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moving the encoder a minimum distance of 20 in. (500 mm). The display distance shall be within 1% of the actual distance moved. V-471.1 Examination Coverage. The required volume of the weld and base material to be examined shall be scanned using a linear scanning technique with an encoder. Each linear scan shall be parallel to the weld axis at a constant standoff distance with the beam oriented perpendicular to the weld axis. (a) The search unit shall be maintained at a fixed distance from the weld axis by a fixed guide or mechanical means. (b) The examination angle(s) for E-scan and range of angles for S-scan shall be appropriate for the joint to be examined. (c) Scanning speed shall be such that data drop-out is less than 2 data lines per inch (25 mm) of the linear scan length and that there are no adjacent data line skips. (d) For E-scan techniques, overlap between adjacent active apertures (i.e., aperture incremental change) shall be a minimum of 50% of the effective aperture height. (e) For S-scan techniques, the angular sweep incremental change shall be a maximum of 1 deg or sufficient to assure 50% beam overlap. (f) When multiple linear scans are required to cover the required volume of weld and base material, overlap between adjacent linear scans shall be a minimum of 10% of the effective aperture height for E-scans or beam width for S-scans. V-471.6 Recording. A-scan data shall be recorded for the area of interest in an unprocessed form with no thresholding, at a minimum digitization rate of five times the examination frequency, and recording increments of a maximum of (a) 0.04 in. (1 mm) for material 3 in. (75 mm) thick (b) 0.08 in. (2 mm) for material 3 in. (75 mm) thick. V-471.7 Reflectors Transverse to the Weld Seam. As an alternate to line scanning, a manual angle beam examination may be performed for reflectors transverse to the weld axis. V-492 Examination Record For each examination, the required information of T-492 and the following information shall be recorded: (a) search unit element size, number, and pitch and gap dimensions (b) focal law parameters, including, as applicable, angle or angular range, focal depth and plane, element numbers used, angular or element incremental change, and start and stop element numbers or start element number (c) wedge natural refracted angle (d) scan plan

Requirement Essential Nonessential (As Applicable) Variable Variable Scan plan X . . . Computer software X . . . Scanning technique (automated vs. semi-automated) X . . . Flaw characterization methodology X . . . Flaw sizing (length) methodology X . . . Scanner and adhering and guiding mechanism . . . X

A-scan recorded data need only be retained until final flaw evaluation has been performed.


VI-410 SCOPE This Mandatory Appendix provides requirements when an automated or semi-automated ultrasonic examination is performed for workmanship based7 acceptance criteria. VI-420 GENERAL The requirements of Article 4 apply except as modified by this Appendix. VI-421.3 Written Procedure and Procedure Qualification. The requirements of Table T-421 and Table VI-421 shall apply. VI-423 Personnel Qualifications Only qualified UT personnel trained in the use of the equipment and who have demonstrated the ability to properly acquire examination data, shall conduct production scans. Personnel who analyze and interpret the collected data shall be a Level II or III who have documented training in the use of the equipment and software used. The training and demonstration requirements shall be addressed in the employers written practice.
7 Workmanship

based is defined as a standard for acceptance of a weld based on the characterization of imperfections by type (i.e., crack, incomplete fusion, incomplete penetration, or inclusion) and their size (i.e., length). (