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INDIAN AGRICULTURE SCINARIO Agriculture is an important sector of the Indian economy, accounting for 14% of the nations GDP,

about 11% of its exports, about half of the population still relies on agriculture as its principal source of income and it is a source of raw material for a large number of industries. Although its share in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has declined from over half at Independence to less than onefifth currently, agriculture remains the predominant sector in terms of employment and livelihood with more than half of Indias workforce engaged in it as the principal occupation. Agriculture still contributes significantly to export earnings and is an important source of raw materials as well as of demand for many industries. Indias agriculture sector has an impressive longterm record of taking the country out of serious food shortages despite rapid population increase. This was achieved through a favourable interplay of infrastructure, technology, extension, and policy support backed by strong political will. The main source of longrun growth was technological augmentation of yields per unit of cropped area. This resulted in tripling of foodgrain yields, and foodgrain production increased from 51 million tonnes in 195051 to 250.15 million tonnes in 201213. The important factors that influence production of agriculture production are, the nature of soil, rainfall and weather variables and the new technology. The major cropping seasons in India are Kharif and Rabi. The Kharif season crops (rice, sorghum, maize, pigeon pea and black gram) are grown during the summer monsoon (JuneSeptember) period and harvested in the autumn or early winter months. The Kharif crop production is >50% of the total annual foodgrain production and constitutes the principal source of food supply. The Rabi cropping (wheat and chickpea) season starts after the summer monsoon and continues up to the spring or early summer months. The rainfall, which occurs towards the end of the summer monsoon, provides soil moisture for the Rabi crop, which is sown in the postmonsoon season. Therefore, the summer monsoon is mainly responsible for both Kharif and Rabi food grain production in India (Parthasarathyet al., 1988a).

Food grains production in India

Year 195051 196061 197071 198081 199091 199798 199899 200102 200809 200910 201112 201213 Production (million tones) 50.82 82.02 108.42 129.59 176.39 192.43 195.25 209 226 235 246.2 250 (Agricultural statistics at a glance.)

Production and Productivity Trends of Indian agriculture has not been consistent over time. Agriculture production with emphasis on foodgrains we classify it into four distinct phases.

Phase 1 (1947/48-1965-66): The first phase stretching from Independence to midsixties, emphasized on Consolidation and organization of agricultural sector. Development was spearheaded through industrial front and it was expected to have a spread effect on agriculture. The increase in agricultural production at the annual rate of about 3% was dominated by growth in nonfoodgrains. A slower increase in foodgrain production came about due to shift in cropping pattern in favour of superior cereals (wheat and rice) particularly in the better endowed regions. The share of rice and wheat in production of total foodgrain increased from 52.5 percent in TE 195253 to 57.5 percent in TE 196566, but the yield remained low at 991 and 823

kg./hectare (TE 196566) for rice and wheat, respectively. The lack of emphasis on technological change during this phase culminated in extreme food scarcity in mid sixties.

Phase 2 (1966/67-1979/80): It is phases of green revolution, the advent of new technology changed the situation dramatically in the second phase spanning midsixties to decade of 70s. The growth rate of foodgrains was impressive (over 3%) and it came about partly due to improvement in yield of rice and wheat (by 26 and 87 percent, respectively during TE 1965/66 TE 1980/81) and partly due shift in area towards these major cereal crops. During this period, the area under rice and wheat increased by 11.5 and 70 percent, respectively, while a corresponding decline took place in the area under coarse cereals and pulses. From the situation of acute food shortages at the beginning of the phase, the country surged ahead in achieving self sufficiency in foodgrain production. The per capita domestic production of food grains was about 186.5 kg/annum during the 70s. Besides the new technology, the strengthening of the institutional backup also contributed to the productivity growth, and the transformation in the agrarian structure was an important component of agricultural development in the second phase.

Phase 3 (1980/811989/90): During the decade of 80s, the growth rate of crop production touched an all time high of 3.2 percent. The two distinct features of this third phase were, increased foodgrain production coming almost entirely from productivity enhancement and diversification towards nonfoodgrain crops. The area under both the major foodgrain crops, viz. rice and wheat nearly stagnated but the average annual production growth was over 3.5% on account of substantial yield improvement. Even in case of coarse cereals and pulses, the increase in yield more than compensated for the decline in acreage under these crops, to register a positive growth in production, marginally for coarse cereals and

moderately for pulses. The net sown area nearly stagnated at the decadal average of 140.5 million hectares but there was some increase in cropping intensity from 123.30 percent in 198081 to 128.05 percent by the end of the decade. The total cropped area under nonfoodgrain crops, specially oilseeds and sugarcane registered over 1 percent growth. Together with acreage expansion, the yield level of non foodgrain crops also increased at a compound annual growth rate of 2.31 percent. However, except for cotton, the rate of yield growth for all other major nonfoodgrain crops was lower than what was achieved for rice and wheat.

Phase 4 (1990/91 onwards): The growth momentum observed in the third phase could not be sustained in the subsequent period . Thus, the fourth phase, from the beginning of 90s, has been marked by considerable slackening of agricultural output due to continuous deceleration in rate of production growth of most of the food and nonfood grain crops. The observed trends after 2000/01 are particularly worrisome with virtual stagnation in production of rice, wheat and total food grains. Among the non food graincrops, there has been a quantum jump in the productivity of cotton, after introduction of BT cotton in the country. But for the other non foodgrain crops, the yield growth has been moderate for oilseeds and declined marginally for sugarcane.

Current agriculture scenario

During 201112, there was record production of foodgrains at 259.32 million tonnes, of which131.27 million tonnes was during Kharif season and 128.05 million tonnes during the Rabi season. Out Of the total foodgrains production, production of cereals was 242.23 million tonnes and pulses 17.09 million tonnes. For 201213, total foodgrains production is estimated at 250.14 million tonnes (124.68 million tonnes during Kharif and 125.47 million tonnes during Rabi seasons). the 6.59 million tonnes (about 5.02 per cent) decline in kharif production has been on account of late onset of monsoon and deficient rainfall in several states affecting kharif production in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. the production of rice (both kharif and rabi) is estimated at101.8 million tonnes, pulses at 17.58 million tonnes, oilseeds at 29.46 million tonnes, Though, production of rice during kharif 201213 has been lower than that of the last year, these are better than the average production during the last five years. Production of coarse cereals has been severely affected by the deficient monsoon in Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Rajasthan, with the result that the overall production of Coarse Cereals has been lower by 3.95 million tonnes as compared to kharif 201112.

