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AP Psych Unit 6 Practice Quiz 1. The most crucial ingredient in all learning is A) shaping. B) modeling. C) experience.

D) intrinsic motivation.

E) maturation.

2. If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates A) spontaneous recovery. D) operant conditioning. B) associative learning. E) habituation. C) observational learning. 3. Seals in an aquarium will repeat behaviors, such as slapping and barking, that prompt people to toss them a herring. This best illustrates A) respondent behavior. D) latent learning. B) operant conditioning. E) spontaneous recovery. C) observational learning. 4. After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates A) shaping. D) observational learning. B) spontaneous recovery. E) positive reinforcement. C) respondent behavior. 5. The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by A) John B. Watson. B) B. F. Skinner. C) Albert Bandura. D) Ivan Pavlov.

E) Edward Deci.

6. John B. Watson emphasized that A) learning depends on how predictably rather than how frequently events are associated. B) unlike lower animals, humans learn through a process of cognition. C) both humans and lower animals learn to expect that a CS will be followed by a US. D) learning should be explained without any reference to mental processes. E) cognition plays a role in conditioning through the power of prediction. 7. Which of the following is an unconditioned response? A) playing jump rope B) running through a maze to get a food reward C) sweating in hot weather 8. A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a(n) A) conditioned stimulus. B) unconditioned stimulus. C) unconditioned response.

D) E)

clapping after a thrilling concert performance getting money as a reward

D) E)

conditioned response. neutral stimulus.

9. A child's learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n) A) conditioned response. D) B) unconditioned stimulus. E) C) conditioned stimulus.

unconditioned response. nonconditioned response.

10. A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a A) US. B) CS. C) UR. D) CR. E) SA. 11. Which of the following is an unconditioned response? A) salivating at the sight of a lemon B) raising your hand to ask a question C) jerking your hand off a very hot stove

D) E)

walking into a restaurant to eat working for money.

12. In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the ________. A) US; CS B) UR; CR C) CS; US D) CR; UR E) US; CR 13. Which of the following provides evidence that a CR is not completely eliminated during extinction? A) latent learning B) partial reinforcement C) spontaneous recovery D) generalization 14. Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________. A) UR; CR B) CS; UR C) US; UR D) CS; US E) NS; NR 15. Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of A) habituation. B) latent learning. C) generalization. D) delayed reinforcement. E) shaping. 16. Your heart may race when confronted by a lion but not when approached by a kitten. This best illustrates the adaptive value of A) shaping. B) discrimination. C) extrinsic motivation. D) spontaneous recovery. E) negative reinforcement.

E) discrimination

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17. Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by A) cognitive processes. D) continuous reinforcement. B) biological predispositions. E) latent learning. C) environmental factors. 18. In a series of experiments, men found women more attractive and sexually desirable when their photos were framed in A) black. B) yellow. C) violet. D) red. E) white. 19. Watson to the study of learning? A) He challenged the prevailing belief that all associations can be learned equally well. B) He demonstrated that the more predictable the association, the stronger the conditioned response. C) He showed how the law of effect can be used to teach new behaviors. D) He explained how partial reinforcement schedules can be used to maintain learned behaviors. E) He demonstrated how some emotions and behaviors can be learned by classical conditioning. 20. Voluntary behaviors that produce rewarding or punishing consequences are called A) respondent behaviors. D) conditioned responses. B) prosocial behaviors. E) unconditioned responses. C) operant behaviors. 21. B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called A) shaping. B) behaviorism. C) observational learning.

D) the law of effect.

E) latent learning.

22. Skinner developed a behavioral technology that included a procedure known as A) shaping. B) modeling. C) latent learning. D) intrinsic motivation.

E) conditioned stimuli.

23. Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of A) secondary reinforcement. D) shaping. B) delayed reinforcement. E) latent learning. C) spontaneous recovery. 24. Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n) A) conditioned stimulus. D) negative reinforcer. B) unconditioned stimulus. E) positive punishment. C) positive reinforcer. 25. Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n) A) conditioned stimulus. D) negative reinforcer. B) unconditioned stimulus. E) positive punishment. C) positive reinforcer. 26. Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a(n) ________ reinforcer. A) positive B) negative C) conditioned D) partial E) intermittent 27. Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________. A) positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer D) reinforcement; punishment B) primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer E) partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement C) immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer 28. Money is to food as ________ is to ________. A) delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer B) secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer C) discrimination; generalization

D) E)

partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement operant conditioning; classical conditioning

