, it must be recognized that filtering will increase the exposure time. Further filters near the tube do not help in the million volt radiography in improving the quality of the image. When a high quality is expected in multimillion volt radiography, a comparatively thin front screen (about 0.005 inch) is used, and the back screen is eliminated. This necessitates a considerable increase in exposure time. Collimation, beam filtration (0.5 to 1 mm thick lead), blocking edges to reduce undercutting of radiation, use of grids on between object and film (moved sideways during exposure), increased beam energy (scatter is in the forward direction) are a few of the methods to reduce scatter. Scatter hitting the film under thick portion of an object through the thin portion is called undercut.

SPURIOUS INDICATIONS (or ARTIFACTS) These are caused by incorrect processing or careless handling of the film. Occasionally they may be due to manufacturing faults. May give rise to misinterpretation. ARTEFACTS ARISING BEFORE EXPOSURE 1. Film mottle: due to use of old film 2. Radiation fogging: this occurs when the film is stored too close to a source of radiation, or when a film is inadvertently left in the exposure bay during the exposure of another film. 3. Light fog: caused by storage of film in a faulty storage box or bin; leaving the lid off the box; exposure to white light in a faulty dark room; the use of the wrong type of safelight; too strong a bulb in the safelight; or to the use of a faulty film holder. It is usually local, but may be an overall fog. 4. Pressure markings: due to clumsy handling of the film when loading or unloading the cassette or film holder. They are often in the shape of dark or light crescents. If dark, they are caused by local pressure on the film after exposure; if light they are caused by local pressure on the film before exposure. 5. Scratch marks: usually caused by a fingernail or abrasive material. 6. Static: this has the appearance of dark branched and jagged fine lines; it is due to electric discharges on the surface of the emulsion when the film is removed rapidly from a tight wrapper; it is very rare. 7. High or low density finger marks: caused when handling the film with greasy or chemically stained fingers. 8. Low density patches or smears: due to splashes of water or fixing solution on the film. 9. Dark patches or smears: due to splashes of developer on the film. 10. Radioactive spotting: this occurs as very intense black spots, often with a halo round them; caused by radioactive contamination of the wrapping paper; now very rare. 11. Light spots: caused by dust particles between the film and intensifying screens. ARTEFACTS CAUSED DURING EXPOSURE 2,3 and 4 above; and: 12. Screen marks: due to contamination of the intensifying screens with chemicals, or to defects in the screens such as cracking or buckling, or to the presence of dust. ARTEFACTS CAUSED DURING PROCESSING 3,4,7 and 10 above; and: 13. Air bells: these are shown as discs of lower density, caused by air trapped on the surface of the emulsion, usually during the early stages of development, due to insufficient initial agitation. 14. Patchiness or streaks: due to inefficient agitation during development, or failure to agitate in the rinsing bath; quite common. 15. Oxidation (aerial) fog: caused by excessive exposure of the film to air during development. 16. Neighbourhood effects: these are shown as streaks from part of the image and are due to insufficient agitation during development, especially when the image contains a sharp boundary separating areas of high and low density. 17. Reticulation: this has the appearance of leather grain and is due to rupture of the emulsion caused by great differences in temperature between successive processing solutions; now very rare. 18. Drying marks: these are due to drops or streaks of water remaining on the surface of the film after it has been partially dried and they often occur when attempting to dry films rapidly at a high temperature in a drying cabinet; quite common. DIFFRACTION (MOTTLE) This gives rise to images on film of a dark line accompanied by a light line and in welds can give a herringbone pattern. A change in beam angle or kilovoltage alters the pattern and therefore allows diffraction mottling to be identified as a spurious indication.

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

Defects
Cluster porosity Excess penetration External Undercut Internal undercut Lack of penetration Tungsten Inclusion Slag line

Definition
Rounded/elongated cavities due to entrapped gas in clusters Excess weld metal at root of weld Groove/channel in surface of plate along the edge Groove in main object stretched along the edge at bottom/inner surface of weld Lack of fusion in root of weld/a gap left by failure of weld metal to fill the root Small pieces of tungsten entrapped during welding Elongated cavities contain slag/other lower density foreign matter

Radiographic Appearance
Rounded/slightly elongated dark spots occur in cluster Lighter density in centre of weld image occur either extended along weld/in isolated circular drops Irregular dark density line following the edge of weld image Irregular dark density near centre of weld and along edge of root pass image Dark continuous/intermittent line in centre of weld Irregular lower density spots randomly located in weld image Darker density lines irregular in width and parallel to edge of weld Elongated parallel/single darker density lines sometimes darker density spots dispersed along LOF lines which are very straight in lengthwise direction & not winding like elongated slag line Sharply defined dark shadows of rounded contour Abrupt change in film density across width of weld image Elongated parallel dark lines irregular in width; occurs in SAW welding White spots near weld Dark continuous/intermittent line along length of weld Fine crack line straight/wandering in direction running across width of weld image Localized darker density with fuzzy edges in centre of weld image; circular or slightly oval

Lack of fusion Scatter porosity Mismatch Wagon tracks Weld spatter Longitudinal crack Transverse crack Burn through

Elongated voids between weld and base metal Cavities due to entrapped gas Nonalignment of plates to be welded Elongated cavities contain slag/foreign matter in a line on both side of root Spilled weld metal near weld Discontinuity produced by fracture in weld metal longitudinal to weld Discontinuity produced by fracture in weld metal across weld Severe depression/crater type hole at bottom of weld

RADIATION MONITORING INSTRUMENTS Ionisation Chamber The passage of radiation through a gas causes ionization. If this ionization occurs in a tube in which a moderate voltage is applied across two electrodes, then the negative ions will flow to the positive electrode, and the positive ions flow to the negative electrode and an electric current is set up in the system. Geiger-Muller Counter The detector tube is filled with gas at low pressure and a higher voltage is used. When the radiation causes ionization, a single ion can create further ionization by an avalanche effect. The ions are collected and recorded as pulses per unit time. It is not equally responsive to all energies, therefore correction charts are required to convert counts per second into Gy, mGy or Gy per hour. Most instruments are compensated Geiger-Muller tubes, that is the tube has a metal filter to even out the differences in energy. Scintillation Counter Certain crystals, e.g. sodium iodide, emit flashes of light, scintillations, when the crystal absorbs photons of radiation. When coupled to a photo multiplier tube these scintillations are converted into electrical pulses which are then amplified and displayed. Film Badge This relies on the photographic effect of radiation. The density of the processed film is measured and by using a density/dose curve the dose can be assessed. By using a holder with various filters, information on the type and energy of radiation can be deduced.

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Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

Thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) Lithium fluoride has the ability to absorb radiation and store it. When heated to around 200C, the radiation is emitted in the form of visible light, the amount of light is proportional to the dose of radiation received. In practice the light is measured in a computer operated system and dose records are kept on the computer store. After further heat treatment, the dosemeter is sent back to the wearer for further use. Quartz Fibre Electroscope (dose meter) This is a pocket dosemeter about the size of a large pen and gives a visual indication of accumulated dose. It consists of a small ionizing chamber in which a quartz fibre is attached to a charging pin. When the pin is charged, the quartz fibre deflected. On exposure to radiation, ionization of the gas within the chamber allows the fibre to discharge and its deflection is reduced. A lens system allows the position of the fibre on a calibrated scale to be read and this gives the dose received. Audible Monitors These form another type of pocket dosemeter. They are electronic and a bleeper is triggered when a predetermined dose level is exceeded. Some of these types have a LED display of dose level and/or accumulated dose.

EXPOSURE DEVICE

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES Level 2 Notes

SWSI (Single wall Single Image) Single wall exposure Single wall viewing.
Radiation passes through only wall. IQI based on single wall thickness plus reinforcement. Source side IQI. Multiple exposures required.

SWSI (Single wall Single Image) Single wall exposure Single wall viewing.
Radiation passes through only wall. IQI based on single wall thickness plus reinforcement. Source side IQI. Multiple exposures required.

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

DWSI (Double Wall Single Image)

OR

DWE / SWV (Double Wall Exposure Single Wall Viewing)


IQI on film side. IQI based on single wall thickness. Will require 3 or more exposures based on t, D & SFD. Weld nearest the film interpreted.

DWSI (Double Wall Single Image)

OR

DWE / SWV (Double Wall Exposure Single Wall Viewing)


IQI on film side. IQI based on single wall thickness. Will require 3 or more exposures based on t, D & SFD. Source must be offset particularly when placed away from the nearest wall. Weld nearest the film interpreted.

DWDI (Double Wall Double Image) Elliptical image.

OR

DWE / DWV (Double Wall Exposure / Double Wall Viewing) IQI based on single wall thickness as per ASME. IQI Source side as per ASME. Will require 2 exposures depending upon pipe diameter and wall thickness. Applicable for narrow cap width (low wall thickness).

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

DWDI (Double Wall Double Image) Image of both walls superimposed.

OR

DWE/DWV (Double Wall Exposure Double Wall Viewing) IQI based on single wall thickness as per ASME. IQI Source side as per ASME. Will require 3 exposures. Applicable for large cap width (thicker pipes) Both walls interpreted.

PANORAMIC EXPOURE (SWSI) Source at the center of the pipe. Complete weld is radiographed in one exposure. Source side IQI required. 3 IQI equispaced.

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Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

Radiograph Interpretation - Welds In addition to producing high quality radiographs, the radiographer must also be skilled in radiographic interpretation. Interpretation of radiographs takes place in three basic steps: (1) detection, (2) interpretation, and (3) evaluation. All of these steps make use of the radiographer's visual acuity. Visual acuity is the ability to resolve a spatial pattern in an image. The ability of an individual to detect discontinuities in radiography is also affected by the lighting condition in the place of viewing, and the experience level for recognizing various features in the image. The following material was developed to help students develop an understanding of the types of defects found in weldments and how they appear in a radiograph. Discontinuities Discontinuities are interruptions in the typical structure of a material. These interruptions may occur in the base metal, weld material or "heat affected" zones. Discontinuities, which do not meet the requirements of the codes or specifications used to invoke and control an inspection, are referred to as defects. General Welding Discontinuities The following discontinuities are typical of all types of welding. Cold lap is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal or the previous weld pass material (interpass cold lap). The arc does not melt the base metal sufficiently and causes the slightly molten puddle to flow into the base material without bonding.

