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The feasibility of hybrid solar bio!ass power plants in "ndia


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4

J. D. Nixona, P. K. Deyb and P. A. Daviesa*


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16
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Sustainable Environment Research

rou!, School o" En#ineerin# and A!!lied Science 7 !lants "or use in %ndia in various 8A
9
b

#
$

18 19

a!!lications includin# tri& #eneration, electricity #eneration and !rocess heat. 'o cover this breadth o" scenarios (e analyse, (ith the hel! o" simulation models, case studies (ith !ea)

20

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

32
34

and

35 36 37 38

*.+,-../ "

in

cost

!ere (

39 40

Keywor t h 4 ds: 1
solar

4 2

43 44 45

46 47 48

4 9 5 0

51 52 53

54 55 56

5 7 5 8 5 9

60 61
62

63

64 65

$o!enclature
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

0 ' 1 l u i d t e m ! e r a t u r e ri s e 2 K 3 A
r

2m.3

A r e a o " r e c e i v e r 2 m
.

4saved 4iomass saved 2tonnes5a3 cbio 6ost o" biomass "eedstoc) 275a3 cboiler 6ost o" boiler 273 6ca!ital 6a!ital cost 273 cchiller 6ost o" chiller 273 celec 6ost o" electricity 273 cins Annual insurance costs 275a3 cland 6ost o" land 273 689: 8!erations and maintenance cost 275a3 cP4 6ost o" rest o" !o(er bloc) 273 6!el 6ost !er exer#y loss 6!i S!eci"ic heat ca!acity o" ice 2)J5)#K3 6!s S!eci"ic heat ca!acity o" steam 2)J5)#K3 6!( S!eci"ic heat ca!acity o" (ater 2)J5)#K3 cs" 6ost o" solar "ield 273 cs!are Annual re!lacement costs 275a3 csta"" 6ost o" em!loyees 275a3 cturb 6ost o" turbine 273 c(ater 6ost o" (ater 275a3 DN% Direct normal irradiance 2$5m.3 Eel Electricity !roduced 2:$he5a3 Eel,;bio Percenta#e o" electricity "rom biomass in!ut Eel,;sol Percenta#e o" electricity "rom solar in!ut Eel,aux Auxiliary electrical re<uirement 2:$he5a3 Eel,val =alue o" saleable electricity 275a3 Ex Exer#y received Exu 1> 1>> 16R "P4sta"" 1R 1S "S1sta"" ene"" %A: %se"" %val )d Exer#y delivered 6ollector e""iciency "actor 2&3 6ollector "lo( "actor 2&3 1ixed char#e rate 2&3
Number o" em!loyees "or !o(er bloc) 2&3 ?eat removal "actor 2&3

Solar share & 1raction o" total use"ul ener#y "rom solar in!ut 2;3
Number o" em!loyees "or solar "ield 2&3 enerator e""iciency 2;3

A
S 1

A ! e rt u r e a r e a o " s o l a r "i e l d

%ncidence an#le modi"ier 2&3


'urbine isentro!ic e""iciency 2;3 =alue o" %ce 275a3
%nterest rate on debt 2;3

1L
@68E @E6 @e( @"( @?= @saved :bio

@en#th o" receiver !i!e 2m3 @evelised cost o" electricity 2/5)$h3 @evelised ener#y cost 2/5)$h3 @atent heat o" eva!oration "or (ater 2)J5)#3 @atent heat o" "usion "or (ater 2)J5)#3 @o(er heatin# value 2)J5)#3 @and saved 2ha3 :ass o" biomass 2tonnes3 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

:ice

:ass o" ice 2tonnes3

ms
ol

( in solar "ield 2)#5s3

: as s "lo

mturb :(ater Par Pexit

:ass "lo( in turbine 2)#5s3 :ass o" (ater 2tonnes3 Pro"its a"ter ca!ital re!ayments 275a3 'urbine exit !ressure 2bar3

Pi
nlet

Bse"ul ener#y "rom boiler 2 J5a3 ?eat absorbed by chiller 2 J5a3 Solar radiation rate o" on solar "ield 2 J5a3 ?i#h #rade reCect heat "rom solar "ield 2 J5a3 @o( #rade reCect heat "rom chiller 2 J5a3 Bse"ul ener#y #ained "rom solar "ield 2 J5a3 Annual solar insolation 2 J5m.5a3

'u rbi ne inl et !r es su re 2b ar3

Ae Ain* AreCect,h AreCect,l Au Ayear

1S
'* '. 'a 'AS1 'exit 's 'ice 'in ':E B@ Bo $net $turb
(=0) % %%

Absorbed solar radiation 2$5m.3


'urbine inlet tem!erature 2D63 'urbine exit tem!erature 2D63

P Pc
a!

Ambient tem!erature 2K3


'otal land usa#e o" solar "ield 2K3 Exit tem!erature "rom solar "ield 2K3 ?eat trans"er "luid tem!erature 2steam3 2K3 'em!erature o" ice 2K3 %nlet tem!erature to solar "ield 2K3

6a !it al co st !a yb ac ) !e rio d 2ye ars 3

'y!ical meteorolo#ical year 2&3


?eat loss coe""icient 2$5m..K3 8verall heat loss coe""icient 2$5m..K3 Net (or) o" !lant $or) at turbine 2 J5a3 8!tical e""iciency at normal incidence 2;3 Ener#y e""iciency Exer#etic e""iciency

P Ps
ol

Subscripts

So lar inv est me nt !a yb ac ) !e rio d 2ye ars 3

1c 1b
hc os

6ollector 2solar thermal "ield3 4oiler 2biomass3 ?eat cycle 8verall system

P(
r

Pr o"i ts (it h ca !it al re !a y m en ts 275 a3

Ab
oile

1. 11 2
3

"ntroduction
.