29. To quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use A) classical conditioning rather than operant conditioning. B) partial reinforcement rather than continuous reinforcement. C) latent learning rather than shaping. D) immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers. E) negative reinforcers rather than positive reinforcers. 30. Humans, unlike many other animals, can be conditioned with reinforcers not delivered until a long time after the desired behavior. What are these reinforcers called? A) continuous B) interval C) partial D) delayed E) secondary 31. Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ________ schedule of reinforcement. A) fixed-ratio B) fixed-interval C) variable-interval D) variable-ratio E) intermittent-interval

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32. Which of the following behaviors is typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule? A) studying to be prepared for unexpected quizzes D) checking the mailbox to see if the mail has arrived B) inserting coins into a slot machine E) assembling car parts in a factory C) paying a cashier for a candy bar 33. Glancing at the television in the next room in hopes of seeing the beginning of the evening news is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule. A) intermittent-variable B) fixed-ratio C) variable-interval D) variable-ratio E) fixed-interval 34. On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule. A) fixed-interval B) conditioned-response C) variable-interval D) variable-ratio E) fixed-ratio 35. The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________. A) acquisition; extinction D) punishment; reinforcement B) negative reinforcer; positive reinforcer E) partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement C) primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer 36. When 4-year-old Michael hit his sister, his Mom placed him in a time-out by having him stand in a corner for 4 minutes. A time-out is considered to be A) positive punishment. D) negative punishment. B) negative reinforcement. E) continuous reinforcement. C) positive reinforcement. 37. A young child who is spanked after running into the street learns not to repeat this behavior. In this case, the spanking is a A) positive reinforcer. D) negative punishment. B) conditioned reinforce. E) negative reinforcer. C) positive punishment. 38. The best evidence that animals develop cognitive maps comes from studies of A) shaping. B) generalization. C) latent learning. D) secondary reinforcement. 39. Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit A) respondent behavior. D) spontaneous recovery. B) continuous reinforcement. E) intrinsic motivation. C) latent learning. 40. Researchers trained pigs to pick up large wooden dollars and deposit them in a piggy bank. Instead of picking up the wooden discs, the pigs would drop them, push them with their snouts, and then pick them up to put them in the piggy bank. This behavior best illustrates A) intrinsic motivation. B) latent learning. C) spontaneous recovery. D) generalization. E) instinctive drift. 41. In explaining prosocial behavior, B. F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized A) genetic influences. D) the internalization of moral values. B) empathy and compassion. E) the beneficial consequences of prosocial behavior. C) an unconscious need for social approval. 42. A psychologist would most likely use biofeedback to provide clients with information about their A) cholesterol level. B) blood type. C) muscle tension. D) genetic makeup. E) circadian rhythm. 43. A learned association between two stimuli is central to A) shaping. B) negative reinforcement. C) extrinsic motivation. 44. Operant conditioning involves a learned association between A) two responses. B) two stimuli. C) two reinforcers. D) E) classical conditioning. observational learning.

E) spontaneous recovery.

D) E)

behavior and its consequence. unconditioned and conditioned stimuli.

45. Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of A) respondent behavior. B) immediate reinforcement. C) spontaneous recovery. D) modeling. E) shaping. 46. The tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on television best illustrates the importance of A) shaping. B) modeling. C) respondent behavior. D) immediate reinforcement. E) spontaneous recovery. 47. Which of the following become active both when people watch an action being performed and when they perform that action themselves? A) cognitive maps B) fixed-ratio schedules C) mirror neurons D) operant chambers E) biofeedback systems 48. Mirror neurons most clearly provide us with the capacity for A) spontaneous recovery. B) intrinsic motivation. C) intermittent reinforcement.

D) E)

imitation. insight learning.

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49. Bandura's experiments indicate that ________ is important in the process of learning. A) shaping B) generalization C) modeling D) respondent behavior E) secondary reinforcement 50. Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to A) practice and preach the virtues of cleanliness. B) practice cleanliness but not preach its virtues. C) neither practice nor preach the virtues of cleanliness. D) preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness. E) preach the virtues of obeying parents but not notice the washing hands rule. 51. Most researchers who have examined the effects of viewing televised aggression conclude that A) viewing violence takes people's minds off their own problems and thus reduces their aggressive urges. B) viewing violence leads children and teenagers to behave aggressively. C) there is no correlation between viewing aggression and behaving aggressively. D) although viewing violence is correlated with increased aggression, there is no evidence that viewing violence actually leads to aggression. E) viewing violence is cathartic and lessens aggressive impulses. 52. Desensitization and imitation are two factors that contribute to A) the law of effect. B) spontaneous recovery. C) the violence-viewing effect.

D) E)

instinctive drift. operant conditioning.

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Answer Key
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. C B B D D D C D A B C C C D C B B D E C D A D C D B A B D D A B E C D D C C E E E C D D D B C D C D B C

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