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I L LU ST RAT E D S OU RC E 8 0 0 K

of

ME C H A N I C A L C O M I 0N E NTS

S E C T I O N 30

NOMOGRAMS
Nomogram for Angles in Constructed Shapes Arc Length Versus Central Angle Chordal Height and length of Chord Forces in Toggle Joint with Equal Arms Radical Defections of Rotating Disks Power Capacity of Spur Gears Alignment Chart for Face Gears Linear to Angular Conversion of Gear-Tooth Index Error Determine Parallel Axis Moment of Inertia Moment of Inertia of a Prism about the Axis aa Chart for Transferring Moment of Inertia Rotary Motion Accelerated linear Motion Theoretical Capacity of Gear Pumps & Motors Nomogram for Piston Pumps Weight and Volume Volumes of Spherical Segments Volumes in Horizontal Round Tanks with Flat Ends Another Shortcut to Torsion-Bar Design 30-2 30-3 30-4

30-5
30-6 30-7 30- 10 30-12

30- 13
30- 15 30-16 30- 17 30-18 30- 19 30-20 30-21 30-22 30-23 30-24

30-2

Nomogram for Angles in Constructed Shares


H. F. Bariffi
FROMTHE ALTITUDE, h, and the differences (a-d) and (b-6) in lengths of corresponding sides of upper and lower bases, the dihedral angle A can be calculated. To calculate Sa connect the given value of (a-d) on the right hand outer scale with the value of h on the h-scale and read the value of S,. In like manner, the vaIue of S. can be calculated from (6--c) and h. Connect the value of S . to the value of SI on the diagonal scale and project to the Q-ine. Connect the intersection of this line and the Q-line with the

given value of ( a d ) on the inner left hand scale. Connect the intersection of this line and the diagonal Project T-line with the (b--r)-scale. this line to the left hand scale and read the angle A .

EXAMPLE: When h = 17 in., (6-c) = 25 in. and ( a d ) = 28 in., find I . , s b and A. Connecting 28 in. on the outer right hand (a-d)-scale and 17 in. on the h-scale gives a line cross-

ing the Sb-scale at 22 in. Also, connecting 25 in. on the outer right hand (b-c)-scale and 17 in. on the h-scale gives a line crossing the S.-scale at 21.1 in. A line connecting 21.1 in, on the inner right hand S . scale with 22 in. on the diagonal s b scale intersects the Q-line at the indicated point. A line connecting this oint with 28 in. on the inner left [and ( a d ) scale crosses the diagonal T-line at the indicated point. A line connecting this point with 2 5 in. on the (b--c)scale passes through the point 112.1 deg on the A scale.
45 J

COSA =

--

(0-d) (b-c)

._ +-

.-29

15--21

Nomograms

30-3

Arc Length Versus Central Angle


(Angle of Bend, Length, and Radius)
1

b l

q -

2;
m 9)

;4
- 3

-2

Draw a straight line through the two known points. The answer will be found at the intersection of this line with the third scale. Example: For a 6-in. radius and 45deg. bend, length of arc is 4.7 in.

30-4

Chordal Height and Length of chord


4

y -

t -3 -

' 4
/*/

= -

' 5 -

25-

IO

Draw a straight line through the two known points. The answer will be found at the intersection of this line with the third scale. Example: Leflgth of chord is 3 in., and radius of circle is 4 in. The height h of the chord is 0.29 in.

Nomograms

30-5

Forces in Toggle Joint with Equal Arms


P - 8

F-a
-----

----------- -------------- s _______________-___---Sin in.

200

100 800

-s -

80

60 50 40

30

01

0 . 2

03 0.4 0506 0 . 8 I

h in in.

4 5 6

810

Example: Use mutually perpendicular lines drawn on tracing cloth or celluloid. In the example given for S = 10 in. and h = 1in., a force F of 10 lb. exerts pressures P of 25 lb. each.

5.0

-.

4.3.077.10

-d
K=

( 1 . 5 K J + 7.5K)

where:

R -

r a w r - H m

40

/
/

- lop00
5

J / '

0.10

0.05 0.04

0.03
0.02
8 a3

-.

i i

FO.01

/ I / .

,s. c
.c

_.
4

. /

2 0.005

z 0.003 -

u" 0.004 -

- 20,000 -30,OWJ

j
f
-

0.02

0.001

4 O . o 0 0

a 0.0005 0.0004 0.0003

T 50,OOO -

0.0002 -

0.00011.0

60.000

70,000

-80,000

0.9

Nomograms

30-7

Power Capacity of Spur Gears


Charles Tiplitz

MAXIMUM RATED HORSEPOWER that can safely be transmitted by a gear depends upon whether it runs for
short periods or continuously. Capacity may be based on tooth strength if the gear is run only periodically; durability or wear governs rated horsepower for continuous running. Checking strength and surface durability of gears

can be a lengthy procedure. The following charts simplify the work and give values accurate to 5 to 10%. They are based on AGMA standards for strength and durability of spur gears. Strength Nomograph is used first. Apart from the

X
0.4

Strength of Spur Gears. Based on AGMA 220.01


,OJ Oa2i

0.07-Diametral pitch Circulor pitch

Pitch
dio.- in.