%ndia receives a hi#h level o" Direct Normal %rradiance 2DN%3, G,H )$h5m !er day. 'hus,

there is a vast !otential "or decentralised solar ener#y a!!lications usin# 6oncentratin# Solar
thermal Po(er 26SP3. ?o(ever, 6SP technolo#ies are currently ex!ensive and the u!ta)e in

14 5
6

%ndia has been slo(. 'he Ja(aharlal Nehru National Solar :ission (as established in .I*I

17 18
10 11 12 13

and outlined su!!ort "or solar ener#y a!!lications to encoura#e mar)et !enetration o" #rid, connected and decentraliJed o""&#rid a!!lications, to !rovide ener#y services in %ndia K*, .L. 9 8 desi#n. 'he @1R uses multi!le ro(s o" lo( !ro"ile mirrors to "ocus solar radiation onto a "ixed tar#et !i!e to #enerate steam directly. Such

14
16

Direct

Steam

15

'rans"er 2?'1s3

1luids ,

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

!
'
?

synthetic oil and molten salt , and has the !otential to increase 6SP

35

36

day the sunMs rays can be harnesse d by solar collectors and biomass "eedstoc ) can be burnt as a su!!leme ntary "uel to achieve constant base load o!eration. 6SP !lants bene"it "rom

37

38 39 40 41

42
44

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

ener#y co u sol a considered. c s re<uire d "or Po!ov K*IL "armin modelled a G # and 1resnel stora# collector e. system "or boiler ?ybrid !reheatin# solar in a Ran)ine system re#enerative s havecycle "or been re!o(erin# investi#"ossil "uel ated !o(er !lants be"ore. usin# Kaushi 'hermo"lo(M )a ets al. KNL'?ER:81@ studied EO library a K*IL. hybridi @erchenmPll sed er et al. K**L distiller at the y 1raunho"er (aste& %nstitute based evaluated co& various #eneratas!ects o" ion hybridisin# !lant the @1R (ith (ith biomass or solar #as co&"irin# ener#y "or di""erent "or solar %ndia, shares, i.e. (ith the the bio&!ercenta#e #as o" electricity deman #enerated d in"rom solar relation ener#y as to thedetermined amount by the o" solara!erture heat area o" the #eneratsolar "ield. ed 'hey

used to

inc r
b

simulation tool. Key economic indicators "rom the study included the @evelised 6ost o"

11 2
3 4 5 6

Electricity 2@68E3 and avera#e annual !ro"it a"ter interest rate re!ayments. 'he @68E is the

!ayment a !lant must receive "or each unit o" electricity in order to meet o!erational costs. 4ermeCo et al. K*.L tested an @1R solar&#as coolin# !lant to identi"y desi#n im!rovements
that could be made on solar collector siJe, o!eration control and cou!lin# to chiller. 6ot et al. K*FL !resented the conce!t o" Q'ermosolar 4or#esM a hybrid 6SP !lant that (ill o!erate (ith a 9

17 18
10 11 12 13

transients and a biomass boiler at ni#ht.


'ermosolar 4or#es (ill be the (orldMs "irst hybrid 6SP !lant, and is ex!ected to commence sellin# electricity to the S!anish #rid in January .I*F. A small scale demonstration !roCect

14
16

aimin# "or com!letioni


S

15

!o(er !lant "or tri& #eneration

2electricity, heat re"ri#eration3 K*GL.

and

17 18 19 20

21
23

24 25 26 27

a !lant !er"orm : o u

3, (hi ch

is de"inedt as theh ratio o"

"ield mirr or

a!erture area to the siJe

28
30

sc a
E

31 32 33 34

have also and

esti m a

6SP

!o ( e

exer#y analyse s 2or "irst la( and second la( analyse s3 have been (idely ado!te d to !rovide a com!re hensive assess ment o" thermo dynami c cycles. Exer#y is !articul arly

35
37 44

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

3 8

s u

e"ul in
39 40 4 1

a s
t

and

anal ysis o" ah

#as& biomass s

oc is use"ula cur to red society in and the there"or sol e has ar economi the rm c value al K.., .FL. "iel Such d. exer#oe
conomic Ex analyses er# are etic ty!ically ana used "or lys desi#n es o!timisa hav tion, e assessin als # o "easibilit and bee y, n com!ari co n# mbi system ned o!eratin (it # h conditio eco ns and no technolo mic #ies, by stu evaluati die n# the s cost as associat exe ed (ith r#y the is exer#y the loss in !ar system t o"com!on ene ents r#y K.GL. that Rosen

11 2
3 4
5

?e!basli K.HL !rovides a com!rehensive revie( o" exer#etic studies o" sustainable ener#y systems.

?ybrid !lant studies in the literature have been !rimarily "ocused on the @68E (ith electricity as the sole out!ut. As indicated, the conce!t o" exer#y has been (idely ado!ted in
the !o(er #eneration sector, but no assessment o" hybrid solar&biomass systems has been made. A ran#e o" hybrid solar&biomass a!!lications and the resultin# dra(bac)s and bene"its 9 " !rovide heat "or industrial !rocesses. A !romisin# hybrid a!!lication in %ndia is a tri& #eneration !lant, !roducin# electricity, ice and reCect heat,

17 18
10 11 12 13

14
16

throu#h the use o" an@


r

15

21i#ure *3. :any industries have a

lar#e demand "or steam and, in "ood&!rocessin# "acilities,

17 18 19 20

21
23

term
'

"

!re

servation R

22

!la

nts.

24 25 26 27

28
30

o" a

!lication

consider

ed i

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

a A* . $h at is the a! !ro !ri ate sol ar mu lti!l e "or a hy bri d !la ntS A. .

? o ( d o t h e l e v e l i s e d e n e r
61

#y ent cost ion s o" alS alter nativ AF . e hybri ?o ( d a!!li do es catio the ns hy com bri !are d to !la othe nt r co ener m! #y are sour to ces, a rene bio (abl ma ss& e and onl conv y !la
c a

n t S A G . $ h i c h i s t h e m o s t

"easi ind ble ust a!!li rial catio !ro n "or ces a s hybri he d atS solar ' & biom ass !o( er !lant R tri& #en erati on, elect ricity #en erati on or
a l above. a#ai nst the

e ted evalua in! te incentivisin hybrid # biomass !lants and solar and toener#y and recom "or !lant mend desi#ners on theand best investors. a!!lic ations 'he o" methodolo# such y o" this !lants. !a!er is 'his based on (ill "ive case have studies im!licachosen to a tions cover ran#e o" "or !olicy scenarios hybrid ma)er "or @1R& s interes biomass ' e c

e siJes o" solar "ield, as re!rese nted by the solar multi!l e. Evaluat ions and com!ar isons (ill thus be made a#ainst

58

5 9

echni
60

inanci asse ssment is m

6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5

2. 11
2

Evaluation criteria and assu!ptions

'he evaluation (ill re<uire several criteria as used by other authors KF, **&*F, *-&*+, .*, .T,

FIL. 'hese criteria "all into three cate#oriesU 14


*. 'echnicalU ener#y e""iciency (%3 and exer#etic e""iciency 2%%3.