The drastic change observed in the agricultural output after the adopting new agricultural techniques during the mid 1960s. This expansion of agricultural techniques continued till initiation of economic reforms but the sharp of techniques becomes lower after the reform period. Therefore, agricultural performance during last three decades is more unstable rather than earlier period. The compound growth rate of area, production and yield of crops has shown in the Table 1.2. From this table we found that there is rising trend in growth of area under crops. Whereas annual growth rate of production of major crops found contrary that it was declining. Moreover, the level of yield remained unstable over the years. The growth rate of agricultural production is deteriorating over the years. The area under cultivation of main crops was remained increasing trend but it was low than growth in production and yieldat national level . Moreover, the growth in cultivation was higher of non food crops than food crops during the last three decades. There were few crops who recorded growth in cultivation. Except rice and wheat crop, all of foodgrain crops area was recorded negative and minor growth during the three decades. It was more negative in last decade (20012010). It means that, the cultivation area of maximum crops was declining and especially the area under food crops was more negative which matter of concern is. Moreover, the 6 picture of growth in cultivation area was contrary of non food crops because

maximum non food crops were recorded positive and significant growth in area under cultivation, Out of them, sunflower, soyabean, oilseeds and sugarcane were the highest cultivated area but the trend was declining of all crops during the last three decades. The agricultural are after the green revolution was raised even it was positive but low till 90s after this, it could record minor and negative which leads to conclusion that it was declining during the post reform period. As far as growth in agricultural production is concerned, the concentration still is on selected f ood and non food crops therefore remained maximum crops are excluded from the technological support. In turn, the growth rates of production of few crops are higher than maximum crops. Some states are producing maximum food crops like wheat, rice due to having resources and some states are producing pulses, oilseeds and cotton which are unstable due to less endowment of resources. The performances of rice and wheat crops among the foodgrain crops are higher, whereas soyabean, sunflower among cash crops were performing well in producing in agricultural development over years. Moreover, the growth rates of principal crops shown in table 1.2 were recorded decreased continuously whereas the production growth rate of food and non food crops in India was decreasedbut it was worst about the food crops during last three decades. The maximum crops were recorded positive and higher growth rate in production during the 198190 i.e. before reform period but the few crops were recorded positive and higher growth in production during the 19912000 and 20012010 i.e. post reform period. It means that the agricultural development was not taken place during the post reform period.

(Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture)

Rates of Growth in Area, Production and Yield Given the limitations in the expansion of acreage, the main source of long term output growth is improvement in yield. A comparative picture in average annual growth rates of area, production and yield of different crops for two periods, 200203 to 200607 (the 10th Plan period) and 200708 to 201112 (the 11th Plan period) is given in table 1.2. The area under Jowar, Bajra, small millets has have witnessed a negative growth during the 11th Plan. Yields of all the major crops have recorded positive growth during the 11th Plan period. Average Annual Growth Rates in area, production and yields of major crops at all India level during 11th Plan and a comparison of annual average growth in yield rates during the 10th and 11th Plan periods are summarized in below figures . Impressive rates of growth (more than 4 percent per

annum) in production were observed in the case of wheat, Bajra, maize, coarse cereals, Gram, Tur, total pulses, Groundnut, sesame, soybean, total oilseeds and cotton. the increases in production in the case of wheat, Bajra, maize, groundnut and total oilseeds can mainly be attributed to increase in yields, whereas the growth in production in the case of gram, tur, total pulses, soybean and cotton is driven by a combination of both expansion in area and increase in productivity/yield.

A perusal of the rates of growth in yield reveals that most of the crops have recorded higher growth during the 11th Plan than that during the 10th Plan. However, sugarcane, and rapeseed & mustard, soybean and cotton recorded lower ratesof growth in yield during the 11th plan than that of the 10thPlan. Growth in yields of sugarcane and rapeseed & mustard suggest that their yields seem to have attained the plateau and need renewed research to boost their productivity levels.

The geographical area of Maharashtra state is 3.8 lakh sq.km., out of which the net area under agriculture is about 1.77 lakh sq.kms. I.e. 5750%. This proportion of the national level is less at 43.4%. However, the proportion of gross irrigated area to gross cropped area at national level is 39.7% while in Maharashtra state it is only 17.5%. Thus, 82.5%, of the area under agriculture in the state is directly dependent on monsoon. Nearly one third area of the state falls under rain shadow region where the rains are not only scanty but also erratic.

No. unit Items 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 Net area sown Gross cropped area Gross irrigated area Rice Wheat Jowar Bajara TOTAL FOODGRAINS

Maharashtra (Million ha) 17,478 22,557 3,958

2806 tonnes 1313 tonnes 1935 tonnes 502 tonnes

India (Million ha) 1,40,298 1,93,723 85,783

Comparison With India (%) 12.5 11.6 4.6

Area under principal crops

thousand 105.30 tonnes thousand 94.88 tonnes thousand 5281.5 tonnes thousand 8742.0 tonnes thousand 250 tonnes million million thousand thousand million


(Economic survey of Maharshtra201213) (Handbook of statistics of RBI 201213)

Maharshtra is key contributor to the agriculture sector in India. It remains predominantly an agrarian economy, with about twothird of the population engaged in agriculture accounting for 12.4% of the net sown area of India. However, agriculture contributes only about 11% to the GSDP

. The results show that, there was declining trend of area under food crops. Among the all food crops, Rice, Bajara, Tur showed higher growth in area under cultivation. Growth in area of rice was higher during the period II (197180), after the growth in area under cultivation was declining. The same condition was of Tur, Pulses and total food grains. It may be cause the periodII was of green revolution in Maharashtra and after this decade, the low growth had

recorded because the place of food grain was taken by the non food crops. Out of all

The total food grain recorded negative growth in the periodI (196170) but after that, it could record positive growth. During the period II (197180), there was higher growth rate rather than other decades and overall period. It was 10.9% per annum, the area and yield, which are the sources of output growth, were strongly supported during this period the rate of growth in area and yield during this period was 1.5 and 9.4% per annum respectively. Out of total food crops the Gram, and Wheat recorded higher growth in overall period (1961 2010). But their trend of growth was not consistent. The growth of production of Wheat, Kharip Jowar was higher during the PeriodII (197180) and it was declined and increased in little amount after the period II. This period was more suitable for the food grain production because, almost all food

crops were recorded satisfactory and higher growth rate. The growth in production of Rice, Kharip Jowar, Rabbi Jowar, Total cereals was 6.5%, 17.4%, 8.7% and 11.2% per annum respectively

As per the above analysis of growth in area and production of main crops in Maharashtra, it could shows that, the production was higher when area was declined while productivity or yield was increased. The growth in productivity excepting few crops remained higher than periodI (196170) because it was pregreen revolutionperiod. After adopting High yield variety seeds technology, irrigation and use of other agricultural inputs, the productivity was increased. The productivity growth of sugarcane, wheat, cotton and safflower was higher than other crops productivity growth during overall period (19612010).