Porosity is the result of gas entrapment in the solidifying metal. Porosity can take many shapes on a radiograph but often appears as dark round or irregular spots or specks appearing singularly, in clusters, or in rows. Sometimes, porosity is elongated and may appear to have a tail. This is the result of gas attempting to escape while the metal is still in a liquid state and is called wormhole porosity. All porosity is a void in the material and it will have a higher radiographic density than the surrounding area.

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

. Cluster porosity is caused when flux coated electrodes are contaminated with moisture. The moisture turns into a gas when heated and becomes trapped in the weld during the welding process. Cluster porosity appear just like regular porosity in the radiograph but the indications will be grouped close together.

Slag inclusions are nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld and base metal. In a radiograph, dark, jagged asymmetrical shapes within the weld or along the weld joint areas are indicative of slag inclusions.

Incomplete penetration (IP) or lack of penetration (LOP) occurs when the weld metal fails to penetrate the joint. It is one of the most objectionable weld discontinuities. Lack of penetration allows a natural stress riser from which a crack may propagate. The appearance on a radiograph is a dark area with well-defined, straight edges that follows the land or root face down the center of the weldment.

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

Incomplete fusion is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal. Appearance on radiograph: usually appears as a dark line or lines oriented in the direction of the weld seam along the weld preparation or joining area.

Internal concavity or suck back is a condition where the weld metal has contracted as it cools and has been drawn up into the root of the weld. On a radiograph it looks similar to a lack of penetration but the line has irregular edges and it is often quite wide in the center of the weld image.

Internal or root undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the root of the weld. In the radiographic image it appears as a dark irregular line offset from the centerline of the weldment. Undercutting is not as straight edged as LOP because it does not follow a ground edge.

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

External or crown undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the crown of the weld. In the radiograph, it appears as a dark irregular line along the outside edge of the weld area.

Offset or mismatch are terms associated with a condition where two pieces being welded together are not properly aligned. The radiographic image shows a noticeable difference in density between the two pieces. The difference in density is caused by the difference in material thickness. The dark, straight line is caused by the failure of the weld metal to fuse with the land area.

Inadequate weld reinforcement is an area of a weld where the thickness of weld metal deposited is less than the thickness of the base material. It is very easy to determine by radiograph if the weld has inadequate reinforcement, because the image density in the area of suspected inadequacy will be higher (darker) than the image density of the surrounding base material.

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

Excess weld reinforcement is an area of a weld that has weld metal added in excess of that specified by engineering drawings and codes. The appearance on a radiograph is a localized, lighter area in the weld. A visual inspection will easily determine if the weld reinforcement is in excess of that specified by the engineering requirements.

Cracks can be detected in a radiograph only when they are propagating in a direction that produces a change in thickness that is parallel to the x-ray beam. Cracks will appear as jagged and often very faint irregular lines. Cracks can sometimes appear as "tails" on inclusions or porosity.

Discontinuities in TIG welds The following discontinuities are unique to the TIG welding process. These discontinuities occur in most metals welded by the process, including aluminum and stainless steels. The TIG method of welding produces a clean homogeneous weld which when radiographed is easily interpreted. Page 26 of 63

RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes Tungsten inclusions. Tungsten is a brittle and inherently dense material used in the electrode in tungsten inert gas welding. If improper welding procedures are used, tungsten may be entrapped in the weld. Radiographically, tungsten is more dense than aluminum or steel, therefore it shows up as a lighter area with a distinct outline on the radiograph.

Oxide inclusions are usually visible on the surface of material being welded (especially aluminum). Oxide inclusions are less dense than the surrounding material and, therefore, appear as dark irregularly shaped discontinuities in the radiograph.

Discontinuities in Gas Metal Arc Welds (GMAW) The following discontinuities are most commonly found in GMAW welds. Whiskers are short lengths of weld electrode wire, visible on the top or bottom surface of the weld or contained within the weld. On a radiograph they appear as light, "wire like" indications. Burn-Through results when too much heat causes excessive weld metal to penetrate the weld zone. Often lumps of metal sag through the weld, creating a thick globular condition on the back of the weld. These globs of metal are referred to as icicles. On a radiograph, burn-through appears as dark spots, which are often surrounded by light globular areas (icicles).

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RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

Radiograph Interpretation - Castings The major objective of radiographic testing of castings is the disclosure of defects that adversely affect the strength of the product. Castings are a product form that often receive radiographic inspection since many of the defects produced by the casting process are volumetric in nature, and are thus relatively easy to detect with this method. These discontinuities of course, are related to casting process deficiencies, which, if properly understood, can lead to accurate accept-reject decisions as well as to suitable corrective measures. Since different types and sizes of defects have different effects of the performance of the casting, it is important that the radiographer is able to identify the type and size of the defects. ASTM E155, Standard for Radiographs of castings has been produced to help the radiographer make a better assessment of the defects found in components. The castings used to produce the standard radiographs have been destructively analyzed to confirm the size and type of discontinuities present. The following is a brief description of the most common discontinuity types included in existing reference radiograph documents (in graded types or as single illustrations). RADIOGRAPHIC INDICATIONS FOR CASTINGS Gas porosity or blow holes are caused by accumulated gas or air which is trapped by the metal. These discontinuities are usually smooth-walled rounded cavities of a spherical, elongated or flattened shape. If the sprue is not high enough to provide the necessary heat transfer needed to force the gas or air out of the mold, the gas or air will be trapped as the molten metal begins to solidify. Blows can also be caused by sand that is too fine, too wet, or by sand that has a low permeability so that gas cannot escape. Too high a moisture content Page 28 of 63

RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes in the sand makes it difficult to carry the excessive volumes of water vapor away from the casting. Another cause of blows can be attributed to using green ladles, rusty or damp chills and chaplets. Sand inclusions and dross are nonmetallic oxides, which appear on the radiograph as irregular, dark blotches. These come from disintegrated portions of mold or core walls and/or from oxides (formed in the melt) which have not been skimmed off prior to the introduction of the metal into the mold gates. Careful control of the melt, proper holding time in the ladle and skimming of the melt during pouring will minimize or obviate this source of trouble. Shrinkage is a form of discontinuity that appears as dark spots on the radiograph. Shrinkage assumes various forms, but in all cases it occurs because molten metal shrinks as it solidifies, in all portions of the final casting. Shrinkage is avoided by making sure that the volume of the casting is adequately fed by risers which sacrificially retain the shrinkage. Shrinkage in its various forms can be recognized by a number of characteristics on radiographs. There are at least four types of shrinkage: (1) cavity; (2) dendritic; (3) filamentary; and (4) sponge types. Some documents designate these types by numbers, without actual names, to avoid possible misunderstanding. Cavity shrinkage appears as areas with distinct jagged boundaries. It may be produced when metal solidifies between two original streams of melt coming from opposite directions to join a common front. Cavity shrinkage usually occurs at a time when the melt has almost reached solidification temperature and there is no source of supplementary liquid to feed possible cavities.

Dendritic shrinkage is a distribution of very fine lines or small elongated cavities that may vary in density and are Filamentary structure of connected density, or

usually unconnected. shrinkage usually occurs as a continuous lines or branches of variable length, width and occasionally as a network.

Sponge shrinkage shows itself as areas of lacy texture with diffuse outlines, generally toward the mid-thickness of heavier casting sections. Sponge shrinkage may be dendritic or filamentary shrinkage. Filamentary sponge shrinkage appears more blurred because it is projected through the relatively thick coating between the discontinuities and the film surface.

Cracks are thin (straight or jagged) linearly disposed solidified. They

discontinuities that occur after the melt has generally appear singly and originate at Page 29 of 63

RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V casting surfaces. Cold shuts generally appear on or near a surface of cast metal as a result of two streams of liquid meeting and failing to unite. They may appear on a radiograph as cracks or seams with smooth or rounded edges. Level 2 Notes

Inclusions are nonmetallic materials in an otherwise solid metallic matrix. They may be less or more dense than the matrix alloy and will appear on the radiograph, respectively, as darker or lighter indications. The latter type is more common in light metal castings.

Core shift shows itself as a variation in section thickness, usually on opposite portions of

radiographic views representing diametrically cylindrical casting portions.

Hot tears are linearly disposed indications that represent fractures formed in a metal during solidification because of hindered contraction. The latter may occur due to overly hard (completely unyielding) mold or core walls. The effect of hot tears as a stress concentration is similar to that of an ordinary crack, and hot tears are usually systematic flaws. If flaws are identified as hot tears in larger runs of a casting type, explicit improvements in the casting technique will be required. Misruns appear on the radiograph as prominent dense areas of variable dimensions with a definite smooth outline. They are mostly random in occurrence and not readily eliminated by specific remedial actions in the process. Mottling is a radiographic indication that appears as an indistinct area of more or less dense images. The condition is a diffraction effect that occurs on relatively vague, thin-section radiographs, most often with austenitic stainless steel. Mottling is caused by interaction of the object's grain boundary material with low-energy X-rays (300 kV or lower). Inexperienced interpreters may incorrectly consider mottling as indications of unacceptable casting flaws. Even experienced interpreters often have to check the condition by re-radiography from slightly different source-film angles. Shifts in mottling are then very pronounced, while true casting discontinuities change only slightly in appearance. Radiographic Indications for Casting Repair Welds Most common alloy castings require welding either in upgrading from defective conditions or in joining to other system parts. It is mainly for reasons of casting repair that these descriptions of the more common weld defects are provided here. The terms appear as indication types in ASTM E390. For additional information, see the Nondestructive Testing Handbook, Volume 3, Section 9 on the "Radiographic Control of Welds."