6 7
8

.. 1inancialU cost !er exer#y loss 26!el3 @evelised 6ost o" Electricity 2@68E3, @evelised Ener#y 6ost 2@E63, Paybac) Period on total ca!ital cost 2PPca!3 and Paybac) Period on cost o" solar "ield 2PPsol3. EnvironmentalU mass o" biomass saved F. 24saved3 and resultin# land saved 2@saved3. 'he assum!tions and e<uations used "or calculatin# these criteria (ill be de"ined.

9 1 0
1 1

1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7
1 8

% Tec . hnic 1 al st 'he ener#y e""iciencies 2* la( e""iciency, I3 and exer#etic e""iciencies 2.
cycle and overall

nd

la( e""iciency,

II) of the hybrid plants components (solar field, biomass boiler, heat

1 9

2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9
3 0

sy ste m3 ar e

st u di e d

to !ro vid e

a <uantitative and <ualitative assessment o" the

e n e r # y

conversion !rocess at each sta#e in the system.

The hybrid plants overall system ener#y e""iciency is #iven by,

2* 3

3 1 3 2

'he net (or), Wnet, is a result o" the annual (or) at the turbine, Wturb, and heat absorbed by

3 3
3 4

3 5 3 6 3 7

the chiller, Qe. 'he auxiliary load o" the !lant is assumed to be *..- times the auxiliary electrical re<uirement, Eel,aux.

2. 3

3 8
3 9

4 0 4 1 4 2 4 3
4 4

'he use"ul ener#ies trans"erred to the steam "rom the biomass boiler and solar thermal "ield are ex!ressed as Qboiler and Qu res!ectively. 'he boiler e""iciency, I,b, (hich varies "or !art loads, can be determined "rom the "ollo(in# e<uationU

4 5 4 6
4 7 4 9

4 8

2F 3

5 0 5 1 5 2 5 3 5 4
5 5

'he mass o" the biomass "eedstoc) consumed is #iven by Mbio. 'he @o(er ?eatin# =alue 2@?=3 "or "uels s!eci"ies the amount o" ener#y released !er mass o" "uel durin# combustion.

'he annual solar radiation rate on a solar * thermal "ield, Qin 2 J5a3, is calculated "rom the
y e ar

5 6

5 7 5 8 5 9 6 0 6 1 6 2 6 3

solar insol ation ,

J 5a3, and the fields aperture 5 Q m area, ASFU

6 4 6 5


1 2 3 4 5

2G3

'hus, the ener#y e""iciency o" the solar "ield, I,c, is #iven by Au5Ain.
Each case study is evaluated to determine the exer#y received and delivered by each system 7 8c 9

16
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

( h
'

(
' h

2N3

2*I3

2**3

2*.3

'he main out!uts "rom the !lant include the electricity !roduced, Eel, mass o" ice, Mice, and

11 2
3

lo( and hi#h #rade reCect heat. Sur!lus heat "rom the solar thermal "ield is cate#orised as

hi#h #rade reCect heat, Qre ect,h, as tem!eratures (ill be the re#ion o" FII D6. @o( #rade reCect
heat, Qre ect,l, tem!eratures less than *II D6, (ill be !roduced "rom the chiller.

14 5
6

17
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

'he total mass o" ice !roduced is determined "rom the "ollo(in# KF.L,
8 9

(here !pw and !pi are the s!eci"ic heat ca!acity o" (ater and ice, "#w is the latent heat o" "usion "or (ater, and $a and $ice are the ambient tem!erature and desired ice tem!erature.

2.2 &inancial 'he ca!ital cost !er exer#y loss, !pel, "or each !lant com!onent 2solar "ield, !pel,c, boiler, !pel,b, heat cycle, !pel,hc, and overall system, !pel,os3 is evaluated "romU

'he ca!ital cost o" the !lant, !capital, and cost o" o!erations and maintenance, !%&M, "or the hybrid !lant are calculated "romU

%t has been estimated that an @1R solar "ield, based on a!erture area, must cost belo( .+* 75m 2.*T V5m 3 to be com!etitive (ith other
. .

6SP technolo#ies KFFL. 'y!ical costs "or an @1R s

11 2
3

solar "ield is assumed to be three times that o" its a!erture area. 'he cost o" land !rocurement and !re!aration, avera#e salary o" a medium s)illed em!loyee and value o" ice are ta)en to be

.I

75m , 7.III !er annum and GI

75tonne res!ectively, (hich are values #athered by the


uCarat. 'he cost o" the biomass boiler, cboiler, is

14 5
6

authors durin# site visits to com!anies in

assumed to be 7-G,III !er tonne o" steam !roduced !er hour. De!endin# u!on the amount o"
ice !roduced !er hour the cost o" the chiller, cchill, is ta)en to be 7.-,III !er tonne o" ice 8! cpb, is assumed to be GI 75:$he. 8ther
9

17
10 11 12 13

o!erational costs include the biomass, cbio, (hich (ill de!end on "eedstoc) ty!e and site location. 'he number o" sta"" re<uired "or the solar "ield and rest o"

14
16

the !lant is assumed tob

15

ice, re!airs, security, etc.3 'he

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

cost o" the (ater consum!tion is ta)en to be *.HF 75:$h KFIL.

32
34

2.I3

2.*3

(here

35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

t h year, etc. , a "ixed value o" *N /5)$h is ta)en "or % solar, as solar !roCects commission ed a"ter F* December .IIN (ere eli#ible "or this rate in %ndia KFHL. 'he assum!tion is made that
st

53

ele c

city

#e n

ated

"ro m
/

5 7 5 8 5 9

2.F3

6 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5

6 0

*I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

'he annual !ro"it o" the !lant a"ter 16R re!ayments, 'ar, and (ith 16R re!ayments 2e.#. loans3, 'wr, is determined "romU

2.G3

2.-3 'o investi#ate the bene"it o" a hybrid !lant in com!arison to a biomass&only !lant it is use"ul to determine the !aybac) !eriod "or the additional investment in solar ener#y, ''sol, (hich is s!eci"ied by the ca!ital cost and !ro"it o" a hybrid !lant "or a #iven solar multi!le 2S: X (3 and a biomass&only !lant 2S: X I3U