0.04--

120 100

0.02-40
30
N

80 60
50 40 (Teeth)
0.01

--

rvm-

20

200* I50

IO
.C

$
7

0.007--

-_
O.G04--

Foce
w i d t h-in.

----1.5

0.0007-

I O -L

3 0 . 4 02 0.0002-0 . 1

0 . 6

If

-_--

00001

I -

30-8

usual design constants only two of the following three need be known: pitch, number of teeth and pitch diameter. To use the charts connect the two known factors by a straight line, cutting the third scale. From this point on the scale continue drawing straight lines through known factors, cutting the pivot scales. Betwecn the double pivot scales the line should be drawn

parallel to thc adjacent lines.

Durability nomograph must be entered on scale X a t the same value that was cut on the X scale on the strength chart. Both pinion and gear should be checked if made of different materials and the smaller of the values obtained should be used.

Strength
X

Spur Gears (cont.)


Pivot sco le Peoh horsepower

R a t e d horsepower

$ . 1000

200

IO0

0.04

0.1

70
40

0.0 2

0.007
O.O1

0,04

f I
f
I

Diametrol pitch 100 70

i
foctor
Tooth farm

20
Service foctor Service and shock (Eric losea gearing)

IO

7
4

0.0007

=:E

'.
\

Pressure angle No.

4 '

0.0004

IO

.&-*
I

,
O.!

07 + I

0.4
0.00 0 2

0.000I

4 0.1
$007

f
0 . 0 0 0 0 1

0.04

0 . 02
0.0 I

0.007

omograms

30-9

Surface Durability of Spur Gears. Based on AG


I n

00, ,> c

a-

0 000 0 0 0 N

0 0 0

ok

0 0

a-

s 0

301 0

Alignment Chart for Face Gears


B. Bloomfield

THEMAXIMUM

PRACTICAL DIAMETER for face gears is that diameter at which the teeth become pointed. The limiting inside diameter is the value at which tooth trimming occurs. This is always larger than the diameter for which the

operating pressure angle is zero. The two alignment charts that follow can be used to find the maximum OD and the minimum ID if the numbers of teeth in the face gear and pinion are known. They eliminate lengthy calculations.
180

I70 160

- 150
140 130

CHART1

120
1 IO

100 95 50
90

45
40
A

85 80

35
I -

75
70
65

30

5
2
L

25

60 f
1 : 55 : D --50 $
l 4 5

.o

+ 6 7

._

-- 40
1 4

-- 35 1 3

--a
1 2

-- 25

-- 20
-. 19
~. 18

Nomograms

30- 11

FOR BOTH CHARTS the pinions are assumed to be s ur gears of standard AGMA proportions, and the axes o the face gear and pinion are assumed to intersect at right angles. Bo:h should be used onlv for tooth ratios of 1.5 to 1 or

larger. Smaller ratios require pinion modifications not allowed for in these data. For both charts, the appropriate face gear diameter is found by dividing the factor from the chart bv the diametral pitch of the pinion.

+150

la---la

C H A R T II

130--

-_
--I30

1:
120--

---120

'I
90
Example:

Rnd ths maximum &dc diameter and the minimum inside diameter of 06xa gear with 70 tcelh'thqt will mate with o 20 b o bs t o n d a d pinion wtase pessure w l e is

-3 7 - 7 0

3012

Linear to Angular Conversion of Gear-Tooth Index Error


For pitch diameters up to 200 inch, chart quickly converts index error from ten-thousandths of an inch to seconds or arc.
Harold R. Ronan JR.

kl
- -----A-sco/e

0.000

EXAMPLES

1 Pitch dio of geor=t41 in


Index error=0001 in Read error converted t o 3 sec on scole B

2 Pitch dio=41 in
Index error=0001 in Read error converted t o IO sec on scole A ftor

0 fo /oo

In

dol

65

4
1

165

50- 150 145


I40

"

Nomograms

30-13

Determine Parallel A x i s Moment of Inertia


Herbert F. Bariffi gram start with a value t on the inner left-hand A scale, pass through a value of L on the A curve to the right-hand, or turning axis. Then, follow a straight line from the turning point through a value of W on the A diagonal, and return to the left-hand axis, reading Zcq on the outer scale. By using the right-hand Z and t scales, and working to the left over the B c u r x for L, the same problem can be solved with larger values o f t . EXAMPLE:Given a pulley of 8 Ib weight, L equals 10 in., t equals 1.5 sec. Find Zcg.

