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THE NUMISMATIC HISTORY

OF LATE MEDIEVAL NORTH AFRICA

HARRY W. HAZARD

NUMISMATIC STUDIES

No. 8

THE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY

New York

1952

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword 7

Historical Background: Late Medieval North Africa 9

Mints in North Africa and in Spain 11

Titles 18

Proper Names 22

Epithets 31

Conventional Inscriptions 3&

Epigraphy and Ornamentation 45

Minting Technique 47

Metrology 48

The Rulers and their Coinages (with Chronological Lists and Genealogical Charts):

'Abbasids in North Africa 50

'Fatimids in North Africa 52

^ Zirids of Tunisia 53

Hammadids of Eastern Algeria 5&

Hammudids in North Africa 57

Murabit Sect 59

Muwahhid Sect 4

Hudids in North Africa 68

Hafsids of Tunisia and Eastern Algeria 69

Ziyanids of Western Algeria 75

Marinids of Morocco 79

Nasrids in North Africa 84

Wattasids of Morocco 85

Ottomans in North Africa 86

Corpus of Coins:

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'Abbasid Gold 89

Fatimid Gold 89

Zirid Gold 1-24 a 9

Hammadid Gold 25 9&

Hammudid Gold 96

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Murabit Gold 26-446 97

Muwahhid Gold 446a-539 143

Hudid Gold 540-541 158

Hafsid Gold 542-644 159

Ziyanid Gold 645-672 182

Marinid Gold 673-867 193

Nasrid Gold 868 228

Wattasid Gold 869-870 229

Ottoman Gold 230

Hybrid Gold H1-H14 231

Gold Medal M1 232

Zirid Silver 871 233

Hammudid Silver 872-887 234

Murabit Silver and Electrum 888-1056 236

Muwahhid Silver 1057-1116 263

Hudid Silver 1117-1121 272

Hafsid Silver 1122-1132 273

Marinid Silver 1133-1152 275

Nasrid Silver 1153 279

Wattasid Silver 1154-1156 280

Hammudid Copper 1157-1160 281

Murabit Copper 1161-1169 282

Muwahhid Copper 1170-1171 283

Hafsid Copper 1172-1174 284

Numismatic Bibliography:

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Numismatic Bibliography with Key to Abbreviations 286

Historical Bibliography:

Arabic 298

Inscriptions 304

Documents 305

Modern 306

Indices:

Sources of Coins 307

Scripts 321

Denominations 322

Weights and Diameters 325

Mints 328

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Table of Contents 5

Dates 345

Titles 355

Proper Names and Epithets 360

Conventional Inscriptions 35

Mint-marks 372

Key to the Plates 374

FOREWORD

The term North Africa, as used in this study, signifies the region bounded on the north

by the Mediterranean Sea, on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Sahara

desert, and on the east by the desert and bay which separate Cyrenaica from Tripolitania.

The factors which have made of this region a single geographic and historical unit are

discussed in the next chapter. Portions of Spain ruled by North African Moslems are also

covered, for the duration of such rule.

The late medieval period commences in the middle of the eleventh Christian century,

a.H. 439 by the lunar calendar of the Moslems, when the Z1rids of Tunisia began to establish

their independence of the Fatimids of Egypt, an event which, with the consequent second

Arab invasion of Tunisia and the simultaneous rise of the Murabits in Morocco, marks a

major watershed in the history of North Africa. The period terminates at different times

within the sixteenth century with the definitive Ottoman conquest of Algeria, Tunisia, and

Tripolitania, and the Sharifian victory over the Wattasids in Morocco.

In writing the history of this area during those five centuries one has four types of

evidence: medieval Arabic historians and geographers, inscriptions on buildings and

tombstones, treaties and other archival material, and coins. I have, over a period of several

years, utilized all accessible sources in each of these categories; they are listed in the

bibliographies which follow the corpus of coins.

Of the many possible aspects of numismatic history, I have chosen to stress the political

and dynastic history which is now somewhat out of fashion, but which must establish the

narrative framework on which more elaborate and specialized histories may be based. The

economic historian, the social historian, the historians of art and of religion, may each

claim with some justice that I have not treated his special aspect exhaustively; I can only

reply that I had neither space nor competence to do so, but that I have provided full

bibliographies to enable him to attack his favorite problem with a minimum of preliminary

drudgery.

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What I have endeavored to accomplish is to compile a definitive corp us of the coins

in question, and to correlate them with evidence supplied by the Arabic chroniclers and

the surviving inscriptions and documents. One result of this approach is the establishment

of dynastic lists, inserted at the head of each chapter on the coinage of individual dynasties,

far more complete, more accurate, and better documented than any now available. I

apologize for the parenthetical method of indicating the source of each name and date; I

was unable to devise a less cumbersome or more attractive way of supplying equivalent

information.

It is beyond question that only a relatively small proportion of the coins struck in

North Africa, or in Andalusia by African rulers, during the late medieval period have

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

survived the subsequent vicissitudes. Relatively few of the surviving coins can have

achieved publication; many once published have since been dispersed or become inaccessible

including important collections at Madrid, Jena, and Leningrad. For assistance in com-

piling a comprehensive list of published coins I gratefully acknowledge my debt to the

printed edition and the notes and proofs for the revised edition of Dr. Leo A. Mayer's

bibliography; for corrections to published sources I express my thanks to Dr. Georg Galster

of the Nationalmuseet in Copenhagen, to Dr. J. G. Milne of the Ashmolean Museum in

Oxford, to M. J. Farrugia de Candia of Tunis, to Dr. John Walker of the British Museum,

to Senhor Joaquim Figanier of Lisbon, and to Dr. George C. Miles of the American

Numismatic Society (for emendations on coins in the Bibliotheque Nationale). For

descriptions of unpublished coins I am deeply indebted to Mr. Milne, M. Farrugia de Candia,

Senhor Figanier, and Dr. Miles (for coin at Yale), and to Prof. Dr. Paul Balog of Cairo, to

Mr. P. K. Anderson, and especially to Mr. Philip Thorburn of Cranleigh in Surrey. I also

thank Dr. Maurice Dimand for permission to describe two coins in the Metropolitan Museum

of Art.

In addition to the published sources, and to the unpublished ones just noted, I have

had access to three fine collections, of which the relevant coins are here published for the

first time. The splendid collection of the Hispanic Society of America, formed by Mr. Archer

M. Huntington and now on deposit at the American Numismatic Society, has proved

especially rich in Murabit and Muwahhid issues. The collection of the American Numis-

matic Society and that of the University (of Pennsylvania) Museum, also currently at the

Society on temporary loan, have likewise been of great interest. For the research fellowship

which enabled me to study these three collections under one roof over an extended period

I offer my sincere thanks to the American Numismatic Society, so many of whose officers

and staff members have generously assisted me.

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I gratefully acknowledge the contribution made by Mr. DeVere Baker, photographer

at the American Numismatic Society, in making the photographic copy for the plates

and that by Walter Heyne of the J. J. Augustin printing plant in drafting the map of

mint locations.

An early version of this study, without corpus or indices, was accepted by Princeton

University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the doctoral degree in Oriental

Languages and Literatures. The present volume has been drastically revised and com-

pletely rewritten.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:

LATE MEDIEVAL NORTH AFRICA

The region termed North Africa is a geographic unit whose natural isolation by

formidable physical barriers has led to an unusually persistent historical isolation. The

deserts to the east and south have proven far more effective deterrents to military and

commercial intercourse than the sea to the north; the ocean on the west was not opened as

a frontier until the Portuguese expansion of the sixteenth century.

