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# TALAT Lecture 2301

Design of Members

Bending Moment

## Example 4.1 : Bending moment resistance of open

cross section with closed part

7 pages

## Date of Issue: 1999

 EAA - European Aluminium Association

## TALAT 2301 – Example 4.1 1

Example 4.1. Bending moment resistance of open cross section
with closed part
fo 300 . MPa γ M1 1.1

## Half flange width b 150

Half section depth h 240
Half closed part c 75
Flange thickness t 8
Web thickness d 4
Zero o 0
Type of element
- Internal element: T = 0
- Outstand: T > 0
to indicate shift in neutral axis

## Nodes, co-ordinates (y, z), thickness (t) and types (T)

0 b h o o
1 c h t 2
2 c h t o
MPa 10 . Pa
6
3 b h t 1
4 c h o o kN 1000 . newton

5 o h c d o
i y . mm z . mm t . mm T
6 c h o o
7 o h c d o
8 o o 1 d o 300
9 o h d o
10 b h o o 200
11 b h t 1

100
The beam is composed by two extrusions. The weld is
close to the neutral axis why HAZ softening does not 0
z
influence the moment resistance. 0
mm

100
Nodes i 1 .. rows ( y ) 1 rows ( y ) = 12

## Area of cross 200

ti .
section 2 2
dAi yi yi 1 zi zi 1
elements
300
200 100 0 100 200
Cross rows ( y ) 1
y
A = 7.269 . 10 mm
section 3 2
A dAi mm
area
i =1

## TALAT 2301 – Example 4.1 2

First rows ( y ) 1
dAi Sy
moment Sy zi zi 1 . z gc
of area 2 A
Gravity centre i =1
z gc = 15.282 mm

z gc.gr z gc
Second rows ( y ) 1
dAi
zi . zi 1 . A . z gc
moment 2 2 2
Iy zi zi 1 Iy Iy
of area 3
i =1
I y = 3.344 . 10 mm
8 4
I y.gr Iy

Elastic section Iy Iy
modulus W el if max z z gc > min z z gc , ,
max z z gc min z z gc

W el = 1.31 . 10 mm
6 3

Torsion rows ( y ) 1 2
ti
dAi . I tu = 1.156 . 10 mm
constant for 5 4
I tu
open parts 3
i =1

## Hollow part in top flange

y1 z1 t1
75 240 8
y2 75 z2 240 t2 8
yh yh= mm zh zh = mm th th= mm
y5 0 z5 165 t5 4

y6 75 z6 240 t7 4

rows y h 1
Area within
0.5 . y h . z A tu = 5.625 . 10 mm
3 2
mid-line A tu yh hi zh
i i 1 i 1
i =1

## Sum of l/t rows y h 1 2 2

yh yh zh zh
i i 1 i i 1 22
Dn if t i > 0 , , 10 Dn = 71.783
th
i =1 i
4 .A
2
Torsion constant tu
I t = 1.763 . 10 mm
6 4
for closed part It
Dn

Torsion constant
I t = 1.879 . 10 mm
6 4
whole section It It I tu

Torsion
2 . A tu . min t h W v = 4.5 . 10 mm
4 3
resistance Wv min t h = 4 mm

## TALAT 2301 – Example 4.1 3

Effective cross section. First iteration
zi 1 z gc zi z gc zd zi z gc
5.4.3 (1) ψi if zi 1 z gc < zi z gc , , i
zi z gc zi 1 z gc max z max z d

0.8
(5.7 or 5.8) gi if ψ i > 1 , 0.7 0.30 . ψ i ,
1 ψ i

Outstand
Figure 5.2 gi if Ti > 0 , 1 , gi

2 2
yi yi 1 zi zi 1 250 . MPa
5.4.3 (1) c) βi if t i > 0 , gi . ,1 ε o ε o= 0.913
ti fo

max z max z
5.4.4 (5) εi if zi z gc . zi 1 z gc , if zi 1 z gc < zi z gc , ε o . , ε o. , 99
zi z gc zi 1 z gc

5.4.5 (3) 2 2
a) or c) β ε ε β ε ε
> 6 , 10 . 24 . > 22 , 32 . 220 .
i i i i i i
heat-treated, ρ c if Ti > 0 , if , 1.0 , if , 1.0
i ε β β ε β β
unwelded i i i i i i

Effective βi t eff
t eff ρ .ct = i
thickness ε ρ c= =
ψi = gi = βi = εi = i i mm
1 1 9.375 0.973 9.635 0.779 6.235
1 1 18.75 0.973 19.271 1 8
Comment: 1 1 9.375 0.973 9.635 0.779 6.235
εi was given a large value (99) 1 1 1 0.973 1.028 1 0
for elements entirely on 0.666 0.9 23.862 0.973 24.524 0.939 3.756
the tension side 0.666 0.9 1 0.973 1.028 1 0
0.666 0.9 23.862 0.973 24.524 0.939 3.756
-0.109 0.667 27.696 99 0.28 1 4
0.064 0.719 42.968 99 0.434 1 4
1 1 1 99 0.01 1 0
1 1 37.5 99 0.379 1 8

Area of effective
thickness
t eff .
elements 2 2
dAi yi yi 1 zi zi 1
i

Cross rows ( y ) 1
A = 7.269 . 10 mm
3 2
section A eff dAi
area
A eff = 6.952 . 10 mm
3 2
i =1