B. N. Oryz sativa

Origin IndoBurma Nutional value major source of carbohyadtes (80gm/100gm) Major producing states India UP, Punjab, Haryana, MP, Rajasthan, Bihar Gujarat, Maharshtra

Rice is the most important cereal grown globally Major staple food for about half of the world population Today, around 600 million tons of Rough rice are produced each year Cultivated in 113 countries in the world And also, a way of life and a cultural heritage: Life without rice is not conceivable in most Asian 20% of word production Occupies 44 M. ha (22% of cropped area) Annual production of 99 M t A source of livelihood for millions Earns foreign exchange of 7000 crores Low Productivity compare to global standard. countries A Staple food crop that holds the key for food security (43%)

Avg. Productivity ( India) 2.9 Mt / Ha. Avg. Productivity (Global) 3.9 Mt / Ha. Avg. Productivity (China) 6.0 Mt / Ha. The Rice Challenge: Feeding a growing world population Demand in rice expected to increase by 30% in next 1520 years (FAO, IRRI) Consumption already above production Decline in growth rate of rice yield with traditional varieties (yield plateauing) Pressure on arable land and water supply Need for further yield enhancement and preservation Meeting consumer preferences on quality by adopting new technologies

WORLD Production and consumption of rice are concentrated in Asia, Northern Africa, and Middle Eastern regions. Five major rice production areas of the world are 1. China 2. India 3. Indonesia 4. Bangladesh 5. Japan! The tropical region of Asia or Monsoon Asia is the largest riceproducing area. The countries of this region together produce 90 per cent of the global output of rice. Major riceproducing countries are China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Korea, Japan and Philippines.Besides these SouthEast Asian countries, rice is also produced in Brazil, USA, France, Venezuela, Columbia, Egypt, Spain, etc. Top 10 Countries with Most Rice Production in the World 2012 (million metric ton) Rank production county 1 China 204.3 2 India 152.6 3 Indonesia 69.0 4 Vietnam 43.7 5 Thailand 37.8 6 Bangladesh 33.9 7 Burma 33.0 8 Philippines 18.0 9 Brazil 11.5 10 Japan 10.7 (Source: Food and Agriculture Organization)

World production of rice has risen steadily from about 200 million tonnes of paddy rice in 1960 to over 678 million tonnes in 2009. The three largest producers of rice in 2012 were China (197 million tonnes), India (131 Mt), and Indonesia (64 Mt). Among the six largest rice producers.

INDIA Worldwide, India stands first in rice area and second in rice production, after China. It contributes 21.5 percent of global rice production. India had the largest farm area under rice production in 2012. The rice farm productivity in India were about 45% of the rice farm productivity in China, and about 60% of the rice farm productivity in Indonesia

India is the second largest riceproducing country in the world. Its average annual production is 95 million metric tons, which is about 20 per cent of the world total. Rice is the staple food and cultivated in most of the states of India. Among the regions GangaBrahmaputra valley contributes the largest amount of rice followed by coastal regions. The major riceproducing states in India are West Bengal, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam and Odisha.

With the help of irrigation, improved seeds, use of fertilizers, multiple cropping, the production of rice is increasing but its average yield is still low in comparison to other important riceproducing states Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh have assumed considerable importance after the introduction of the Green Revolution. It is clear that about half of rice production in India is contributed by four states namely W. Bengal, Punjab, U.P, Andhra Pradesh. The other major producers are Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Assam, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Karnataka, Jharkhand and Maharashtra in order of importance

Maharashtra: Rice is grown in the Konkan coastal area, on the Ghats and in some eastern parts. Chandrapur, Raigad, Thane, Bhandara, Kolhapur, etc. are important rice producing districts.


Ghansal rice variety set to attain GI status KOLHAPUR: Following the footsteps of Kolhapur jaggery, the Ghansal variety of rice grown in the Ajara tehsil is set to attain geographical indication (GI) status to preserve its aroma and peculiarity.

The rice is popular among the urban areas and gains significant demand from various cities such as Kolhapur, Sangli, Pune and Satara.

The World Bankfunded Maharashtra Agricultural Competitiveness Project (MACP) is being implemented in the state for the past few years and has picked up Ghansal variety for providing it GI status.

A team of MACP officials and advisor to the World Bank, Paulsingh Siddu, were in the district on Tuesday and met the rice cultivators and farmers' groups. The team also conducted an awareness session about GI, its importance and procedure to approach the Union government for it.

Narendra Naik, agribusiness specialist at MACP, said, "The World Bank has provided some funds to the state government for MACP. The state government is likely to spend Rs 4.5 lakh for completion of the project and obtaining GI accreditation."

Ghansal variety rice is grown in over 2,200 hectares of land in Ajara tehsil, which is surrounded by Sahyadri mountainous range or the Western Ghat. The variety being a traditional one has lower productivity than its hybrid advanced varieties, Naik said.

The report of the district agriculture officer states that the rice variety has productivity of around 4555 quintals per hectare. The hybrid varieties of rice have productivity of 7585 quintals per hectare. Despite demands from various urban areas, the farmers do not get very good returns for their produce, the report stated.

A senior agriculture officer from Pune, who attended the meeting, said, "Farmers from Ajara tehsil do questioned the purpose behind continuing Ghansal variety cultivation when other varieties have higher production. The hybrid varieties do not have the aroma of Ghansal and agriculture department wants farmers to encash it. If it is properly branded and marketed, the variety can be sold at a higher price."