At the time of the rise of Islam in the seventh century this region was divided between

the Eastern Roman Empire, which had retaken the fortified coastal cities from the Vandals,

and the Berbers, who held the interior. The Arab conquest of North Africa was slow and

bitter compared to the rapid successes in Egypt and Syria, but by the end of the seventh

century it was virtually complete. During the next five decades under the Umayyad

caliphs of Damascus the religion of Islam and the Arabic language spread unchecked, and

the transfer after 750 to agents of the 'Abbasids was not difficult.

The loss of Spain, to an Umayyad scion, the unrest of the Berbers, and the distance

from Baghdad made North Africa a troublesome province. Morocco broke away in 789

under the 'Alid Idr1sids, while in 8oo Tunisia and adjacent lands became semi-independent

under the hereditary governorship of the Aghlabids. All eastern bonds were severed in 909

when the Shi'ite Fatimids seized power; their conquest of Egypt in 969 and the transfer of

their capital thither in 972 left North Africa a power vacuum.

Between that date and 1047, when the late medieval period covered in this study may

arbitrarily be said to commence, Morocco was disputed among Berber chieftains, with some

intervention by Spanish Moslems, though only Ceuta remained under Andalusian control

at the terminal date. Western Algeria was also dominated by Berber leaders, while eastern

Algeria had been governed since 1014 by the Hammadid dynasty of Sanhajah Berbers and

Tunisia was still nominally a Fatimid dependency under their loyal Zirid governors.

Within the next decade Ceuta had expelled its Hammudid masters and come under

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local Barghawatah Berber rule; the rest of Morocco was rapidly being brought under the

control of a militant new sect, the Murabits, whose leaders were veiled Lamtunah Berbers

from the Sahara; Tunisia had rebelled against the Fatimids and become independent and

officially Sunnite under the Zirids, and had been punished by a devastating invasion of

Arabs from upper Egypt, the Banu-Hilal and the Banii-Sulaym.

This new order lasted for nearly a century. The Murabits conquered all of Morocco as

well as western Algeria, the western Sahara, and Andalusia, ruling until 1147. The Hamma-

dids, though under Arab attack, held most of eastern Algeria until 1152. The Zirids, penned

by the Arabs into fortified ports, turned to commerce and piracy, when Normans from

Sicily started invasions which yielded them control of several ports until 1160.

The common victor over Murabits, Hammadids, and Sicilians, as well as over the

10

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

marauding Arabs and the petty princelings of Andalusia and Tunisia, were the Muwahhids,

a unitarian sect ruled by Kumiyah Berbers from the High Atlas, who established an empire

stretching from Tripolitania to the Atlantic and including all of Moslem Spain. Their sway

dissolved after half a century, and ended in 1269 with the fall of Marrakesh, their empire

being thenceforth divided among smaller but more enduring successor dynasties of less

theological motivation.

Moslem Spain regained its independence under the rival Hiidid and Nasrid families, each

of which occasionally controlled the part of North Africa around Ceuta. Pressure of Christian

reconquest steadily reduced the Moslem holdings, and finally eliminated them with the

surrender of Granada in 1492.

Morocco was the portion of the conquerors of the Muwahhids, the Marinid dynasty of

Zanatah Berbers, who were replaced in 1465 by the Zanatah Wattasids, who in turn lost

a triangular struggle with the Portuguese and the 'Alid Sharifs. The Sharifian victory in

1554 after a 44-year contest marked the beginning of the modern period in Morocco.

Western Algeria fell to the Ziyanids, another Zanatah Berber family, who ruled at

Tlemcen despite invasions and other interruptions until the Ottoman conquest n 1556.

Eastern Algeria, Tunisia, and Tripolitania formed the domain of the Masmiidah Berber

Hafsids, whose powerful and prosperous state survived French, Spanish, and Italian

assaults as well as Marinid invasions, but fell in 1574 to the Ottoman Turks.

With the establishment of Ottoman hegemony over Algeria and Tunisia the modern

phase of North African history commenced, so that the late medieval period covered by

this study may be termed its independent Sunnite Berber epoch, between the early medieval

ShTites (Idrisids and Fatimids), Arabs, and foreigners (Umayyads, 'Abbasids, Spanish

Umayyads and Hammiidids, and Egyptian Fattimids), on the one hand, and the modern

Shi'ite Sharifs of Morocco and the Ottoman Turks on the other. Still later, of course,

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European Christians dominated the whole of North Africa, with French efforts being most

successful and enduring.

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57 Manurqah

MINTS IN NORTH AFRICA AND IN SPAIN

As in the index of mints, the mints discussed in this chapter are divided by continents.

African mints are treated first, listed in strict Arabic alphabetical order, so that names

preceded by the definite article al- are grouped together between Aghmat and Bijayah.

The Spanish mints, similarly listed in strict Arabic alphabetical order, commence with

number 38, and are followed by notes on coins with illegible mints, mintless coins, and

mint inscriptions.

The locations of these mint towns are indicated on the map.

A. African Mints

1. Azammur

This Moroccan Atlantic port came into prominence, both as a town and as a mint, at a

relatively late date. Apart from one late Muwahhid double dinar (514) and one early

Wattasid dinar (869) neither of them beyond question its appearance is limited to a

handful of fourteenth-century Marinid gold, noteworthy chiefly for variant spellings of the

mint town: al-Zammur, al-Zamwar, Azamwar, and Azammu.

2. Aghmat cXA

This south Moroccan caravan center between mountain and desert appears exclusively

on Murabit gold. Dinars exist for almost every year from 486 to 540 except the decade 516

to 526, of which only 523 is known. The significance, if any, of this hiatus is not reflected

in historical accounts.

3. al-Jaza'ir jNj*)l

Algiers occurs with the definite article only on a square Muwahhid dirhem (1091).

For other coins from this mint see Jaza'ir.

4. al-Hammah <*\*S\

The only coin known to have been struck at this western Tunisian oasis is a Hafsid

double dinar (616) discovered and discussed by Farrugia de Candia.

5. al-Qayrawan

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Kairouan, south of Tunis, was the Zirid capital before the eleventh-century Arab

invasion, and appears on al-Mu'izz's Sunnite gold (3-11) between 441 and 448 with the

interesting appellation "City of the power of Islam".

6. al-Mahdiyah Co^ll

When ejected from Kairouan, the Z1rid al-Mu'izz fled to the strongly fortified Tunisian

port of Mahdia, where Sunnite dinars (12a, 13) had already been struck for him in 446 and

12

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

447; he and his sonTamim minted Sh1'ite dinars there (15-23) between 449 and 459. See

also Mahd1yah.

7. al-Nasiriyah i^bjl

This alternative Arab name for Bougie is said by Ibn-Khaldun to occur as the mint

for a dinar (25) struck by the last Hammadid ruler in 543, no surviving specimens of which

are recorded.

8. Bijayah iU

Bougie, an important port in eastern Algeria, appears in its usual form on early

Muwahhid gold, on Muwahhid or Hafsid silver (1085), on much Hafsid gold reflecting

its often independent status as a provincial capital, and on Marinid gold (759, 769, 778)

struck during recurrent invasions.

9. Biskirah J JCj

Biskra, in east central Algeria, appears only on a single Hafsid double dinar (611),

discovered and commented on by Farrugia de Candia.

10. Bani-Tawada, bjt^.

This Berber clan gave its name to a central Moroccan market town which served as a

Murabit mint in the year 513 (168).

11. Taza ljt

Mazdara' ibn-Hayyan during his rebellion against the Muwahhids in 559 is said by

Ibn-abi-Zar' to have coined gold (499) in this north Moroccan fortress town, but it is

doubtful whether the mint name appeared on the coin, no specimens of which are known to

have survived.

12. Tadghah UjS

This Idrisid mint near Sijilmasah in southern Morocco is said to appear on a single

Muwahhid dinar (449), but this must be considered unlikely. The transliterated form

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usually reported, Bad'ah, is an incorrect rendition of the unpointed Arabic.

