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K. C.

Kim
Spring 2014

1
Back-To-Basic Optics and Optical Techniques
LN #4. Thin Lens Formula (Sections 5.2)
Mirrors, Prisms and Sundry Topics (Sections 5.4 - 5.8)
[Reading assignment: Secs. 5.3, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8]

L >>: Geometrical optics (Image quality is determined by rays. Refraction and reflection only.
No absorption, no optical aberration errors. Also called ray or Gaussian optics.)

L ~: Diffraction-limited optics (Image clarity is determined by diffraction)


Refraction at spherical surfaces


















V: vertex
SV: object distance
PV: image distance

OPL =
i o
l n l n
2 1
+ ,

The Law of Cosine gives,
( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) | |
2 1
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
2
/
i i i
/
o o o
cos R s R R s R l
cos R s R R s R l
|
|
+ + =
+ + + =


Fermats principle d(OPL)/d =0 gives:


|
|
.
|

\
|
= +
o
o i
i o
l
s n
l
s n
R l
n
l
n
1
1
2 2 1
1

K. C. Kim
Spring 2014

2
Law of Cosine

For any triangle










A bc c b a cos 2
2 2 2
+ =

























Therefore,

( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) | |
2 1
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
2
/
i i i
/
o o o
cos R s R R s R l
cos R s R R s R l
|
|
+ + =
+ + + =

K. C. Kim
Spring 2014

3
Sign Convention:

i o
y y , : +if above the optical axis

o o o
f s x , , : +if left of the vertex (V)

i i i
f s x , , : +if right of the vertex

R : +if the center (C) is right of the vertex (V)

Under paraxial ray assumption ( 0 ~ ),
o o
s l ~ and
i i
s l ~ .


R
n n
s
n
s
n
i o
1 2 2 1

= + for SINGLE refraction surface.

Thus, as
i
s , R
n n
n
f s
o o
1 2
1

= =

And as
o
s , R
n n
n
f s
i i
1 2
2

= =

Extending of the Single surface-equation to double-surfaced lens gives:

















f R R n
n
s s
m
l
i o
1 1 1
1
1 1
2 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
= +

where,

i s o s
s s f
o i

= lim lim
K. C. Kim
Spring 2014

4
Magnification



















f
f s
s
s
f s
f
y
y
o
i
o
i i
o

= =

= and
2
f x x
i o
=



+Transverse magnification:
o
i
o
i
o
i
T
x
f
f
x
s
s
y
y
M = = =



+Longitudinal magnification:
( )
2
2
2 2
/
T
o o
o
o
i
L
M
x
f
dx
x f d
dx
dx
M = = =


K. C. Kim
Spring 2014

5
Combination of thin lenses [Working formula:
f s s
i o
1 1 1
= + ]


























For L
1
:
1 1 1
1 1 1
f s s
o i
= +

For L
2
:
2 2 2
1 1 1
f s s
o i
= +

Combining these two and following the derivation procedure, well presented in the text, gives


( )
( )
1 1 1 1 2
1 1 1 1 2 2
2
f s f s f d
f s f s f d f
s
o o
o o
i


=
/
/



( )
1 1 1 1
2 1
2 1
f s f s d
s f
M M M
o o
i
T T T

= =


K. C. Kim
Spring 2014

6
Rewriting
( )
( )
1 1 1 1 2
1 1 1 1 2 2
2
f s f s f d
f s f s f d f
s
o o
o o
i


=
/
/




f.f.l. =
( )
( )
2 1
2 1
1
2 f f d
f d f
s lim
o
s
i +

=




b.f.l. =
( )
( )
2 1
1 2
2
1 f f d
f d f
s lim
i
s
o +

=




As 0 d ,

f.f.l. =b.f.l. = f
f f
f f
=
+
2 1
2 1
or
2 1
1 1 1
f f f
+ =


















K. C. Kim
Spring 2014

7
MIRRORS

Planar Mirrors
















*Mirror rotation:















Rate of image rotation =2 x Rate of mirror rotation


*Refer to an article, Suggestive correctional methods for PIV image biasing
caused by a rotating mirror system, S. D. Lee, S. H. Chung, K. D. Kihm,
Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 21, pp. 201-208 (1996).
[http://www.engr.utk.edu/~minsfet >>Publications >>1996]


K. C. Kim
Spring 2014

8
Parabolic Mirror





x =ay
2



(f, 2f): a =1/4f



2
4 y fx =




*All the plane wave fronts must collapse (collimate) onto the focal point, F.



Spherical Mirror














( )
2 2 2
R y R x = +


For the paraxial region where R x << , one can show Rx y 2
2
=

Therefore, for paraxial region, a parabolic mirror with f can be approximated as a
spherical mirror with f R 2 = or f = R/2.
K. C. Kim
Spring 2014

9
Spherical Mirror
























( )
PA / CP ~ SA / SC ~ , s ~ PA , s ~ SA
R s PA
R s SA
r i i o
i r
o i
u u
u
u
=
+ =
+ =




f R s s
i o
1 2 1 1
= = +



+F-Number
D
f
D: Aperture open diameter
When the open area is doubled, the diameter is increased by 1.4 and F-
number decreses to 0.714.



K. C. Kim
Spring 2014

10
Magnifying Power (MP)

+Eyepiece or magnifying glasses:

MP Aided Retinal Image/Unaided Retinal Image
+: erect image
-: inverted image
















f s s
o i
1 1 1
= +










MP = ( ) | | l L D
L
d
f
l L
L
d
f
s
L
d
s
s
L
d
d y
L y
o o i o
o
i o
o o
i
u
a
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = ~ 1 1 1
/
/
o
o


Dioptric Power: f D / 1

MP [ L ] =d
o
D

MP [L =d
o
and l ] =1 +d
o
D

K. C. Kim
Spring 2014

11
Microscope








































Magnified virtual image

MP =M
To
M
Ae

e
o
o
o
o
i
f
d
f
L
D d
f
x
= ~

(Standardized dimensions: L =160 mm, d
o
=254 mm for IS)
K. C. Kim
Spring 2014

12
PRISMS















The total deviation is ( ) ( )
2 2 1 1 i t t i
u u u u o + =

And
2 1 i t
u u o + =

Using Snells Law and trigonometric formula,


( )( ) | | o o u u o u o + =

cos sin sin n sin sin
i
/
i i 1
2 1
1
2 2 1
1
(5.33)

For fixed n and o , o depends only on
1 i
u , and from 0
1
=
i
d
d
u
o
(for minimum deviation),


2 1 2 1 i t t i
u u u u = = = (#)

This states that the ray for which the deviation is a minimum traverses the prism symmetrically,
that is, parallel to its base. This explains the difference in the spherical aberration (SA)
depending on the orientation of a plano-convex lens for collimation. (Fig. 6.16)







From Eqs. (5.33) and (#), we get


( ) | |
2
2
/ sin
/ sin
n
min
o
o o +
= basis of the most accurate technique for determining n.
K. C. Kim
Spring 2014

13
Homework #4: 5.20, 5.22, 5.27, 5.33, 5.36, 5.53, 5.58, 5.61, 5.65, and 5.87
Due: 9:30 a.m. on April 2 (Wednesday), 2014