There are some farmers' groups formed by the state government, which are being trained for marketing the rice variety. The GI accreditation is part of the entire programme, he added

International trade World trade figures are very different to those for production, as less than 8% of rice produced is traded internationally. In economic terms, the global rice trade was a small fraction of 1% of world mercantile trade. Many countries consider rice as a strategic food staple, and various governments subject its trade to a wide range of controls and interventions. Developing countries are the main players in the world rice trade, accounting for 83% of exports and 85% of imports. While there are numerous importers of rice, the exporters of rice are limited. Just five countries Thailand, Vietnam, China, the United States and India in decreasing order of exported quantities, accounted for about threequarters of world rice exports in 2002However, this ranking has been rapidly changing in recent years. In 2010, the three largest exporters of rice, in decreasing order of quantity exported were Thailand, Vietnam and India. By 2012, India became the largest exporter of rice with a 100% increase in its exports on year to year basis, and Thailand slipped to third position. Together, Thailand, Vietnam and India accounted for nearly 70% of the world rice exports. Primarily exports from India included aromatic Basmati variety. According to a USDA report, the world's largest exporters of rice in 2012 were India (9.75 million tonnes), Vietnam (7 million tonnes), Thailand (6.5 million tonnes), Pakistan (3.75 million tonnes) and the United States (3.5 million tonnes). Major importers usually include Nigeria, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Malaysia, the Philippines, Brazil and some African and Persian Gulf countries. Although China and India are the two largest producers of rice in the world, both countries consume the majority of the rice produced domestically, leaving little to be traded internationally Low prices along with a weak rupee helped India export over 10 million tons in the calendar year 2012, the highest ever for the country, according to the USDA. In the process, India also became the top rice exporter in 2012, ahead of Vietnam (around 7.7 million tons of rice exports) and Thailand (about 6.9 million tons of rice exports). Much of surge in Indias rice exports last year was due to an increase in basmati rice exports driven by demand in Iran and Iraq. In the marketing year 201112 (September to August), India shipped about 3.18 million tons of basmati rice (up about 34% from around 2.37 million tons in 201011), helped by significant increases in exports to almost all regular destinations of Indian basmati rice.

Traditionally, about 5070% of Indias basmati rice exports reach Saudi Arabia, the U.A.E., the U.K., and Kuwait. In 201112, these countries accounted for about 1.8 million tons or 56% of total basmati rice exports by India. Exports were boosted by demand from Iran (almost 615,000 tons, up 35% from the previous year) and Iraq (about 152,000 tons, up 400% from previous year). Indias nonbasmati rice exports also remained strong at almost 4 million tons in 201112, but were about 5% lower than around 4.2 million tons exported in 200708, the last year before the Indian government placed the export ban in 2008. While rice exports to neighboring Bangladesh in 2011 12 declined to about 144,700 tons, less than a tenth of over 1.9 million tons in 200708, rice exports to most African nations increased significantly. Africa, along with countries in the Middle East and Gulf, accounted for about 86% of total nonbasmati rice exports by India in 201112. There were nine African nations among the top 15 importers of Indian nonbasmati rice and together, Nigeria, Senegal, Cte d'Ivoire, Egypt, Benin, Somalia, Togo, Kenya, and Cameroon accounted for about 2.4 million tons or almost 60% of total nonbasmati rice exports by India. Indonesia, the U.A.E., Bangladesh, Nepal, Singapore, Yemen and Iraq were also prominent importers of Indian nonbasmati rice in 201112. In 2013, Indias rice exports are forecast to decline about 20% as supplies are likely to increase in the international market while high domestic prices are expected to make Indian rice less competitive than it was last year

Nature's gift to India, India's gift to the World.

The scented pearl from India

Grown only in Himalayan Region of India and nurtured by snow fed rivers, Basmati is without a shadow of doubt the King of all Rices in the world. Its long slender shape and an unmatched fragrance and aroma are reflective of the age old civilization that cultivates it. A rice of the connoisseurs, Basmati is nonglutinous and has a fine, smooth and silky texture. The rice has been favored by emperors and praised by poets for hundreds of years. In the older times, Basmati could only be grown in the special fields for the kings and was always treasured and guarded by nobles. Ordinary people were not allowed in the vicinity of the fields and taking Basmati grain was a punishable offence. The supremacy of Basmati over other varieties is predominantly due to its unique and delicately balanced combination of a number of characteristics such as superfine (long slender) kernels, exquisite aroma, sweet taste, soft texture and delicate curvature, all of which makes it excellent for cooking. Its nutlike flavor and aroma is unique in the world. Like all naturally beautiful products Basmati Rice cannot be artificially created. It is Mother Nature (the soil and climatic conditions of the Himalayan foothills) that itself provides for its unique aroma and taste. There is no surprise that Basmati world over draws the highest premium because of its special characteristics. So it is said that "Basmati is to rice what Champagne is to wine and Scotch is to whisky". With the passage of time, several varieties of Aromatic Rice have been developed but the mystique of Basmati remains eternal.

The Indian heritage

Basmati, the highly aromatic rice is nature's gift to the Indian subcontinent and it is India's gift to the whole world. Farmers in the northern parts of the country, at the foot of the Himalayan mountain ranges have been growing this scented rice for centuries. Basmati grown in India, they say, is as great as the land and as old as the civilization itself. The tropical climate and soil prevailing at the foothills of the Himalayas is perfect for Basmati rice cultivation. Basmati from India is a perfect treat for the connoisseurs of sumptuous food, all over the world!

Bringing you the Best

Basmati has been cultivated in the Indian subcontinent for ages and is still grown under completely natural conditions to imbibe all the goodness that nature has to offer. However, present Indian companies who are growing, processing and exporting Basmati are at par with the best in the world and are using the State of the Art technology in their Mills. The demands and

needs of the modern day consumers are kept in mind as every grain of rice, that is exported, follow predefined process under close supervision of experts who ensure that only the best grain is brought to you.

Transforming simple dishes into delicacies

Cooking with Basmati is real fun as the ingredient in itself is a delicacy. Initially it was only eaten by the ethnic population, Basmati is now finding favors with consumers from all over the world and various studies show that the market for Basmati has been growing at the rate of 20% per annum. Basmati is also fast becoming a part of Chefs world over are using Basmati to transform simple dishes into sumptuous delicacies ranging from indulgent ethnic Biryani to Seafood Pulaos for the health conscious.

Basmati mystique
Basmati is typically characterized by its superfine kernels, exquisite aroma, great taste, silky texture, delicate curvature and linear kernel elongation. The poets for many countries finds mention in texts from the sixteen century onwards. Basmati continuously finds mention in texts from the 16th century onwards. The aroma of Basmati is unique and imparts its novel characteristic that is unmatched by any other grain elsewhere in the world.

Export of Rice & Wheat 5.34 private and Export of wheat and was nonbasmati rice on



w.e.f. 09.02.2007 exportof

01.04.2008 respectively. However,

rice and wheat has been allowed on diplomatic considerations and humanitarian ground. the Government, nonbasmati rice on and 08.09.2011, permitted 20 lakh tonnes exportof of wheat

under open General Licence (oGL) by private parties out of privately held stocks through EDI ports. As on 19.11.2012, a quantity of 77.25 lakh

tones of

nonbasmati rice


35.95 lakh tones of

wheat have been exported under oGL. In view of record production of foodgrains in the recent years and comfortable stock position of wheat and nonbasmati rice in the Central Pool far in

excess of buffer norms/strategic reserve and also to offload the excess stocks of wheat due

to constraints in storage space with FCI/State Agencies, the government has on 03.07.2012

approved export of 2 million tonnes of wheat from Central Pool Stocks through CPSUs of the Department of Commerce at the cost to be determined by individual tender subject to floor

price of US$228 per metric ton. the Government has the approved on 29.11.2012, the wheat and continuation of nonbasmati

unrestricted exportof

rice, in view of the adequate availability of wheat and nonbasmati rice in the domestic market.

