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e 4
0 rg

'78
(ACCESSION NUMBER

03

r0

CT' Fr

(CODE)

12

z
X
Y

(NASA CR OR TMX OR AD NUMBER)

(CATEGORY)

Olaf Volkersen

Translation of "Neuere Untersuchungen z u r Theorie der Klebverbindungen." Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft f G r Luft- und Raumfahrt, Gologne pp . 1-28, 1963.

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS ''m SPACE ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON AUGUST 1964

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r l , r

RECENT RESEARCH ON TBE TmORY O F BONDED JOINTS


O l a f Volkersen

fU3STRACT Bonded overlap j o i n t s can be used f o r p a r t s such as t o r s i o n t u b e s h e e t s t h a t a r e s u b j e c t t o shearing s t r e s s , as w e l l as f o r tension-loaded p a r t s . The s t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e bonding l a y e r depends upon t h e p r o p e r t i e s of r i g i d i t y of t h e s h e e t s and of t h e adhesive. I n t h e f i r s t p a r t of t h e s e invest i g a t i o n s t h e l a w of stress d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e shear-loaded overlap i s developed. I n t h e second p a r t , c a l c u l a t i o n i s made f o r t h e tension-loaded double-bonded j o i n t with a formula derived from earlier work i n which l i m i t i n g conditions are t e r accounted f o r than formerly.
CONTENTS

1.

2.
3.

4 .

5. 6.

Introduction Symbols Shearing stress-loaded overlap Tension-loaded double-bonded j o i n t 4.1 Without consideration of p e e l s t r e s s e s i n t h e adhesive 4.2 With consideration of t h e p e e l stresses i n t h e adhesive 4.3 Variable p e e l stresses, a l s o i n t r a n s v e r s e d i r e c t i o n Summary References

Section 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n S t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e adhesive l a y e r s of bonded overlap j o i n t s w a s f i r s t discussed by Arnovljevic (Ref. 11,1909, w i t h t h e assumption of an adhesive e l a s t i c only w i t h r e s p e c t t o shear, and l a t e r elaborated by von F i l l u n g e r ( R e f . 2) and by t h e author (Refs. 3, 4, 5 ) , and applied among o t h e r t h i n g s t o r i v e t j o i n t s and p l a s t i c deformation. Goland and Reissner (Ref. 6) i n simple overlap bonding f i r s t considered t h e bending moment i n t h e bond and calculated t h e p e e l stresses i n t h e adhesive.

'.

A l l works heretofore known present an e s s e n t i a l drawback; they negl e c t l i m i t i n g conditions on t h e load-free edges a t t h e j o i n t ends and thereby a r r i v e a t a s u b s t a n t i a l l y erroneous evaluation of t h e l e v e l of maximum peel s t r e s s e s . The present work eliminates t h i s d e f e c t by assumption of v a r i a b l e normal stress over t h e thickness of t h e l a y e r .

I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e heretofore s o l e known problem of overlap bonding of tension-loaded members, a strong s o l u t i o n i s possible by simple means f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of adhesive s t r e s s e s i n shear-loaded members. This s o l u t i o n i s discussed i n t h e f i r s t p a r t of t h e present paper. I n t h e second p a r t t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of adhesive stresses for t h e tension-loaded symmetrical double-bonded j o i n t w i l l be presented. Section 2.
X

Symbols
= Coordinates
=

, $
I

T o t a l length of t h e overlap Sheet thickness Binder l a y e r thickness Related coordinates Adhesive shearing stress
L i m i t value of t h e v a r i a b l e supplementary p e e l s t r e s s over t h e l a y e r thickness

4
A'

A,

= = = =

i3 'E = A ? .

C Y
P-

/2

L, ,

r2

Shearing s t r e s s e s i n t h e sheets outside t h e overlap Normal stresses i n t h e s h e e t s o u t s i d e t h e overlap

G; ,G2 , 6 ,
Y

4n
?=

=Median adhesive shearing stress


m

= 6,

.A.

cL! = Related L;
=

stress

Related stress

El& E ' 16,

= = = =
0

Modulus of e l a s t i c i t y and modulus of shear of t h e sheet Modulus of e l a s t i c i t y and modulus of shear of t h e adhesive
Opposed displacement of t h e bond Load increase f a c t o r

s
L

m a '

? =

k4
hL

= Sheet thickness r a t i o

YL-

- AL =
7;
=

R e l a t e d l a y e r thickness f o r symmetrical j o i n t

Coefficient of r i g i d i t y of t h e j o i n t Coefficient of r i g i d i t y of t h e j o i n t

&;a'
GY

= Normal t e n s i o n i n adhesives i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e y-axis and i n t h e middle f i b e r of t h e adhesive l a y e r (peel stresses)

Section 3.