2.T3

'he !aybac) !eriod or brea)even time "or the overall !lantMs ca!ital cost, ''cap, is also included as it is a )ey indicator "or investors o" (hether a !roCect is "inancially "easible. 'ax rates and other "inancial incentives such as carbon credits are not considered. All monetary values in this !a!er are !resented in BS dollars, converted at an exchan#e rate o" * %ndian Ru!ee 2%NR3 X I.I. BS Dollar 2BSD3. 2.3 Environ!ental 'he )ey environmental "actors considered are the amount o" biomass and land saved, )sa*ed and "sa*ed, relative to biomass&only o!eration. 'he land usa#e is calculated based on a cro! yield assum!tion o" *F tonnes !er hectare annum KF+L. 3. 'i!ulation !odel of hybrid plant

Several so"t(are !ac)a#es (ith the ca!ability to enable users to model solar thermal and rene(able ener#y based !o(er !lants are available. Exam!les includeU 'hermo"lex, Ebsilon, %PSE!ro, 'RNSES, SA:, reenius and 6olSim. 1or the !ur!oses o" this study a hybrid Simulation so"t(are tool. %t is a @ 43 'RNSES, a validated 1 #ra!hical so"t(are 'RaNsient SEstem 4 54 the literature KG.&G-L. 4 environment, ty!ically usedc 55 1or a #iven steam to model the !er"ormance o" 56 4 thermal and electrical demand, tem!erature 57 5 58 4 ener#y #eneratin# systems, and !ressure, the boiler 59 6 and has been !reviously e""iciency, "lue #as 60 4 61 a!!lied in the "ield o" 6SP tem!erature and 7 62 KFN, GIL. Each com!onent 4 biomass "eed rate are 63 8 "ormin# the hybrid !lant calculated. @osses due 64 4 65 model is no( described. to "lue #as, blo(do(n, 9 :athematical models and 5 ash removal, radiation 0 assum!tions used are and convection are
5 1 5 2 5 3

ex!licitly !rovided. 3.1


A

**

(io!ass boiler
'RNSES steam boiler

11 2
3 4 5 6

also considered. 'he boiler is considered as a counter "lo( heat exchan#er (ith the "lue #as exchan#in# heat to the su!!ly (ater throu#h an economiJer, eva!orator and su!erheater

section. ). % 'olar field operation


6 o at normal incidence, +,-./ and heat loss coe""icient, 0" KGTL.

17 18
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

'o model the solar "ield a custom com!onent has been develo!ed in 'RNSES. 'he hourly !er"ormance o" the solar "ield is modelled based on the ty!ical !arameters "or an @1RU 9

'he solar "ieldMs "lo( characteristics are modelled usin# a series o" e<uations "or the collector e""iciency "actor, F, collector "lo( "actor, F, and heat removal "actor, F1, to determine the ?'1 mass "lo( rate, (sol, to achieve a desired exit tem!erature KGH, G+L.

(here Ar is the receiverMs absorber area and !p is the s!eci"ic heat ca!acity o" the ?'1. 'he use"ul heat #ain, Qu, is determined "romU

22

(here,

and $in and $a are the receiver inlet tem!erature and ambient tem!erature. 'he "luid tem!erature rise, $, "or a #iven mass "lo( rate is calculated "romU
Y

'he receiver sections (hich act as a !re&heater, eva!orator and boiler have

to be treated individually. 'hus, "or a #iven inlet tem!erature the mass "lo( can be determined to achieve a s!eci"ied exit tem!erature, $exit.


*.

2FF3

%terative calculations are re<uired as Qu, (sol and 0" are de!endent on each other. 'he solar 11 "ield a!erture area re<uired to !rovide enou#h use"ul heat #ain to achieve the maximum 2
3
5

thermal re<uirement 2mass "lo( and tem!erature3 at the turbine, "or !ea) cosine& adCusted Z * the "lo( rate "rom the solar "ield can be too hi#h to be utilised by the turbine, thus excess "lo( is si!honed o"". At ni#ht, "lo( by!asses the solar "ield. 'he "ield !i!e losses are not
considered.

14 17 18 9

DN% in a 'y!ical :eteorolo#ical Eear 2':E3, i.e. S.: X *, can then be determined. 1or S:

1 0 1 1 1 3
1 2

). ) Refri*eration plant A sin#le e""ect absor!tion chiller (ithin the 'RNSES com!onent "iles is used to model the
heat absorbed "rom a chilled "lo( stream, heat reCected to a coolin# "lo( stream and auxiliary electrical load. 'he chiller is assumed to o!erate (ith a constant 68P o" I.- and a calcium c chosen as it enables tem!eratures belo( I D6 to be obtained in the chiller. An additional com!onent has been modelled to control the chilled achieved. ?eat (as 22 exit tem!erature stream to match thev reCected via the coolin# o" -I D6 is stream enterin# at the a

14 15 16
17 18 19 20

21
23

24 25 26 27

28
30

chiller iss

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

i T
'

as &.I D6. %ti t 4'&G andincludes details SS'&ITI ison !lant 7*.I,III a!!lication, site location, siJin#, and 7TTI,III o!erational res!ectively!arameters and . 'heassum!tions. o!erational Results "or the ran#e inevaluation terms o" "ullcriteria de"ined and !artin section . are load "lo(!lotted a#ainst S:. rates, mechanical out!uts, Case !ressures, 4.1 study 1 tem!eratur + es, and ,u-arat e""iciencies pilot are #iven in plant 'able .. A'he uCarat cost o"hybrid !lant is a 7+II,III is!ilot system to assumed be im!lemented "or thein =a!i, %ndia. condensin# 'he !roCect is !art "unded by turbine. research #rants 4. Ca and there"ore se has a lo( 16R stu o" -;. 'he !lant die (ill !rovide

s %n this section, the )ey "eatures o" the "ive hybrid !lant case studies are !resented 2as summaris ed in 'able *3. Each case

*F

11 2
3

electricity to the #rid, and ice to nearby "isheries and chemical !lants. %n the "uture, sur!lus heat (ill be used "or additional !rocess steam a!!lications. 'he !lant (ill o!erate (ith a F

14 5
6

tonne boiler and 4'&G steam turbine. Rice hus) "eedstoc), (ith an @?= o" *G :J5)#, (ill be sourced at a cost o" GI 75tonne.
'he

17
10 11 12 13

uCarat !lant is modelled usin# the "ollo(in# conditions. At the biomass boilerMs "ull 8l the solar "ield until the mass "lo( reaches 9 I.G*- )#5sR at this state the biomass boiler is s(itched to !art load 2i.e. the t(o "lo( streams are combined to achieve the !art load o" the turbine3. %" the solar "ieldMs

14
16

mass "lo( reachesI t C


A

15

re<uirement is not included. 1or an

S: Z *, the steam mass "lo( rate "rom the "ield is limited

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

28

their cam!us buildin#s . %n addition, they are also intereste d in desi#nin # a system that best
meets their demand. 'hree case studies are there"ore modelled.