13. Tatwan ol J*

Tetouan, near Ceuta, is reported as the mint for a single Marinid double dinar (818)

by Brethes, who does not specify the Arabic spelling and whose readings must always be

considered suspect.

14. Tilimsan oL-J;

Tlemcen served many dynasties as their chief mint in western Algeria: Murabits,

Muwahhids, Hafsids, and Marinids (the two last-named during recurrent conquests), as well

as the Ziyanids, whose capital it was and almost all of whose scarce coins were struck there

over a span of more than three centuries.

15. Tanas ^Jr

The Algerian port of Tenes is found on a single Hafsid double dinar (640) and on a

hybrid piece (H8).

Mints in North Africa and in Spain

13

16. Tuzar jjj

The inland Tunisian town of Tozeur, like its neighbors al-Hammah and Biskra, is

found only on one Hafsid gold piece (628) reported by Farrugia de Candia.

17. Tunis

The Hafsid capital appears as mint on a few Muwahhid and Marinid coins and several

Hafsid pieces of gold, silver, and copper; in addition, it was almost certainly the unnamed

source of most mintless Hafsid gold.

18. Tin Mahal jL <>-

This Atlas mountain cradle of Ibn-Tumart's Muwahhid sect is said by Bel to appear as

mint (in the form Tin Mahal) on a few specimens of a square Muwahhid dirhem (1089), but

the reading is open to question.

19. Jarbah \j>-

The only coin reported for this pirates' haven off the Tunisian coast is a square

Muwahhid or Hafsid dirhem (1090).

20. Jaza'ir ^flj*

Algiers, without the definite article, was an outlying mint for Hafsid (549, 637, 638),

Ziyanid (649), and Marinid (763) gold. See also al-Jaza'ir.

21. Ribat al-Fath

Rabat, on the Atlantic coast of northern Morocco, was a subsidiary Muwahhid mint

for gold (475) and silver (1078, 1092).

22. Sabtah

Ceuta, opposite Gibraltar, changed hands frequently during the late medieval period,

occurring as mint on Hammudid silver and copper, Murabit gold and silver, Muwahhid

gold and silver, Hudid silver, Hafsid gold, Marinid gold and silver, and Nasrid gold.

Especially important are the many coins struck at Ceuta by rebels and independent

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chieftains, including the Barghawatah Saqaut and his son (880-886, 1157-1160), the last

Murabit insurgent Yahya al-Sahrawi (443), Muwahhid partisans (1057-1061) and rebels

(1076, 1077), Hudid agents (540, 1117-1120), local shaykhs (541, 1121), a Hafsid governor

(553), and Nasrid intruders (868, 1153); many of these do not bear the mint name.

23. Sijilmasah L.LU-.

This vanished south Moroccan city was the stronghold of the early Murabits and a

perennial haven for dissidents under later dynasties. An almost complete set of Murabit

dinars survives, scattered Muwahhid gold and silver, an odd Muwahhid-style dinar (554)

struck by al-Khazraji as a Hafsid vassal, and a considerable quantity of Marinid gold and

silver.

24. Safaqus ^li-

Sfax, a Tunisian port, is a Zirid mint on two exceptional dinars reported by Farrugia

de Candia (12, 24).

14 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

25. Sala 5L

This twin port of Rabat, in northern Morocco, is found on one Murabit dinar (183),

two Muwahhid dinars (454, 455), and one Marinid double dinar (789), suggesting a slight

but continuous peripheral importance.

26. Sabrah

Reversion from the Fatimid name al-Mansuriyah to the original Sabrah was the first

numismatic fore-shadowing of the Zirid revolt, furnishing the arbitrary starting date for

this study. It occurs for this Tunisian suburb of Kairouan only on dinars (1, 2) dated 439

and 440.

27. Tarabulus J

Although Tripoli is a standard Fatimid mint, Syrian rather than Libyan Tripoli was

intended at this period, so such coins are excluded. The only North African coins struck

after 439 with this mint are a handful of Hafsid gold pieces. No coins are known for the

many local amirs.

28. Tanjah

Tangier appears to have been completely overshadowed by Ceuta, occurring only on

one Murabit qirat (974).

29. Fas ^li

Fez has been since Idrisid times one of the most important cities of Morocco, and this

importance is reflected in its use as mint on a nearly complete series of Murabit dinars

from 484 to 539, several Muwahhid coins of gold, silver, and copper, and a large quantity

of Marinid gold with occasional silver. Many mintless Muwahhid and Marinid coins were

probably minted at Fez.

30. Qabis ^.li

Gabes, an important south Tunisian port, was identified on a single Jami'id dinar

(24a) by Prieto y Vives and confirmed on a clearer specimen in this study.

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31. Qusantinah iakUl

Constantine, in inland eastern Algeria, appears as a provincial capital on a small

group of Hafsid double dinars, including one of an independent princeling (601).

32. Oafs ah i_aA

Gafsa, an oasis in western Tunisia, occurs intermittently as a peripheral Hafsid mint

for gold (587, 605, 619, 620).

33. Marrakush j\"j>

Marrakesh shared with Fez the supremacy of Morocco, and consequently is found on

a rich group of Murabit dinars, several Muwahhid gold and silver pieces, and a quantity of

Marinid gold, to which must be added the bulk of mintless Muwahhid and Marinid gold.

34. Miknasah XASC

Meknes, near Fez, was overshadowed by its neighbor, being reported on scattered

Murabit silver (906, 907) and Muwahhid gold (464, 465) and silver (1099).

Mints in North Africa and in Spain

15

35. Mahdiyah JTa*.

This variant without the definite article is reported on a single Hafsid dinar (621) by

Farrugia de Candia. See al-Mahd1yah.

36. Nul Jy

This caravan depot on the Wadi Nun in southern Morocco appears in this form between

494 and 511 on Murabit dinars.

37. Nul Lamtah ikl Jj

After 513 Nul was modified by adding the clan-name of the local Berbers, occurring

regularly past the downfall of the Murabits to an anonymous dinar (444) dated 542.

Distorted forms of this name may occur on Muwahhid gold (490) and silver (1100), but it

does not appear thereafter.

B. Spanish M1nts

38. Ishbiliyah i-Uil

Seville issued a steady stream of Murabit dinars from 489 to 541 except for the decades

5oo-509 and 527-534, with occasional silver. The earliest Muwahhids minted gold and

silver there, and just before its reconquest by Castile a double dinar (555) was struck for the

Hafsid Yahya I by his cousin and representative there.

39. Ighranatah itl._/l

This variant for Granada was used instead of Gharnatah on a quantity of Murabit

gold and some silver and copper struck between 504 and 527, and on dinars dated 540

and 541 (438-440), when it was one of the few Spanish towns still under Murabit contro1.

40. al-Jazirah S/.jajl

Algeciras minted Murabit dinars (230-233) from 507 to 509.

41. al-Qantarah sJiHii

A Murabit dinar (115) of Yiisuf, dated 496, is ascribed by Colson to Alcantara, with

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the Arabic spelling not specified.

42. al-Mariyah sTjfl

Almeria was one of the most prolific Murabit mints in Spain, being represented in 492,

from 494 to 499, and from 506 to 539 by a rich series of dinars, with several varieties per

year at times and with many specimens in excellent condition of typical issues.

43. Balansiyah

Between 496 and 512 Valencia struck Murabit dinars, and a dirhem (947) in 503; no

other coins are ascribed to this mint except a square Muwahhid dirhem (1107).

16 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

44. Bayyasah i-lL

Codera noted a Murabit dinar dated 497 from Baeza (106), an otherwise unrecorded

mint for African rulers.

45. Jayyan

Jaen struck occasional silver for Murabits and early Muwahhids, and a single Mu-

wahhid dinar (471).