Shear -Loaded Overlap

I n a shear-loaded j o i n t t h e bonded p a r t s of t h e j o i n t exchange shearing s t r e s s e s . The t o r s i o n tubes i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 1 may serve as a model. I n t h e a r e a of t h e overlap, t h e angle of s l i d e Y of t h e j o i n t p a r t s decreases and t h e opposed displacement 6 of t h e two s h e e t s becomes unequal. If 6, i n d i c a t e s t h e displacement a t t h e l e f t end of

4
.*

r e l

Figure 1. Shear-loaded overlap t h e j o i n t and t h e displacement a t point z, t h e r e then results t h e general equation of displacement:

631

For t h e l a w of e l a s t i c i t y of t h e adhesive l a y e r of thickness sL t h e r e can then b e written:

or

Furthermore, for t h e j o i n t p a r t s :

" I .%

(4)

By s u b s t i t u t i o n i n equation 1 we obtain:

z z f f

and a f t e r twice repeated d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and normalization with:

z =
-

and

t h e r e r e s u l t s t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l equation:

Therein

6
and

With t h e general s o l u t i o n of t h e d i r f e r e n t i a l equation:

and w i t h l i m i t i n g conditions

+ L.,ere i s f i n a l l y ob a i n e d :

and

Thereby t h e problem i s solved. The g r e a t e s t adhesive shearing s t r e s s e s appear a t t h e ends o f t h e overlap. They a t t a i n ' a magnitude, e s p e c i a l l y i n symmetrical j o i n t s w i t h s = s2, o f : 1

From equation (14) it i s e a s i l y recognized t h a t t h e load i n c r e a s e f a c t o r Zo i n long overlaps, approximately a t ( P ~ 1 0 ,i s adequately

>

expressed i n t h e form:

7
I n long overlaps, therefore, the load increase f a c t o r i n c r e a s e s i n proportion t o overlap length, i . e . , t h e absolute value of t h e adhesive s t r e s s e s remains independent of it. I f t h e m a x i m u m adhesive shearing s t r e s s i s derived n o t from t h e median shear stress, am, b u t from t h e shear stress, T , present i n t h e sheets, f o r long overlaps it can a l s o B1 be w r i t t e n as:

If t h i s equation i s reversed and divided on both s i d e s by t h e shearing s t r e n g t h of t h e sheet, t h e f i n a l q u a l i t y value i s :

Ac-cordingly, a s i d e from t h e r a t i o of s t r e n g t h of t h e adhesive t o sheet material, t h e f i n a l value of t h e bonded j o i n t , i . e . , t h e m a x i m u m shearing s t r e s s t r a n s f e r a b l e from one j o i n t p a r t to t h e o t h e r depends upon t h e r a t i o of t h e moduli of s l i d e as w e l l a s t h e r a t i o of adhesive l a y e r thickness t o sheet thickness. The optimal j o i n t , therefore, req u i r e s g r e a t s t r e n g t h , g r e a t l a y e r thickness and s l i g h t adhesive rigidity. Section 4. Tension-Loaded Double-Bonded J o i n t

4.1

Without consideration of p e e l s t r e s s e s i n t h e adhesive

I n disregarding t h e e c c e n t r i c i t y of t h e shearing s t r e s s e s with respect t o t h e o u t e r sheets, t h e s l i d i n g of t h e adhesive l a y e r of t h e j o i n t i n Figure 2 a t point z can be expressed as follows:

After s u b s t i t u t i o n of t h e expressions f o r elongation of t h e bond as i n equation (3) i n t h e preceding section, t h e following d i f f e r e n t i a l equation i s obtained :

c-i,*s
E -

8,

.s
e Displacement Displacement

E q u i l i b r i u m of f o r c e s for center adhesive

layers

~.

Deformation of t h e adhesive

Figure 2.

