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As we know nowadays new companies enter to the market every day.

The competition in our world grows significantly with fast speed. In order to make entrance to the market, companies must obtain positioning for their products. With the help of positioning, it is significant to connect unique, impressive points of difference to the brand in order to have a competitive advantage and that consumers shouldnt have any doubt while purchasing particular product. And also consumers should have strong and preferable confidence of level in choosing to buy a specific product. or e!ample, in our time "icrosoft dominates our world in terms of its operating system. In #a$akhstan, most of users of personal computers and laptops prefer working on Windows operating system. And also one of the unique product of "icrosoft is "icrosoft office that overlord its competitors in the universe. Another e!ample of points of difference is multiple! cinemas which is called %#inopark&. The uniqueness of these network cinemas is that it provides %Image ma!imum 'I"A()& which has the ability to show images of far greater si$e and resolution that does not have analogues in other cinemas in our country. *etwork cinemas of #inopark are located in several cities of #a$akhstan, such as Astana, Almaty, +hymkent and Aktobe. And ma,ority citi$ens 'about -./) of these cities attend #inopark rather than other cinemas. 0n the other hand, according #otler, also there are associations which is named points-of-parity that do not necessarily require the uniqueness to the brand that can be common with other brands. In other words, consumers do not have preferences to a particular product. or instance, nowadays almost all automobiles are similar in terms of quality, interior, electronics and so on. 1ut the only difference could be in price. If we can select between Toyota 2amry .3 and 4e!us 5+6.3, they are both lu!ury class, but 4e!us is double e!pensive compared to Toyota. 7oints of 7arity associations can be divided into two forms8 category and competitive. 2ategory points9of9parity are associations that customers hold significant to

be a lawful and reliable giving inside to an e!plicit product or service class. They formulate indispensable conditions however not essentially enough for brand alternative. These aspect associations are merely at the generic product level and possibly at the anticipated product level. Thus, consumers might not consider a hotel truly a %hotel& unless it offered lodging paid on a short9term basis, providing meals as part of room and board arrangement, had convenient mini bars with snack food and drinks and facilities for making tea and coffee. 2ategory points of parity could possibly ad,ust over time because of industrial progresses, official e!pansions and purchaser trends. or instance, *ivea

developed into a leader in the skin cream category by establishing powerful points of difference which is based on the advantages of %gentle&, %protective&, and %caring&. As their brand equity is divided into categories such as deodorants, shampoos, and cosmetics that made them highly profitable company, *ivea discovered that it is essential to launch category points of parity prior to that they could disseminate their brands points of difference. *iveas points of difference of gentle, protective, and caring did not attract much attention of consumers unless consumers considered that its deodorant was powerful enough, its shampoo made hair beautiful and eliminated all dandruffs, and its cosmetics would be showy enough. :owever this category points of parity turns out to be crucial when a brand initiates a brand e!pansion into a fresh form. Actually, the more different the e!pansion form, the more significant it is to make certain that category points of parity are well created. In many circumstances, customers may contain a plain perception of the e!pansions proposed statement of variation by virtue of its apply of an e!isting brand name. Where customers frequently call for reassurance and what should often be the focal point of the marketing, is whether or not the e!pansion moreover has essential points of parity. 0nce the brand utili$es the necessary essentials required by the category, the ne!t stage is to include fundamentals which would contradict the competitors points of

difference. If consumers see that a brand can reach a point in a business venture when the profits are equal to the costs in those areas where the competitors are attempting to discover a benefit and achieve benefits in other areas, the brand ought to be in a powerful and probably invincible competitive position. Also in competitive points of parity, it provides a brand with a superior competitive positioning if it can afford analogous or enhanced basics as compared to its competitor points of difference. A general brand difficulty occurs when the quality of the offering is not sufficient in contrast to competition. In the ;3s, :yundai developed lower quality cars. 1ut even in <333, after managing their quality trouble, people still re,ected the brand due to the bad quality awareness. It took years, but throughout a mi!ture of programs and communication networks, :yundai discovered methods to communicate their improved quality levels and achieved quality parity. Their quality was supposed to be well enough that focus could change direction to points of difference such as price, styling, gas mileage and warranty. 7oints9of9parity and points9of9difference are regularly negatively correlated. 0pposite product interactions in the brains of consumers are pervasive across many groups. or an offering in order to reali$e a point of parity on a specific quality or benefit, an adequate number of consumers must consider that the brand is good enough on that measurement. There is a $one or range of tolerance or acceptance with points9of9parity. The brand does not accurately have to be seen as equivalent to competitors, but consumers must sense that the brand does well enough on that specific quality or benefit. If they carry out, they possibly will be willing to base their evaluations and decisions on other factors potentially more favorable and important to the brand. 7oints9of9parity may possibly even require to be the focal point of marketing communications and other marketing activities as the points9of9difference may be a specified. In other words, often, the e!planation to positioning is not so much achieving a point9of9difference '70=) as achieving points9of parity>

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