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Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes Slag is nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld material and base metal. Radiographically, slag may appear in various shapes, from long narrow indications to short wide indications, and in various densities, from gray to very dark. Porosity is a series of rounded gas pockets or voids in the weld metal, and is generally cylindrical or elliptical in shape. Undercut is a groove melted in the base metal at the edge of a weld and left unfilled by weld metal. It represents a stress concentration that often must be corrected, and appears as a dark indication at the toe of a weld. Incomplete penetration, as the name implies, is a lack of weld penetration through the thickness of the joint (or penetration which is less than specified). It is located at the center of a weld and is a wide, linear indication. Incomplete fusion is lack of complete fusion of some portions of the metal in a weld joint with adjacent metal (either base or previously deposited weld metal). On a radiograph, this appears as a long, sharp linear indication, occurring at the centerline of the weld joint or at the fusion line. Melt-through is a convex or concave irregularity (on the surface of backing ring, strip, fused root or adjacent base metal) resulting from the complete melting of a localized region but without the development of a void or open hole. On a radiograph, melt-through generally appears as a round or elliptical indication. Burn-through is a void or open hole in a backing ring, strip, fused root or adjacent base metal. Arc strike is an indication from a localized heat-affected zone or a change in surface contour of a finished weld or adjacent base metal. Arc strikes are caused by the heat generated when electrical energy passes between the surfaces of the finished weld or base metal and the current source. Weld spatter occurs in arc or gas welding as metal particles which are expelled during welding. These particles do not form part of the actual weld. Weld spatter appears as many small, light cylindrical indications on a radiograph. Tungsten inclusion is usually denser than base-metal particles. Tungsten inclusions appear very light radiographic images. Accept/reject decisions for this defect are generally based on the slag criteria. Oxidation is the condition of a surface which is heated during welding, resulting in oxide formation on the surface, due to partial or complete lack of purge of the weld atmosphere. The condition is also called sugaring. Root edge condition shows the penetration of weld metal into the backing ring or into the clearance between the backing ring or strip and the base metal. It appears in radiographs as a sharply defined film density transition. Root undercut appears as an intermittent or continuous groove in the internal surface of the base metal, backing ring or strip along the edge of the weld root.

UW 51 RADIOGRAPHIC AND RADIOSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF WELDED JOINTS


The below mentioned imperfections shall be repaired. (1) Any indication characterized as a crack or a zone of incomplete fusion or penetration; (2) Any other elongated indication on the radiograph which has a length greater than: (a) in. for t up to in.; (b) t/3 for t from in. to 2-1/4 in.; (c) in. for t over 2-1/4 in where t is the thickness of the weld excluding any allowable reinforcement. For a butt weld having different thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. If a full penetration weld includes a fillet, then the thickness of the throat of the fillet shall be included in t. (3) Any group of aligned indications that have an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12t, except when the distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6L where L is the length of the longest imperfection in the group; (4) Rounded indications in excess by that specified in the acceptance standards given in Appendix 4. UW 52 SPOT EXAMINATION OF WELDED JOINTS (1) Welds in which indications are characterized as crack, or zones of incomplete fusion, or penetration shall be unacceptable. (2) Welds in which indications are characterized as slag inclusions, or cavities shall be unacceptable if the length of any such indication is greater than 2/3 t where t is the thickness of the weld excluding any allowable reinforcement. For a butt weld joining two members having different thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner of these two Page 31 of 63

RADIOGRAPHY
Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes thicknesses. If a full penetration weld includes a fillet, then the thickness of the throat of the fillet shall be included in t. If several indications within the above limitations exist in a line, the weld shall be judged acceptable if the sum of the longest dimensions of all such indications is not more than t in a length of 6t (or proportionately for radiographs shorter than 6t) and if the longest indications considered are separated by 3L of acceptable weld metal where L is the length of the longest indication. The maximum length of acceptable indications shall be in. Any such indication shorter than in. shall be acceptable for any plate thickness. (3) Rounded indications are not a factor in the acceptability of welds not required to be fully radiographed.

ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 1

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ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 1

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ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 1

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ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 1

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ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 1

ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 1


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ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 1

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Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

ASME SECTION IX
QW-191.2 Radiographic Acceptance Criteria QW-191.2.1 Terminology (a) Linear Indications. Cracks, incomplete fusion, inadequate penetration, and slag are represented on the radiograph as linear indications in which the length is more than three times the width. (b) Rounded Indications. Porosity and inclusions such as slag or tungsten are represented on the radiograph as rounded indications with a length three times the width or less. These indications may be circular, elliptical, or irregular in shape; may have tails; and may vary in density. QW-191.2.2 Acceptance Standards. Welder and welding operator performance tests by radiography of welds in test assemblies shall be judged unacceptable when the radiograph exhibits any imperfections in excess of the limits specified below (a) Linear Indications (1) any type of crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration (2) any elongated slag inclusion which has a length greater than (a) 18 in. (3 mm) for t up to 38 in. (10 mm), inclusive (b) 13t for t over 38 in. (10 mm) to 214 in. (57 mm), inclusive (c) 34 in. (19 mm) for t over 214 in. (57 mm) (3) any group of slag inclusions in line that have an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12t, except when the distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6L where L is the length of the longest imperfection in the group (b) Rounded Indications (1) The maximum permissible dimension for rounded indications shall be 20% of t or 18 in. (3 mm), whichever is smaller. (2) For welds in material less than 18 in. (3 mm) in thickness, the maximum number of acceptable rounded indications shall not exceed 12 in a 6 in. (150 mm) length of weld. A proportionately fewer number of rounded indications shall be permitted in welds less than 6 in. (150 mm) in length. (3) For welds in material 18 in. (3 mm) or greater in thickness, the charts in Appendix I represent the maximum acceptable types of rounded indications illustrated in typically clustered, assorted, and randomly dispersed configurations. Rounded indications less than 132 in. (0.8 mm) in maximum diameter shall not be considered in the radiographic acceptance tests of welders and welding operators in these ranges of material thicknesses.

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RADIATION PROTECTION
PRINCIPLES JustificationUse of radiation cannot be justified unless there is significant benefit to the recipient like cancer cure; and there is no other method to carry out the specific work. OptimisationAll doses shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable. LimitationDose limit shall not be exceeded. Radioisotopes These carry an excess of neutrons in the nucleus and hence become unstable. The extra neutron is supplied in a nuclear reactor to a stable element. The element absorbs the neutron, becomes unstable due to an acquired higher energy level and releases the excess energy in the form of radiation. The radiation is in the form of penetrating electromagnetic radiation (called X-rays or gamma-rays) in most of the cases. When all the excess energy is released, the isotope becomes stable. Half-life The release of energy by the isotope is exponential. That is, moment after moment, the activity of the isotope gets reduced. This is averaged in the form of half-life. The time period in which the activity of the isotope becomes half is known as half life. The half-life of Iridium-192 is 75 days. The activity of the isotope is expressed in Curies(Ci) or Bequerel(Bq). 1 Bequerel = 1 disintegration per second 1 Curie = 37 Billion Bequerels = 37 Billion disintegrations per second A 100 Ci isotope of Iridium-192 will become 50 Ci after a period of 75 days and it will become 25 Ci after another 75 days and so on. Property of Radiation The property that concerns us is ionization. The radiation is capable of knocking off an electron from the atom it encounters making it an ion. While this property is used in medical and industrial applications, they are capable of killing the cells in our body. The nature has a mechanism of replacing the dead cells (every day, thousands of cells die in our body and these are replaced) and the health is maintained normally. Even in the case of an excessive loss of cells over a period of time as in the case of a radiation worker, so long as this excess is within the limits of nature, the dead cells are replaced over a period of time. A radiation worker is made to change his occupation different from radiation work until he recovers. When too many cells are destroyed in a short period of time, an equal replacement is not made in reasonable time. This is when the health is affected. This occurs when the body is exposed to a heavy dose of radiation in a short time. As in the case of Hiroshima/Nagasaki/Chernobyl. Such doses are very high; many times the dose permissible for a radiation worker.

UNITS OF DOSE Gray (Gy)SI unit for Radiation Absorbed Dose (RAD) and is the amount of radiation that will deposit one joule of energy per kilogram of absorber. It is the equivalent of 100 RADS. Quality Factor (Q)The degree of damage for a given absorbed dose is not the same for all types of radiation. Alpha particulate radiation is more damaging than Beta particulate radiation and photon (X-ray and gamma-ray) radiation. The Q factor for Beta particles and photon is 1. Sievert (Sv)This is the unit for radiobiological effectiveness (also called equivalent dose); this is obtained by Grays x Q factor = Sieverts. For X-ray and gamma-ray, Gray = Sievert OTHER UNITS OF RADIATION Roentgen This is the old unit for dose rate or the radiation output of the source. REM This is the equivalent dose received by humans. Roentgen and REM are numerically equal for gamma radiation and X-ray radiation. 1 Roentgen = 1 REM = 1000 milli R = 1000 milli REM 1 Sv = 1000 milli Sv = 1000 000 micro Sv = 100 R = 100 REM 1 milli Sv = 0.1 R = 100 milli R 1 micro Sv = 0.1 milli R 7.5 micro Sv = 0.75 milli R 1 milli R = 10 micro Sv = 0.01 milli Sv