29

30

31 32 33 34

35
37

chi l
"

.
steam rate *.*+ )#5s is chosen. 6ase F is controll ed that t so a o"

1or

ca s
!

38 39 40 41

constan base load is achieve d. this case a lar#er *I.+ tonne boiler 2steam rate e<ual to F )#5s3 is modelle d. 'he boiler is assume d ment the solar in!ut (ith an ideal res!ons e in the ran#e o" GI, to com!le 1or

42
44

I *
t

45 46 47 48

I; o" "ield )#5s. 1or "or both "lo( cases . rates and F, the #reat assum!tio er n is made than *.+ )#5s. ?o( ever, i" the solar "ield achie ves a stea m "lo( o" F )#5s the biom ass boiler is turne d o"" and hot ban) ed. Sur!l us "lo( is there "ore !rod uced "or "lo( rates #reat er than F

it

ea)

th
s

that
51

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

e b
6

y and ice! ele 2see r ctri 1i#ure city -a,d3. 2ca %n all se cases G3 the is (eather mo data dell "rom the ed 6oimbat sim ore ilarl (eather y tostation cas is used e "or the F, ':E. exc 6ases e!t are tha assume t ad to be con"unded de by a nsi #overn n# ment tur loan bin (ith a e is-; useinterest d rate, rat thus an her 16R o" tha +; is n a *G bac ) !re ssu re tur bin e& chil ler co mbi nati on,

11 2
3

modelled. 1or the 6olle#e case studies a solar multi!le o" * re<uires a solar "ield a!erture . area o" *N-II m .

14 5
6

17 18
10 11 12 13

..) Case study / + 0rintin* factory A !rintin# "actory, located in 'amilndadu, %ndia, re<uires a lar#e <uantity o" steam 2.:$ thermal yearly avera#e3 to dry textile !rintin#s. 'he "actory currently o!erates on biomass
alone 2bio&bric)s3. 'he bio&bric)s are made "rom sa(dust, #round nut hus), co""ee hus) and 9 t by a subsidiary com!any be"ore bein# sent to the "actory. 1rom "armer to boiler the biomass is trans!orted over F-I )m. 'he !rintin# "actory re!orts that the

14
16

cost o" the bio&bric)sh

15

.I**, and are su""erin# "rom an

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

d
'

inconsistent "eedstoc) su!!ly. 'hus, to reduce biomass

28

re<uired 6 o to achieve the I.G )#5s steam "lo( rate at !ea) solar irradianc e over the ':E. 'he
':E

3 1 3 2 3 4 3 5
3 6
3 3

3 0

29 51
52 53 54 55

"or

4 ma results 3 5 ss 50 corres!o the boiler is shut do(n (hen is able to !roduce the to demanded steam ndin# 4 the solar "ield 8 and these 1lo( 6 3 solar 1iscussi lan multi!les 9 I.G )#5s/. belo( "rom the considered sur!lus heat. At 4solar "ield is there"ore d on can asbe 7 4 "ound in S:Z*, 'he results studies (ill no( be A.* summarised and 'able 4 "rom the casesav 0 seeI.G on&)#5s. A solar "ie ed. "urther sur!lus ener#y is created "or steam "lo(s #reater , than !rovidin#8 4 line 2De annex3. a!erture 1 l 'he tail 4 ed <uestions outlined in the introdu 2 ans(ers to the "our research sim 4 o" G.II m 3 ulat 4 ion solar (ultiple #or a hybrid plant5 Q34 What is the appropriate sho(n in 1i#ure Ta,d. 4 s,

56
58

!e a
5 9

load
60 61

stu d ses * and !rocess

an d -3 l

studies had a

6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5

*-

11
2

investment bein# indicated. As ex!ected the ca!ital cost !aybac) !eriod increased "or lar#er solar multi!les, but increased more #radually "or an S: X I.-,*.-. 1or a lar#e S: the

14 5
6

biomass and land saved also became less substantial in com!arison to increased values "or the "inancial criteria.
Q64 7ow do the le*elised ener8y costs o# alternati*e hybrid applications co(pare to other 8e modelled (ere lo(er than !hotovoltaic and 9 com!arable to (ind turbines 2see 1i#ure H3. ' 1urthermore, the electricityc
extendin# %ndiaMs electrical #rid to rural areas, (hich ran#e "rom T.G,

17
10 11 12 13

14
16

levelised

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

lo(er electricity and ener#y cost values.

t h

28

29

Q94 7ow does the hybrid plant co(par e to a bio(as s:only plant5
'he hybrid !lantsM ener#y and exer#etic e""iciencie s (ere lar#ely insensitiv e to an increasin #

30

31 32 33 34

35

36

bio ma ss !o (e r !la nts (e re "in an cial R ho (e ver the re (e re als o en vir on me nta l ad va nta #e s. 1or the sel ect ed S: s sho (n in 'ab le F the cos t !er exe r#y los s an d lev elis ed en er# y cos t

37

38 39 40 41

"rom +.F to .G.+ 75 J5a and *.+ to -.. /5)$h res!ect ively in com!ar ison to biomas s&only. A more si#ni"ic ant dra(ba c) is the lon# !aybac ) !eriods "or the hybrid !lant. $ith a hi#h solar share, the !ea) load studies 2cases * and .3 had the minimu m solar

44

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

s er res! "acilities ectiv (ere ely built (ith 2see hi#her 'abl !er"orma e F3.nce ?o( turbines ever and , chillers !ay im!leme bac)nted. A !eri solar ods "ield "or subsidy the o" TI; ca!it (ould al have cost resulted (oul in a d beca!ital decr cost eas !aybac) ed i"!eriod o" lar# .I years er "or case subs* and N idies years "or , case F. such as thos e "or un& elect ri"ie d rural area s o" %ndi a (er e avail able , or lar#

loss

in c

An increase in "eedstoc ) !rice (ould have resulted in the solar !aybac) !eriods bein#
considera bly reduced. 4iomass "eedstoc) !rice "or rice hus) has increased si#ni"icant ly in

58

5 9

60 61

rec ent

75tonne to

6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5

*T

11
2

K-GL. 'he !rintin# "actory re!orts an +G 75tonne increase over a T years !eriod "or their bio& bric)s. 1or the hybrid !lant case studies it (as observed that a *.. , F.. times cost increase

in biomass (ould have resulted in com!arable levelised ener#y costs (ith biomass& only
o!eration. @i)e(ise, a GH.H , N+.-; ca!ital subsidy or cost decrease "or the solar technolo#y

14 5
6 7

(ould have had similar results 2see 'able G3.

