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THE BRIDGE Our group fell silent at the base of a narrow steel ladder that rose vertically through

the maze of girders at the south-eastern end of Australias Sydney Harbour Bridge. We neednt have worried about the first part of the climb. Up to this point, our guided tour had been little more than a stroll, but now our task was to face the ladder. It must have been at least 50 feet high. There were handrails, and our safety belts would be tethered to a cable to break a fall, but the prospect couldnt have been more daunting. What lay at the top was stepping out onto the exposed upper arch of the bridge, with blue sky all round and the water almost 262 feet below. We ought to have found this out before embarking on what now seemed a singularly reckless mission! My own fear of heights was extreme, but, on this sparkling morning, I saw no option but to climb to the summit of one of the worlds best-loved icons a miracle of engineering recognized by people everywhere. As I climbed, the tension drained out of me, and I was driven by an exhilarating feeling of conquest. At the top, I dropped my gaze to the vast pool of the harbour below. It might just as well have been a millpond from this height. We stood on a small viewing deck in the warm sunshine, flushed with excitement and arms raised as our guide took a celebratory photograph. Possibility and speculation 1 Read these comments about the Sydney Harbour Bridge and fill in the gaps with an appropriate phrase using could, might or may. 1. Perhaps it was the most famous bridge in the world when it was built. It __________________________ the most famous bridge in the world when it was built. 2. Perhaps the man in the photo was standing right at the top of that bridge. The man in the photograph __________________________ right at the top of that bridge. 3. Maybe someone took the photo with a telescopic lens. Someone __________________________ the photo with a telescopic lens. 4. Perhaps the man in the picture was repairing something on the bridge. The man in the picture __________________________ something on the bridge. 5. Maybe this photograph on the bridge was taken from an aeroplane. This photograph of the bridge __________________________ from an aeroplane. 2 Choose the two appropriate endings for sentences 1-4 from the list of possible endings a-h. Discuss how the meaning of the modal verb depends upon the ending. Example: 1c They could have sold their house if they had been more flexible about the price. This was possible but it didnt happen. If They could have sold their house but if they did, they didnt tell us. We dont know if this happened or not. 1 They could have sold their house 2 They might have written to us 3 He could have caught an early train 4 Ted might have phoned me a b c d e f g h but he decided to spend the night in London instead. after all the trouble we went through to prepare for their visit. if they had been more flexible about the price. but our filing system is in a mess, so I have no record of it. but he didnt get up in time. but if they did, they didnt tell us. because I really wanted to come. but Ive been away for a few days.

Making deductions 1 Match 1-6 with the correct sentence ending in a-f, then complete the spaces in 1-6 with must have been or cant/couldnt have been. 1 Paul __________________________ in the bathroom when I arrived 2 The back door __________________________ locked 3 The hotel __________________________ luxurious 4 The climber __________________________ wearing a safety harness 5 I __________________________ in a deep sleep 6 Sally __________________________ confiding in Jim a b c d e f because it looked incredibly expensive on the postcard you sent me. because I heard someone moving around in the flat next door. because I couldnt hear the shower. because the burglars were able to walk in. because he didnt know anything about what had happened. because he wasnt injured in the fall.

2 Use must have been or cant/couldnt have been to make deductions about the situations in 1-6. 1 The bill for the meal in the restaurant was astronomical. 2 Im sure the man I saw wasnt Patrick. Hes in America at the moment. 3 Look! The pavements are soaking wet! 4 I told you about the phone call half an hour ago while you were watching TV. 5 Isnt there any coffee in the cupboard? I bought some a few days ago. 6 Im afraid you only got 5 out of 10 for this homework. Necessity and obligation 1 Match the modals in sentences 1-7 with their corresponding meanings in a-e. 1 They said we needed to have a vaccination, so we did. 2 They said we needed to have a vaccination, but we never got round to it. 3 They said we didnt need to have any vaccinations, but we did it anyway. 4 They said we didnt need to have any vaccinations, so we didnt. 5 They said we neednt have had any vaccinations, but by then wed already had them. 6 They said we ought to have had vaccinations, so they didnt let us into the country. 7 They said we shouldnt have had vaccinations because they were now thought to be unsafe. a b c d e action was not necessary, but has already been taken anyway action was necessary or obligatory, and it was wrong not to have taken it action was not necessary, or was prohibited, and it was wrong to have taken it action was not necessary, and may or may not have been taken subsequently action was necessary and may or may not have been taken subsequently

2 Fill in the blanks below using these phrases and a suitable verb. The first one has been done as an example. needed to should/ought to have didnt need to shouldnt/oughtnt to have neednt have

1 I didnt need to take the parcel to the Post Office because Sonia very kindly took it for me. 2 We discovered when we arrived on the island that we __________________________ in advance because there were lots of villas for rent. 3 We only realised when we got to the island that we __________________________ in advance as there was nowhere to stay. 4 Although we __________________________ comprehensive insurance, we got it anyway just to be on the safe side.

5 I think you deserve to be punished you __________________________ the car without asking your father first. 6 He told the taxi driver he __________________________ to the airport as quickly as possible, as the plane was due to leave soon. 7 I __________________________ so much time worrying about the test, because in the end it was really easy and I passed first time. 8 The police officer was furious with me and said that I __________________________ so fast in a residential area.