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BasicBasic ConceptsConcepts inin DuctileDuctile DetailingDetailing ofof SteelSteel StructuresStructures MichaelMichael
BasicBasic ConceptsConcepts inin DuctileDuctile
DetailingDetailing ofof SteelSteel StructuresStructures
MichaelMichael D.D. EngelhardtEngelhardt
UniversityUniversity ofof TexasTexas atat AustinAustin
What is Ductility ? Ductility: The ability to sustain large inelastic deformations without significant loss
What is Ductility ?
Ductility:
The ability to sustain large inelastic
deformations without significant loss in
strength.
Ductility = inelastic deformation capacity
Ductility:
- material response
- structural component response
(members and connections)
- global frame response
Ductility F F yield ∆ displacement rotation curvature strain etc.
Ductility
F
F yield
displacement
rotation
curvature
strain
etc.
Overview of Presentation • What is Ductility ? • Why is Ductility Important ? •
Overview of Presentation
• What is Ductility ?
• Why is Ductility Important ?
• How Do We Achieve Ductility in Steel
Structures ?
F ∆ F F ∆ ∆ Ductility F F yield ∆
F
F
F
Ductility
F
F yield
Ductility: Qualitative Description θ M M More Ductile No Ductility Less Ductile θ
Ductility: Qualitative Description
θ
M
M
More Ductile
No Ductility
Less Ductile
θ
Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions M M p θ θ yield θ max
Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions
M
M p
θ
θ yield
θ max
Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions M θ p M p θ θ yield θ max Plastic Rotation
Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions
M
θ p
M p
θ
θ yield
θ max
Plastic Rotation Angle:
θ p =
θ max - θ yield
Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions M M p θ θ yield θ max Ductility:Ductility: ductility factor µ
Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions
M
M p
θ
θ yield
θ max
Ductility:Ductility:
ductility factor
µ
Based on:
plastic rotation angle θ p
θ yield
rotation capacity
R
θ max
etc.
Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions M M p θ θ yield θ max θ max Ductility Factor:
Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions
M
M p
θ
θ yield
θ max
θ max
Ductility Factor:
µ =
θ yield
Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions M θ p M p θ θ yield θ max θ p
Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions
M
θ p
M p
θ
θ yield
θ max
θ p
Rotation Capacity:
R =
= µ - 1
θ yield
Ductility: Difficulties with Quantitative Descriptions Consider a more realistic load - deformation response M θ
Ductility: Difficulties with Quantitative Descriptions
Consider a more realistic load - deformation response
M
θ
M θ θ yield What is θ yield ?
M
θ
θ yield
What is θ yield
?
M M max θ θ max What is ? θ max
M
M max
θ
θ max
What is
?
θ max
M M p θ θ max What is ? θ max
M
M p
θ
θ max
What is
?
θ max
M θ θ yield What is θ yield ?
M
θ
θ yield
What is θ yield
?
M 0.8 M max θ θ max What is ? θ max
M
0.8 M max
θ
θ max
What is
?
θ max
Ductility: Difficulties with Quantitative Descriptions M θ Many definitions of ductility Many definitions of θ
Ductility: Difficulties with Quantitative Descriptions
M
θ
Many definitions of ductility
Many definitions of θ yield and θ max
Ductility: Difficulties with Quantitative Descriptions Ductility under cyclic loading θ ∆ 40000 30000 20000
Ductility: Difficulties with Quantitative Descriptions
Ductility under cyclic loading
θ
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
-10000
-20000
-30000
-40000
-0.08
-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
Rotation Angle (rad)
Bending Moment (kip-inches)
What is Ductility ? Ductility = inelastic deformation capacity Many ways to quantify ductility When
What is Ductility ?
Ductility = inelastic deformation capacity
Many ways to quantify ductility
When quantifying ductility
Clearly define measure of ductility
Clearly define θ yield and θ max
Use consistent definitions when describing
ductility demand and ductility supply
Why is Ductility Important? Permits redistribution of internal stresses and forces Increases strength of members,
Why is Ductility Important?
Permits redistribution of internal stresses and
forces
Increases strength of members, connections and
structures
Permits design based on simple equilibrium models
Results in more robust structures
Provides warning of failure
Permits structure to survive severe earthquake
loading
Ductility: Difficulties with Quantitative Descriptions Ductility under cyclic loading How should ductility be measured ??
Ductility: Difficulties with Quantitative Descriptions
Ductility under cyclic loading
How should ductility be measured ??