46. Daniyah <jU

Denia is found on a few Murabit dinars from 495 to 504, and on a square Muwahhid

dirhem (1109).

47. Saraqustah ikS^

Saragossa appears as mint only on a very few Murabit dirhems (948, 949, 1162),

having been conquered late and lost early.

48. Sanlukah 5f^U-

San Lucar struck a little gold (108) and silver (900, 901) for the Murabit Yiisuf ibn-

Tashfin.

49. Shatibah AjLLi

Jativa occurs on Murabit dinars struck between 489 and 5oo.

50. Sharish

Only silver is known for Jerez: Murabit (950) and Muwahhid (1110).

51. Gharnatah <UkJ-

This Arabic equivalent for Granada, though less popular with the Murabits than

Ighranatah, occurs on gold, silver, and copper, including a post-downfall dinar (445) of

Maymun ibn-Badr dated 545. This spelling also appears on square Muwahhid dirhems and

on a double dinar (556) struck by Ibn-al-Ahmar as a Hafsid vassal.

52. Qurtubah <JJ

Cordova is found on Murabit gold and silver from 486 to 507. In 540 and 541 the

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rebel Hamdin ibn-Muhammad struck Murabit gold (441, 442) and silver (1038,1052) there,

as well as silver in his own name; then followed Ibn-Ghaniyah's 542 dinar (446). Cordova

also served the Muwahhids briefly as a mint for gold (472) and silver (1112).

53. Qantarat al-Sayf l ;JaZ

This alternative for Alcantara may occur on the dinar (115) reported by Colson,

instead of al-Qantarah.

54. Qunkah "^y

Cuenca appears only on a single Murabit dirhem (966) dated 506.

55. Laushah Ojl

Loja may be the mint on a Murabit dinar (258) dated 511.

Mints in North Africa and in Spain

17

56. Malaqah iilU

At Malaga were struck a few Murabit dinars between 494 and 506, a Murabit qirat

(967), and some Muwahhid silver. Muwahhid gold reported for Malaga by Prieto y Vives

was misread.

57. Manurqah

Minorca is represented only by a square Muwahhid dirhem (1114).

58. Mursiyah y>

A series of Murabit dinars was struck at Murcia from 501 to 512, and both Murabit

and Muwahhid silver. Noteworthy are anonymous dirhems (968, 969) dated 502 and 503

and a square half dirhem (1074) in the name of 'Abd-al-Mu'min, though Murcia was not

taken by the Muwahhids until nine years after his death.

59. Mayurqah *)y*

Majorca, like Minorca, occurs only on a square Muwahhid dirhem (1116).

C. Illeg1ble Mints

A certain number of coins have mint names which are illegible either by clipping, by

poor engraving, by wear, or by obscure reproduction. These coins are listed in the index,

and whatever can be reconstructed of the mint name is given under each such coin's

description in the corpus.

D. W1thout M1nts

A large number of coins have no mint inscription, and only rarely has an effort been

made to attribute them to definite towns. The bulk of Murabit silver is mintless, probably

having been coined at various mints, chiefly in Spain. Most of the mintless Muwahhid and

Marinid gold was probably struck at Marrakush and Fas, but the plentiful mintless silver

comes from many places, including European imitators. Hafsid mintless gold and silver

must have been struck chiefly at Tunis, and Hudid North African issues at Sabtah. No

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rule can be deduced by which the mint was named or omitted, except that it was almost

always identified on Murabit gold.

E. M1nt Inscr1pt1ons

See section J of the chapter on conventional inscriptions for al-mahrusah, hadr,

hadrat, and madinat.

TITLES

A. Transcendent

Certain titles found on the coins under consideration transcend the purely human and

were in general reserved for divinely inspired leaders second only to Muhammad (and 'Ali

among Shi'ites). Such titles include khalifat Allah, imam al-ummah, and imamuna.

1. khalifat Allah <llf iiii.

Vicar of God: applied only to the Mahdi, Muhammad ibn-Tiimart, by the Muwahhids

and the Hafsids, chiefly on their gold.

2. imam al-ummah .Ul

Leader of the community: applied to the Mahdi by the Muwahhids and the Hafsids,

solely on their gold, and to the 'Abbasid caliph on Hudid gold (541).

3. imamuna L.Ul

Our leader: applied to the Mahdi by the Muwahhids and the Hafsids, chiefly on their

silver, to the 'Abbasid caliph on Hudid silver (1117-1120), and to himself by Muwahhid 10

(1078-1083).

B. Cal1phal

The titles al-khalifah, al-imam, and amir al-mu'minin were strictly limited to rulers

of caliphal pretensions and were often used consecutively to stress various aspects of the

supreme authority.

4. al-khalifah iiiijl

The caliph: a title reserved by the Muwahhids for their first ruler, 'Abd-al-Mu'min,

except on the medal (M1); applied to the 'Abbasid caliph by the Hudids (540, 541, 1121).

5. al-imam ^UVl

The leader: applied to the Fatimid Ma'add by his Zirid vassals, to the 'Abbasids by

nominal Jami'.d, Hammadid, Murabit, and Hudid vassals, to themselves by the Hammu-

dids, to an unidentified suzerain by their Barghawattah governors, to 'Abd-al-Mu'min by

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the Muwahhids, to additional Muwahhids on the medal (M1), and to unspecified persons by

the Muwahhid partisans (446a, 105-1061).

6. amir al-mu'minin oc.^ll

Commander of the believers: applied exactly as al-imam, and usually together with it;

also used by all the Muwahhids, most of the Hafsids including 15B, who had no right to

Titles

*9

it (603), and Marinids 12 (always), 24 (rarely: 839, 853), and 26 (once: 867); attributed

(probably incorrectly) to Ziyanid 5 (648, 649); applied to the Ottomans by their Ziyanid

vassals (670, 671).

C. Caliphal (Dual)

The dual forms al-khalifatayn, al-khalifatayn al-rashidayn, and amiray al-mu'minin

were used following ibn- to indicate descent from two caliphs.

7. al-khalifatayn ociiij'i

Of the two caliphs: applied only to the first two Muwahhids.

8. al-khalifatayn al-rashidayn iX-uQl ocii^

Of the two orthodox caliphs: misapplied to the first three Muwahhids on a hybrid

gold piece (H4).

9. am1ray al-mu m1nin 00^ll ^ I

Of two commanders of the believers: applied only to the first two Muwahhids (511).

D. Cal1phal (Plural)

The corresponding plural forms were similarly used after ibn- to indicate descent from

more than two caliphs (often untruthfully).

10. al-khulafa' .liliiM

Of the caliphs: used only on one coin (512) in reference to three and to four Muwahhids.

11. al-khulafa' al-rashidin a->^l

Of the orthodox caliphs: used correctly by the early Muwahhids in reference to three

and to four predecessors, incorrectly by 10 in reference to only two. Frequently misused

by the Marinids, this phrase is also found on two coins dubiously ascribed to Ziyanid 5

(648, 649) and on one Hudid double dinar (540) in reference to the 'Abbasids.

12. umara' al-mu'minin 00.^ll .l y\

Of (the) commanders of the believers: used correctly on a few coins in reference to

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three and to four Muwahhids.

E. Sub-Cal1phal

The title amir al-muslimin has been appropriately designated sub-caliphal by van

Berchem in his definitive study of occidental titles; no other title falls into this category.

20

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

13. amir al-muslimin ojAJll

Commander of the Moslems: used by the later Murabits but never by Yflsuf, despite

the historians, also by the Murabit partisan Yahya al-Sahrawi (443), by most of the Ziya-

nids, most of the Marinids except 12, and several of the Wattasids. Noteworthy are a

Murabit qirat (913), assigning this title to Yusuf, and a Marinid double dinar (793) where it

is applied to two am1rs who had no valid claim to it.