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DOSE RATE OF ISOTOPES (SOURCES) For gamma sources the dose rates at one metre are: milli Gy/hr/Ci R/hr/Ci micro Gy/hr/GBq Co-60 - 13 1.3 357 Ir-192 - 4.8 0.48 130 Yb-169 - 1.25 0.125 33.8 Se 75 -2 0.2 55 Th-170 - 0.025 0.0025 0.676 Curie (Ci) is the activity of the source represented by 37 billion disintegrations of the atoms per second. This is the decay rate. The SI unit for activity is Bequerel (Bq), which is one disintegration per second. 1 Ci = 37 Billion Bq For radiation from X-ray machines, such specific dose rates are not available since they vary with machines and these have to determined experimentally with radiation survey meters. Permissible accumulated dose the equivalent dose limit for global exposure for radiation workers (classified workers) is 100mSv (0.1 Sv) in any five consecutive calendar years, with the additional condition that the limit of 50 mSv (0.05 Sv) is not exceeded in one calendar year; the equivalent dose limit for lens of the eye is 150 mSv (0.15 Sv) in one calendar year; the equivalent dose limit for the skin is 500 mSv (0.5 Sv) in one calendar year; this limit is applied to the average equivalent dose on any 1 cm2 surface; the equivalent dose limit for hands, forearms, feet and ankles is 500 mSv (0.5 Sv) in a calendar year the equivalent dose limit for global exposure for general public is 1 mSv (0.001 Sv) in a calendar year

Level 2 Notes

IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO RADIATION Dose(Sv) Organ Immediate Effect 0.25 Reproductive Changes noticeable in chromosomes and sperm count 2.5 Reproductive Damage to chromosomes, Temporary sterility for 1-2 years 4.0 Skin Erythema (temporary) 4.0 Reproductive Among older women permanent sterility and ovulation stops 6.0 Reproductive Permanent sterility for men 7.0 Skin Erythema of high intensity- permanent 8.0 Reproductive Permanent sterility among young women and ovulation stops EFFECTS OF GLOBAL EXPOSURE (whole body) Dose (Sv) Effect 0.25 Affects the cells and chromosomes 0.5 - Nausea, loss of appetite, reduction in WBC 1.0 - Acute sickness - Initial phase Nausea, vomiting - Subsequent phase loss of appetite, reduction in WBC, fever, haemorrage, diarrhea, prone for infection 2.0 - Hospitalization acute sickness possible accidental death - Initial phase shock, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite - Subsequent phase loss of appetite, fever, depression, tachichardia, anemia, haemorrage, diarrhea, reduction in WBC, disposition to infection 4.0 - Mortality 50% in 30 to 60 days; debility, haemorrage, anemia, cracks in mouth 6.0 - Mortality 100% in 30 days 10-30 - Mortality certain much sooner than 30 days

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WHOLE BODY DOSE Gy REM 0.05 - 0.25 5 25

Level 2 Notes
CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FINDINGS

Asymptomatic, conventional blood studies normal, a very small number of chromosome aberrations detectable above 0.1 Gy. 0.25 - 1 25 100 Asymptomatic, minor depressions of white cells and platelets detectable in a few persons on day 3 6. 1-3 100 300 Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fatigue in about 10 to 20 per cent of persons within 2 days. Depression of white cells (lymphocytes) and platelets on day 3 to 6. Progression in second and third week and chance of infection and bleeding. Above 3 Gy hair loss on day 9. Recovery in week 4 to 6. 4.5 450 Serious, disabling illness in most persons with about 50% mortality. Over 6 Over 600 Accelerated version of acute radiation syndrome with gastrointestinal complications, bleeding, infections and death in most exposed persons within 2 weeks. Over 50 Over 5000 Fulminating course with gastro intestinal, central nervous and vascular complications resulting in death within 24 to 72 hours. For gamma radiation 1 Gy = 100 REM = 100,000 mR RADIATION DETECTION The property of ionization of matter by radiation makes it useful in detection. The amount of ionization current is measured and this current is calibrated to read the dose rate or accumulated dose. Ionization Chamber type Survey Meter This is filled with suitable gas that is ionized. The current is measured and read as mR/hour or mSv/hour. This type of meter does not indicate the accumulated dose. Quartz fibre type pocket dosemeter A quartz fibre when charged indicates zero reading. The radiation passing through will cause the charge to reduce which is then measured as mR. This type of dosemeter indicates accumulated dose instantly. Thermoluminescence Dosemeter (TLD) This uses a material called lithium fluoride that has the ability to absorb radiation and store it. When heated, visible is emitted proportional to the dose of radiation received. After further heat treatment, the dosemeter is reused. Audible Monitors This is another type of pocket dosemeter. This is an electronic type and bleeper is triggered when a predetermined dose level is exceeded. Some of these types have a LED display of dose level and/or accumulated dose. Film Badge This uses a photographic film. Different types of filters are used to absorb radiation of different type or different wavelengths. The density of the processed film is measured indicates the dose of radiation received. INVERSE SQUARE LAW The intensity of radiation is governed by the inverse square law. That is, the dose rate varies inversely with the square of the distance. D1 = Original distance D2 = Required distance R1 = Original dose rate R2 = Required dose rate R1 1/D1 R2 1/D22 R2/R1 = D12/ D22 Considering the activity of the Ir-192 source is 20 Ci the safe distance for safety barrier (7.5 micro Sv/hr) will be: D1 = 1 metre D2 = Required distance R1 = 4.8 x 1000 x 20 micro Sv/hr R2 = 7.5 micro Sv/hr D2 = [(1m) x 4.8 x 1000 x 20 /7.5] = 113.137 metres
2 1/2 2

We can also calculate the dose rate at a given distance. In the above instance, if the distance is 50 metres at which the dose rate is measured, then

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D1 = 1 metre D2 = 50 metres R1 = 4.8 x 1000 x 20 micro Sv/hr R2 = Required dose rate R2 = (1m)2 x 4.8 x 1000 x 20 /502 = 38.4 micro Sv/hr SAFE WORKING Controlled AreaAny area in which the dose rates are likely to exceed three tenths of the annual dose limit for radiation workers (aged 18 years and over) is designated a controlled area. This is an instantaneous dose rate of 7.5 micro Sv/hr. The area shall be demarcated by barriers and access shall be restricted. Only classified workers can enter this area. However, areas in which the instantaneous dose rate exceeds 7.5 micro Sv/hr, but does not exceed 2 milli Sv/hr need not be designated as controlled area if: (1) the time average dose rate does not exceed 240 micro Sv/hr; and (2) no one person remains for more than one hour in any period of 8 hours; and (3) no person receives a dose exceeding 60 micro Sv in any working period of 8 hours. Supervised AreaAny area in which the dose rate is likely to exceed one third of the dose rate of a controlled area, that is, the dose rates exceed 2.5 micro Sv/hr. Areas designated as supervised areas because of the presence of sealed radioactive sources need to be identified in local rules and people should be encouraged not to remain in supervised areas longer than necessary. Site WorkThis applies to situations when it is neither practicable nor feasible to carry out radiography inside a walled enclosure. Barriers must be placed at a distance from the radiation source where the instantaneous dose rate does not exceed 7.5 micro Sv/hr and all persons must be excluded. If it is not feasible for the control point to be outside the controlled area then only classified persons can enter and are subject to a maximum dose rate of 2milliSv/hr. Use may also be made of local shielding and collimation is also desirable. Setting up BarriersFor gamma sources, the safe distance should be calculated and barriers should be set up at this distance. It is VITALLY IMPORTANT, HOWEVER, THAT THIS DISTANCE SHOULD NOT BE TREATED AS ACCURATE AND FINAL. The radiation level at the barrier should be checked with a survey meter immediately as the source is exposed, and the position of the barrier should be adjusted as appropriate. Outside the barrier, the dose rate shall not be in excess of 7.5 micro Sv/hr. Shielding Material Radiation is absorbed in any material in an exponential manner. The absorption property of a material for a particular type of radiation is expressed in half value thickness (HVT). HVT is the thickness of the material that reduces the intensity of the incident radiation to half its value. The source enclosure is constructed with one or a combination of these absorbing materials. The HVT of a few materials is given below. MATERIAL Lead Cement Steel Ir-192 5.5 43 12 Half Value Thickness in mm Co-60 11 63 20 Se-75 1.1-1.5

Level 2 Notes

Working Hours for a Classified WorkerLet us presume that whole body dose permissible for a classified worker is 50 milli Sv for a calendar year. Except when operating the exposure device, the worker waits outside the Controlled Area. During this waiting period, he receives a dose rate of 7.5 micro Sv/hr which will accumulate a dose of three tenths of the maximum permissible annual dose. The accumulated dose in this area = 50 x 3/10 milli Sv = 15 milli Sv. The number of hours of exposure to receive this dose @ 7.5 micro Sv/hr = 15 x 1000/7.5 = 2000. This is equal to 250 days of 8 hours of exposure per day. Actually, the worker does not receive the full 8 hours of exposure per day, but may be an hour or two. In this example, we have not considered the full permissible dose of 50 milli Sv; instead, three tenths of the full dose has been considered. The rest of the seven tenths is reserved for operating the exposure device (when a higher dose may be received) or for any emergency. Non radiation WorkerLet us assume that a non-radiation worker such as a welder is exposed to a radiation dose rate of 7.5 micro Sv/hr in the supervised area. We have considered a figure of 7.5 although the dose rate in this area will be much lower. If the exposure is for two hours in a week, the total dose received in a year will be 52 x 7.5 x 2 = 780 micro Sv = 0.78 milli Sv.

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Sankara Narayanan.V Level 2 Notes

Assuming the total permissible dose of non-radiation worker as 1 milli Sv per year, the safe dose per week works out to 1000/52 = 20 micro Sv. Such doses are not experienced in our Saipem Base since the quantum of radiography work is less. The dose received during a medical X-ray examination would be higher than this. It is known that damage is caused by sudden exposure to a large quantity of radiation whereby the cells in the human body are destroyed beyond recovery. In the case of small cumulative doses, damage does occur; however, the biological system replaces the destroyed cells with new cells in quick time.