The tension-loaded overlap

There i n :

After introduction of t h e l i m i t i n g conditions, f o r t h e symmetrical j o i n t w i t h Jr =


S1 = s2

1 :

z A t t h e edge, with z =

1 = f1 2 '

t h e maximum v a l u e of shearing s t r e s s ,

i . e . , t h e load increase c o e f f i c i e n t :

or w i t h s u f f i c i e n t l y long overlap:

This value of maximum shear s t r e s s a t t h e end o f t h e bond can again be d e r i v e d from t h e sheet s t r e s s and i s then

F i n a l l y , t h e q u a l i t y f a c t o r of t h e j o i n t w i l l again be:

10

4.2

With consideration of t h e p e e l s t r e s s e s i n t h e adhesive

I n 4.1, f o r c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e adhesive s t r e s s e s , only t h e shear e l a s t i c i t y of t h e adhesive w a s taken i n t o consideration. The e c c e n t r i c a t t a c k of t h e shearing f o r c e s on t h e o u t e r bond was ignored. From t h e e c c e n t r i c i t y of t h e s t r e s s a t t a c k , however, as may be seen i n Figure 2b, t h e following equation of moments for a s e c t i o n i n t h e middle adhesive l a y e r i s obtained and therewith t h e equation f o r t h e bending l i n e of t h e o u t e r bond :

A f t e r introduction of an expression f o r t h e e l a s t i c deformation y of thk adhesive l a y e r i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of peel stresses:

and a f t e r normalization w i t h

as w e l l a s introduction of t h e r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s

z = - 2c

t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l equation for t h e peel s t r e s s e s of t h e adhesive i s obtained :

A second equation, as i n 4.1, i s obtained from t h e shear deformat i o n of t h e adhesive; a f t e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of equation 1 7and w i t h r e s p e c t t o equation 3,

/8

11

Here, taking i n t o consideration t h e bending component of t h e bond elongations, and with qL =

LS'

-a.2
After introduction of elongation values i n equation 30 and carrying out t h e required d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s as w e l l as normalization, t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l equation of shear s t r e s s e s of the adhesive i s :

Equations 29 and 33 are coupled. For s o l u t i o n i.t i s advisable to solve equation 29 f o r 5' and t o introduce it i n t o equation 33. There i s thus obtained a homogeneous equation 6. Ordering f o r 2 can be performed without s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t y . Thereafter, t h e inhomogeneous equation 33 can b e solved f o r T a l s o . The formula corresponds f a i r l y w e l l with t h a t of Goland and Reissner (Ref. 6) f o r t h e simple overlap method. The complete c a l c u l a t i o n i s not presented here because t h e same problem i s t r e a t e d i n t h e following sect i o n w i t h an elaborated formula.

4.3 Variable peel s t r e s s e s , a l s o i n t r a n s v e r s e d i r e c t i o n


With t h e assumption, as i n 4.2, of i n v a r i a b l e p e e l s t r e s s e s thickness of t h e adhesive l a y e r used a l s o by Goland and Reissner i n t h e i r work on simple overlap bonding, t h e s e median values a r e l a t e d with f a i r accuracy, b u t t h e r e i s no information concerning over t h e
(Ref.

/9
6)
calcuthe true

12

maximum value of t h e p e e l s t r e s s e s . Furthermore, t h e equation does n o t s a t i s f y t h e elementary condition of equilibrium:

I f , on t h e contrary, t h e assumption i s made t h a t t h e peel stresses a l t e r l i n e a r l y over t h e layer thickness, then equation 34, as w e l l as t h e e q u i librium of moments i n h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n s i s s a t i s f i e d , and t h e shear s t r e s s e s can disappear a t t h e load-free edges of the bonded l a y e r a t t h e ends of t h e j o i n t .

The p e e l stress i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e adhesive l a y e r , i . e . , i n i t s while a t t h e upper and lower edge n e u t r a l f i b e r s , i s now designated (r Y' ( r y -Iof t h e adhesive l a y e r , on t h e contrary, it i s designated , corresponding to Figure 2b and e . Hence, equation 34 can b e w r i t t e n :

, . zI G;- - 5 2
L

(35)

Since t h e shear s t r e s s e s m u s t disappear a t t h e bond ends, t h e opposed displacement of t h e bond here a c t u a l l y reaches i t s maximum value and t h e deformation of t h e adhesive l a y e r from normal s t r e s s components can no longer be ignored. According t o Figure 2c, t h e elongations (rr
as a r e s u l t of
(rr

i n t h e lower h a l f of t h e adhesive l a y e r y i e l d t h e

deformation value:

Deformation v a l u e Q changes proportionally t o t h e change of i s obtained t h e apparent angle of s l i d e :

(rr

and t h e r e

With equation 33 t h e r e w i l l then be

/10

If i n a d d i t i o n t h e angle of s l i d e i s calculated from t h e stress deforma-

tion

" E - G; and t h u s t h e opposed displacement of t h e bond can be expressed as

r ,

(39)

A f t e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and equalization of equations i s obtained

1 7and 40

there

Therein c

and

a r e t h e elongations of t h e bond a t %he edge of t h e

adhesive described i n equations 31 and 32. A f t e r introduction of t h e s e equations and execution of two f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s , as w e l l as normalization according t o equations 26 to 28, t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l equation f o r t h e adhesive shearing s t r e s s e s i s obtained: -. .. . . ..
,

I n addition, t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l equation 29 derived i n s e c t i o n 4.2 again appears f o r t h e p e e l s t r e s s e s .