Further, with effect from 26.03.2012, exportof 6.5lakh tonnes of flour (Maida), Samolina (Rava/Sooji), Whole meal Atta and resultant Atta on private account allowed in the year 2009 has been put on OGL up to 31.03.2012.


Wheat (Triticum spp.) is worlds most widely cultivated agronomic cereal crop; about 40 percent of worlds population depends upon Wheat as staple food. Wheat accounts for the greatest volume of international trade. it is grown all over the world,. In 2012, the worlds main wheat producing regions were China, India, United States, Russian Federation, France, Australia, Germany, Ukraine, Canada, Turkey, Pakistan, Argentina, Kazakhstan and United Kingdom (FAO, 2013).

The production and productivity of Wheat crop in India were quite low up to 196465 i.e. up to 1012 million tonnes. Country used to import large quantity of Wheat for fulfilling the need of peoples from many countries. The Green Revolution was initiated in India in the 1960s to increase food production. Introduction of new technology and semi dwarf varieties during the fourth five year plan (196974) had changed share of Indian agriculture. Now India achieved remarkable progress in Wheat production during the last four decades.

The production of wheat in the country has increased significantly from 8 million MT in 195556 to an alltime record high of 94.88 million MT in 201112. The productivity of wheat which was 708 kg/hectare in 200405 has increased to 3140 kg/hectare in 201112. The major increase in the productivity of wheat has been observed in the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Higher area coverage is reported from MP in recent years.

The major Wheat producing states in India is placed in northern region of country. In India Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana contributing nearly 80% of total Wheat production. During year 201112, India has 29.25 million ha area under Wheat crop while production of 93.9 million tonnes and productivity 2938 kg /ha. In India, Uttar Pradesh rank first regarding to area and production of 19.32 million ha and 43.20 million tonnes respectively, however Punjab have highest productivity of Wheat 4144kg\ha. (agricoop.nic.in)

Current scenario Production in 201213 fall by 2.42 mt in comparison to 201112 owing to the productivity decline by 58 kg/ha (1.84 %) followed by marginal reduction in area by 0.22 mha (0.73 %). Weather parameters that favored last crop

season didnt go well with this season bringing down the countrys production at 92.46 mt. State wise analysis indicates that Uttar Pradesh grows more wheat (9.73 mha), followed by Madhya Pradesh (5.30 mha) and Punjab (3.52 mha). Uttar Pradesh again holds the prime position in wheat production (32.77 % of Indias production). The state has produced 30.30mt, followed by Punjab (16.11 mt) and Madhya Pradesh (13.13 mt). In comparison to 201112, current year productivity declined due to significant reduction in yield of major wheat growing states. Haryana and Punjab which registered record yield in 201112, failed to continue the spurt momentum. Productivity declined by 578 kg/ha in Haryana and 325 kg/ha in Punjab. Consequent to this, Punjab replaces Haryana in highest productivity. However, Uttar Pradesh and

Rajasthan maintain their productivity level. Despite a fall in yield, states located in north eastern plains zone like Assam, Bihar, Odisha and West Bengal shows a significant increase in the crop yield ranging from 221 kg/ha (Bihar) to 28 kg/ha (Odisha). Productivity decline was highest in Haryana, followed by Andhra Pradesh and Punjab. Interestingly, states that are grouped under others category indicate a productivity increase of 1594 kg/ha which is a huge figure by any yardstick. The reason was the placement of many of the north eastern states like Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura that yielded more wheat in the current crop season owing to several developmental and extension programmes targeted for that region.

As an integral part of the Indian food security system, the Indian Government owned Food Corporation of India (FCI) maintains a buffer stock of wheat, procured from the farmers at the Minimum Support Price (MSP) of Rs.1175 per quintal (applicable for 2012/13 crop year) to meet the mounting requirements of the countrywide Fair Price Shops, Food for Work Programme and other socioeconomic welfare projects for the economically vulnerable sections of society. Buffer stocks are required to (i) feed the population under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) and other welfare schemes, (ii) (ii) ensure food security during the periods when production is short of normal demand during bad agricultural years and (iii) stabilize prices during period of production shortfall through open market sales. (iv) The buffer norm for wheat w.e.f 20.04.2005 is 8.2 mt (Jan), 4 mt (Apr), 17.1 mt (July) and 11 mt (Oct). In addition to buffer norms,

Government has prescribed a Strategic Reserve of 30 lakh tonnes of Wheat w.e.f. 01.07.2008. Stock of wheat in central pool is 42.40 mt as on 01.07.2013 (Storage: 42.14 mt and Transit: 0.26 mt). Stock of wheat in FCI is 13.76 mt as on 01.07.2013 (Storage: 13.50 mt and Transit: 0.26 mt).

it is important rabi crop cultivated in Maharshtra. During year 2010 11, area under Wheat crop is 12.69 lakh ha, production of 22.58 lakh metric tonnes, and productivity is 1730kg/ha. The area under high yielding Varities is 12.53 lakh ha. In Maharashtra, coverage under Wheat crop is maximum in Ahmednagar district followed by Parbhani, Hingoli, Pune, Nashik district. While as production concerned Jalgaon district rank first tailed by Hingoli, Buldhana district. (Economic Survey of Maharashtra 201011)

Wheat export performance India wheat export performance since 2000 Market Year Exports Unit of Measure Growth Rate 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 1569 3087 4850 5650 2120 801 94 49 23 58 72 891 6824 6500 (1000 MT) (1000 MT) (1000 MT) (1000 MT) (1000 MT) (1000 MT) (1000 MT) (1000 MT) (1000 MT) (1000 MT) (1000 MT) (1000 MT) (1000 MT) (1000 MT) 684.50 % 96.75 % 57.11 % 16.49 % 62.48 % 62.22 % 88.26 % 47.87 % 53.06 % 152.17 % 24.14 % 1,137.50 % 665.88 % 4.75 %

(Source: United States Department of Agriculture)

Major wheat exporters are USA, Russia, Australia, Canada, Argentina, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. India has just entered in global wheat market after six seven years gap. However, increasing production has provided opportunity for India to be a regular exporter. The below given table shows the export

performance, year wise, for major exporters, and projection for ongoing season.