18
10 11 12 13

%n these case studies hybridisation reduces de!endency on biomass and land by around *G, 9 . hi#hly variable. 1or exam!le, rice !addy has an u!!er and lo(er yield o" ..-,H t5ha.a, and (heat has a yield ran#e o" *.-, N t5ha.a K--L. $ith lar#e

14
16

amounts a

o"a

15

hus), it could be ar#ued that there

is no land re<uirement to #ro( these "uels. ?o(ever, these

17 18 19 20

21

22

es!eciall y as a#ricultu ral land is used "or #ro(in# edible cro!s. 'here"or e, the reduced
de!enden cy on biomass in these hybrid !lants is considere d a si#ni"icant bene"it due to

23

24 25 26 27

28
30

Q ;
'

31 32 33 34

"easibili ty ve hybrid solar& biomas

Which
o"

is t

ost

#e a

alternati

s !o(er !lant a!!licat ions (ill be hi#hly de!end ent on re#ional ener#y !olicies . the case studies !resent ed, (hich assume d similar "inancin # )ey desi#n !rioritie s, tri& #enerat ion and industri al !rocess heat a!!licat ions the and 1or

35
37 44

45 46 47 48

e s

3 8

r a

e
39 40 4 1

c o

nsider hybrid

e d m ario 2caseG scen

!re uired "or senan t electricit an y only eve!lant at n the less mo than *I re :$ attr scale. acti An o""& ve #rid tri& o!ti#enerati on on !lant "or is inv recomm est ended ors as the . most $it "easible h the cur ren t tec hn olo #ie s on the ma r)e t, ho (e ver, lar #er sub sidi es (o uld be re<

a!!lica tion "or a hybrid solar& biomas s !o(er !lant and should there"o re be the "ocus "or
!olicym a)ers and rene(a ble ener#y !o(er !lant develo! ers in %ndia. 51 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 5

char#e rate, com!on ent costs and ca!ital subsidi es. ?o(ev er, the moneta ry values assume d could be "urther varied to investi# ate the sensitivi ty o" levelise d ener#y5 electricit y costs and

58

5 9

6061

! aybac )

s. Addition

"a ctors c

6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5

*H

1 2 3

subsidies and tari""s. 1urther a!!lications "or the e""ective use o" reCect heat should also be modelled. 1or exam!le, alternative re"ri#eration systems , air conditionin#, multi& e""ect distillation and double e""ect absor!tion chillers , could be considered. A!!lications o" the
hybrid tri&#en !lant to the "ood !rocessin# industry could also be investi#ated "urther, such

14 5
6

as, !lant inte#ration (ith a rice mill, (here the hus) (ould !rovide some o" the biomass "uel.

17
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

ReCect heat could be used "or "eed (ater !re&heatin#, (hich (ill im!rove !lant e""iciency and 8r hybrid !lantMs com!onents 2!um!s, 9 turbine sta#es, chiller, "eed&(ater heaters, A "ans, condenser, deaerator, stora#e tan)s, etc.3 could be carried out to investi#ate the maCor sources o" irreversibilities and thus identi"y (hich com!onents (ould bene"it the most "rom technolo#ical im!rovements. 8!timisation o" a !lantMs o!eratin# tem!erature could also be achieved by extension o" the ener#y&exer#y analysis. %ndeed, im!rovements can be made to hybrid !lants and "uture case s!eci"ic studies (ill re<uire more detailed analysis. An interestin# study (ould be a detailed com!arison o" hybrid @1R& and P'6& biomass !o(er !lants. 'he modellin# has assumed several sim!li"ications re#ardin# the control o" the !lants. 'he mass "lo( in the solar "ield (as controlled to achieve a constant tem!erature and !ressure. ?o(ever, in !ractice this is di""icult as overshoot can occur. 'he conce!t o" hybridisin# solar and biomass "or steam #eneration to !o(er directly a turbine raises numerous control challen#es. 'here are a number o" non& linear variables and steam turbines only tolerate tem!erature and load "luctuations o" a "e( de#rees and !ercent !er minute K-+L. Su!erheated steam #enerated directly in the solar "ield exhibits "ast transients as a result o" the variable solar in!ut and demand chan#es at the boiler, and this can result in di""iculties (ith maintainin# drum !ressure and (ater level. 'hus, hybrid solar&biomass !o(er !lants (ill re<uire hi#h&<uality control systems (hich should

be the "ocus o" "urther (or). 8ne manu"acturer o" an @1R system claims that they have already develo!ed a !redictive control system that is ca!able o" maintainin# !ressure, tem!erature and "lo( "or varyin# solar in!uts K-NL. 4y im!lementin# suitable control strate#ies a "ast boiler res!onse time, and constant !ressure, tem!erature and "lo( should also be achievable. Kalo#irou KTIL !resents a com!rehensive revie( on arti"icial intelli#ence systems "or combustion !rocesses, includin# boilers and #as en#ines. ?o(ever, the best control scheme "or a steam boiler to attain a "ast res!onse is an o!en !roblem.

56
58

'he

solar t

multi!lec

57

criteria decision& ma)in# 2:6D:3

!rocedures have been used in rene(able ener#y !lannin#

59 60 61

6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5

*+

11

it is a multi"aceted !roblem (ith a number o" !otential criteria to consider. Detailed desi#n !riorities "or a hybrid !lant a!!lication could also be established usin# :6D: methods to 2
3" 4 5 6 7 8 9

sta)eholders.