Now equation 29 i s solved f o r T ' , f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and i n t r o duced i n t o equation 42. Thereby, f i n a l l y , t h e following homogeneous equation f o r d i s developed:

14

The s o l u t i o n of t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l equation, w i t h consideration of only t h e antisymmetrical members, i s

/ I I

with

(44)

43 only t h e members most important f o r t h e r e s u l t were u s e d .

I n t h e s o l u t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c equations r e l a t e d t o equation The minor expressions r e l a t i n g t o t h e temporary p r i n c i p a l member were disregarded.

For determination of t h e i n t e g r a t i o n constants of equation following l i m i t i n g conditions are obtained:

44 t h e

1 ) With t h e assumption t h a t t h e bonds o u t s i d e t h e j o i n t are f r e e of bending moments, from equation 24':

2 '

or a f t e r normalization

2)

For

5;

1 9 '
L

t h e bending moment i n t h e o u t e r bond equals zero and

thereby y" = 0, and because of equation 25 a l s o

3) By d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of equation 24 t h e r e i s obtained

= 0 and t h e However, since i n place of T = - - t h e shear s t r e s s T 2 ' LO i n t e g r a l of t h e l e f t side disappears, y'" = 0 m u s t a l s o be obtained,

/12

4) From
_I

equation 41 a f t e r introduction of equations 31 and 32 a t

Because of t h e antisymmetrical s t r u c t u r e of t h e s o l u t i o n f o r 0 t h e sign of t h e r i g h t s i d e must be reversed a t Z = +-. 1 Then, a t t h i s point 2 a f t e r introduction of equation 29 and a f t e r normalization

After introduction of t h e l i m i t i n g conditions t h e following schema of equations for determination of t h e four i n t e g r a t i o n constants C of equation 44 are obtained i

16

Therein for c o e f f i c i e n t s a

ik

t h e following equations a r e valid:

(53.2)

(53.3)

( 5 3 4)

"

With s o l u t i o n of t h e matrix of equation 52, t h e peel s t r e s s e s in t h e midplane of t h e adhesive l a y e r a r e known. N o w t h e shearing stresses can a l s o be c a l c u l a t e d from equation 42. This equation i s f i r s t w r i t t e n w i t h equations 45 t o 47 and with abbreviations

i n t h e described form

The complete s o l u t i o n of t h i s equation i s composed of both a s p e c i a l s o l u t i o n T of t h e inhomogeneous equation and of t h e general


i

s o l u t i o n Th of t h e homogeneous remainder of t h e equation.

It i s :

1 8

I
form:

f,

FL

(57)

A s o l u t i o n of t h e inhomogeneous equation i s e a s i l y recognized i n t h e

C o e f f i c i e n t s IC. a r e detkrmined by introduction of t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l


1

quotients of equation 58 i n t o equation

36 by

comparison of c o e f f i c i e n t s :

The s o l u t i o n of t h e homogeneous equation remainder i n equation a l s o be symmetrical i n Z and i s thereby:

36 m u s t

From t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c equation it i s calculated t h a t

For determination of c o e f f i c i e n t s Di i n equation 60 t h e following l i m i t i n g conditions a r e obtained:


1 ) The shearing s t r e s s t r a n s f e r s t h e o u t e r load, t h e r e f o r e :
3.5;

/15

e/,

o r normalized

2)

For

1 = -: 2

for

a)

(see a l s o f o u r t h l i m i t i n g condition 3 ) From equation 41 a t Z = 2

o r a f t e r normalization

A f t e r s a t i s f y i n g t h e s e l i m i t i n g conditions by t h e complete s o l u t i o n of equation 57 t h e following system of equations for D i s obtained: i

with t h e coefficients:

20

~.

After solution of this system qf equations the shearing stresses are also known and there is still only the unequal factor Gr of the peel stress to be calculated from equation 35. After normalization and introduction of equation 57 there is, finally:

21

.... The r e s u l t s of a f i r s t s e r i e s of numerical c a l c u l a t i o n a r e shown i n Figures 3 t o 7l.