Export: At present export of wheat is free

Millets are coarse grains and serve as food for a large number of people in India. They are kharif crops and grow in less rainy areas in the following order Ragi (damp areas), Jowar (moist areas) and Bajra (dry areas). They require high temperature and less rainfall. They are alternative to rice as rainfall decreases B.N. Sorghum bicolor Origin: Sorghum originated in northeastern Africa strong resistance to harsh environments such as dry weather and high temperature in comparison with other crops. limited use of pesticides. Naturecared Crop as it requires little artificial care such as irrigation and insect removal. suitable alternative food for people with wheat gluten allergies. staple food for millions of the poorest and most foodinsecure people in the semiarid tropics of Africa, Asia and Central America. Sorghum grain contains 11.3% protein, 3.3% fat and 5673% starch. It is relatively rich in iron, zinc, phosphorus and Bcomplex vitamins. Tannins, found particularly in redgrained types, contain antioxidants that protect against cell damage, a major cause of diseases and aging.

Sorghum worlds fifth major cereal in terms of production and acreage. It is dietary staple of more than 500 million people in 30 countries. It is a leading cereal grain produced in Africa and is an important food source in India grown on 40 million ha in 105 countries of Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. The USA, India, Mxico, Nigeria, Sudan and Ethiopia are the major producers. Other sorghum producing countries include Australia, Brazil, Argentina, China, Burkina Faso, Mali, Egypt, Niger, Tanzania, Chad and Cameroon. It has increasingly important source of dry season fodder for livestock, especially in Asia. The United States is the world's largest producer of grain sorghum followed by India, Nigeria, and Mexico. Leading exporters are the United States, Australia and Argentina In 2010, the USA was the worlds largest producer of sorghum (8.8 million metric tons annually), followed by India (7.0), Mexico (6.9), Nigeria (4.8) and Argentina (3.6). Over the past 30 years, annual world production and the area planted to sorghum have both decreased marginally from 62.8 to 59.3 million metric tons and 44.5 to 41.9 million hectares. Yields in 197880 and 20082010 were virtually the same (1400 and 1412 kilograms per hectare). However, these global figures mask wide variations at the national level. In India, for example, between 1978 and 2010 the area planted to sorghum fell from 16. 1 to 7.7 million hectares and annual production fell from 11.4 to 7.0 million

metric tons, but yields increased by 40% from 689 (in 197880) to 965 kilograms per hectare (in 200810). Global sorghum area trends indicate that area increased from 45 million ha in the 1970s to 51 million ha in the 1980s. Later, there was fluctuation in area by 4 to 10 million ha and it declined to 40 million ha by 2009. Grain yields have increased from 1200 kg/ha in the 1970s to 1400 kg/ha in 2009 Jowar occupies about 8% of the total area of the food grains and 10% of the cereals. Similarly its output is 4.1 % of the total production of food grains and 4.3% of the cereals in the country. Except between 195051 and 1960 61 there has been steady decline in the area of Jowar.

Jowar is essentially a crop of the Peninsular India. Three leading producers include Maharashtra, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh which together account for 78 per cent of the total area and about 81 per cent of the total production of jowar in the country. Three northern states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Haryana collectively occupy about 10 per cent of the total area and 5 per cent of the total output of the crop in the country The sorghum area in India was more than 16 million ha in 1981, but has gradually decreased to 7.8 million ha in 200708 (still 20% of the worlds sorghum area). Of this, 3.5 million ha was grown in the rainy (kharif) season and 4.3 million ha in the postrainy (rabi) season. Production increased from 9 million tons in the early 1970s to 12 million tons in the early 1980s and maintained this level for over a decade until the early 1990s, followed by a steep decline to 7.3 million tons. Despite the decrease in area over the years, production has been sustained at 7.3 million tons (2009) due mainly to adoption of improved varieties and hybrids. Sorghum grain yields in India have averaged 1170 kg/ha in the rainy season and 880 kg/ha in the post rainy season in recent years. The area has declined from 184 lakh hectares in 196061 to 92 lakh hectares i n 200203 at an average annual rate of 1.13 per cent. On the other hand the production trend has been very fluctuating between 195051 and 200203.

Maharashtra is the leading producer of Jowar in the country. Both in terms of area and production its share has been half of the country. The area, production and yield have shown wide fluctuations. While the area has increased from 65.61 lakh hectares in 198384 to 66.26 lakh hectares in 198586 it has fallen down to 48 lakh hectares in 200203. It is being cultivated in Maharashtra both for grain and fodder during kharif (area 13.84 lakh ha) and rabi (area 30.17 lakh ha). The percentage area under rabi sorghum (64 %) is more than kharif sorghum (36 %) area. Contrary to this, production and average yields of kharif sorghum are higher (more than 1 tonnes/ha) than the average yield in rabi (0.6 tonne/ha). In kharif cultivation, the major constraints are lower profit and non competitiveness than cotton, sunflower, castor and pulses; grain mould susceptibility during the years of extended monsoon at grain maturity and susceptibility to stemborer under dry weather condition, and inadequate availability of seeds of improved dualpurpose varieties and hybrids of sorghum in time at fair price. The production increased from 46.78 lakh tones in 198384 to a record high of 66.68 lakh tonnes in 199293 and to fall back a low of 37.80 lakh tones in 199798. Jowar occupies about 31% of the total cropped area of the state. The crop is mainly grown in the central parts of the state with Jalgaon, Buldhana, Akola, Amravati, Yeotmal. Aurangabad, Ahmadnagar, Beed, Usmanabad, Nanded, Solapur, Nagpur and Sangli districts being the important producers.

World trade in sorghum is dominated by the largest producer of the crop in the world i.e. U.S.A as most of the production in the country accounts for export in the foreign market. The total exports summed up to 5626000 metric tons in the year 200506 with USA contributing around 88% of the worlds total exports. Argentina, Australia, Nigeria, China and India are the other important exporters of the cereal grain. The scenario of the world imports are depicted in the form of a table below showing the major sorghum importers of the world along with their import figures

Mexico (3000000 metric tons) Japan (1393000 metric tons) Sudan (250000 metric tons) European Union (150000 metric tons) Somalia (75000 metric tons) Chile (65000 metric tons) Israel (50000 metric tons) Niger (50000 metric tons) Taiwan (50000 metric tons) Eritrea (25000 metric tons

Sorghum producing countries

Sorghum is produced mainly for feeding purposes. Due to a very similar nutritional value and growth pattern as of maize, it also serves as a substitute to it. The world production of this cereal grain in 200506 was 58.9 million metric tons, the production being stable over a long period of time. The list showing the major global producers of sorghum with their production figures relating to the year 200506 is given below

United States of America (9847680 metric tons) Nigeria (8028000 metric tons)

India (8000000 metric tons) Mexico (6300000 metric tons) Sudan (4228000 metric tons) Argentina (2900000 metric tons) China (2952800 metric tons) Ethiopia (1800000 metric tons) Australia (1748000 metric tons) Brazil (1529600 metric tons) Burkina Faso (1399302 metric tons) Egypt (950000 metric tons) Tanzania (800000 metric tons) Mali (664083 metric tons) Cameroon (600000metric tons) Venezuela (565000 metric tons) Niger (500000 metric tons) Chad (449427 metric tons) Uganda (420000 metric tons) Ghana (399300 metric tons)

The top spot in the list is bagged by the United States though Nigeria is too close to its production figure and is giving a tough competition for the first place. The world acreage of area pertaining to sorghum production sums up to around 440000 square kilometers.