Biological Effects
The occurrence of particular health effects from exposure to ionizing radiation is a complicated function of numerous factors including:

Type of radiation involved. All kinds of ionizing radiation can produce health effects. The main difference in the ability of alpha and beta particles and Gamma and X-rays to cause health effects is the amount of energy they have. Their energy determines how far they can penetrate into tissue and how much energy they are able to transmit directly or indirectly to tissues. Size of dose received. The higher the dose of radiation received, the higher the likelihood of health effects. Rate the dose is received. Tissue can receive larger dosages over a period of time. If the dosage occurs over a number of days or weeks the results are often not as serious if a similar dose was received in a matter of minutes. Part of the body exposed. Extremities such as the hands or feet are able to receive a greater amount of radiation with less resulting damage than blood forming organs housed in the torso. See radiosensitivity page for more information. The age of the individual. As a person ages, cell division slows and the body is less sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation. Once cell division has slowed the effects of radiation are somewhat less damaging than when cells were rapidly dividing. Biological differences. Some individuals are more sensitive to the effects of radiation than others. Studies have not been able to conclusively determine the differences.

The effects of ionizing radiation upon humans are often broadly classified as being either stochastic or nonstochastic. These two terms are discussed more in the next few pages.

Stochastic Effects
Stochastic effects are those that occur by chance and consist primarily of cancer and genetic effects. Stochastic effects often show up years after exposure. As the dose to an individual increases, the probability that cancer or a genetic effect will occur also increases. However, at no time, even for high doses, is it certain that cancer or genetic damage will result. Similarly, for stochastic effects, there is no threshold dose below which it is relatively certain that an adverse effect cannot occur. In addition, because stochastic effects can occur in individuals that have not been exposed to radiation above background levels, it can never be determined for certain that an occurrence of caner or genetic damage was due to a specific exposure.
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While it cannot be determined conclusively, it often possible to estimate the probability that radiation exposure will cause a stochastic effect. As mentioned previously, it is estimated that the probability of having a cancer in the US rises from 20% for non radiation workers to 21% for persons who work regularly with radiation. The probability for genetic defects is even less likely to increase for workers exposed to radiation. Studies conducted on Japanese atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to large doses of radiation, found no more genetic defects than what would normally occur. Radiation-induced hereditary effects have not been observed in human populations yet they have been demonstrated in animals. If the germ cells that are present in the ovaries and testes and are responsible for reproduction were modified by radiation, hereditary effects could occur in the progeny of the individual. Exposure of the embryo or fetus to ionizing radiation could increase the risk of leukemia in infants and, during certain periods in early pregnancy, may lead to mental retardation and congenital malformations if the amount of radiation is sufficiently high.

Cancer
Cancer is any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream. The carcinogenic effects of doses of 100 rads (1 Gy) or more of gamma radiation delivered at high dose rates are well documented, consistent and definitive. Although any organ or tissue may develop a tumor after overexposure to radiation, certain organs and tissues seem to be more sensitive in this respect than others. Radiation-induced cancer is observed most frequently in the hemopoietic system, in the thyroid, in the bone, and in the skin. In all these cases, the tumor induction time in man is relatively long - on the order of 5 to 20 years after exposure. Carcinoma of the skin was the first type of malignancy that was associated with exposure to x-rays. Early x- ray workers, including physicists and physicians, had a much higher incidence of skin cancer than could be expected from random occurrence of this disease. Well over 100 cases of radiation induced skin cancer are documented in the literature. As early as 1900, a physician who had been using x-rays in his practice described the irritating effects of x-rays. He recorded that erythema and itching progressed to hyper-pigmentation, ulceration, neoplasia, and finally death from metastatic carcinoma. The entire disease process spanned a period of 9 years. An occupational disease among dentists, before the carcinogenic properties of x-rays were well understood, was cancer of the fingers that were used to hold dental x-ray film in the mouths of patients while x-raying their teeth.

Leukemia
Leukemia is a cancer of the early blood-forming cells. Usually, the leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells, but leukemia can involve other blood cell types as well. Leukemia starts in the bone marrow and then spreads to the blood. From there it can go to the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), testes (testicles), or other organs. Leukemia is among the most likely forms of malignancy resulting from overexposure to total body radiation. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia does not appear to be related to radiation exposure. Radiologists and other physicians who used x-rays in their practice before strict health physics practices were common showed a significantly higher rate of leukemia than did their colleagues who did not use radiation. Among American radiologists, the doses associated with the increased rate of leukemia were on the order of 100 rads (1 Gy) per year. With the increased practice of health physics, the difference in leukemia rate between radiologists and other physicians has been continually decreasing.
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Among the survivors of the nuclear bombings of Japan, there was a significantly greater incidence of leukemia among those who had been within 1500 meters of the hypocenter than among those who had been more than 1500 meters from ground zero at the time of the bombing. The first increase in leukemia incidence among the survivors was seen about 3 years after the bombings, and the leukemia rate continued to increase until it peaked about 4 years later. Since this time, the rate has been steadily decreasing. The questions regarding the leukemogenicity of low radiation doses and of the existence of a non-zero threshold dose for leukemia induction remain unanswered, and are the subject of controversy. On the basis of a few limited studies, it was inferred that as little as 1-5 rads (10-50 mGy) of x-rays could lead to leukemia. Other studies imply that there is a threshold dose for radiogenic leukemia is significantly higher. However, it is reasonable to infer that low level radiation at doses associated with most diagnostic x-ray procedures, with occupational exposure within the recommended limits, and with natural radiation is a very weak leukemogen, and that the attributive risk of leukemia from low level radiation is probably very small.

Genetic Effects
Genetic information necessary for the production and functioning of a new organism is contained in the chromosomes of the germ cells - the sperm and the ovum. The normal human somatic cell contains 46 of these chromosomes; mature sperm and ovum each carry 23 chromosomes. When an ovum is fertilized by a sperm, the resulting cell, called a zygote, contains a full complement of 46 chromosomes. During the 9month gestation period, the fertilized egg, by successive cellular division and differentiation, develops into a new individual. In the course of the cellular divisions, the chromosomes are exactly duplicated, so that cells in the body contain the same genetic information. The units of information in the chromosomes are called genes. Each gene is an enormously complex macromolecule called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), in which the genetic information is coded according to the sequence of certain molecular and sub-assemblies called bases. The DNA molecule, whose molecular weight is on the order of 10-7, consists of two long chains in a spiral double helix. The two long intertwined strands are held together by the bases, which form cross-links between the long strands in the same manner as the treads in a step-ladder. The genetic information can be altered by many different chemical and physical agents called mutagens, which disrupt the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule. If this information content of a somatic cell is scrambled, then its descendants may show some sort of an abnormality. If the information that is jumbled is in a germ cell that subsequently is fertilized, then the new individual may carry a genetic defect, or a mutation. Such a mutation is often called a point mutation, since it results from damage to one point on a gene. Most geneticists believe that the majority of such mutations in man are undesirable or harmful. In addition to point mutations, genetic damage can arise through chromosomal aberrations. Certain chemical and physical agents can cause chromosomes to break. In most of these breaks, the fragments reunite, and the only result may be a point mutation at the site of the original break. In a small fraction of breaks, however, the broken pieces do not reunite. When this happens, one of the broken fragments may be lost when the cell divides, and the daughter cell does not receive the genetic information contained in the lost fragment. The other possibility following chromosomal breakage, especially if two or more chromosomes are broken, is the interchange of the fragments among the broken chromosomes, and the production of aberrant chromosomes. Cells with such aberrant chromosomes usually have impaired reproductive capacity as well as other abnormalities. Studies suggest that the existence of a threshold dose for genetic effects of radiation is unlikely. However, they also show that the genetic effects of radiation are inversely dependent on dose rate over the dose range of 800 mrad/min (8 mGy/min) to 90 rads/min (0.9 Gy/min). The dose rate dependence clearly implies a repair mechanism that is overwhelmed at the high dose rate. Geneticists estimate that there is
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320 chances per million of a "spontaneous" mutation in a dominant gene trait of a person. The radiation dose that would eventually lead to a doubling of the mutation rate is estimated to be in the range of 50-250 rads (0.5-2.5 Gy).

Cataracts
A cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens of the eye. A much higher incidence of cataracts among physicists in cyclotron laboratories whose eyes had been exposed intermittently for long periods of time to relative low radiation fields, and among atomic bomb survivors whose eyes had been exposed to a single high radiation dose, showed that both chronic and acute overexposure of the eyes can lead to cataracts. Radiation may injure the cornea, conjunctiva, iris, and the lens of the eye. In the case of the lens, the principal site of damage is the proliferating cells of the anterior epithelium. This results in abnormal lens fibers, which eventually disintegrate to form an opaque area, or cataract, that prevents light from reaching the retina. The cataractogenic dose to the lens is on the order of 500 rad of beta or gamma radiation. No radiogenic cataracts resulting from occupational exposure to x-rays have been reported. From patients who suffered irradiation of the eye in the course of x-ray therapy and developed cataracts as a consequence, the cataractogenic threshold is estimated at about 200 rad. In cases either of occupationally or therapeutically induced radiation cataracts, a long latent period, on the order of several years, usually elapsed between exposure and the appearance of the lens opacity. The cataractogenic dose has been found, in laboratory experiments with animals, to be a function of age; young animals are more sensitive than old animals.

