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Purpose It is to assist in distinguishing normal from abnormal groups. Specifically, the test was designed to aid in the diagnosis or assessment of the major psychiatric or psychological disorders. Administration The test can be administered to most persons either individually or in groups, using the forms of the test and answer sheets most convenient to the examiner. For those of average or above average intelligence, without complicating factors, the tesing time typically is between 1 and 1 ! hours. For less intelligent individuals or those with other complicating factors, the testing time may exceed 2 hours. Before the MMPI is administered, the examiner should establish rapport with test subjects. The best way to assure the subjects cooperation is to explain why the MMPI is being administered, who will have access to the results and why it is in the best interest of the test subject to cooperate with the testing. The test should be administered in a quiet, comfortable place. The examiner should be readily available to monitor the test-taking and to answer questions that may arise. Care should be taken to make sure that the test subject carefully reads the test instructions and understands them. Questions that arise during the course of testing hold be handled promptly and confidentially. Scoring Once the subjects responses have been recorded on an answer sheet, scoring can be accomplished by computer or by hand. Scoring keys are available for the standard validity and clinical scales and for numerous supplementary scales. Each template is placed over an answer sheet. The number of blackened spaces is counted and represents the raw score for the scale in question. For some scales, only one scoring key is available, whereas others two keys (front and back) are required. When two keys are used, the raw score is the total number of blackened spaces on the front and back of the answer sheet. Raw scores for eh standard validity and clinical scales are recorded in spaces provided on the answer sheet it. For supplementary scales, raw scores are recorded in spaces provided on separate profile sheets.

Constructing the Profile A first step in constructing the profile of the standard validity and clinical scales is to transfer the raw scores from the answer sheet to the appropriate blanks at the bottom of the profile sheet, making sure that the profile is the appropriate one for the persons gender. At this

Psymet Hout - MMPI

time, it is also important to be certain that identifying data (name, age, date, education, etc.) are recorded on the profile sheet. At this point, a K-correction is added to the raw scores for the Hs, Pd, Pt, Sc and Ma scales. The proportion of a persons K scale raw score that is to be added to each of these scales is indicated on the profile form. On these scales the total score (the original raw score plus the K-correction) is calculated and recorded in the appropriate blank on the profile sheet. For each scale the examiner should refer to the number in the column above the scale label. The number in the column corresponding to the raw score (K-corrected if appropriate) on the scale is marked by the examiner either with a small x or a small dot. Raw scores on the Cannot Say (?) scale are recorded on the profile sheet but are not plotted as part of the profile. Care should be taken when plotting the scale 5 (Mf) scores. For men, higher raw scores yield higher T-scores, whereas for women, higher raw scores yield lower T-scores. After a dot or x has been entered in the column about each scale label, The MMPI profile is completed by connecting the plotted dots or xs with one another. Traditionally, the three validity scales are joined to one another but are not connected with the 10 clinical scale scores. Coding the Profile (Welsh Code)

Step 1: Utilize the number instead the name for each scale. Hs 1 D2 Hy 3 Pd 4 Mf - 5 Pa 6 Pt 7 Sc 8 Ma 9 Si - 0

Step 2: Record the 10 numbers of the clinical scales in order of T-scores, from the highest on the left to the lowest on the right. Step 3: To the right of and separated from the clinical scales, record the three validity scales (L, F, K) in order of the T-scores with the highest on the left and the lowest on the right. Do not include the ? scale. The set of clinical scales and the set of validity scales are coded separately. No supplementary scales are included in the coding. Step 4: When adjacent scales are within one T-score point, they are underlined. When adjacent scales have the same T-score, place in the ordinal sequence found on the profile sheet and underline. Step 5: To indicate scale elevations, appropriate symbols are inserted after scale numbers as follows: 120 and above 110 119 100 109 90 99 80 89 70 79 !! ! ** *

Psymet Hout - MMPI

60 69 50 59 40 49 30 39 29 and less

. / : # to the right of #

If a 10-point T-score range does not contain any scale, the appropriate symbol for that elevation must be included. It is not necessary to include a symbol to the left of the scale with the highest score or to the right of the scale with the lowest score. Step 6: Repeat steps 4 and 5 for the validity scales. Validity Scales
Scale Lie Scale Symbol L Description ! Fifteen rationally derived items included in both the MMPI and MMPI-2 ! Designed to evaluate a nave attempt to present oneself in a favorable light ! Items reflect personal weaknesses, such as I never lose control of myself when I drive. Most people are willing to admit to these weaknesses. ! High scorers are unwilling to acknowledge minor flaws High Scores
Are trying to create a favorable impression of themselves by being not honest in responding to the items May be defensive, denying and repressing May be confused Manifest little or no insight into their own motivations Show little awareness of consequences to other people of their behavior Overvalue their own worth Tend to be conventional and socially conforming Are unoriginal in thinking and inflexible in problem solving Are rigid and moralistic Have poor tolerance for stress and pressure May have responded randomly to the MMPI items May have responded true to all the MMPI items or false to all the MMPI items