10 11 12 13

6. Conclusion ?avin# considered the ans(ers to the research <uestions !osed in this !a!er, the "uture !ros!ects "or hybrid solar& biomass !o(er !lants are no( addressed.
1or small&mid scale a!!lications 2.&*I :$ thermal3, hybrid solar&biomass !o(er !lants are currently a "easible o!tion "or tri& #eneration 2electricity, coolin# and heat3 in %ndia, !rovidin#

14
16

solar ca!ital subsidiesr

15

heat also !resents a viable

17 18 19 20

o!tion "or a!!lications (ith an e""ective utilisation o" heat. At

21

rise. 1ocus should be #iven to ma)in# technolo #ical im!rove ments to the heat cycle o" small
scale hybrid !lants due to lo( ener#y and exer#etic e""iciencie s. $hile biomass& only systems

22

23

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

scaled %ndia electricity

in "or

#enerationR this aid (ould

35

in t )e e e!i n# sol ar the rm al a co m! etit ive o!t ion in co m! ari so n to alt ern ati ve ren e( abl e en er# y

establish 37 %ndia as a #lobal leader on 3 hybrid 8 solar& biomass 3 !o(er systems. 9 4 0 4 1

#cknowled*!ents

'he authors (ould li)e to ac)no(led#e the "inancial su!!ort under the Sc 4rid#e
!ro Cect "in an ce d by Re se arc h 6o un cils BK 2E P5 I FN NN .5* 3 an d De !ar tm ent o" Sci en ce an d
'ec hno lo# y, %ndi a, alo n# (it h the con trib utio ns o" coll ea# ues at %%' Del hi and %nd ustr ial

42

43

44

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

4 R [1] : [2]

Nat Solar ion Ener#y. al .IINR+F2 Acti -3UTHN& on +N. Pla [4] 4irnba n um J, Ec) on :, 6li 1ichtner mat :, ?irsch ', e @ehmann 6h D, an# ]immerm e. ann . A .II Direct +. Steam eneratio [3] : onte n Solar Po(er s Plant $ith :J, Ab[ %nte#rated nade 'hermal s A, Stora#e. :art\ Journal o" neJ& Solar Ener#y =al En#ineeri J:. Per" n#. orma .I*IR*F.2 F3UIF*I*G nce o" a . direc t stea *N m #ene ratio n solar ther mal !o( er !lant "or elect ricity !rod uctio n as a "unct ion o" the solar multi !le.

K-L ?oshi A, :ills DR, 4ittar A, Saitoh 'S. Screenin# o" hi#h meltin# !oint !hase chan#e

11 12 3
4 5

materials 2P6:3 in solar thermal concentratin# technolo#y based on 6@1R. Solar Ener#y.
.II-RHN2F3UFF.&N.

KTL Suresh 6. 4iomass resources assessment "or !o(er #enerationU A case study "rom ?aryana state, %ndia. 4iomass and 4ioener#y. .I*IRFG2N3U*FII&+.
KHL :ohan 4, K. Risin# "uel costs ma)e biomass ener#y unattractive. 4usiness StandardR
85 9
76

16

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16 17
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[ [ [ [

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.*

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11 12 3
4 5

%ndiaU An a!!roach to(ards identi"yin# !otential areas "or decentraliJed electricity su!!ly.
Rene(able and Sustainable Ener#y Revie(s. .II+R*.2-3U**+H&..I.

16 17
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

K-*L Ran#an 4. 6om!arison o" o!tions "or distributed #eneration in %ndia. Ener#y Policy. .IITRFG2*3U*I*&**. K-.L Nouni :R, :ullic) S6, Kand!al '6. Providin# electricity access to remote areas in
%ndiaU Niche areas "or decentraliJed electricity su!!ly. Rene(able Ener#y. .IINRFG2.3UGFI&G.

9[

[ [ [ [ [58] R

eneration. SolarPA6ES. ranada, S!ain .I**. [59] 6onlon $. Su!erheated Steam "rom 6@1R Solar. SolarPA6ES. ranada, S!ain .I**. [60] Kalo#irou SA. Arti"icial intelli#ence "or the modelin# and control o" combustion !rocessesU a revie(. Pro#ress in Ener#y and 6ombustion Science. .IIFR.N2T3U-*-&TT.

[61] Pohe)ar SD, Ramachandran :. A!!lication o" multi&criteria decision ma)in# to sustainable ener#y !lannin#&& A revie(. Rene(able and Sustainable Ener#y Revie(s. .IIGR+2G3UFT-&+*. &i*ures and tables
&i*ure 1: eneral schematic o" a hybrid @1R& biomass !o(er !lant "or tri&#eneration.

40
43

2 &i*ure %a+d: uCarat !ilota !lant 2case study *3 sho(sUa t

44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

h y

savin# becomes less substantial "or S: Z *, at S: X * the hybrid !lant saves *+II tonnes and *GI hectares !er annum.
&i*ure )a+d: 6olle#e& !ea) load 2case study .3 sho(sU 2a3 the minimum ener#y and exer#etic e""iciencies occur

overall system ener#y and exer#etic42 e""iciencies decrease relatively constantly "rom

I.ITH to I.IG. and I.I-T to I.IGI "or S: X I , .R 2b3 the overall system cost !er exer#y loss increases by

52

at the heat cycle, and the overall system ener#y and exer#etic e""iciencies decrease relatively constantly "rom

53

I.IH* to I.IGG and I.I-N to I.IGF "or S: X I , .R 2b3 the overall systemMs cost !er exer#y loss increases by hybridisin# (ith solar, but remains relatively constant "or lar#er S:s. 'he heat cycleMs cost !er exer#y loss
decreases constantly "or lar#er S:sR 2c3 the levelised electricity and ener#y costs increase relatively constantly
"or an increasin# S:, and an S: X * results in the minimum solar !aybac) !eriod and a ca!ital cost !aybac)

54

55

56

57

58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

! e

the biomass and land savin# becomes less substantial "or S: Z *, at S: X * the hybrid !lant saves .-II tonnes and *++ hectares !er annum.

..

&i*ure .a+d: 6olle#e&base load 2case study F3 sho(sU 2a3 the minimum ener#y e""iciencies occur at the heat

11 12 13 4
5 6

cycle and solar "iled and minimum exer#etic e""iciencies occur at the heat cycle. 'he overall system ener#y and
exer#etic e""iciencies decrease relatively constantly "rom I.I+H to I.IGN and I.IH. to I.I-- "or S: X I , .R 2b3
the overall system cost !er exer#y loss increases constantly "or lar#er S:sR 2c3 the levelised electricity and

ener#y cost increase constantly "or lar#er solar multi!les, and an S: X * results in the minimum solar !aybac) !eriod 2T. years3 and a ca!ital cost !aybac) !eriod o" *+ yearsR 2d3 the biomass and land savin# remains
constant "or an increasin# S:, at S: X * the hybrid !lant saves F*II tonnes and .GI hectares !er annum.