How is ductility developed in steel structures ? F ∆ F F ∆ ∆ Ductility
How is ductility developed in steel structures ?
F
F
F
Ductility = Yielding
F
Loss of load carrying
capability:
Instability
Fracture
Why Ductility ? Permits redistribution of internal stresses and forces Increases strength of members, connections
Why Ductility ?
Permits redistribution of internal stresses and
forces
Increases strength of members, connections and
structures
Permits design based on simple equilibrium models
Results in more robust structures
Provides warning of failure
Permits structure to survive severe earthquake
loading
Example: Plate with hole subjected to tension P 6" P P 1/2" x 6" L
Example: Plate with hole subjected to tension
P 6"
P
P
1/2" x 6"
L
1" dia. hole
σ
σ
50 ksi
X
50 ksi
Material "A"
Material "B"
ε
ε
Example: 50 ksi P P σ 50 ksi Material "B" ε
Example:
50 ksi
P
P
σ
50 ksi
Material "B"
ε
P P σ σ 50 ksi X 50 ksi Material "A" Material "B" ε ε
P
P
σ
σ
50
ksi
X
50
ksi
Material "A"
Material "B"
ε
ε
P max = 49 k
P max = 125 k
Example: σ 50 ksi max P P σ max = 2.57 σ avg σ 50
Example:
σ
50 ksi
max
P
P
σ max = 2.57 σ avg
σ
50
ksi
X
P
50
ksi = 2.57 x
2.5 in 2
Material "A"
ε
P max = 49 k
Example: 50 ksi P P σ P 50 ksi 50 ksi = 2.5 in 2
Example:
50 ksi
P
P
σ
P
50 ksi
50 ksi =
2.5 in 2
Material "B"
P max = 125 k
ε
Example: Flexural Capacity 4" M M 12" σ σ 50 ksi X 50 ksi Material
Example: Flexural Capacity
4"
M
M 12"
σ
σ
50 ksi
X
50 ksi
Material "A"
Material "B"
ε
ε
4" 12" σ max = 50 ksi M = = 50 ksi σ max S
4"
12"
σ max = 50 ksi
M
=
= 50 ksi
σ max
S
σ
S = 96 in 3
50 ksi
X
M max = 96 in 3 x 50 ksi = 4800 k-in
Material "A"
ε
4" 50 ksi 12" 50 ksi M = = 50 ksi σ max Z σ
4"
50 ksi
12"
50 ksi
M
=
= 50 ksi
σ max
Z
σ
Z = 144 in 3
50 ksi
M max = 144 in 3 x 50 ksi = 7200 k-in
Material "B"
ε
Example: Beam Capacity L = 30 ft. w M M 500 k-ft. 500 k-ft. Beam
Example: Beam Capacity
L = 30 ft.
w
M
M
500 k-ft.
500 k-ft.
Beam "A"
Beam "B"
θ
θ
4" 12" σ max = 50 ksi σ 50 ksi Material "B" ε
4"
12"
σ max = 50 ksi
σ
50 ksi
Material "B"
ε
4" M M 12" σ σ 50 ksi X 50 ksi Material "A" Material "B"
4"
M
M
12"
σ
σ
50 ksi
X
50 ksi
Material "A"
Material "B"
ε
ε
M max = 4800 k-in
M max = 7200 k-in
Example: Beam Capacity w 250 k-ft M wL 2 8 500 k-ft M 2 wL
Example: Beam Capacity
w
250 k-ft
M
wL 2
8
500 k-ft
M
2
wL
k
− ft
500 k-ft.
= 750
8
Beam "A"
w max = 6.67 k / ft.
θ
Example: Beam Capacity w 500 k-ft 250 k-ft wL 2 M 8 500 k-ft M
Example: Beam Capacity
w
500
k-ft
250
k-ft
wL 2
M
8
500 k-ft
M
2
wL
k
− ft
500 k-ft.
= 1000
8
Beam "B"
w max = 8.89 k / ft.
θ
Why Ductility ? Permits redistribution of internal stresses and forces Increases strength of members, connections
Why Ductility ?
Permits redistribution of internal stresses and
forces
Increases strength of members, connections and
structures
Permits design based on simple equilibrium models
Results in more robust structures
Provides warning of failure
Permits structure to survive severe earthquake
loading
ImplicationsImplications ofof thethe lolowerwer boundbound theoremtheorem For a structure made of ductile materials and
ImplicationsImplications ofof thethe lolowerwer boundbound theoremtheorem
For a structure made of ductile materials and
components:
Designs satisfying equilibrium and material
strength limits are safe.