Low Scores
Probably responded frankly to the items Are confident enough about themselves to be able to admit to minor faults and shortcomings In some cases, may be exaggerating negative characteristics Are perceptive and socially reliant Are seen as strong, natural, relaxed Are self- reliant and independent Function effectively in leadership roles Communicate ideas effectively May be described by others as cynical and sarcastic

Infrequency Scale

! Of the original 64 items from the MMPI developed to detect deviant response patterns, 60 were retained for the MMPI-

Answered items as normal people do Are likely to be free of disabling psychopathology Are socially conforming

Psymet Hout - MMPI

2 ! Items that are scored infrequently (less than 10%) by the normal population ! Items include I am aware of a special presence that others cannot perceive. ! High scorers invalidate the profile

K Scale

! Thirty items included on both the MMPI and the MMPI-2 ! Detect attempts to deny problems and present oneself in a favorable light ! High scorers attempt to project an image of self-control and personal effectiveness ! Very high scores invalidate the profile

May have been faking bad responses when taking the MMPI If hospitalized psychiatric patients, may manifest: ! Delusions ! Visual and/or auditory hallucinations ! Reduced speech ! Withdrawal ! Poor judgment ! Short attention span ! Lack of knowledge of reasons for hospitalization ! Psychotic diagnosis ! Some extratest signs of organicity May have responded false to most of the MMPI items May have tried to fake good in responding to the MMPI items May be trying to give an appearance of adequacy, control and effectiveness Are shy and inhibited Are hesitant about becoming emotionally involved with people Are intolerant and unaccepting of unconventional attitudes and beliefs in other people Lack self-insight and self-understanding Are not likely to display overt delinquent behavior If clinical scales are elevated, may be seriously disturbed psychologically but have little awareness of it If not seriously

May have faked good in responding to MMPI items

May have responded true to most of the MMPI items May have faked bad when responding to the MMPI items May be exaggerating problems as plea for help May exhibit acute psychotic or organic confusion Are critical of self and others and are self-dissatisfied Are ineffective in dealing with problems of daily life Show little insight into their own motives and behavior Are socially conforming Are overly compliant with authority Have a slow personal tempo Are inhibited, retiring and shallow Are socially awkward Are blunt and harsh in social situations

Psymet Hout - MMPI

disturbed psychologically, may have above-average ego strength and other positive characteristics

Are cynical, skeptical, caustic and disbelieving Are suspicious about the motivations of other people

Cannot Say

! Items to which the subject failed to respond either True or False ! Profile becomes invalid if there 10% of the statements are omitted

Clinical Scales


Preoccupation with the body and concomitant fears of illness and disease Poor morale Lack of hope in the future General dissatisfaction with ones own life situation Hysterical reactions to stress situations Involuntary psychogenic loss or disorder of function Psychopathic personality

Common Interpretation of Elevation Physical complaints






Psychopathic Deviate MasculinityFemininity Paranoia

Pd Mf Pa

Authority conflict Masculine or feminine interests

Psychasthenia Schizophrenia

Pt Sc

Paranoid symptoms (e.g., ideas of reference, feelings of persecution, grandiose self-concepts, suspiciousness, excessive sensitivity and rigid opinions and attitudes) Obsessive-compulsiveness Disturbances of thinking, mood and behavior

Suspicion, hostility

Anxiety Alienation, withdrawal

Psymet Hout - MMPI



Social Introversion


Elevated mood Accelerated speech and motor activity Irritability Flight of ideas Brief periods of depression Tendency to withdraw from social contacts and responsibilities

Elated mood, high energy

Introversion, shyness

Code Types
Two-Point Code Type 12/21 13/31 14/41 18/81 19/91 23/32 24/42 27/72 28/82 Prominent Features Somatic discomfort and pain Somatoform disorder diagnoses Severe somatic complaints Harbor feelings of hostility and aggression Experiencing great deal of stress and turmoil Feelings of nervousness, agitation, tension and worry Impulsive and unable to delay gratification of impulses Tend to be anxious, nervous, tense, high-strung and jumpy Feelings of anxiety, agitation, tension and being jumpy Sleep disturbance, inability to concentrate, confused thinking and forgetfulness Self-centered and narcissistic Chronic, intense anger Moderate tension and anxiety and may have physical complaints Great deal of psychological turmoil Immature and narcissistic Immature, narcissistic, self-indulgent May alternate between periods of gross insensitivity to the consequences of their actions and excessive concern about the effects of their behavior Odd, peculiar, queer Marked disregard for social standards and values Harbor intense feelings of inferiority and insecurity Dependent and have strong needs for affection Not hesitant to admit to psychological problems and seem to lack adequate defenses to keep themselves reasonably comfortable Self-centered and infantile in their expectations of other people

29/92 34/43 36/63 38/83 45/54 46/64 47/74

48/84 49/94 68/86 69/96 78/87 89/98

Psymet Hout - MMPI

Three-Point Code Types 123/213/231 132/312 138 139 247/274/472 687/867

Prominent Features
Somatoform disorder, anxiety disorder, depressive disorder Conversion disorder, somatoform pain disorder Somatoform disorder, organic brain disorder Passive-aggressive personality Schizophrenic disorder