17
8

19
10

&i*ure /a+d: 6olle#e&electricity 2case study G3 sho(sU 2a3 the minimum ener#y e""iciencies occur at the solar

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

" i & i

the minimum ener#y and exer#etic e""iciencies occur at the solar "ield. 'he overall system ener#y and exer#etic e""iciencies decrease relatively constantly "rom I.T+H to I.--G and I.TIF to I.-FF "or S: X I , .R 2b3 the cost !er exer#y loss o" the overall system and solar "ield increases and decreases res!ectively "or lar#er S:sR 2c3 the levelised ener#y cost increases "rom F.. to G /5)$ht "or an S: o" I to F, and a minimum !aybac) !eriod o" ++ years "or S: X ..-R 2d3 the biomass and land savin# remains constant "or an increasin# S: "rom * to ., at S: X ..- the hybrid !lant saves -II tonnes and GI hectares !er annum.

29
32

&i*ure

2:

e @evelised l

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

T a T a T a

e l

%ndia, re!orted by31 Ran#an K-*L, Nouni et al. K-.L and

4eerbaum and $einrebe K*+L.

44

Table .:s Solar "ielde subsidy and cost o" biomass ( "or thei hybrid !lants (ith

46

i.e. 48 same levelis ed 49 ener# y costs. 50

47

51 52

5 3 5 4 5 5

56 57 58 59 60

61
62
63

.F

64 65

&i*ure 1

DN%

:bio

Stea m turbi ne

Electrici ty 2$turb3

@1R solar "ield

4iomass boiler

Absor!tion chiller

6oolin# 2Ae3 ReCect heat 2AreCect,l3

AreCect,h

Fi8ure 3

&i*ure %

3 4
I

'olar !ultiple

E f

2.a3

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6!el,b

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GI

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.I II

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. I I I I.* 'olar !ultiple 4saved @saved .

2.c3

2.d 3
PP sol

Fi8ure 6a:d

&i*ure )

I . + I . H I . T I . I . G I . F I . . I . * I . I I I.* *..

e < e r * y l o s s 3 = 8 , > 8 a :

I G G I F F I . . I

Efficiency 34:

p e r C o s t

* * I I I I.* * . .

2Fa3
I,c
II,c

'olar !ultiple
I,b
II,b

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I,hc
II,hc

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II,os

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. I

Fi8ure 9a<d

. I . I I * -

I
I

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*.-

3 h b i

4saved
@saved

&i*ure .

I . + I . H I . T I . I . G I . F I . . I . *

e < e r * y l o s s 3 = 8 , > 8 a : -I GGI FFI ..I p *e r *I C o s t I I I.* 'olar !ultiple I,o I,c
II,c

Efficiency 34:

I . I *..

I.-

* 'olar !ultiple

*.-

2Ga3

2Gb3
I,hc
II,hc

I,b
II,b

s 6!el,c
II,os

6!el,b

6!el, hc I I G I G I I F I F I I . I .

6!e l,os

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N I + I

HI II

TI II

* r o w b i o ! a s s 3 h a

FFI ..I

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-I II

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I I **I F I . I .I II * I * I I I I I I.4save d * 'olar !ultiple *. .

5C6E

I I I. @6 8E * 'olar !ultiple @E6 *. .

* I I

*I II I

5 a n d t o

2Gc3

2Gd3
PPca! PP sol

@saved

Fi8ure ;a<d

&i*ure /

3 4 : E f f i c i e n c y

3 = l o

e < p e C o

I G G I F F I . . I * * I I I I.* *.. I I.* *..

2-a 3
I,c
II,c

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I,b
II,b

2 b 3
I,hc
II,hc

'olar !ultiple 6!el,c 6!el,b 6!el,h c 6!el,os I I G I G I I F I F I I . I . I I * I * I I I I I I.* 'olar !ultiple 4saved @saved *..

I, os
II, os

. I * + a n d 5 E C * T * G * .

+ I H I T I I M a s s ; e a r s 3 t 8 a :

HI II TI II

-I II GI II FI II

3 7 * 8 I k 9 h + : T G 5 C 6 E

G I F I . I * I

.I II *I II

* r

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I I

5 a n

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PP sol

Fi8ure =a<d

&i*ure ?
G . I F . F . I . . . . I * . * 'olar !ultiple 6!el ,os I G G I 3 F h F I b . i . I * - t * o I
5 a n

3 7 8 k 9 h t h e r ! a l :

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>a<

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I
I

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l e

6ase studies 2Electricity3

6ase studies 2Ener#y3 @ar#e Scale P i l o t ! l a n t 6 o Small Scale

l )$h3

F i 8 u r e ?

Table 1

6ase study A!!lication Demand load @ocation Pea) ca!acity 1ixed char#e rate 6a!ital subsidy 1eedstoc) 1eedstoc) @?= 1eedstoc) !rice

2*3 uCarat !ilot !lant 'ri&#en Pea) uCarat - :$ thermal -; FI; Rice hus) *G :J5)# GI 75tonne

2.3 6olle#e & !ea) load 'ri&#en Pea) 'amilnadu *I :$thermal +; FI; 6oconut shell *T :J5)# -I 75tonne

2F3 6olle#e & base load 'ri&#en 4ase 'amilnadu *I :$thermal +; FI; 6oconut shell *T :J5)# -I 75tonne

2G3 6olle#e & electricity Electricity&only 4ase 'amilnadu *I :$ thermal +; FI; 6oconut shell *T :J5)# -I 75tonne

2-3 Printin# "actory Process heat 4ase 'amilnadu . :$ thermal +; FI; 4io&bric) .I :J5)# *II 75tonne

$able 3

Table %

(
b

tur

ene Pinlet bar +.+.+.+.+.Pexit bar ....*.*.I.* '* D6 .+I .+I FII FII FII '. D6 .*.*F ..I *NF -I $turb )$ N*N+ *HI -N* *F+N Eel )$e H+ *H*F-GG *F.I %se"" ; GG; G-; FN; -F; -N; ; +.; +N; HN; N.; N-;
""

'urbine 4'&G 4'&G SS'&ITI SS'&ITI 6ondensin #

)#5s I.+F *.TT *.*+ F F

$able 6