F. Royal

Titles which may be considered royal include al-malik, sultan or al-suhSan, and al-

amir al-ajall.

14. al-malik ifftll

The king: used only by Hafsid 21 (637, 638) and Marinid 13 (787).

15. sultan

Sultan: used only by the late Hafsid 27 on his silver (1130, 1132).

16. al-sultan

The sultan: used by the same late Hafsid on his silver (1124-1129) and by his predeces-

sors 21 (637, 638) and 26 (644) on their gold.

17. al-amir al-ajall J*V| ^Vl

The highest commander: used by Muwahhids 1A and 2 as heirs, and by 2 before

achieving caliphal recognition; used by Hafsids 1 and 4 in eschewing caliphship, and by 2

and 10 prior to their achieving caliphal rank.

G. Princely

Several titles were used to indicate non-royal ancestors, heirs, or independent princes

not aspiring to dynasty-wide rule; these may be termed princely, and include al-amir, al-

amir al-tahir, sayyid, al-sayyid, and sayyidina.

*.

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18. al-amir jJi l

The commander: used by all the early Murabits exclusively and by the later ones for

heirs or for themselves in limited space. Used while heir by Hammudid 9 (872-874) and

Muwahhid 4 (1075: tentative); as independent prince by Zirid 8A (24a), Hammadid 9 (25),

Muwahhid 9A (1076, 1077), Hafsid 6A (574-576), Hafsid 12 (594), and Nasrid 8 (868); for

ancestors by Muwahhids (536) and Hafsids (557-561, 603, 609).

19. al-amir al-tahir _^lk)l

Of the righteous commander: used only by Muwahhid 12 in reference to a non-royal

ancestor (522-535, M1).

20. sayyid aL

Of (the) chief: used only by Muwahhid 13 in reference to non-royal ancestors (537).

Titles 21

21. al-sayyid -lIjl

The chief: used only by Marinid 20A as independent prince (831, 832).

22. sayyidina kuL

Of our chief: used only by Muwahhids 12 (M1) and 13 (538) in reference to non-royal

ancestors.

H. Pr1ncely (Dual)

The dual forms al-amirayn and sayyidayna were used following ibn- to indicate

descent from two princes.

23. al-amirayn i>.j*Vl

Of the two commanders: applied only to the first two Muwahhids as a contraction of

amiray al-mu'minin (503).

24. sayyidayna Lju-

Of our two chiefs: applied only to the first two Muwahhids (M1).

I. Pr1ncely (Plural)

The plural forms al-umara' and al-umara' al-rashidin were likewise used after ibn- to

indicate descent from more than two princes.

25. al-umara' l

Of the commanders: applied only to the first 3 Muwahhids (1075: tentative).

26. al-umara' al-rashidin J.-Uljl .l

Of the orthodox commanders: used of the first 3 Muwahhids (1076, 1077), and con-

stantly by the Hafsids.

J. Her1tor1al

The final group of titles wali al-'ahd, wali 'ahdihi, and al-hajib was reserved

exclusively for proclaimed heirs.

27. wali al-'ahd a>Jl J)

Heir: used for Hammiidid 9 (875-879), Murabit 4 (1017), and Muwahhid 4 (1075:

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tentative).

28. wali 'ahdihi a^c J}

His heir: applied to Murabits 3, 3A, 4, and 5.

29. al-hajib wo-UM

The chancellor: applied to Hammudids 9B and 9C (887).

PROPER NAMES

The Arabic and Berber proper names as they appear on the coins can be grouped into

four classes. There are personal names (Arabic singular ism), many of them Koranic

equivalents of Biblical names, others ordinary Arabic substantives. There are such names

preceded by abu-, father of, seldom indicating actual relationship. There are both such

types preceded by ibn-, son of, indicating direct sonship and arbitrarily differentiated in

this study from Ibn-, indicating more remote kinship, a form which never appears

on the coins. Forms in ibn- and abu- are both termed kunyah in Arabic. And there

are clan or tribe names, usually in the nisbah form al-'Abbasi or the Ibn- (plural

Banu-) form. Each group is treated briefly in Arabic alphabetical order, with names

appearing on coins numbered and others lettered.

A. Personal Names

(Arabic singular ism)

1. Ibrahim ^1 j\

Abraham: Murabits 1B, 5; Hafsids 4, 16. Not on coins (hereafter abbreviated to

N.o.c.): Hudid 3A; Hafsid 12B; Marinid 14.

2. Abu-Bakr Jy)

Father of young camel: Murabit 1; Hafsid 10. Despite its composition this is a personal

name, derived from the first caliph. N.o.c.: Hafsid 9; Marinid 4.

3. Ahmad

Most praised: Hafsids 17, 27; Ziyanid /9; Marinid 20; Waftasid 4. N.o.c.: Hudid 1A;

Hafsids 4A (real name), 14; Ziyanids 24, 28.

4. Idris

Enoch: Hammudid 6; Muwahhid 8. N.o.c.: Muwahhid 13.

5. Ishaq jU-J

Isaac: Murabit 6.

a. al-Hasan

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The fortunate: N.o.c.: Zirid 8. Occrs on coins as epithet.

6. al-Rashid

The orthodox: Zirid 8A. Occurs also as epithet.

""II

1 111

The Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

CORRIGENDA AND ADDENDA

page

item or coin

line

now reads

should read

10

16

n 1556-

in 1556.

18

Jami'.d

Jami'id

24

23

Hafsids

Hafsid

37

23

38

24

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,o, .--

40

54

40

60

411

56

11

Hammadids

HammId1ds

59

13

MURabiT

MURlbiT

61

through

though

63

Almerica

Almeria

65

(genealogical tree)

(connecting line omitted)

(connect 4 to 5 by a vertical

line)

70

abiTl-Baqa'

abu'l-Baqa'

76

20

ibn-al-Za'im

page

should read

item or coin

now reads

line

160

547

RF 3

162

560

RF 2

162

561

OS 1

JP\

163

563

OF 2

167

582

RS 1

167

582

RS 2

168

582

584

OS 1

172

6oo

OS 2

178

629

OS 1

178

630

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168

RF 1

j..1

189

669

OF 1

198

704

RF 1

198

707

OF 2

203

735

RF 4

205

747

pi. Xiii

pi. Xxin

210

780

RF 3

214

793

217

810

RF 2

217

810

OS 1

r^j

MISCELLANEOUS INDEX

(Referred to on pages 45 and 47)

Murabit silver with no inscription on of except mint mark:

938

Murabit silver with ornament alone on of:

935. 988, 1oo9, 1012, 1013, 1024-1026, 1028, 1049, 105o; also 1Q64 (Muwahhid)

Murabit silver with blank of:

890, 898, 899,934,936,937, 944-946. 989. 99o. 995.1010,1013, 1016,1016b,1031,

1033

Coins with errors in engraving:

11, 18, 26, 42, 47, 49, 54, 63, 72, 94, 97, 129, 170, 217, 219, 221, 230, 258, 273, 340,

359. 395. 407. 426, 438, 469. 490. 5o6, 513, 516, 530, 609, 613, 638, 667, 715,

716, 775, 795, 811, 817, 828, H 3, H 4

Coins with errors in striking:

610, 617, 618, 622, 623, 624, 629, 630, 634, 642, 704-706, 709, 740, 804, H 1-H 14,

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1030, 1055, 1097, 1157-1171

Proper Names 23

b. al-Zalm j^cj)1

The chief: N.o.c.: Ziyanids 7,10.

c. al-Sa'id .k..".)\

The happy: N.o.c: Ziyanid 16. Occurs on coins as epithet.

7. al-Tzz >J l

The power: Hammiidid 9B.

d. al-'Az1z

The powerful: N.o.c.: Hammadid 8.