As a designer, as long as we satisfy equilibrium
(i.e. provide a load path), a ductile structure will
redistribute internal stresses and forces so as to
find the available load path.
L = 30 ft. w M M 500 k-ft. 500 k-ft. Beam "A" Beam "B"
L = 30 ft.
w
M
M
500 k-ft.
500 k-ft.
Beam "A"
Beam "B"
θ
θ
w max = 6.67 k / ft.
w max = 8.89 k / ft.
Lower Bound Theorem of Plastic Analysis A limit load based on an internal stress or
Lower Bound Theorem of Plastic Analysis
A limit load based on an internal stress or force
distribution that satisfies:
1. Equilibrium
2. Material Strength Limits for Ductile Response
(σ ≤ F y , M ≤ M p , P ≤ P y , etc)
is less than or equal to the true limit load.
Lower bound theorem only applicable for ductile structures
Example of lower bound theorem: Beam Capacity L = 30 ft. w M M p
Example of lower bound theorem: Beam Capacity
L = 30 ft.
w
M
M p = 500 k-ft.
Ductile flexural behavior
θ
What is the load capacity for this beam ??
w max = 8.89 k / ft.
L = 30 ft. w What is the load capacity for this beam ?? By
L = 30 ft.
w
What is the load capacity for this beam ??
By lower bound theorem:
Choose any moment diagram in equilibrium
with the applied load.
The moment cannot exceed M p at any point
along the beam.
The resulting load capacity "w" will be less than
or equal to the true load capacity.
L = 30 ft. w 500 k-ft wL 2 8 M 2 wL k −
L = 30 ft.
w
500 k-ft
wL 2
8
M
2
wL
k
− ft
= 500
w = 4.44 k / ft.
(≤ 8.89 k / ft. )
8
L = 30 ft. w 250 k-ft M wL 2 8 500 k-ft 2 wL
L = 30 ft.
w
250
k-ft
M
wL 2
8
500
k-ft
2
wL
k
− ft
= 750
w = 6.67 k / ft.
(≤ 8.89 k / ft. )
8
L = 30 ft. w wL 2 8 Moment diagram in equilibrium with applied load
L = 30 ft.
w
wL 2
8
Moment diagram in equilibrium with
applied load "w"
Possible lower bound solutions
L = 30 ft. w M wL 2 8 500 k-ft 2 wL k −
L = 30 ft.
w
M
wL 2
8
500 k-ft
2
wL
k
− ft
= 500
w = 4.44 k / ft.
(≤ 8.89 k / ft. )
8
L = 30 ft. w 500 k-ft wL 2 M 8 500 k-ft 2 wL
L = 30 ft.
w
500
k-ft
wL 2
M
8
500
k-ft
2
wL
k
ft
=
1000
w = 8.89 k / ft.
(= true w max )
8
Examples of lower bound theorem Flexural capacity of steel section: F y C d T
Examples of lower bound theorem
Flexural capacity of steel section:
F y
C
d
T
F y
σ ≤ F y
Equilibrium:
C = T
M n = C * d = Z F y
Why Ductility ? Permits redistribution of internal stresses and forces Increases strength of members, connections
Why Ductility ?
Permits redistribution of internal stresses and
forces
Increases strength of members, connections and
structures
Permits design based on simple equilibrium models
Results in more robust structures
Provides warning of failure
Permits structure to survive severe earthquake
loading
Why Ductility ? Permits redistribution of internal stresses and forces Increases strength of members, connections
Why Ductility ?
Permits redistribution of internal stresses and
forces
Increases strength of members, connections and
structures
Permits design based on simple equilibrium models
Results in more robust structures
Provides warning of failure
Permits structure to survive severe earthquake
loading
Examples of lower bound theorem Flexural capacity of a composite section: 0.85 f c '
Examples of lower bound theorem
Flexural capacity of a composite section:
0.85 f c
'
C
d
T
F y
σ conc ≤ 0.85 f c
'
σ steel ≤ F y
Equilibrium:
C = T
M n = C * d
section: 0.85 f c ' C d T F y σ conc ≤ 0.85 f c
section: 0.85 f c ' C d T F y σ conc ≤ 0.85 f c
Building Acceleration Building: Mass = m Ground Acceleration
Building
Acceleration
Building:
Mass = m
Ground
Acceleration
ConventionalConventional BuildingBuilding CodeCode PhilosophyPhilosophy forfor EarthquakeEarthquake--ResistantResistant
ConventionalConventional BuildingBuilding CodeCode PhilosophyPhilosophy forfor
EarthquakeEarthquake--ResistantResistant DesignDesign
Objective:
Prevent collapse in the extreme
earthquake likely to occur at a
building site.
