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aave =

v t

v f = vi + gt

d=

1 ( vi + v f ) t 2

d = vi t +

1 2 2 gt v 2 f = vi + 2ad 2

g = 9.80m / s 2

1.624, 3.7,

23.12

Name:___________________

Date:___________________

Lesson 5 3.5 Acceleration Due o !ra"it#


Introduction to Free Fall A $ree $allin% o&'ect is an o&'ect t(at is $allin% un)er t(e sole in$luence o$ %ra"it#. An# o&'ect t(at is &ein% acte) u*on onl# &# t(e $orce o$ %ra"it# is sai) to &e in a state of free fall.

(ere are t+o i,*ortant ,otion c(aracteristics t(at are true o$ $ree-$allin% o&'ects:

.ree-$allin% o&'ects )o not encounter air resistance. All $ree-$allin% o&'ects /on 0art(1 accelerate )o+n+ar)s at a rate o$ 9.8 ,/s/s 4u*iter: 5e*tune:

2(at is t(e acceleration o$ %ra"it# on 3oon : 3ercur#:

Representing Free Fall by Graphs


A position versus time graph for a free-falling object is shown below.

A velocity versus time graph for a free-falling object is shown above. Example 1:- An o&'ect is )ro**e) $ro, a cli$$ an) (its t(e %roun) &elo+ 4.0 secon)s later. 5e%lectin% air resistance, $in): /a1 t(e (ei%(t o$ t(e cli$$. /&1 t(e "elocit# o$ t(e o&'ect 'ust &e$ore (ittin% t(e %roun). /c1 t(e a"era%e "elocit# )urin% t(e $all. /)1 t(e ti,e ta6en to attain a "elocit# o$ -20 ,/s. /e1 (o+ $ar it tra"els )urin% t(e t(ir) secon).

aave =

v t

v f = vi + gt

d=

1 ( vi + v f ) t 2

d = vi t +

1 2 2 gt v 2 f = vi + 2ad 2

g = 9.80m / s 2

1.624, 3.7,

23.12

Example 2. A &all is tosse) "erticall# u*+ar)s. 7$ it lea"es t(e (an) 2.2 , a&o"e t(e %roun) +it( a "elocit# o$ 32 ,/s, $in): /a1 t(e ,a8i,u, (ei%(t reac(e) a&o"e t(e %roun).

/&1 t(e ti,e to reac( ,a8i,u, (ei%(t $ro, t(e ti,e it is release).

/c1 t(e ti,e to $all &ac6 to t(e %roun) $ro, t(e ,a8i,u, (ei%(t.

/)1 t(e "elocit# o$ t(e &all as it $alls &ac6 to eart( +(en it reac(es t(e (ei%(t $ro, +(ic( it +as release).

Example 3. A &all t(ro+n "erticall# u*+ar) returns to t(e startin% *oint in 4.0 s. .in) its initial "elocit#.

Example 4. A &all is t(ro+n "erticall# u*+ar)s at 25 ,/s. /a1 9alculate t(e "elocit# a$ter 4 s.

/&1 9alculate t(e (ei%(t o$ t(e &all at 4 s.

/c1 :o+ ,uc( ti,e *asses &e$ore t(e &all (its t(e %roun);

aave =

v t

v f = vi + gt

d=

1 ( vi + v f ) t 2

d = vi t +

1 2 2 gt v 2 f = vi + 2ad 2

g = 9.80m / s 2

1.624, 3.7,

23.12

Example 5. A *e&&le is t(ro+n "erticall# )o+n+ar)s $ro, a &ri)%e +it( an initial "elocit# o$ 10.0 ,/s an) stri6es t(e +ater in 2.0 secon)s. .in) t(e "elocit# +it( +(ic( t(e *e&&le stri6es t(e +ater an) $in) t(e (ei%(t o$ t(e &ri)%e.

Example 6. <n a certain asteroi), a steel &all )ro*s a )istance o$ 0.80 , in 2.00 s $ro, rest. Assu,in% uni$or, acceleration )ue to %ra"it# on t(is asteroi), +(at is t(e "alue o$ t(e acceleration )ue to %ra"it# on t(e asteroi);

aave =

v t

v f = vi + gt

d=

1 ( vi + v f ) t 2

d = vi t +

1 2 2 gt v 2 f = vi + 2ad 2

g = 9.80m / s 2

1.624, 3.7,

23.12

Figure 2.14

9. Figure 2.14 is a graph of the velocity of a ball thrown straight up by a strong pitcher, as a function of time. In the first part of the graph (ending at A), the ball is accelerated to 39.2 m/s in a time of 0.20 s. After the ball leaves the pitcher's hand, it experiences only the acceleration due to gravity until it is caught in a glove and brought to rest in the hand of the catcher. (a) What is the acceleration of the ball while it is being thrown?

(b) What is the acceleration of the ball after it leaves the pitcher's hand? (ABC)

(c) What is the acceleration of the ball while it is being caught? (CD) (d) What point on the graph (A, B, C or D) corresponds with the instant when the ball is at the peak of its flight? Explain your answer.

(e) Why is the slope of the graph negative as soon as the ball leaves the pitcher's hand?

(f) Why is the graph labeled velocity rather than speed?

(g) How far up did the ball travel?

aave =

v t

v f = vi + gt

d=

1 ( vi + v f ) t 2

d = vi t +

1 2 2 gt v 2 f = vi + 2ad 2

g = 9.80m / s 2

1.624, 3.7,

23.12

(h) How far down did the ball fall?

(i) What is the average velocity of the ball for the whole trip from pitcher's hand to catcher's hand?

Assorted Answers: 54 ,, 3.3 s, 3.3 s, -32 ,/s, 2.1 s, 82.3 ,, -65 ,/s, 1.8 s, -25 ,, 78 ,, -39 ,/s, 2.0 s,
2.0 101 m / s , -14 ,/s, 5.1 s, 22 ,, 2.0 101 m / s , 3.0 101 m / s , 40. ,, 0.40 m / s 2 , 4.9 ,, 0 ,/s, 15 ,, 2.0 10 2 m / s 2 , -9.8 m / s 2 , 2.0 10 2 m / s 2 , 82.3 ,