~

These c a l c u l a t i o n s with r e s p e c t t o d i s t r i b u t i o n of shearing stress over t h e l e n g t h of t h e seam y i e l d only s l i g h t deviations from t h e approximation repeated i n Section 4.1 (Refs. 3, 4, 5 ) . The stress i n crease f a c t o r , e s p e c i a l l y i n long j o i n t s , remains somewhat below t h e t h e o r e t i c a l value because t h e shearing s t r e s s maximum i s s e t back s l i g h t l y from t h e end of t h e bond. A t t h e bond end t h e shearing s t r e s s i n t h e adhesive zone i s zero. I n addition t o shearing s t r e s s e s , t h e r e are a l s o , however, p e e l s t r e s s e s of such notable magnitude t h a t dimensioning of bonds t o shear i s of less importance than dimensioning with respect t o peel. The g r e a t e s t p e e l s t r e s s e s occur i n a q u i t e narrow, almost punctiform region, a t t h e ends of t h e bond (Point a i n Figure 2 a ) .
A comparison of calculated results i n Figure 8 with photostress i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of S t i e r (Ref. 7) supports t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of a doublebonded j o i n t Qery w e l l .

/17

Section

5.

Summary

An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of stress d i s t r i b u t i o n i n an adhesive l a y e r of overlap j o i n t s of shear-loaded j o i n t p a r t s f o r sheet connections t o spar webs o r t o r s i o n pipes l e a d s t o similar r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as they have long been recognized as approximations for tension-loaded overlap j o i n t s . The q u a l i t y grade of t h e s e j o i n t s increases with adhesive s t r e n g t h and with l a y e r thickness and decreases with r e s p e c t t o t h e modulus of elast i c i t y o r modulus of s l i d e of t h e adhesive. For symmetrical tension-loaded double-bonded j o i n t s c a l c u l a t i o n s are made with an expanded formula t h a t f u l f i l l s t h e l i m i t i n g conditions

'For t h e numerical working out of t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s t h e Fa. Zuse KG kindly placed a t our d i s p o s a l i n i t s Hamburg computer center a type 223 computer. For h i s collaboration i n t h e programming i n A l c o r e t t e code, I a m g r a t e f u l to D r . Kunsemuller.

22

!'-

0., "

8.2
Shear stresses i n t h e adhesive

Q.9

0
D.Re*

ar;
Normal stresses i n
t h e adhesive

@ t Y

Q, 6

0.5

a'

04 8.3 623
o.1

Adhesive:

%k =

Figure 3 Double-bonded j o i n t : l/s = 5 S t e e l sheet, s y n t h e t i c r e s h adhesive: s/sL = 4

23

----l____l__l.-__

.,.,.

__

Shear s t r e s s e s i n t h e adhesive

I
!
Normal s t r e s s e s i n t h e adhesive

\;1.
'

I,

a'
Adhesive: '

El.

2
2

CI
Figure 4 Double-bonded j o i n t : l / s = 20 S t e e l sheet, s y n t h e t i c r e s i n adhesive: s/sL = 4
,

+-

24

- -.

Shear s t r e s s e s i n t h e adhesive

. 0.2

a'

-0
Normal s t r e s s e s i n t h e adhesive
I

Figure 5

Double-bonded j o i n t :

i / s = 50 S t e e l sheet, s y n t h e t i c r e s i n adhesive: s/sL = 4

Maximum values of shear s t r e s s e s i n t h e adhesive a s f u n c t i o n of r a t i o of overlap

Dural sheet

L -

I
I
i

----------.

S t e e l sheet

\ Limiting value f o r

simple a r rang ement

2/s

Figure

Double-bonded j o i n t : s = 0.8 mm Synthetic r e s i n adhesive: s = 0.2 mm

26

Maximum values of peel stresses in the


adhesive as function of ratio of overlap

Peel stress over layer thickness:

Variable

\ \'----\

I -Dural sheet ---- I sheet -I-, '\-- Steel----I---------------I_-

- - < _ - - -

1
60
I

Constant

10

20

: / ? J

GO

50
i r -

u s

Figure 7 Double -bonded joint: .S = 0.8 ~mn Synthetic resin adhesive: sL = 0.2 m

27

Maximum peel stresses at the point end

Q
~

Stier's measurement
~~-. _
~

i
Araldit Muller s experiment

Figure 8. Tension-loaded symmetrical double-b,ondjoint