ONE METHOD of determining the moment of inertia of a mass through its center of gravity is to suspend the mass from a knife-edge. Such an arrangement, using a piece of keystock for a knife-edge, is shown in Fig. 1. If this compound gravity pendulum, which is in effect what the setup amounts to, is set swinging and the arc of swing is limited to about 6 deg double amplitude, the moment of inertia about the support axis is equal to
(1;

where
I,
W
t

= moinetit of inertia a h o u t s u p p o r t

axis
= weight of mass.
=

lb

oscillation period, sec L = distancr herwcen center of gravity and support a x i s , in.

SOLUTION:Starting at t equals 14 on inner A scale of left-hand axis, follow the dotted line through curve A at L equals 10 to the turning line; go back through 1V equals 8 on diagonal A to I , equals 2.5 in. Ib sec 2. It should be noted that the effects of L and t are screened in the equation. However, I , , is directly proportional to W , and this fact permits the unlimited extension of the nomograms use. Suppose, in the above example, W had been 880 Ib. It would appear that this value is too large for the W scale, but Eq (3) can be written:
e !o _

To find the moment of inertia about center of gravity the following equation can be used.

~ WL _ [0.02533f2 _ - 0 02588 L ] k

where
8 = acceleration of gravity, ft per sec2

Substituting Z, value from Eq (1) -into

E9

(2)

Simplifying
I,,
=

/VI, [O 02.533 t - 0 OOZScYXLI

(3)

This Eq ( 3 ) will give values of IC(, in in. Ib sec. The nomogram illustrated can be used to solve for Z(:(, with value: of t. L and W known. To use this nomo-

Fig. 1-Connecting heystock.

rod sumended from

So, in this case, assume R equals 110, and use the nomogram as above with W equaling 8, and read I c g / k equals 2.5. Now merely multiply this value by 110 to find 275 in. Ib sec. This is the true value of Icg. An unusual feature of this nornogram is the relation between the values of t and L ; these quantities cannot be assumed at random for trial of nomogram accuracy. For example, a scant passing through t = 1.81 and L = 30 also passes through L r 2, thus suggesting that two different suspension lengths will satisfy the same result. One of these lengths is an extraneous value as the previously outlined experiment will indicate. Furthermore, t is always larger than 0.31936 \ / L when inch and second units are used

30- 14

Nomogram to Determine Parallel Axis Moment of Inertia

100

9.5
90

0.5

-- 2.0

85
80

1.0

-- 2.5 1.4 -- 3.0 1.2 -

1.6 75

NU W

70

1 . 82 . 0 -- 4.0
2.1

-- 3.5

f
c
L

65

2.2 -- 4.5

2.3 -

0 60

0' 2.4

cc
0
4
p1

5 5

-- 5.0 n -, c .I 2.6 -_ 5.5 2:7 2.5 2.8 -- 6.0

50

2.9 -

45

3.0 -- 6.5
3.1

403.2

- 7.0
-

3530-

3.3 -- 7.5

3.4 -8 . 0 3.5 -

25-

- 0.5 - 9.0

2015-

- 9.5
4.0

I O -

--

'O.0

050 A scales

B scales

Nomograms

3015

Moment of Inertia of a Prism about the A x i s aa

f ._ m C .C
L

aJ

r-

3016

Chart for Transferring Moment of Inertia


I
30 35 40=

I,

+ wx2

4550-

5560 -

To use chart, draw two mutually perpendicular lines on a sheet of transparent material. For example, the crosslines show that, when the weight of the maSS is 12 lb., its moment of inertia Io about a given axis is 30 1b.-in. squared and the distance to another parallel axis is 2.5 in.; then the moment of inertia I about the second axis is 105 1b.-in. squared.

-0

-5

- IO

65-

- 15
.- -20

2 a J -

._
v1

7075-

z c -25
2

VI

h
3
0

80-

JZ +

, " 85902
n

.c
0

-45

+ C

E -60
0

- 70 - 75

- a0

- 85

-90

1 " " ' ~ " ' I ~ ~ ' l ' " I ' " I
I " .

: : a 3
hl

g g s
auJs

Tg g A
z

b-A'bilog
9
2

z S -"
u

m - +

E g

a $

30- 1 8

Accelerated linear Motion


2 s- -

T2 2 s

= - E - -

32.16F

-G

1,000

900

500
400

3 00

200

ft. per sec. 7

persec.

1 0 F Lb.
*
V S T F W G
= turning point
=

L-

W Lb.

100

= = = = =

velocity at time T, in ft. per sec. distance passed through, in ft. time during which force acts, in sec. accelerating force, in lb. weight of moving body, in lb. constant acceleration, in ft. per sec.