Objectives are not to:
- limit damage
- maintain function
- provide for easy repair
H Ductility = Inelastic Deformation H
H
Ductility = Inelastic Deformation
H
F = ma Earthquake Forces on Buildings: Inertia Force Due to Accelerating Mass
F = ma
Earthquake Forces
on Buildings:
Inertia Force Due to
Accelerating Mass
To Survive Strong Earthquake without Collapse: DesignDesign forfor DuctileDuctile BehaviorBehavior
To Survive Strong Earthquake
without Collapse:
DesignDesign forfor DuctileDuctile BehaviorBehavior
H H H elastic 3/4 *H elastic Available Ductility 1/2 *H elastic Required Strength 1/4
H
H
H elastic
3/4 *H elastic
Available Ductility
1/2 *H elastic
Required Strength
1/4 *H elastic
MAX
How Do We Achieve Ductility in Steel Structures ?
How Do We Achieve Ductility in
Steel Structures ?
ExampleExample gusset plate double angle tension member P P Ductile Limit State: Gross-section yielding of
ExampleExample
gusset plate
double angle tension member
P
P
Ductile Limit State:
Gross-section yielding of tension member
Brittle Limit States:
Net-section fracture of tension member
Block-shear fracture of tension member
Net-section fracture of gusset plate
Block-shear fracture of gusset plate
Bolt shear fracture
Plate bearing failure in double angles or gusset
double angle tension member P P P yield ≤ P fracture The required strength for
double angle tension member
P
P
P yield ≤ P fracture
The required strength for brittle limit
states is defined by the capacity of the
ductile element
A g F y ≤ A e F u
A
F
F
Steels with a low yield ratio are
e
y
≥ y
= yield ratio
A
F
F
preferable for ductile behavior
g
u
u
Achieving Ductile Response Ductile Limit States Must Precede Brittle Limit States
Achieving Ductile Response
Ductile Limit States Must Precede Brittle Limit States
double angle tension member P P Example: Gross-section yielding of tension member must precede net
double angle tension member
P
P
Example:
Gross-section yielding of tension
member must precede net section
fracture of tension member
Gross-section yield:
P yield = A g F y
Net-section fracture:
P fracture = A e F u
double angle tension member P P Example: Gross-section yielding of tension member must precede bolt
double angle tension member
P
P
Example:
Gross-section yielding of tension member
must precede bolt shear fracture
Gross-section yield:
P yield = A g F y
0.4 F
-N
u-bolt
Bolt shear fracture:
F v =
P bolt-fracture = n b n s A b F v
0.5 F
-X
u-bolt
double angle tension member P P P yield ≤ P bolt-fracture The required strength for
double angle tension member
P
P
P yield ≤ P bolt-fracture
The required strength for brittle limit
states is defined by the capacity of the
ductile element
The ductile element must be the
weakest element in the load path
double angle tension member P P P yield ≤ P bolt-fracture OK P yield =
double angle tension member
P
P
P yield ≤ P bolt-fracture
OK
P yield = 139 k
P bolt-fracture = 158 k
What if the actual yield stress for the A36 angles is
greater than 36 ksi?
Say, for example, the actual yield stress for the A36
angle is 54 ksi.