Nonstochastic (Acute) Effects


Unlike stochastic effects, nonstochastic effects are characterized by a threshold dose below which they do not occur. In other words, nonstochastic effects have a clear relationship between the exposure and the effect. In addition, the magnitude of the effect is directly proportional to the size of the dose. Nonstochastic effects typically result when very large dosages of radiation are received in a short amount of time. These effects will often be evident within hours or days. Examples of nonstochostic effects include erythema (skin reddening), skin and tissue burns, cataract formation, sterility, radiation sickness and death. Each of these effects differs from the others in both its threshold dose and in the time over which this dose must be received to cause the effect (i.e. acute vs. chronic exposure). There are a number of cases of radiation burns occurring to the hands or fingers. These cases occurred when a radiographer touched or came in close contact with a high intensity radiation emitter. Intensity on the surface of an 85 curie Ir-192 source capsule is approximately 1,768 R/s. Contact with the source for two seconds would expose the hand of an individual to 3,536 rems, and this does not consider any additional whole body dosage received when approaching the source. More on Specific Nonstochastic Effects Hemopoietic Syndrome The hemopoietic syndrome encompasses the medical conditions that affect the blood. Hemopoietic syndrome conditions appear after a gamma dose of about 200 rads (2 Gy). This disease is characterized by depression or ablation of the bone marrow, and the physiological consequences of this damage. The onset of the disease is rather sudden, and is heralded by nausea and vomiting within several hours after the overexposure occurred. Malaise and fatigue are felt by the victim, but the degree of malaise does not seem to be correlated with the size of the dose. Loss of hair (epilation), which is almost always seen, appears between the second and third week post exposure. Death may occur within 1 to 2 months after exposure. The chief effects to be noted, of course, are in the bone marrow and in the blood. Marrow depression is
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seen at 200 rads; at about 400 to 600 rads (4 to 6 Gy) complete ablation of the marrow occurs. In this case, however spontaneous regrowth of the marrow is possible if the victim survives the physiological effects of the denuding of his marrow. An exposure of about 700 rads (7 Gy) or greater leads to irreversible ablation of the bone marrow. Gastrointestial Syndrome The gastrointestial syndrome encompasses the medical conditions that affect the stomach and the intestines. This medical condition follows a total body gamma dose of about 1000 rads (10 Gy) or greater, and is a consequence of the desquamation of the intestinal epithelium. All the signs and symptoms of hemopoietic syndrome are seen - with the addition of severe nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea which begins very soon after exposure. Death within 1 to 2 week after exposure is the most likely outcome. Central Nervous System A total body gamma dose in excess of about 2000 rads (20 Gy) damages the central nervous system, as well as, all the other organ systems in the body. Unconsciousness follows within minutes after exposure and death in a matter of hours to several days. The rapidity of onset of unconsciousness is directly related to dose. In one instance in which a 200 msec burst of mixed neutrons and gamma rays delivered a mean total body dose of about 4400 rads (44 Gy), the victim was ataxic and disoriented within 30 seconds. In 10 minutes he was unconscious and in shock. Vigorous symptomatic treatment kept the patient alive for 34 hours after the accident. Other Acute Effects Several other immediate effects of acute overexposure should be noted. Because of its physical location, the skin is subject to more radiation exposure, especially in the case of low energy x-rays and beta rays, than most other tissues. An exposure of about 300 R (77 mC/kg) of low energy (in the diagnostic range) x-rays results in erythema. Higher doses may cause changes in pigmentation, loss of hair, blistering, cell death, and ulceration. Radiation dermatitis of the hands and face was a relatively common occupational disease among radiologists who practiced during the early years of the twentieth century. The gonads are particularly radiosensitive. A single dose of only 30 rads (300 mGy) to the testes results in temporary sterility among men. For women, a 300 rad (3 Gy) dose to the ovaries produces temporary sterility. Higher doses increase the period of temporary sterility. In women, temporary sterility is evidenced by a cessation of menstruation for a period of 1 month or more, depending on the dose. Irregularities in the menstrual cycle, which suggest functional changes in the gonads, may result from local irradiation of the ovaries with doses smaller than that required for temporary sterilization. The eyes too, are relatively radiosensitive. A local dose of several hundred rads can result in acute conjunctivitis.

Exposure Symptoms
Below are listed some of the probable prompt and delayed effects of certain doses of radiation. Doses of radiation and probable prompt effects when radiation doses are received by an individual within a twenty-four hour period. Dosages are in Roentgen Equivalent Man (Rem) 0-25 No injury evident. First detectable blood change at 5 rem. 25-50 Definite blood change at 25 rem. No serious injury. 50-100 Some injury possible. 100-200 Injury and possible disability. 200-400 Injury and disability likely, death possible. 400-500 Median Lethal Dose (MLD) 50% exposures fatal.
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500-1,000 Up to 100% exposures fatal. 1,000-over 100% fatal likely. The delayed effects of radiation may be due either to a single large overexposure or continuing low-level overexposure. Example dosages and resulting symptoms when an individual receives an exposure to the whole body within a twenty-four hour period.

100 - 200 Rem First Day No definite symptoms First Week No definite symptoms Second Week No definite symptoms Third Week Loss of appetite, malaise, sore throat and diarrhea Recovery is likely in a few months, unless complications develop because Fourth Week of poor health 400 - 500 Rem First Day Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, usually in the first few hours First Week Symptoms may continue Second Week Epilation, loss off appetite Hemorrhage, nosebleeds, inflammation of mouth and throat, diarrhea, Third Week emaciation Fourth Week Rapid emaciation, generally 50% mortality

Survey Technique
The majority of over exposures in industrial radiography are the result of the radiographer not knowing the location of a gamma emitter and failing to conduct a proper radiation survey. Exposure vaults are equipped with warning lights and safety interlock switches which provide a margin of safety for workers. A survey must be performed occasionally to very that vaults are not "leaking" radiation and that the safety devices are performing properly. However, when conducting radiography with gamma emitters' in the field, the radiography must rely heavily on measurements with a survey meter since other safety devices are uncommon. A series of surveys must be taken and some of the results from these surveys must be documented when transporting and working with gamma emitters in the field. Approaching the Exposure Device A technician should be thoroughly familiar with the operation of a survey meter since proper use of the device is essential. Before removing the exposure device (camera) from storage, the calibration of the survey meter must be verified and the battery level must be checked. When approaching the exposure device to remove it from the storage location, the survey meter should be in hand and operational. The survey meter should be placed next to the exposure device to verify that the source is contained inside the projector, and to verify that the survey meter is working properly. Survey meter reading should be compared to previous readings and recorded. Transporting the Exposure Device When transporting the exposure device, it must be stowed securely in the vehicle. A lockable metal box is
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often bolted in the rear of the vehicle. A survey of the over pack, the outside of the vehicle, and the drivers compartment is then conducted and documented. Preparing for an Exposure Once on the job site, the exposure area will be assessed, distance calculations made for restricted area boundaries, and ropes and signs placed appropriately. Once this is complete, the radiographer is ready to remove the exposure device from its storage compartment in the vehicle. The survey meter should be monitored as the storage compartment is approached and when removing the exposure device from the compartment. Daily safety checks should then be made. Once these checks are completed, he radiographer and assistant may then move the exposure device to the exposure location. As the cranks and guide tubes are attached in preparation for the first exposure, the survey meter should be monitored. Before the source is exposed the assistant should check the area for persons who may have crossed into the restricted area, and move outside the rope boundary. Making an Exposure The radiographer should be at the maximum distance from the exposure device that the guide tube will allow as he or she quickly cracks the source out of the exposure device and into place. As the source moves out of the exposure device, the survey meter will increase to a very high level and then reduce once the source is inside the collimator. During the exposure the assistant will survey the established boundary to determine the levels of radiation present. If the survey meter indicates levels are higher than calculated the boundary must be extended. Retracting the Source On retraction of the source, the radiographers will see a rise in readings as the source moves from the collimator and is retracted into the projector. When the source is inside the exposure device, the radiographer should approach it while monitoring the survey meter. If the source is properly retracted, no increase in the survey meter reading should be seen when approaching the exposure device. The exposure device should be surveyed on all sides paying special attention to the front of the device. The entire length of the guide tube must then be surveyed. This process is repeated for each exposure. The surveys results must be documented when the exposure device is returned to the vehicle for transportation, and when it is placing back into its storage location.

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Survey Meters
The survey meter is the most important resource a radiographer has to determine the presence and intensity of radiation. A review of incident and overexposure reports indicate that a majority of these type of events occurred when a technician did not have or did not use a survey meter. There are many different models of survey meters available to measure radiation in the field. They all basically consist of a detector and a readout display. Analog and digital displays are available. Most of the survey meters used for industrial radiography use a gas filled detector. Gas filled detectors consists of consists of a gas filled cylinder with two electrodes. Sometimes the cylinder itself acts as one electrode, and a needle or thin taut wire along the axis of the cylinder that acts as the other electrode. A voltage is applied to the device so that the central needle or wire become an anode (+ charge) and the other electrode or cylinder wall becomes the cathode (charge). The gas becomes ionized whenever the counter is brought near radioactive substances. The electric field created by the potential difference between the anode and cathode causes the electrons of each ion pair to move to the anode while the positively charged gas atom is drawn to the cathode. This results in an electrical signal that is amplified, correlated to exposure and the value displayed.