Nomograms

30- 19

Theoretical Capacity of Gear Pumps and Motors


A. E. Maine

711rs

NOMOGRAM

is based on the equation

= 0.0036 D2Sw/P

where F = flow g m D = pitch $a of gear, in. S = speed, r m UJ = width orgear teeth, in. P = gear tooth factor

EXAMPLE-At what speed must a gear pump operate to deliver 50 gal/min assuming 2 in. pitch dia gears, 1) in. tooth width, and each g a r has 10 teeth. Line I connects the pitch dia and number of teeth. From the point representing 50 gal/rnin, Line I1 is drawn through the intersection of Line I and the reference line. Since Range 1 was used to establish the left end of Line 11, the required speed is read at 4350 rpm.

-_-

--

--

2000--4000

-_

--

.+

70--35

c 0

_500-

- 1000

Number of teeth 1 4

e7

1 3

12

II

IO

30-20

Nomogram for Piston Pumps


U!

ayo,+s

egg:$

,o 3

2ecot-e

r)

C V Y

N 0

. n

= m a . *

In

* )

9
L

ut s+arvo!a

UO+S!d

2 -32 .=-3
E 1

. 5 c -3 -

I
.C

4 -

z _ _ 0.10 c p

- 2.7 9 - 2.5

r --.a09 0 .- a08

Brass 0 3 / - - - - - - - - - t --c Sfee/0285-------*0.27 Casfiron

'n0.32 -

t .+

9 - 1;

0.30 - .p

- 2.2
-2

P 0 3 2 -- 0.06 2 -- 0.05 2 +
-

Rol//edz;"c}Q253 --i 2 5 * :
0.22

r"

--OM
1.7

0.20 -

-- 0.030
-- a025

0.17

- 1.5

1:

- 0.020
0 . 0I5

a15-

0.12

0 . 0 1 0

0.10

30-22

Volumes of Spherical Segments


C. P. Nachod

T H I S nomogram is designed for calculating graphically the volume of a spherical segment such as would be used for the rounded ends of tanks. The chart is based on the equation
i n which
V h
volume of the w e n t height of segment 7 = radius of sphere d = diameter of sphere
= =

The nomogram gives h up to a hemisphere for d up to 10. For a greater range of values, the volume of the spherical segment can be found by proportion since the volumes of similar segments are proportional to the cubes of their diameters. For example, let the diameter d of the sphere equal 15 in. and h equal 6 in., v' can be found as follows:
h 6 =_ 4 _=_ d 15 10

Chart shows for d equal to 10, and IL equal to 4, that V equals 184 cu. in. Then for d equal to 15, and h equal to 6

Scales are sliown for drawing more h b o that the precise one needed for any calculation can be drawn.
lilies

260

--w
o
d, = d i a m e t e r o f sphere

240

4.5

200 - - I , 500
4

170-

-1.300

When h and d are each multiplied by 10, t h e volume i s multiplied by 1.000

160 --1.200

I5O
140

cn
--I,I 00

3.5

3
-1,000
4C .+2

130-

120--900

L 0

@
3

9,

''0--800

cn

0
70--500 60 50
(3

2.5

-400

40 --300

30 --200
20 -

1.5

4 Scale for h Lines

Nomograms

30-23

Volumes in Horizontal Round Tanks with Flat Ends

Notes: Shift decimal point on volume scale two points for a one-point shift on diameter scale; one point for a one-point shift on length scale. Ezample: Tank is 6 ft. in diameter and 15 ft. long. H = 0.9 ft. H I D = 0.15. Join 0.15 on H / D scale with 6 on diameter scale. From point of intersection with turning line, draw line to 15 ft. on the length scale. T h e volume scale shows 300 gal. If D had been 0.6 ft., H 0.09 ft., a n d length the same, the answer would be 3.00 gal.

30-24

Another Shortcut to Torsion-Bar Design


This nomograph supplies values for a mass moment of
inertia of torsion bars-or any round or rectangular bar.
D. A. Derse

Answers read directly off the nomograph are tor torsion bars, fixed at one end, made of materlal with a density of 0.280 Ib/in For other materials, multiply moment of inertia I by dcnsityi0.280. If the bar isn't fixed at either end, double the value of I .

SYMBOLS
a = Half width of rectangular bar, in.

b
d

Example
d

Find moment of inertia of a circular torsion bar with diameter = 0.50 in., length L = 26 in. Draw two lines intersecting at right angles on a piece of transparent paper or plastic. Line up the cross on the three knowns on the nomograph and read off I = 5.8 x 10' Ib-in.-seca.

I L

Half height of rectangular bar, in. = Diameter of round bar, in. = Effective mass moment of inertia, lb-in.-seca = Length o f bar between restraint and plane where torque is applied, in. = Mass of bar, Ib-secZ/in.
=

-2 -

, Rectangular section ,
Base points
41

; ; a
CT
v)

252

-3 Z,
II

-~ Circular section
I

8,