double angle tension member P P P yield ≤ P brittle Stronger is not better
double angle tension member
P
P
P yield ≤ P brittle
Stronger is not better in the ductile element
(Ductile element must be weakest element in the load path)
For ductile response: must consider material overstrength in
ductile element
double angle tension member P P Example: Bolts: 3 - 3/4" A325-X double shear A
double angle tension member
P
P
Example:
Bolts: 3 - 3/4" A325-X double shear
A b = 0.44 in 2
F v = 0.5 x 120 ksi = 60 ksi
P bolt-fracture = 3 x 0.44 in 2 x 60 ksi x 2 = 158 k
Angles: 2L 4 x 4 x 1/4
A36
A g = 3.87 in 2
P yield = 3.87 in 2 x 36 ksi = 139 k
double angle tension member P P P yield ≤ P bolt-fracture P yield = 3.87
double angle tension member
P
P
P yield ≤ P bolt-fracture
P yield = 3.87 in 2 x 54 ksi = 209 k
P bolt-fracture = 158 k
P yield ≤ P bolt-fracture
Bolt fracture will occur before yield of angles
non-ductile behavior
double angle tension member P P P yield ≤ P brittle The required strength for
double angle tension member
P
P
P yield ≤ P brittle
The required strength for brittle limit
states is defined by the expected
capacity of the ductile element (not
minimum specified capacity)
R y F y = expected yield stress of angles
P yield = A g
R y F y
Achieving Ductile Response Ductile Limit States Must Precede Brittle Limit States Define the required strength
Achieving Ductile Response
Ductile Limit States Must Precede Brittle Limit States
Define the required strength for brittle limit states based
on the expected yield capacity for ductile element
The ductile element must be the weakest in the load path
Unanticipated over strength in the ductile element can
lead to non-ductile behavior.
Steels with a low value of yield ratio, F y / F u are preferable
for ductile elements
yield ratio, F y / F u are preferable for ductile elements Achieving Ductile Response Connection
yield ratio, F y / F u are preferable for ductile elements Achieving Ductile Response Connection
Achieving Ductile Response Connection response is generally non-ductile Connections should be stronger than connected
Achieving Ductile Response
Connection response is generally non-ductile
Connections should be stronger than connected
members
Ductile Response Connection response is generally non-ductile Connections should be stronger than connected members
Ductile Response Connection response is generally non-ductile Connections should be stronger than connected members
Achieving Ductile Response Be cautious of high-strength steels General Trends: As F y Elongation (material
Achieving Ductile Response Be cautious of high-strength steels General Trends: As F y Elongation (material
Achieving Ductile Response Be cautious of high-strength steels
Achieving Ductile Response
Be cautious of high-strength steels
Ductile Response Be cautious of high-strength steels General Trends: As F y Elongation (material ductility) F
Ductile Response Be cautious of high-strength steels General Trends: As F y Elongation (material ductility) F
General Trends: As F y Elongation (material ductility) F y / F u Ref: Salmon
General Trends:
As F y
Elongation (material
ductility)
F y / F u
Ref: Salmon and Johnson - Steel
Structures: Design and Behavior
Achieving Ductile Response Be cautious of high-strength steels High strength steels are generally less ductile
Achieving Ductile Response
Be cautious of high-strength steels
High strength steels are generally less ductile
(lower elongations) and generally have a higher
yield ratio.
High strength steels are generally undesirable
for ductile elements
Effect of Local Buckling on Flexural Strength and Ductility θ M M M p Increasing
Effect of Local Buckling on Flexural Strength and Ductility
θ
M
M
M p
Increasing b / t
θ
Plastic Buckling M Inelastic Buckling p M r Elastic Buckling Slender Element Sections λ Width-Thickness
Plastic Buckling
M
Inelastic Buckling
p
M
r
Elastic Buckling
Slender Element Sections
λ
Width-Thickness Ratio (b/t)
λ p
ps
λ r
Ductility
Moment Capacity
Achieving Ductile Response Use Sections with Low Width-Thickness Ratios and Adequate Lateral Bracing
Achieving Ductile Response
Use Sections with Low Width-Thickness Ratios and
Adequate Lateral Bracing
Plastic Buckling M Inelastic Buckling p M r Elastic Buckling λ Width-Thickness Ratio (b/t) λ
Plastic Buckling
M
Inelastic Buckling
p
M
r
Elastic Buckling
λ
Width-Thickness Ratio (b/t)
λ p
ps
λ r
Ductility
Moment Capacity
Plastic Buckling M Inelastic Buckling p M r Elastic Buckling Noncompact Sections λ Width-Thickness Ratio
