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SOILS
Soils (for Civil Engineering): All naturally occurring relatively uncemented aggregate of mineral grains and decayed organic matters that lies above bedrock. It can be broken down into constituent particles relatively easily (distinct from rocks, hard soil at the boundary). Soil is used as a construction material in various civil engineering projects, and also it supports structural foundations So, civil engineers must study the properties of soils, grain size distribution, ability to drain water, compressibility, shear strength, and load carrying capacity

SOIL MECHANICS
Soil mechanics is the branch of science that deals with the study of physical properties of soil and the behaviour of soil masses subjected to various types of forces Soils engineering is the application of the principles of soil mechanics to practical problems Geotechnical engineering is the civil engineering subdisciplines that involves natural materials found close to the surface of the earth

HISTORY OF SOIL MECHANICS


Based on the emphasis and the nature of study, development of geotechnical engineering can be divided into five major periods: Pre classical: 1700 to 1776 A.D. Classical soil mechanics- Phase I: 1776 to 1856 A.D. Classical soil mechanics- Phase II: 1856 to 1910 A.D. Modern soil mechanics- Phase I: 1910 to 1927 A.D. Modern soil mechanics- Phase II: after 1927 A. D.

SOIL FORMATION & COMPOSITION


Rock cycle How is soil made? Weathering Soil structure

Soil formation

SOIL FORMATION & COMPOSITION


Rock cycle How is soil made? Weathering Soil structure Changes in soil & vegetation

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Changes in soil & vegetation

SOIL FORMATION & COMPOSITION


Soil Type based on Soil Formation (Geologic Origin): 1. Physical weathering of parent rock 2. Chemical weathering of parent rock
Physical (mechanical disintegration): Retains minerals present in parent rock. Results in coarse grained soil (gravel & sand) Due to grinding action of flowing water, ice & wind Due to splitting action of ice, plants & animals Chemical (rock decomposition): Due to oxidation, hydration, carbonation & leaching by organic acids & water (clays & silts)

SOIL FORMATION & COMPOSITION General types of soils:


On the basis of their constituents
Residual Soil Transported soil

SOIL FORMATION & COMPOSITION


If product of rock weathering is located at the place of origin, then it is called residual soil. If it is transported by wind, water, ice etc. & re-deposited, then it is called transported soil. Transported Soil:
Alluvial: Deposited from suspension in running water. Lacustrine: Deposited from suspension in still & freshwater lakes. Marine: Deposited from suspension in sea water. Aeolin: Transported by wind. Glacial: Transported by glaciers / ice. Colluvial: transported by the gravity (e.g., landslides)

Organic origin (Compressible & unfit as foundation material)


Organic Inorganic soil

SOIL FORMATION & COMPOSITION


Organic soil:
Formed by growth and subsequent decay of plants such as peat By accumulation of fragments of the inorganic skeletons or shells of organisms

SOIL FORMATION & COMPOSITION


Three important clay minerals:
Kaolinite Montmorillonite Illite

Inorganic soil:
Refers to a transported soil consisting of the products of rock weathering

Will be discussed in more details later Name of some of the soil:

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Name of some of the soil


i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. Organic x. soil Loess Tuff Bentonite Glacial till (Boulder clay) Varved clay Marl Gumbo Peat Muck Cumulose Humus soils xi. xii. xiii. xiv. Hard Pan Colluvial soil Mine Tailing Keolin / china clay
Very pure white clay used in ceramic Industry

Name of some of the soil


xvi. Calcareous soil
Containing calcium carbonate

xvii. Loam
Mixture of sand, silt and clay Name of Loam?

xv. Shale
Material in the state of transition from clay to slate sometimes considered as rock. When exposed to air / water it may rapidly decompose

Names for loams Major soil types in India

SOIL FORMATION & COMPOSITION

SOIL FORMATION & COMPOSITION


Major Soil deposits in India: (i)Marine deposits:
Very soft to soft clay (thickness from 5 to 20 meters). Medium sensitive & inorganic. Need pretreatment before load application. Controlled loading to prevent failure.

(ii)Black cotton Soils:


Expansive due to presence of Illite & Montmorillonite clays. Thickness up to maximum 20m. Crack depth & pattern varies. Surface is hard in summer & slushy in rainy season. Seasonal w/c change causes volume change up to max. 1.5m depth. Due to swelling & shrinkage characteristics, soil should be pretreated.

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SOIL FORMATION & COMPOSITION


(iii)Laterites & lateritic soils:
Thickness more than 30m. Laterisation is the process of rock removal, silica removal, base removal, aluminum & iron accumulation at the top of soil profile. If approximately 90% coarse grained: laterite. Mostly fine grained: lateritic. Has high strength when cut & dried in heat (due to iron oxide dehydration & halloysite presence). Strength of hardened soil not affected due to water presence.

SOIL FORMATION & COMPOSITION


(v)Desert Soils:
Wind blown deposits in the form of sand dunes. Formed under arid conditions. Mostly fine or silty sand. Water scarcity is a serious problem.

(vi)Boulder Deposits:
Boulder deposits due to rivers flowing in hilly terrains. Their properties depend on relative proportion of boulder and soil matrix. Boulder-to-boulder contact results in large friction and angle of shearing resistance. Due to large size, laboratory sample is not representative of natural deposit, hence field investigations are carried out to find properties needed in design.

(iv)Alluvial Soils:
Exhibits alternate layers of sand, silt & clay. In some locations organic layers are also found. Depth upto 100m. Alluvial sand: Used as fine aggregate. Alluvial clay: For brick manufacturing.