Production of sorghum in India

India has ever been among the major producers of sorghum in the world. The country has been able to maintain its position among the top three producers of the crop. As already mentioned, sorghum is produced both as a summer and a winter crop i.e khariff and rabi crops in the country. Indian production hovers around an average of 9 million metric tons but since last few years a slow downfall in the production as well as in the area covered for sorghum production has been observed. The 200506 Indian sorghum production figures were 8 million metric tons. Area wise, India accounts for around 20% of the world total area used for the crop production. The major states in the country where this cereal grain is produced are

Maharashtra Karnataka Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh

Maharashtra produces the maximum sorghum in India, production being supported by the districts Solapur, Pune, Bijapur, Nanded, Akola and Maboobnagar.

Indian sorghum or jowar market

Sorghum is popularly known as "Jowar" in India. The crop in the country stands at the third place in context of importance after wheat and rice. The grain had been used for consumption of both humans and livestock and also different genes of the plant serve many other important uses. The crop was introduced in India in the first millennium and since then it has been actively cultivated in the subcontinent. The production of sorghum in India reaches up to 9 million metric tons mark each year but last few years have shown a marginal but gradual decline in the production and productivity of the crop. The area under cultivation of the crop too has had a steep decline in the last 15 years i.e. 50% and 25% in the khariff and rabi season respectively.

India also maintains a place in the top ten consumers of sorghum in the world with a 200506 consumption figure of 7.7 million metric tons. Indian demand for the grain is on an increase due to the combined increase in the demand of various sectors using sorghum. The rural per capita annual consumption has reduced a bit as compared to the 1961 figure, but still this decline cannot hide sorghums national importance. India is capable of satisfying the domestic consumption demand and hence it emerges out to be a net exporter of the crop exporting the balance stocks. In 200506, the country made exports of 25000 metric tons of jowar and stood at the 6th position among the worlds major exporters of the world. The exports are expected to rise in the coming time.

Market Influencing Factors

Change in taste and preferences Farming system changes Payment of labor involved in the production of sorghum Alternative cropping strategies depending upon the factors like irrigation etc.

Demand from fodder industries in the country

Major trading centers of sorghum or jowar

In India, sorghum or jowar is being traded at the following primary markets

Akkalkot (Mahrashtra) Mohol (Mahrashtra) Barsi (Mahrashtra) Pandharpur (Mahrashtra) Kurduwadi (Mahrashtra) Mumbai (Mahrashtra) Kolhapur (Mahrashtra

HOPE has become reality for 25,000 farmers in dryland Marathwada and Western Maharashtra regions of the state of Maharashtra, known as the Sorghum Bowl of India. Initial assessments indicate that their grain yields rose by 40% and fodder yields by 20% on average over the past three seasons (20102012) due to improved sorghum varieties and crop management practices, along with improved market linkages. About half of these farmers operate on a very small scale, with landholding size of two hectares or less. Net income (the income that farmers

retain after their costs of cultivation are paid for) has increased by 50%, to an average of US$78 per hectare of sorghum grown. HOPE stands for Harnessing Opportunities for Productivity Enhancement of Sorghum and Millets in SubSaharan Africa and South Asia. The ICRISAT HOPE project is led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in close partnership with several state and national institutions on sorghum in India: Marathwada State Agricultural University, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth State Agricultural University (MPKV), and the National Directorate of Sorghum Research. HOPE focuses its efforts in six target areas in the Sorghum Bowl that contain especially large areas of postrainyseason sorghum. About onethird of the targeted area is now sown to improved varieties, compared to just 10% before the project began its work. In a recent project planning meeting Dr. T. A. More, Vice Chancellor of MPKV praised the results to date, and stressed the need for a Green Revolution through major improvements like these in rainfed crops. The cropping system in the Sorghum Bowl is unique. Instead of growing the crop in the warm summer rainy season it is sown after the rains end in September/October, and harvested in January/February. Farmers plant the crop on heavy clay soils that retain large amounts of the seasons excess rainwater; the sorghum roots then extract that water to support plant growth. The new varieties have been especially taken up by the poorest farmers because they depend the most on rainfed cropping, being least able to afford irrigation water. The sorghum varieties that are delivering these impressive gains were developed by Indian institutions by improving the traditional Maldandi type of varieties cultivated in this area. These new varieties are well adapted to the cold temperatures and short daylength of the winter months, and are tolerant or resistant to drought and to the pests and diseases prevalent during this season such as aphids, shoot fly and charcoal rot. Varieties are currently being developed that will yield larger, brighter grains to attract higher market prices. They derive from crosses made at ICRISAT between the Maldandi types and durra sorghum types from East Africa. Hybrid varieties also under development are expected to raise yield by another 2030 percent. Dr William Dar, Director General of ICRISAT, explained that "Our international role is to encourage SouthSouth sharing of promising technologies such as the durra

sorghums of Africa, and the hybrid sorghum technology of India. The benefits flow both ways." Farmers typically keep about twothirds of the sorghum crop for home use, and sell the rest. Farmers prize both the grains and the stalks of sorghum. The grains are for human consumption, while the stalks are fed to cattle. The two portions of the crop are about equal in economic value. Smallscale farmers typically own 23 cattle that they depend on to produce milk and to pull plows and cartloads. Sorghum stalks are fed to livestock; when used in this way the stalks are referred to as fodder. Growing demand for fodder to feed dairy cattle is expected for years to come, because Indians are consuming more dairy products as their incomes rise. Demand for fodder is especially strong in the parched northern states of Gujarat and Rajasthan, but those areas lack sufficient rainfall to grow enough fodder. The demand for grain will also increase, but less rapidly. Indias National Food Security Mission recently announced that it will buy and distribute sorghum grain to Indias poor, expanding market opportunities for farmers. To better access grain markets, ICRISATHOPE is helping farmers improve the cleaning, grading and packing of grain, and connecting them to sources of uptodate information on market prices and demand volumes.