8. al-Fadl Jidl

The honor: Hafsids 4*4 (assumed name), 15.

e. al-Qa'id jJlill

The general: N.o.c: Hammadid 2.

f. al-Mu'izz jS\

The made-powerful: N.o.c: Zirid 4.

g. al-Mansur jj^'.ll

The rendered-victorious: N.o.c.: 'Abbasid 36; Hammadid 6. Occurs on coins as epithet.

h. al-Nasir

The victorious: N.o.c: Hammadid 5.

i. Badis ^-jjl

: N.o.c.: Hammadid 7.

j. Bulukkin <ySX

: N.o.c: Hammadid 4.

9. Tashfin uyLil"

: Murabit 4. N.o.c: Marinid 15.

k. Tam1m ~J

Tall: N.o.c: Zirid 5.

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10. Hasan

Fortunate: Ziyanid 29.

I. Hammu jL-

: N.o.c: Zirid 4A.

II. Khalid

Eternal: Hafsid 5. N.o.c: Hafsid 18.

24 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

12. Zakariya* fj

Zachariah: Hafsid n. N.o.c.: Hafsid 24.

13. Sa'd ju-

Fortune: engraver's name in tiny letters (904, 1017).

14. Saqaut z>

: Hammudids 9A, gC.

15. Sulayman oLi~

Solomon: Ottoman 10 (on Ziyanids 26, 27: 670,671). N.o.c: Marinid 9.

16. Sir jj~

: Murabit 3A.

m. 'Amir jAe

Commanding: N.o.c: Marinid 8.

17. 'Abd-al-Haqq J*)l j^c

Servant of the truth: Marinid 28. N.o.c: Marinid /.

n. 'Abd-al-Halim ^Axi\ juc

Servant of the forbearing: N.o.c.: Marinid 16.

18. 'Abd-al-Rahman o^>-"J\j^

Servant of the merciful: Hafsid 15A; Ziyanids 5, 9, 15; Marinid 20A. N.o.c:

Ziyanid 21.

19. 'Abd-al-'Az1z -lc

Servant of the powerful: Hafsid 19; Marinids 18, 24. N.o.c: Hafsid 5.

20. 'Abd-Allah ALTjuc

Servant of God: Ziyanids 13, 26; Marinid 25. N.o.c: 'Abbasid 37; Muwahhids 7, 7A.

Usually occurs on coins as epithet.

21. 'Abd-al-Mu'min yj\ ju>

Servant of the believing: Muwahhid 1 (on 1-13, Hafsid 1); Marinid 17A. N.o.c:

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Hafsid 23.

22. 'Abd-al-Wahid juljlfa-c

Servant of the one: Muwahhid 10 (on 10, 11); Ziyanid 17. N.o.c: Muwahhid 6;

Hafsid 12C.

23. 'Uthman oLfc

Young snake: Hafsids 21; Marinids 10, 26. N.o.c: Ziyanids 2, 6; Marinid 2.

Proper Names 25

24. 'Ali Jo

Noble: Murabits 1A, 3; Hafsid 20 A; Wattasid 3. N.o.c.: Zirid 7; Muwahhid 11;

Marinid 11.

25. 'Umar y

Omar: Hafsids 6, 13. N.o.c: Marinids 5, 10A.

26. 'Imran ol jf

: Muwahhid 9A.

27. Faris ^jli

Cavalier: Marinid 12.

28. Malik t^JL.

Ruler: Name of engraver or mint-master (933).

o. Muhsan {j-**

Made-beneficent: N.o.c: Hammadid 3.

29. Muhammad

Highly-praised: Hammudid 9; Muwahhids 1A, 4 (on 4, 5, 8, 9); Hafsids 2, 7,12, 15B,

20, 25, 26; Ziyanids 12, 14, 20, 27; Marinids 13, 17, 19, 22; Nasrid 8; Wattasids 1, 2.

N.o.c: 'Abbasid 31; Muwahhid o; Hudid 1; Hafsids 12A, 28; Ziyanids 3, 8A, 18, 22, 23;

Marinids 3, 12A, 23, 27; Nasrid /; Wattasid 5.

30. Mazdara' j*y

: Muwahhid 2A.

31. Ma'add In

Arranged: Fatimid 8 (on Zirids 4, 5: 15-23).

32. Musa ^-y

Moses: Ziyanids 4, 8; Marinid 21. N.o.c.: Ziyanid 25.

p. Maymun Oy~

Auspicious: N.o.c.: Murabit 6C.

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33. Yashir j\

: mint-master at Seville (218-221, 339-343).

34. Yahya ^

John: Hammadid 9; Murabit 6A; Muwahhid 9; Hafsids 1, 3. N.o.c: Zirid 6; Murabit

6B; Hafsids 6A, 22.

35. Ya'qub

Jacob: Muwahhid 3 (on 3-5, 8, 9); Marinid 6.

q. Yaghmurasan j_l_/ju_

: N.o.c: Ziyanid 1.

26 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

36. Yusuf

Joseph: Murabit 2; Muwahhids 2 (on 2-5, 8, 9,12,13, Hafsid 1), 5. N.o.c.: Ziyanid 11;

Marinid 7.

37.?

Illegible name: 897. N.o.c. (ism unknown): Murabit 6D.

B. Names w1th abu-

(Arabic singular kunyah)

The paternal relationship suggested by this form is usually arbitrary, certain combin-

ations reappearing constantly, as indicated, regardless of the actual names of a man's

sons, or even of his sonlessness. These were so invariable that late historians frequently

apply them to the Murabits, who did not use them, while the Ziyanid rulers actually

invented a name of this type for their Ottoman suzerain.

r. abu-Ahmad j.l

Father of most praised: N.o.c.: 'Abbasid 37. With 'Abd-Allah.

38. abu-Ishaq y\

Father of Isaac: Hafsids 4, 16. N.o.c.: Hafsid 12B. With Ibrahim.

39. abu'l-Baqa' y)

Father of the enduring: Hafsid 8. N.o.c.: Hafsid 18. With Khalid. No instance of the

use of al-Baqa' as a personal name occurs in this study.

s. abu'l-Hajjaj ^lJl y)

Father of the pilgrim: N.o.c.: Ziyanid 11. With Yusuf. Al-Hajjaj does not occur as a

personal name in this study.

40. abu'l-Hasan .?}

Father of the fortunate: Muwahhid //; Hafsid 20^1. N.o.c.: Marinid 11; Wattasid 3.

With 'Ah.

41. abu'l-Rabr "J\ ?}

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Father of the springtime: erroneously applied to Ottoman 10 by Ziyanids 26, 27 (670,

671). N.o.c.: Marinid 9. With Sulayman. Al-Rabi' does not occur as a personal name in this

study.

42. abu'l-'Abbas ^-llJl j,)

Father of the leonine: Hafsids 4A (assumed name), 15,17, 27; Ziyanid 19; Marinid 20.

N.o.c.: Hudid 1A; Hafsid 14; Marinid 20; Wattasid 4. With Ahmad or al-Fad1. Al-'Abbas

does not occur as a personal name in this study.

II ITT I II

Proper Names 27

43. abu'l-'Um

Father of the noblest: Muwahhids 8, (on 8, 10, 11), 13. With Idris. Al-'Ula does not

occur as a personal name in this study.

t. abu'l-Futuh ^yuJl y\

Father of the victories: N.o.c.: Zirid 7. With 'Ali. Al-Futiih does not occur as a

personal name in this study.

u. abu'l-Qasim jJi)ly\

Father of the handsome: N.o.c.: Hudid 3A. With Ibrahim. Al-Qasim does not occur

as a personal name in this study.

abfl-Bakr jA

See personal names.

v. abu-Tashfin Ojiitjil

Father of Tashfin: N.o.c: Ziyanids 5, 9, 15, 21. With 'Abd-al-Rahman.

