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MICRO HYDRO POWER SYSTEMS

Lecture presented as part of the module: Energy Systems 414

Adriaan Lombard 21 February 2013

Lecture Overview
1. Hydro Power Introduction 2. Hydro Power Characteristics 2.1. Types of Hydro Power Systems 2.2. Identifying Hydro Power Resource 3. Micro Hydro Power System Design 3.1 Mechanical Design - Inlet - Pipeline - Turbines 3.2 Electrical Design 4. Case Study Waterval Micro Hydro Power System

Micro Hydro Power Systems

Introduction
Hydro power systems Very significant source of electrical energy Represents 19% of annual global electrical energy production Current global installed capacity: 1,010GW South African installed capacity: 690MW Hydro Power size classification Capacity > 10MW 1 10MW 100 1,000kW < 100kW Classification Large Hydro Power System Small Hydro Power System Mini Hydro Power System Micro Hydro Power System SAs Share 95% 3.7% 1.2% 0.1%

Micro Hydro Power capacity to be exploited in SA: 65MW


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Introduction
Micro Hydro Power Systems Disadvantages High Capital investment is usually required Recent increases in electricity tariffs and those planned for future Micro Hydro Power Systems becomes more feasible Advantages No large complicated and expensive civil works Low Operating and Maintenance cost Depending on technology spare parts could be easily available Base load can be supplied continuously Reliable systems with long life spans Capacity factor can be >90%, compared to wind where capacity factor of 20 - 40% usually achieved

Micro Hydro Power Systems

Hydro Power Characteristics


Types of Hydro Power Systems
1. Reservoir Systems

Gariep Hydro Power Station 360MW 4 x 90MW Units

Micro Hydro Power Systems

Hydro Power Characteristics


Types of Hydro Power Systems
1. Reservoir Systems 2. Run of River Systems

Waterval Micro Hydro Power System 1 x 9kW Unit


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Hydro Power Characteristics


Identifying Hydro Power Resources
Primary factors determining the hydro power capacity of a site: Available gross head Difference in height between inlet and outlet Availability of flow P = gQHN where: P: : : g: Q: Electrical Power Combined Turbine and Generator efficiency Density of water, usually 1,000 Gravitational acceleration, usually 9.81 Flow rate (W) (%) (kg/m 3) (m/s2) (m 3/s) (m)

HN: Net head

Micro Hydro Power Systems

Hydro Power Characteristics


Identifying Hydro Power Resources
Electrical Energy from a Hydro Power System E = CF(P)t where: E: CF: t: Electrical Energy for a given period Capacity Factor of the system Period over which energy is generated (Wh) (%) (h)

Micro Hydro Power Systems

Hydro Power Characteristics


Identifying Hydro Power Resources
Measuring Gross Head 1. Dumpy Level and staff 2. Global Positioning System (GPS)

Micro Hydro Power Systems

Hydro Power Characteristics


Identifying Hydro Power Resources
Measuring Flow Most essential parameter in the design of a Micro Hydro Power System Measurement period depend on flow characteristics of river - Perennial flow requires once off measurement - Non perennial flow requires regular measurements taken at least over a full year N.B!!!
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Remember the environmental reserve, i.e. minimum flow that need to remain in the river after water is diverted from the river
14 12

10

10

8
Flow (m 3/s)

Flow (m3/s)

4
4

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Month 7 8 9 10 11 12

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Month 7 8 9 10 11 12

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Hydro Power Characteristics


Identifying Hydro Power Resources
Measuring Flow Bucket and Stopwatch Method Simple method for measuring flow in a pipe Q = V/t where: V: Volume t: Time (m 3) (s)

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Hydro Power Characteristics


Identifying Hydro Power Resources
Measuring Flow - Weir Method Very accurate method for measuring flows in a river course Different notch shapes, for example: Rectangular, Triangular, etc. Requirements: - Notch need to have a very sharp edge - Slow moving pool of water upstream from the weir, to avoid turbulence Q = 1.8(W - 0.2h)h3/2 where: W : Width of the notch h: Height of water above the notch (m) (m)