Depending on the voltage applied between the anode and the cathode, the detector may be considered an ion chamber, a proportional counter, or a Geiger-Mller (GM) detector. Each of these types of detectors have their advantages and disadvantages. A brief summary of each of these detectors follows. Ion Chamber Counter Ion chambers have a relatively low voltage between the anode and cathode, which results in a collection of only the charges produced in the initial ionization event. This type of detector produces a weak output signal that corresponds to the number of ionization events. Higher energies and intensities of radiation will produce more ionization which will result in a stronger output voltage. Collection of only primary ions provides information on true radiation exposure (energy and intensity). However, the meters require sensitive electronics to amplify the signal which make them fairly expensive and delicate. The additional expense and required care is justified when it is necessary to make accurate radiation exposure measurements over a range of radiation energies. This might be necessary when
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measuring the Bremstralung radiation produced by an X-ray generator. An ion chamber survey meter is sometimes used in the field when performing gamma radiography because it will provide accurate exposure measurement regardless of the radioactive isotope being used. Proportional Counter Proportional counter detectors use a slightly higher voltages between the anode and cathode. Due to the strong electrical field, the charges produced in the initial ionization are accelerated fast enough to ionize other electrons in the gas. The electrons produced in these secondary ion pairs, along with the primary electrons, continue to gain energy as they move towards the anode, and as they do, they produce more and more ionizations. The result is that each electron from a primary ion pair produces a cascade of ion pairs. This effect is known as gas multiplication or amplification. In this voltage regime the number of particles liberated by secondary interactions is proportional to the number of ions produced by the passing ionizing particle. Hence, these gas ionization detectors are called proportional counters. Like ion chamber detectors, proportional detectors discriminate between types of radiation. However, they require very stable electronics which is expensive and fragile. Proportional detectors are usually only used in a laboratory setting. Geiger-Mller (GM) Counter Geiger-Mller counters operate under even higher voltages between the anode and the cathode; usually in the 800 to 1200 volt range. Like the proportional counter, the high voltage accelerates the charges produced in the initial ionization to where they have enough energy to ionize other electrons in the gas. However, this cascading of ion pairs occurs to a much larger degree and continues until the counter is saturated with ions. This all happens in a fraction of a second and results in an electrical current pulse of constant voltage. The collection of the large number of secondary ions in the GM region is known as an avalanche and produces a large voltage pulse. In other words, the size of the current pulse is independent of the size of the ionization event that produced it. The electronic circuit of a GM counters counts and records the number of pulses and the display is often displayed in counts per minute. If the instrument has a speaker, the pulses can also produce an audible click. When the volume of gas in the chamber is completely ionized, ion collection stops until the electrical pulse discharges. Again, this only takes a fraction of a second but this process slightly limits the rate at which individual events can be detected. The GM counter was named for Hans Geiger who invented the device in 1908, and Walther Mller who collaborated with Geiger in developing it further in 1928.

Because they can display individual ionizing events, GM counters are generally more sensitive to low levels of radiation than ion chamber instruments. By means of calibration, the count rate can be displayed as exposure rate over a specified energy range. When used for gamma radiography, GM meters are typically calibrated for the energy of gamma radiation being used. Most often, gamma radiation from Cs137 at 0.662 MeV provides the calibration. Only small errors occur when the radiographer uses Ir-192 (average energy about 0.34 MeV) or Co-60 (average energy about 1.25 MeV). Since the Geiger-Mller counter produces many more electrons than a ion chamber counter or a proportional counter, they do not require the level of electronic sophistication. This results in a meter that is relatively low cost and rugged. The disadvantages of GM survey meters are the lack of ability to
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account for different amounts of ionization caused by different energy photons and noncontinuous measurement (need to discharge). Summary Comparison of Gas Filled Detectors The graph to the right shows the relationship of ion collection in a gas filled detector versus the applied voltage. In the ion chamber region, the voltage between the anode and cathode is relatively low and only primary ions are collected. In the proportional region the voltage is higher, and primary ions and a number of secondary ions proportional to the primary ions originally formed are collected. In the GM region, a maximum number of secondary ions are collected when the gas around the anode is completely ionized. Note that discrimination between kinds of radiation (E1 and E2) is possible in the ion chamber and proportional regions. Radiation at different energy levels forms different numbers of primary ions in the detector. However, in the GM region the number of secondary ions collected per event remains the same no matter what the energy of the radiation that initiated the event. The GM counter gives up the ability to accurately measure the exposure due to different energies of radiation in exchange for a large signal pulse. This large signal pulse simplifies the electronics that are necessary for instruments such as survey meters.

Pocket Dosimeter
Pocket dosimeters are used to provide the wearer with an immediate reading of his or her exposure to Xand gamma rays. As the name implies, they are commonly worn in the pocket. The two types commonly used in industrial radiography are the Direct Read Pocket Dosimeter and the Digital Electronic Dosimeter. Direct Read Pocket Dosimeter A direct reading pocket ionization dosimeter is generally of the size and shape of a fountain pen. The dosimeter contains a small ionization chamber with a volume of approximately 2 milliliters. Inside the ionization chamber is a central wire anode, and attached to this wire anode is a metal coated quartz fiber. When the anode is charged to a positive potential, the charge is distributed between the wire anode and quartz fiber. Electrostatic repulsion deflects the quartz fiber, and the greater the charge, the greater the deflection of the quartz fiber. Radiation incident on the chamber produces ionization inside the active volume of the chamber. The electrons produced by ionization are attracted to and collected by the positively charged central anode. This collection of electrons reduces the net positive charge and allows the quartz fiber to return in the direction of the original position. The amount of movement is directly proportional to the amount of ionization which occurs.

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By pointing the instrument at a light source, the position of the fiber may be observed through a system of built-in lenses. The fiber is viewed on a translucent scale which is graduated in units of exposure. Typical industrial radiography pocket dosimeters have a full scale reading of 200 milliroentgens but there are designs that will record higher amounts. During the shift, the dosimeter reading should be checked frequently. The measured exposure should be recorded at the end of each shift. The principal advantage of a pocket dosimeter is its ability to provide the wearer an immediate reading of his or her radiation exposure. It also has the advantage of being reusable. The limited range, inability to provide a permanent record, and the potential for discharging and reading loss due to dropping or bumping are a few of the main disadvantages of a pocket dosimeter. The dosimeters must be recharged and recorded at the start of each working shift. Charge leakage, or drift, can also affects the readings of a dosimeter. Leakage should be no greater than 2 percent of full scale in a 24 hour period. Digital Electronic Dosimeter Another type of pocket dosimeter is the Digital Electronic Dosimeter. These dosimeters record dose information and dose rate. These dosimeters most often use
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collected charge is discharged to electronic counter. The counter then accumulated exposure and dose rate

Geiger-Mller counters. The output of the radiation detector is collected and, when a predetermined exposure has been reached, the trigger an displays the in digital form.

Some Digital Electronic Dosimeters include an audible alarm feature which emit an audible signal or chirp with each recorded increment of exposure. Some models can also be set to provide a continuous audible signal when a preset exposure has been reached. This format helps to minimize the reading errors associated with direct reading pocket ionization chamber dosimeters and allows the instrument to achieve a higher maximum readout before resetting is necessary.

Audible Alarm Rate Meters and Digital Electronic Dosimeters


Audible alarms are devices that emit a short "beep" or "chirp" when a predetermined exposure has been received. It is required that these electronic devices be worn by an individual working with gamma emitters. These devices reduce the likelihood of accidental exposures in industrial radiography by alerting the radiographer to dosages of radiation above a preset amount. Typical alarm rate meters will begin sounding in areas of 450-500 mR/h. It is important to note that audible alarms are not intended to be and should not be used as replacements for survey meters. Most audible alarms use a Geiger-Mller detector. The output of the detector is collected, and when a predetermined exposure has been reached, this collected charge is discharged through a speaker. Hence, an audible "chirp" is emitted. Consequently, the frequency or chirp rate of the alarm is proportional to the radiation intensity. The chirp rate varies among different alarms from one chirp per millroentgen to more than 100 chirps per millroentgen.

Film Badges
Personnel dosimetry film badges are commonly used to measure and record radiation exposure due to gamma rays, X-rays and beta particles. The detector is, as the name implies, a piece of radiation sensitive film. The film is packaged in a light proof, vapor proof envelope preventing light, moisture or chemical vapors from affecting the film. A special film is used which is coated with two different emulsions. One side is coated with a large grain, fast emulsion which is sensitive to low levels of exposure. The other side of the film is coated with a fine grain, slow emulsion which is less sensitive. If the exposure to radiation causes the fast emulsion in the processed film to be darkened to a degree that it cannot be interpreted, the fast emulsion is removed and the dose is computed using the slow emulsion. The film is contained inside a film holder or badge. The badge incorporates a series of filters to determine the quality of the radiation. Radiation of a given energy is attenuated to a different extent by various types of absorbers. Therefore, the same quantity of radiation incident on the badge will produce a different degree of darkening under each filter. By comparing these results, the energy of the radiation can be determined and the dose can be calculated knowing the film response for that energy. The badge holder also contains an open window to determine radiation exposure due to beta particles. Beta particles are effectively shielded by a thin amount of material.
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The major advantages of a film badge as a personnel monitoring device are that it provides a permanent record, it is able to distinguish between different energies of photons, and it can measure doses due to different types of radiation. It is quite accurate for exposures greater than 100 millirem. The major disadvantages are that it must be developed and read by a processor which is time consuming, prolonged heat exposure can affect the film, and exposures of less than 20 millirem of gamma radiation cannot be accurately measured. Film badges need to be worn correctly so that the dose they receive accurately represents the dose the wearer receives. Whole body badges are worn on the body between the neck and the waist - often on the belt or a shirt pocket. The clip-on badge is worn most often when performing X- or gamma radiography. The film badge may also be worn when working around a low curie source. Ring badges are worn on a finger on the hand most likely to be exposed to ionizing radiation. A LIXI system with it's culminated and directional beam would be one example where monitoring the hands would be more important than the whole body.