44. abii-Tamim y\

Father of strong: Fattimid 8 (on Zirids 4, 5): with Ma'add. N.o.c: Zirid 4: with al-

Mu'izz.

w. abu-Thabit ob y)

Father of steadfast: N.o.c: Ziyanids 7,10 (al-Zalm); Marinid 8 ('Amir). Thabit does

not occur as a personal name in this study.

45. abu-Ja'far y\

Father of rivulet: 'Abbasid 36 (on Hudid 1A: 1121). With al-Mansur (used as proper

name, not as epithet). Ja'far does not occur as a personal name in this study.

46. abii-Hafs aJa.y)

Father of lion-cub: Muwahhid 12; Hafsids 6, 13. N.o.c: Marinid 5. With 'Umar.

Hafs does not occur as a personal name in this study.

x. abu-Hammu ^ y\

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Father of Hammu: N.o.c.: Ziyanids 4,8, 25. With Musa. Sometimes spelt l^ y \ in

inscriptions.

47. abu-Zakariya1 S^j y)

Father of Zachariah: Muwahhid 9; Hafsids /, 3, 6A. N.o.c.: Hafsid 22. With Yahya.

y. abu-Ziyan o\j

Father of ornament: N.o.c.: Ziyanids 3, 8A, 12, 24, 28; Marinids 12A, 17, 19, 22, 23.

With Muhammad or Ahmad. Ziyan does not occur as a personal name in this study.

28 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

48. abu-Zayd a.j y\

Father of increase: Hafsid 15A. N.o.c.: Marinid 20 A. With 'Abd-al-Rahman. Zayd

does not occur as a personal name in this study.

49. abu-Salim 1L y)

Father of safe: Mar1nid 14. With Ibrah1m. Salim does not occur as a personal name in

this study.

50. abu-Sa'id a..- y\

Father of happy: Marinid 10. N.o.c: Ziyanids 2, 6; Marinids 2, 26. With 'Uthman.

Sa'id does not occur as a personal name in this study.

z. abu-Tahir _/>U> jA

Father of righteous: N.o.c: Zirid 6. With Yahya. Tahir does not occur as a personal

name in this study.

aa. abu-'Amir ^.Ic jil

Father of commander: N.o.c: Marinid 25. With 'Abd-Allah.

51. abu-'Abd-Allah <LT j-c

Father of (the) servant of God: 'Abbasid 31 (on Hammadid 9: 25); Muwahhid 4 (on

5-5. 8, 9); Hafsids 2, 7, 12, 15B, 20, 25, 26; Ziyanids 18, 20, 27; Marinid 13. N.o.c: Hudid

j; Hafsids 12A, 28; Ziyanids 14, 22, 23; Marinid 27; Nasrids 1, 8; Wattasids /, 2, 5. With

Muhammad.

bb. abu-'AH \y\

Father of noble: N.o.c: Marinid 10A. With 'Umar.

cc abu-'Umar jt- y \

Father of Omar: N.o.c.: Marinid 15. With Tashfin.

52. abu-'Amr Jyf y]

Father of life: Hafsid 21. With 'Uthman. 'Amr does not occur as a personal name in

this study.

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dd. abu-'Inan obcy\

Father of bridle: N.o.c: Marinid 12. With Faris. 'Inan does not occur as a personal

name in this study.

53. abu-Faris ^jliy\

Father of cavalier: Hafsid 19; Marinid 21 (with Miisa). N.o.c: Hafsid 5; Marinids 18,

24. With 'Abd-al-'Aziz except as noted.

54. abu-Malik t^JUy\

Father of ruler: Marinid 17A : with 'Abd-al-Mu'min. N.o.c.: Ziyanid 17: with 'Abd-al-

Wahid. Malik occurs in this study as a personal name only for an engraver or mintmaster.

Proper Names

29

55. abu-Muhammad y)

Father of highly-praised: Muwahhids 1 ('Abd-al-Mu'min; on 1-13, Hafsid 7), 10

('Abd-al-Wahid); Ziyanids 13 ('Abd-Allah), 29 (Hasan). N.o.c.: Muwahhids 6 ('Abd-al-

Wahid), 7 ('Abd-Allah), 7A ('Abd-Allah); Hafsids 12C ('Abd-al-Wahid), 23 ('Abd-al-

Mu'min); Ziyanid 26 ('Abd-Allah); Marinids 1 ('Abd-al-Haqq), 16 ('Abd-al-Halim), 28

('Abd-al-Haqq). Usually with name in 'Abd-.

ee. abu-Ma'ruf kJj^j,\

Father of benefit: N.o.c.: Marinid 3. With Muhammad. Ma'ruf does not occur as a

personal name in this study.

56. abu-Musa y\

Father of Moses: Muwahhid 9A. With 'Imran.

57. abu-Yahya y\

Father of John: Hafsids 10 (Abu-Bakr), 11 (Zakariya'). N.o.c.: Zirids 5 (Tam1m),

8 (al-Hasan); Hafsids 9 (Abii-Bakr), 24 (Zakariya'); Ziyanid 1 (Yaghmurasan); Marinid 4

(Abu-Bakr).

58. abii-Ya'qub <-iy)

Father of Jacob: Muwahhids 2 (on 2-13, Hafsid 1), 5. N.o.c.: Marinid 7. With Yusuf.

59. abii-Yusuf

Father of Joseph; Muwahhid 3 (on 3-5, 8-11). N.o.c.: Marinid 6. With Ya'qiib.

ff. abu-?

Father of ?: N.o.c. (kunyah unknown): Ziyanid 16.

C. Names w1th ibn-

(Arabic singular kunyah)

These names, and their analogues titles and epithets preceded by ibn occur

constantly on the coins to indicate direct descent, which is often very useful for the

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historian. Yet no practical purpose would be served by an analysis of them similar to

those of groups A and B, and reference to the index of proper names will serve to locate any

desired name of this type.

As was stated at the start of this chapter, an arbitrary distinction has been made

between ibn-, indicating sonship, and Ibn-, indicating more remote descent, a form which

never appears on the coins. This distinction is not derived from the coins, on which J

and J.\ are used interchangeably to indicate sonship.

Four persons mentioned in this study are frequently referred to by names in Ibn-; they

are Ibn-abi-'Umarah (Hafsid 4A; real name), Ibn-al-Ahmar (Nasrid /), Ibn-Ghaniyah

(Murabit 6B), and Ibn-Hiid (Hudid 1).

30

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

D. Clan or Tribe Names

An Arab or Berber generally has a nisbah ending in -i, indicating tribe or birthplace;

sometimes he has several. The only one of these occurring on the coins is al-'Abbasi,

occurring on Hammadid, Murabit, and Hudid gold and Hudid silver. Naturally, all the

persons discussed in this study possessed a name or names of this type, but the only ones

which require listing are those of rebels and governors not belonging to the main dynasties.

al-Barghawat1: Zirid 4A; Hammudids 9A, 9B, 9C.

al-Bayyasi: Muwahhid 7A.

al-Jamil: Zirid 8A.

al-Sahrawi (the Saharan): Murabit 6A.

al-Sanhaji: Muwahhid 2A.

al-'Azafi: Hiidid 3A.

al-Lamtim1: Murabit 6C.

al-Massuf1: Murabit 6B.

al-Yanashti: Hudid iA.

One other proper name occurring on the coins belongs to this general group: Ban1-

Tashfin (445, 446,1053-1056) as an inclusive term for all the Murabits commencing with 2,

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used in Spain after the downfall of the dynasty.

EPITHETS

One royal prerogative throughout Islam has been the use of epithets (Arabic singular

laqab) in conjunction with proper names and titles or as substitutes for them. Those used

in late medieval North Africa can best be subdivided by grammatical form; participial

nouns, participial phrases, adjectival nouns, adjectival phrases, and other types. Only

those occurring on the coins are discussed.