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Mechanical Design
Intake Structure where water enters the pipeline Prevent silt from entering the pipeline - Pipe entrance must not be at the bottom of the weir - Flush pipe at the bottom of the weir Prevent vortices - Adequate submergence - Ensure symmetrical approaching flow conditions Prevent floating debris from entering the pipeline - Install trash rack

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Mechanical Design
Pipeline Dynamics of fluid in a pipeline induces pipeline losses Head available at bottom of pipeline is less than the measured head HN = HG - H where: HG: H: Gross measured head Pipeline head loss (m) (m)

Pipeline losses determined by: Length of pipeline Diameter of pipeline Material type Flow rate Valves, Bends, etc.

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Mechanical Design
Pipeline Larger pipe High costs Less losses More power available Pipeline is often most-expensive part of Micro Hydro Power System Economic analysis required to optimally size the pipeline for the design flow
3 x 10
5

2.5

Pipeline cost Cost of lost energy Total cost

2 Cost (ZAR)

1.5

Optimum pipeline diameter

0.5

120

140

160 180 200 Diameter of the pipe [mm]

220

240

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Mechanical Design
Pipeline Comparison of common pipe materials PVC Pipe Cost Corrosion Sunlight Friction Cheapest No Corrosion Needs protection against sunlight Low Resistance Polyethylene Pipe Cheaper than steel No Corrosion Needs protection against sunlight Low Resistance Steel Pipe Very Expensive Does Corrode Susceptible to sunlight Higher resistance and increases with corrosion Welded or bolted on site Difficult, heavy and available in fixed lengths
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Jointing Handling

Slide into one another Easy, light and available in fixed lengths

Need to be welded on site Easy, light and available in fixed lengths or long rolls

Micro Hydro Power Systems

Micro Hydro Power System Design


Mechanical Design
Pipeline Polyethylene and PVC pipes are mostly used for Micro Hydro Power Systems Several methods exist to determine friction losses in a pipeline Friction losses diagrams available for different types of pipes Diagrams does not include minor losses, i.e. bend losses, valve losses, etc.

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Mechanical Design
Pipeline Determining the optimum flow for a pipe with a given diameter Friction losses is a pipeline: Power delivered by a pipeline: H = kQ2 P = gQHN P = gQ(HG - H) P = gQ(HG Q2) = gQHG gQ3 Maximum Power:

= 0 = gHG 3gQ2 = HG - 3H H = 1/3HG

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Mechanical Design
Turbine Reaction Turbines Low head (0 100m); High flow Fully immersed in water Torque created by pressure difference of moving mass of water through the runner Impulse Turbines High head (100m +); Low flow Runner not immersed in water Torque created by force of jets of water squirting onto buckets located around the circumference of a wheel

Kaplan Turbine

Turgo Wheel

Pelton Wheel

Francis Turbine

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Mechanical Design
Turbine Some standard sizes do exist, but are usually custom designed for specific application Can operate at varying flow conditions Designed for peak efficiency (70 90%) at available Q and HN Very expensive Alternative Option Pump as Turbine Advantages Low cost due to mass production Easy construction and maintenance Spare parts are widely available Disadvantages Lower peak efficiency Little turbine mode performance data is available; pump mode performance data need to be used to select a suitable pump

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Mechanical Design
Turbine To determine nozzle diameter for a Pelton Wheel Use kinetic energy equation: HN = v2/2g Q = vA =
2

v= 2

d= where: d: n: Nozzle diameter Number of nozzles

. ( )/

(m)

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Electrical Design
Micro Hydro Power Systems Stand-alone system - With or without battery storage - Depending on available flow, battery storage required can be much less than for weather-dependent PV systems - Designed to meet the average daily demand - Other forms of regulators, such as flow control valves

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Electrical Design
Micro Hydro Power Systems Stand-alone system Grid-connected systems - Grid used as virtual storage device - Synchronous generators with grid interfaces requires precise speed control (very expensive) - Asynchronous generators requires operation beyond synchronous speed (relative cheap option as very little electrical interfaces are required)