Thermoluminescent Dosimeter
Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) are often used instead of the film badge. Like a film badge it is worn for a period of time (usually 3 months or less) and then must be processed to determine the dose received, if any. Thermoluminescent dosimeters can measure doses as low as 1 millirem, but under routine conditions their low-dose capability is approximately the same as for film badges. TLDs have a precision of approximately 15% for low doses. This precision improves to approximately 3% for high doses. The advantages of a TLD over other personnel monitors is its linearity of response to dose, its relative energy independence, and its sensitivity to low doses. It is also reusable, which is an advantage over film badges. However, no permanent record or rereadability is provided and an immediate, on the job, readout is not possible. How it works A TLD is a phosphor, such as lithium fluoride (LiF) or calcium fluoride (CaF), in a solid crystal structure. When a TLD is exposed to ionizing radiation at ambient temperatures, the radiation interacts with phosphor crystal and deposits all or part of the incident energy in that material. Some of the atoms in the material that absorbs that energy become ionized, producing free electrons and areas lacking one or more electrons, called holes. Imperfections in the crystal lattice structure act as sites where free electrons can become trapped and locked into place. Heating the crystal causes the crystal lattice to vibrate, releasing the trapped electrons in the process. Released electrons return to the original ground state, releasing the captured energy from ionization as light, hence the name thermoluminescent. Released light is counted using photomultiplier tubes and the number of photons counted is proportional to the quantity of radiation striking the phosphor. Instead of reading the optical density (blackness) of a film, as is done with film badges, the amount of light released versus the heating of the individual pieces of thermoluminescent material is measured. The "glow curve" produced by this process is then related to the radiation exposure. The process can be repeated many times.

Half-Value Layer (Shielding)


As was discussed in the radiation theory section, the depth of penetration for a given photon energy is dependent upon material density (atomic structure). The more subatomic particles in a material (higher Z
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number), the greater the likelihood that interactions will occur and the radiation will loose its energy. Therefore, the more dense a material, the less the depth of radiation penetration will be. Materials such as depleted uranium, tungsten and lead have high Z numbers and are, therefore, very effective in shielding radiation. Concrete is not as effective in shielding radiation but it is a very common building material and so it is commonly used in the construction of radiation vaults. Since different materials attenuate radiation to different degrees, a convenient method of comparing the shielding performance of materials was needed. The half-value layer (HVL) is commonly used for this purpose and to determine what thickness of a given material is necessary to reduce the exposure rate from a source to some level. At some point in the material, there is a level at which the radiation intensity becomes one half that at the surface of the material. This depth is known as the half-value layer for that material. Another way of looking at this is that the HVL is the amount of material necessary to the exposure rate from a source to one-half its unshielded value. Sometimes shielding is specified as some number of HLV. For example if a Gamma source is producing 369 R/h at one foot and a four HLV shield is placed around it, the intensity would be reduced to 23.0 R/h. Each material has its own specific HVL thickness. Not only is the HVL material dependent, but it is also radiation energy dependent. This means that for a given material, if the radiation energy changes, the point at which the intensity decreases to half its original value will also change. Below are some HVL values for various materials commonly used in industrial radiography. As can be seen from reviewing the values, as the energy of the radiation increases, the HVL value also increases. Approximate HVL for Various Materials When Radiation is from a Gamma Source Half-Value Layer, mm (inch) Source Iridium-192 Cobalt-60 Concrete 44.5 (1.75) 60.5 (2.38) Steel 12.7 (0.5) 21.6 (0.85) Lead 4.8 (0.19) 12.5 (0.49) Tungsten 3.3 (0.13) 7.9 (0.31) Uranium 2.8 (0.11) 6.9 (0.27)

Approximate Half-Value Layer for Various Materials When Radiation is from a X-ray Source Half-Value Layer, mm (inch) Peak Voltage (kVp) 50 100 150 200 250 300 400 1000 Lead 0.06 (0.002) 0.27 (0.010) 0.30 (0.012) 0.52 (0.021) 0.88 (0.035) 1.47 (0.055) 2.5 (0.098) 7.9 (0.311) Concrete 4.32 (0.170) 15.10 (0.595) 22.32 (0.879) 25.0 (0.984) 28.0 (1.102) 31.21 (1.229) 33.0 (1.299) 44.45 (1.75)

Note: The values presented on this page are intended for educational purposes. Other sources of information should be consulted when designing shielding for radiation sources.

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Ionization and Cell Damage


As discussed in the previous page, photons that interact with atomic particles can transfer their energy to the material and break chemical bonds in materials. This interaction is known as ionization and involves the dislodging of one or more electron from an atom of a material. This creates electrons, which carry a negative charge, and atoms without electrons, which carry a positive charge. Ionization in industrial materials is usually not a big concern. In most cases, once the radiation ceases the electrons rejoin the atoms and no damage is done. However, ionization can disturb the atomic structure of some materials to a degree where the atoms enter into chemical reactions with each other. This is the reaction that takes place in silver bromide of radiographic film to produce a latent image when the film is processed. Ionization may cause unwanted changes in some materials such as semiconductors so that they are no longer effective for their intended use. Ionization in Living Tissue (Cell Damage) In living tissue similar interactions occur and ionization can be very detrimental to cells. Ionization of living tissue causes molecules in the cells to be broken apart. This interaction can kill the cell or cause them to reproduce abnormally. Damage to a cell can come from direct action or indirect action of the radiation. Cell damage due to direct action occurs when the radiation interacts directly with a cell's essential molecules (DNA). The radiation energy may damage cell components such as the cell walls or the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is found in every cell and consists of molecules that determine the function that each cell performs. When radiation interacts with a cell wall or DNA, the cell either dies or becomes a different kind of cell such as cancer cell. Cell damage due to indirect action occurs when radiation interacts with the water molecules, which are roughly 80% of a cells composition. The energy absorbed by the water molecule can result in the formation of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules that are highly reactive due to the presence of unpaired electrons, which result when water molecules are split. Free radicals may form compounds, such as hydrogen peroxide, which may initiate harmful chemical reactions within the cells. As a result of these chemical changes, cells may undergo a variety of structural changes which lead to altered function or cell death may occur. Various possibilities exist for the fate of cells damaged by radiation. Damaged cells can:

completely and perfectly repair themselves with the body's inherent repair mechanisms. die during their attempt to reproduce. Thus tissues and organs in which there is substantial cell loss may become functionally impaired. There is a "threshold" dose for each organ and tissue above which functional impairment will manifest as a clinically observable adverse outcome. Exceeding the threshold dose increases the level of harm. Such outcomes are called deterministic effects and occur at high doses. repair themselves imperfectly and replicate this imperfect structure. These cells, with the progression of time, may be transformed by external agents (e.g., chemicals, diet, radiation exposure, lifestyle habits, etc.). After a latency period of years, they may develop into leukemia or a solid tumor (cancer). Such latent effects are called stochastic (or random).

Exposure of Living Tissue to Nonionizing Radiation A quick note of caution about nonionizing radiation is probably also appropriate here. Nonionizing radiation behaves exactly like ionizing radiation, but differs in that it has a much greater wavelength and,
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therefore, less energy. Although this nonionizing radiation does not have the energy to create ion pairs, some of these waves can cause personal injury. Anyone who has received a sunburn knows that ultraviolet light can damage skin cells. Non-ionizing radiation sources include lasers, high-intensity sources of ultraviolet light, microwave transmitters and other devices that produce high intensity radiofrequency radiation.

Cell Radiosensitivity
Radiosensitivity is the relative susceptibility of cells, tissues, organs, organisms, or other substances to the injurious action of radiation. In general, it has been found that cell radiosensitivity is directly proportional to the rate of cell division and inversely proportional to the degree of cell differentiation. In short, this means that actively dividing cells or those not fully mature are at most risk from radiation. The most radio-sensitive cells are those which:

have a high division rate have a high metabolic rate are of a non-specialized type are well nourished

Examples of various tissues and their relative radiosensitivity are listed below. High Radiosensitivity Lymphoid organs, bone marrow; blood, testes, ovaries, intestines Fairly High Radiosensitivity Skin and other organs with epithelial cell lining (cornea, oral cavity, esophagus, rectum, bladder, vagina, uterine cervix, ureters) Moderate Radiosensitivity Optic lens, stomach, growing cartilage, fine vasculature, growing bone Fairly Low Radiosensitivity Mature cartilage or bones, salivary glands, respiratory organs, kidneys, liver, pancreas, thyroid, adrenal and pituitary glands Low Radiosensitivity Muscle, brain, spinal cord

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Health Concerns
The science of radiation protection, or "health physics" as it is more properly called, grew out of the parallel discoveries of X-rays and radioactivity in the closing years of the 19th century. Since early workers with gamma and X-radiation took few, if any, precautions, serious injuries inevitably occurred. Radiation burns were recorded within a month of Roentgens announcement of his discovery of X-rays. Becquerel burned himself by carrying a sample of radium in his pocket. Marie and Pierre Curie received radiation burns on their skin from working with radium, and it is suspected their lives were cut short because of exposure to large amounts of radiation. Many developed skin cancer and suffered amputations of fingers and hands as a result of high exposures of radiation. By the 1922, radiation exposure had caused over 150 deaths. As early as 1900, five years after Roentgens discovery, it was understood that precautions needed to be taken when working with X- and gamma radiation. The first warning of possible adverse effects of Xrays came from Thomas Edison, William J. Morton, and Nikila Tesla who each reported eye irritations from experimentation with X-rays and fluorescent substances. Studies of the effects of radiation on living tissue were initiated and safe working practices begin developing. In the 1920s, the routine use of film badges for personnel monitoring was introduced and the genetic effects of X- and gamma rays were recognized. Adoption of the Roentgen as a unit for measuring radiation by the Second International Congress on Radiation occurred in 1928. Today, it can be said that radiation ranks among the most thoroughly investigated causes of disease. Although much still remains to be learned, more is known about the mechanisms of radiation damage on the molecular, cellular, and organ system than is known for most other health stressing factors. Moreover, it is the vast accumulation of quantitative dose-response data that enables health physicists to specify radiation levels so that medical, scientific, and industrial uses of radiation may continue at levels of risk comparable with the risks associated with any other technology. The image on the right shows severe radiation burns on the back of a man. The man was one of three woodsmen who found a pair of canisters in the mountains of the country of Georgia (formally part of the USSR). The men did not know the canisters were intensely radioactive relics that were once used to power remote generators. Since the canisters gave off heat, the men carried them back to their campsite to warm themselves on a cold winter night.

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