Pearl millet
B. N. Pennisetum glaucum Origin Abyssinia Pearl millet is the most drought tolerant warm season coarse grain cereal Pearl millet is often grown on infertile soils and under water limited conditions where no other cereal crop can be successfully grown. Its grains have high protein content, balanced amino acid profile, and high levels of iron, zinc and insoluble dietary fiber. Grown annually on more than 29 million ha in the arid and semi arid tropical regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. It is grown in around 40 countries around the world The other major producing countries are Senegal, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Sudan. India is the largest producer of Bajra in the world. Bajra is the fifth most important cereal crop in India Rajasthan is the largest producer of Bajra with a market share of 42.33%. The other major producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana and Maharashtra India has the largest area (varying between 910 million ha) under pearl millet which is at third rank after rice and wheat. Its is valued for both grain and stover as its grain is the major source of dietary carbohydrates of human diet in western India and stover forms the basis of livestock ration during the dry period of year in north Indian states.


Pearl millet is planted on 14 million ha in Africa and 14 million ha in Asia. Global production of its grain probably exceeds 10 million tons a year, to which India contributes nearly half. At least, 500 million people depend on pearl millet for their lives. Approximately onethird of the worlds millet is grown in Africa and Asia, about 70% of it in West Africa. Major producing countries in Africa include Nigeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritius and Senegal in the west, and Sudan and Uganda in the east. Six countries (China, Ethiopia, India, the Niger, Nigeria and the former Soviet Union) are estimated to account for about 80% of global millet utilisation. Of the 30 million tons of millet produced in the world, about 90% is utilised in developing countries, and only a tiny volume is used in the developed countries. The exact statistical data are unavailable for most countries, but it is estimated that a total of 20 million tons are consumed as food, the rest being equally divided between feed and other uses such as seed, the preparation of alcoholic beverages and waste. World consumption of millet as food has only grown marginally during the recent past in contrast to the significant increase in consumption of other cereals

India India is the largest producer of pearl millet in Asia, both in terms of area (about 9 million ha) and production (8.3 million tons) with an average productivity of 930 kg/ha during the past three years. From the early 1980s, the pearl millet area in India declined by 22%, but production increased by 36%, due to a 75% increase in productivity (from 530 kg/ha during 19811983 to 930 kg/ha during 20082010). There has been gradual decline in the area of Bajra. The downy mildew epidemics in 1970s and 1980s that threatened the sustainability of pearl millet The area has decreased from 114.69 lakh hectares in 196061 to 89 lakh hectares in 199900 at an average annual rate of 0.57 per cent. On the contrary despite wide fluctuations its production has increased at an average annual rate of 1.89 per cent during these years. This was due

to more use of HYV seeds and higher input facilities. The research efforts were targeted to enhance productivity through breeding high yielding cultivars and refinement in production and protection technologies. High yielding cultivars suited to arid and semiarid environments have been developed and quality seed of these cultivars has been made available to farmers that resulted into increase in productivity from 323 kg/ha (195054) to 991 kg/ha (2010). The total production has almost doubled from 3.42 m tones to 8.83 m tones. the HYVs cover about 50% of total pearl millet area, which is highest among coarse cereal crops. Rajasthan ranks first in Indian states in area and fourth is production of Bajra. The state records the lowest per hectares yield of Bajra in the country. Area under HYVs is highest in Gujarat where almost whole area (>90%) has come under hybrid coverage. Although Rajasthan has the highest area under pearl millet, adoption of HYVs in this state has been very low (2530%). Due to its low per hectare yield and less remunerative prices, is finding less popularity amongst farmers. Although a number of HYV (HB1, BH2, BJ104, BK560, Pusa23, KMH451, HHB67, ICTP8203, ICMS7703, HC4) of the crop have been developed the need is to popularise these varieties amongst farmers and promote bajra cultivation in dry farming areas.

Trade In India large quantities of pearl millet are traded from the major pearl millet growing areas to urban centres and to nonpearl millet growing areas. The trade is mainly to meet demand of pearl millet from urban

consumers and to meet requirements of consumers from different income groups. The importance of pearl millet as cattle feed is increasing in recent years. Major portion of the bajra production is con sumed locally and only a small quantity (about 3 lakh tonnes) enters the interstate market. A very small quantity of the produce is exported to the countries of east Africa, Middle East and Europe. Trade of Pearl Millet At international level is around less than 1% of global production.

Crop Profile Q.1. What is the normal area of Pearl millet in India? Ans. The normal area of Pearl millet in India is 9.42 million ha. Out of which about 9.20 million ha is cultivated during Kharif season, 0.05 million ha during Rabi season and 0.17 million ha during summer season. Q.2. What is the normal production of Pearl millet in India?

Ans. The normal production of Pearl millet in India is 6.97 million tonnes. Out of which 6.57 million tonnes is produced during Kharif season, 0.10 million tonnes in Rabi season & 0.30 million tonnes in Summer season. Q.3 What is the Average Productivity of Pearl millet in India? Ans. The Average Productivity of Pearl millet in India is 738 Kg/ha which is 719 Kg/ha during Kharif season, 1920 Kg/ha in Rabi season and 1937 Kg/ha in Summer season. Q.4. What is the share of Pearl millet in total food grains production in the country?




Q.5. What is the share of Pearl millet in total food grains area in the country? Ans. 7.83% (200102).

Q.6. Which State ranks first in Area & Production of Pearl millet? Ans. Rajasthan State.

Q.7. Which State ranks first in Productivity of Pearl millet? Ans. Tamilnadu State.

Q.8. Which are major Pearl millet growing States during Kharif season? Ans. Rajasthan followed Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh & Andhra Pradesh. Q.9. Which are major Summer Pearl millet growing States? Ans. Gujarat.

Q.14. What is the Minimum Support Price (MSP) of Pearl millet for the current year?



Q. 15. Name the States in which Pearl millet grain is used as staple food? Ans. Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, parts of Uttar Pradesh & Haryana.

Maharashtra Maharashtra occupies second place in respect of area (20.36%) and frist place in respect of production of bajra (24.74%) in the country. The crop is grown in the hilly and dry areas of the central plateau on poor soils in the districts of Nasik, Dhule, Satara, Pune, Sangli, Aurangabad, Solapur, Jalgaon, Ahmadnagar. The per hectare yield is second lowest after Rajasthan (441 kg/ha).