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Case Study Waterval Micro Hydro Power System
Measured Gross Head with GPS: 79m Minimum Flow: 0.03m 3/s Rectangular Weir plate design Suggested water height above the notch: 0.05m W= W=
+ 0.2 . / . + 0.2(0.05) .(.)/

W = 1.5m Determine maximum flow to be measured: Consider constraint of W > 3h; h = 0.5m Q = 1.8( 0.2)/ Q = 1.8(1.5 0.2(0.5))(0.5)/ Q = 0.89m3/s

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Case Study Waterval Micro Hydro Power System
Pipeline losses Consider: PVC Pipeline with length of 470m and diameter of 100mm Flow of 0.02m 3/s Conversion factors: 1foot = 0.3048m 448.8gpm = 0.02832m 3/s Friction loss: 4.2ft of head for every 100ft of pipe 1.28m of head for every 30.48m of pipe H = 470m x 1.28m/30.48m H = 19.74m 0.02m 3/s = 317gpm

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Case Study Waterval Micro Hydro Power System
Generated Power and Energy Net Head available: HN = HG H HN = 79 19.74 HN = 59.3m Generated Power: Assume a combined generator and turbine efficiency of 60% P = gQHN P = (0.6)(1000)(9.81)(0.02)(60.2) P = 6.98kW Generated Energy over 31 days (1 month): Assume a Capacity Factor of 95% E = CF(P)t E = (0.95)(8.5)(31)(24) E = 4933kWh
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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Case Study Waterval Micro Hydro Power System
Maximum power from a given pipe diameter Consider: PVC Pipeline with length of 470m and diameter of 100mm Gross head of 79m Maximum Head loss: Net Head: 52.7m 5.6ft of head for every 100ft of pipe Optimum flow rate: 365gpm = 0.023m 3/s Generated power: 7.13kW Generated energy over a month: 5039kWh H = 1/3HG = 26.3m

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Case Study Waterval Micro Hydro Power System
Pelton wheel Nozzle Diameter Consider: Pelton wheel having 4 Nozzles

d= d=

. ( )/

. ((.)(.))/

d = 13.5mm

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Case Study Waterval Micro Hydro Power System
Pipeline losses

90 Net head at the end of the main pipeline (m) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 Flow (l/s) 20 25 30 Measured Results Calculated Resu lts

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Case Study Waterval Micro Hydro Power System
Power generated by the Micro Hydro Power System
12 Generated active power 10 Rated capacity of the generator

Generated Power (kW)

6
Maintenance

4
System downtime

0
1/7/2009 3/7/2009 5/7/2009 7/7/2009 9/7/2009 11/7/2009 13/7/2009 15/7/2009 17/7/2009 19/7/2009 21/7/2009 23/7/2009 26/7/2009 28/7/2009 30/7/2009 1/8/2009 3/8/2009 5/8/2009 7/8/2009 9/8/2009 11/8/2009 13/8/2009 15/8/2009 17/8/2009 20/8/2009 22/8/2009 24/8/2009 26/8/2009 28/8/2009 30/8/2009

Date

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Case Study Waterval Micro Hydro Power System
Energy generated by the Micro Hydro Power System
12 March 2009 01 October 2009
25 Average Power Generated (kW) 22.10822 Total Energy Generated (MWh)

Power (kW) and Energy (MWh)

20

15

13.20834

13.06559

10

8.14

9.04263

4.93 3.22 3.62

Generated by the hydro system

Consumed from the Hydro system

Consumed from the grid

Delivered to the grid

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Case Study Waterval Micro Hydro Power System

Micro Hydro Power System Capital Expenditure R135,610 Annual Operation and Maintenance Cost R350

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Case Study Waterval Micro Hydro Power System
Payback Period 4.3 Years Net Present Value R396,166 Cost of electricity 10.2c/kWh
450
NPV of the MHPS (Thousand ZAR)

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 MHPS Life Cycle (Years)

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Micro Hydro Power System Design


Case Study Waterval Micro Hydro Power System

Micro Hydro Power Systems

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Micro Hydro Power System Design

Thanks
adriaanlombard@gmail.com

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