## First moment rows ( y ) 1

dAi Sy
of area Sy zi zi 1 . z gc
2 A eff
Gravity centre i =1
z gc = 5.329 mm

## TALAT 2301 – Example 4.1 4

Effective cross section. Second iteration
Node 8 is moved to the neutral axis z8 z gc 0.01 . mm
from the first iteration

zi 1 z gc zi z gc zd zi z gc
5.4.3 (1) ψi if zi 1 z gc < zi z gc , , i
zi z gc zi 1 z gc max z max z d

## 0.8 max z = 245.329 mm

(5.7 or 5.8) gi if ψ i > 1 , 0.7 0.30 . ψ i ,
1 ψ i

Outstand gi if Ti > 0 , 1 , gi
element

yi yi 1
2
zi zi 1
2 z gc = 5.329 mm
5.4.3 (1) c) βi if t i > 0 , gi . ,1
ti z8 = 5.339 mm z9 = 240 mm

max z max z
5.4.4 (5) εi if zi z gc zi 1 z gc , if zi 1 z gc < zi z gc , ε o . , ε o. , 99
zi z gc zi 1 z gc

5.4.5 (3)
a) or c) 2 2
β ε ε β ε ε
> 6 , 10 . 24 . > 22 , 32 . 220 .
i i i i i i
heat-treated, ρ c if Ti > 0 , if , 1.0 , if , 1.0
unwelded i ε i
β i
β i
ε i
β i
β i

Effective βi t eff
t eff ρ .ct = i
thickness ε ρ c= =
i = Ti =ψ i = gi = βi = εi = i i mm
1 2 1 1 9.375 0.933 10.044 0.758 6.062
β i
Max slender- β e if Ti > 0 , 0 , 2 0 1 1 18.75 0.933 20.088 1 8
ness i ε i 3 1 1 1 9.375 0.933 10.044 0.758 6.062
- Internal 4 0 1 1 1 0.933 1.071 1 0
elements β Imax max β e
5 0 0.68
0.904 23.974 0.933 25.686 0.912 3.65
β Imax = 25.686 6 0 0.68
0.904 1 0.933 1.071 1 0
7 0 0.68
0.904 23.974 0.933 25.686 0.912 3.65
β i
8 06.263·10 -5 0.7 27.941 1.132 24.693 0.935 3.74
Max slender- β e if Ti > 0 , ,0 9 0 -1·10 30.01 0.613 0.913 0.672 1 4
ness i ε i 10 0 1 1 1 99 0.01 1 0
- Outstands
β Omax max β e 11 1 1 1 37.5 99 0.379 1 8

β Omax = 10.044

## Cross section class I if β Imax 11 , 1 , if β Imax 16 , 2 , if β Imax 22 , 3 , 4 class I = 4

class
class O if β Omax 3 , 1 , if β Omax 4.5 , 2 , if β Omax 6 , 3 , 4 class O = 4
(5.15)
class if class I > class O , class I , class O class = 4

Area of effective
t eff .
thickness 2 2
dAi yi yi 1 zi zi 1
elements i

## TALAT 2301 – Example 4.1 5

rows ( y ) 1
Area of
A eff dAi
A = 7.269 . 10 mm
effective 3 2
cross section i =1
A eff = 6.862 . 10 mm
3 2

First rows ( y ) 1
moment dAi Sy
of area. Sy zi zi 1 . z gc
2 A eff
Gravity centre i =1
z gc = 3.31 mm
Second rows ( y ) 1
moment of dAi
zi . zi 1 . A eff . z gc
2 2 2
area of effective Iy zi zi 1 I eff Iy
3
cross section i =1
I eff = 3.158 . 10 mm
8 4

Section I eff
W eff = 1.298 . 10 mm
6 3
modulus zd zi z gc max z.eff max z d W eff
i max z.eff

Compare I y.gr
W gr = 1.31 . 10 mm
6 3
gross zd zi z gc.gr max z.gr max z d W gr
i max z.gr
section

## Plastic section modulus

A = 7.269 . 10 mm
3 2

Cross section 7
ti . A up = 3.249 . 10 mm
area of upper 2 2 3 2
A up yi yi 1 zi zi 1
part
i =1
A
Move node 8 A up
2
to plastic z8 z7 z8 = 68.566 mm
neutral axis t8

rows ( y ) 1
Plastic section zi zi 1
W pl . t. yi yi 1
2
zi zi 1
2
W pl = 1.475 . 10 mm
6 3
modulus 2 i
i =1 W pl
= 1.126
W el

Shape factor
22 β Imax W pl 6 β Omax W pl
(5.15) α 3I 1 . 1 α 3O 1 . 1
22 16 W el 6 4.5 W el

α 3 if α 3I < α 3O , α 3I , α 3O α 3= 0.661

W pl W eff
α if class< 3 , , if class< 4 , α 3 , class = 4 α = 0.991
W el W el

## TALAT 2301 – Example 4.1 6

Bending moment resistance 300

fo
(5.14) M Rd α . W el.
γ M1 200

M Rd = 354 kN . m
100
Cross section class = 4
class

## Elastic neutral axis: 0

- first iteration dashed-dotted line
- second iteration dashed line
Plastic neutral axis dotted line
100

200

300
200 100 0 100 200