Plastic Buckling
M
Inelastic Buckling
p
M
r
Elastic Buckling
Noncompact
Sections
λ
Width-Thickness Ratio (b/t)
λ p
ps
λ r
Ductility
Moment Capacity
Plastic Buckling M Inelastic Buckling p M r Elastic Buckling Compact Sections λ Width-Thickness Ratio
Plastic Buckling
M
Inelastic Buckling
p
M
r
Elastic Buckling
Compact Sections
λ
Width-Thickness Ratio (b/t)
λ p
ps
λ r
Ductility
Moment Capacity
Local buckling of noncompact and slender element sections
Local buckling of noncompact and slender element sections

Local buckling of noncompact and slender element sections

5000 4000 M p 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 -3000 M p -4000 RBS
5000
4000
M p
3000
2000
1000
0
-1000
-2000
-3000
M p
-4000
RBS Connection
-5000
-0.05
-0.04
-0.03
-0.02
-0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
Drift Angle (radian)
Bending Moment (kN-m)
Plastic Buckling M Inelastic Buckling p M r Elastic Buckling Seismically Compact Sections λ Width-Thickness
Plastic Buckling
M
Inelastic Buckling
p
M
r
Elastic Buckling
Seismically
Compact Sections
λ
Width-Thickness Ratio (b/t)
λ p
ps
λ r
Ductility
Moment Capacity

Local buckling of a seismically compact moment frame beam

Local buckling of a seismically compact moment frame beam

Local buckling of a seismically compact EBF link

Local buckling of a seismically compact EBF link
200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 -0.08 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02
200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
-0.08
-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
Link Rotation, γ
(rad)
Link Shear Force (kips)
Beam Flanges b E f s Compact: ≤ 0.38 2t F f y Seismically Compact:
Beam Flanges
b
E
f
s
Compact:
≤ 0.38
2t
F
f
y
Seismically Compact:
b
E
f
s
≤ 0.30
2t
F
f
y
Beam Web
h
E
s
≤ 3.76
Compact:
t
F
w
y
h
E
s
Seismically Compact:
≤ 2.45
t
F
w
y
EffectEffect ofof LateralLateral TorsionalTorsional BucklingBuckling onon FlexuralFlexural StrengthStrength andand
EffectEffect ofof LateralLateral TorsionalTorsional BucklingBuckling onon FlexuralFlexural StrengthStrength andand DuDuctility:ctility:
θ
M
M
M p
Increasing
L b / r y
θ
Effect of Local Buckling on Ductility For ductile flexural response: Use compact or seismically compact
Effect of Local Buckling on Ductility
For ductile flexural response:
Use compact or seismically compact sections
b f
Example: W-Shape
t f
h
t w
LateralLateral TorsionalTorsional BucklingBuckling Lateral torsional buckling L b controlled by: r y L b =
LateralLateral TorsionalTorsional BucklingBuckling
Lateral torsional buckling
L
b
controlled by:
r
y
L b = distance between beam lateral braces
r y = weak axis radius of gyration
Beam lateral braces
L b
L b
by: r y L b = distance between beam lateral braces r y = weak axis
Effect of Lateral Buckling on Ductility For ductile flexural response: Use lateral bracing based on
Effect of Lateral Buckling on Ductility
For ductile flexural response:
Use lateral bracing based on plastic design
requirements or seismic design requirements
⎛ M ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞
E
1
Plastic Design:
L
0.12
+
0.076 ⎜
r y
b
⎟ ⎟
⎣ ⎢
⎝ ⎜
M 2
⎠ ⎥ ⎦ ⎝
F y
⎠ ⎟
Seismic Design:
E ⎞ ⎟
L
≤ 0.086
r
b
⎝ ⎜
y
F
y
P P cr δ P P cr δ
P P
cr
δ
P
P cr
δ
How Do We Achieve Ductile Response in Steel Structures ? • Ductile limit states must
How Do We Achieve Ductile Response in Steel Structures ?
• Ductile limit states must precede brittle limit states
Ductile elements must be the weakest in the load path
Stronger is not better in ductile elements
Define Required Strength for brittle limit states based on
expected yield capacity of ductile element
• Provide connections that are stronger than members
• Avoid high strength steels in ductile elements
• Use cross-sections with low b/t ratios
• Provide adequate lateral bracing
• Recognize that compression member buckling is non-ductile
Achieving Ductile Response Recognize that buckling of a compression member is non-ductile
Achieving Ductile Response
Recognize that buckling of a compression member is
non-ductile
ExperimentalExperimental BehaviorBehavior ofof BrBraceace UnderUnder CyclicCyclic AxialAxial LoadingLoading W6x20 Kl/r =
ExperimentalExperimental BehaviorBehavior ofof BrBraceace UnderUnder CyclicCyclic AxialAxial LoadingLoading
W6x20
Kl/r = 80
δ
P
How Do We Achieve Ductile Response in Steel Structures ?
How Do We Achieve Ductile Response in Steel Structures ?