A. Part1cip1al Nouns

1. al-Ma'miin

The trustworthy: Muwahhid 8 (on 8,10, 11). Also occurs with ibn- on Muwahhids 10,

11, referring to 8.

2. al-Mujahid -mUll

The holy-warrior: Muwahhid 8; Hafsid 12.

3. al-Murtada ^ J."i

The approved: Muwahhid 12.

4. al-Mustansir _raii_lT

The asking assistance: Hafsid 15B; Marinid 20.

5. al-Ma'an oUl

The helped: Hammudid 9A.

6. al-Mu'tamid ojJA

The relying: Muwahhid 13.

7. al-Mansur jyaA^

The rendered-victorious: Hammadid 9; Hammudid 9A. Also occurs with ibn- on

Muwahhids 8, 10, referring to 3. Occurs also as personal name, though not on coins.

8. al-Mahdi

The guided: Muwahhid o (on most Muwahhid and Hafsid coins).

9. al-Mu'ayyad -T^ll

The strengthened: Hafsids 10, 12.

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10. al-Wathiq jJlj)l

The trusting: Muwahhid 13.

32 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

B. Participial Phrases

11. al-'Ali-bi-Allah 4)1 ^Ul

The lofty with God: Hammudid 6.

12. al-Qa'im-bi-amr-Allah <Ul ^L ^'li)l

The upright in (the) commandment of God: 'Abbasid 36 (on Hudid 1); Muwahhid 1

(on 1-13, Hafsids 1, 2); Hafsid 11.

13. al-Qa'im-bi-haqq-Allah *i\ jac ^'lajl

The upright in (the) truth of God: Hafsid 4A (the impostor).

14. al-Qa'im-li-Allah-bi-a'la'-din-al-haqq J)l a? ^\ <JJ f'^H

The upright for God in (the) nobility of (the) faith of the truth: Maraud 6.

15. al-Mutawakkil-'ala-Allah <Jjljcjfyll

The relying upon God: Hafsids 10, 15, 17, 19, 20 A, 21, 25,27; Ziyanids 5, 15, 17, 18,

26, 27; Marinids 12, 13, 17, 20A, 21.

16. al-Mutawakkil-'ala-Allah-wahdihi <l)l Jc ji^ll

The relying upon God alone: Hafsid 21.

17. al-Mutawakkil- 'ala-rabb-al- 'alamin OjluT vj Jc J^>^

The relying upon (the) master of the worlds: Ziyanids 4, 8, 9, 12-14; Marinid 12;

Wattasid 3.

18. al-Mujahid-fi-sabil-Allah <I)I

The holy-warrior in (the) path of God: Muwahhid 10 (on 10, 11); Hafsids 4, 19, 21.

- - Si

19. al-Murtada-li-amr-Allah <L)I ^.V ^J.\

The approved in (the) commandment of God: Muwahhid 12. Occurs on his medal in

the shortened form al-Murtada-li-amrihi.

20. al-Musta'in-bi-Allah <i)layJ ll

The asking help of God: Marinid 14.

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21. al-Mustansir-bi-Allah <DI j^xA\

The asking assistance of God: 'Abbasid 36 (on Hudid 1A); Fatimid 5 (on ZTrids 4, 5);

Hafsids 2, 6, 7, 15B, 16, 20; Marinids 10, 20, 24-26.

22. al-Muzaffar-bi-Allah

The rendered-victorious by God: Hafsid 15A.

23. al-Mu'tasim-bi-Allah ^Xjl ^^uoll

The having recourse to God: Ziyanid 19.

Epithets 33

24. al-Mu'tadid-bi-Allah <JJl ju^ull

The asking assistance of God: Muwahhid 11.

25. al-Muqtafi-li-amr-Allah <iJl jail

The following in (the) commandment of God: 'Abbasid 31 on Hammadid 9.

26. al-Muntakhab-li-ihya'-d1n-Allah J.j U-Vw*d1

The predestined for revival of (the) faith of God: Hafsid 6 A.

27. al-Muntasir-bi-Allah <L)I.

The conquering for God: Marinid 22.

28. al-Mansur-bi-fadl-Allah Jjl JJi

The rendered-victorious in (the) honor of God: Hafsids 2, 4A, 7, 8, II, 13, 15A, 15B,

16, 17.

29. al-Mahdi-alladhi-yashriku'l-nabi ^Jj| <iT^j ^iJl ^ajl

The guided who will accompany the prophet: Murabit 6A.

30. al-Mu'min-bi-Allah <JJl ^'Ji

The believing in God: Muwahhid 12.

31. al-Mu'ayyad-bi-Allah Jjl-J^ll

The strengthened by God: Muwahhid 9A.

m - Wft ft

32. al-Mu 'ayyad-bi-fadl-Allah i) l J^i y l

The strengthened in (the) honor of God: Hafsid 3.

33. al-Mu'ayyad-bi-nasr-Allah JJl jT^ll

The strengthened in (the) victory of God: Hafsids 6,10,15,15B, 17,19-21.

34. al-Nasir-li-din-Allah JjIj.jJ jjd\

The victorious for (the) faith of God: Hafsids 8,13.

35. al-Wathiq-bi-Allah OJljfljll

The trusting in God: Muwahhid 13; Hafsids 3, 21; Ziyanid 14.

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C. Adject1val Nouns

36. al-As'ad ju-Sfl

The happiest: Muwahhid 11.

37. al-Hasan j^-sjl

The fortunate: Hafsid 26. Also occurs with ibn- on Hafsid 27, referring to 26. Occurs

also as personal name, though not on coins.

34 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

38. al-Rashid

The orthodox: Muwahhid 10 (on 10, n); Marinid 13. Occurs also as personal name.

39. al-Sa'id

The happy: Mar1nids 13,17, 19; Wattasid 1. Occurs also as personal name, though not

on coins.

40. al-Gharib

The foreigner: Muwahhid 2 A.

D. Adject1val Phrases

41. al-Rashid-bi-Allah Jjl J~-~j\

The orthodox for God: Muwahhid 10.

42. al-'Aziz-bi-Allah <Dl< j._jJ l

The powerful for God: occurs only with ibn- on Hammadid 9, referring to Hammadid 8.

43. al-Ghani-bi-Allah <L)l

The wealthy in God: Ziyanid 12; Nasrid 8.

E. Other Types

44. arham umara' al-muslimin uuLil .l j*\

Most merciful of (the) commanders of the Moslems: Murabits 6B, 6C, referring to

Murabits 2-6, the Banu-Tashfin.

45. Baha'-al-Daulah ^IjjJl .1^

Splendor of the state: Hammiidid 9A. This typically oriental Moslem epithet is almost

unique in the west.

46. Piya'-al-Daulah ^jajTjU.

Brightness of the state: Hammudids 9B, 9C. This is the only other such epithet found

on these coins.

47. 'Abd-AUah JjT-^c

Servant of God: the most common epithet, used in reference to the 'Abbasids by

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Zirid 8A and all the Murabits; applied to themselves by Hammudids 9A, 9B; Hafsids 15B,

21, 27; most of the Ziyanids and Marinids; Nasrid 8; Wat^asids 1-4. Occurs also on

partisan Muwahhid silver and as personal name.

48. Mahdi-al-Din t>.jJl

Guided of the faith: on Muwahhid partisan silver. Epithets in -Dm, like those in

-Daulah, have an oriental flavor.

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Epithets

49. Maulana kVy.

Our master: Hafsid 27; Marinids 20, 24. A relatively modern epithet.

50. Nasir-al-D1n jji

Victor of the faith: Murabits 3-6; Marinid 6. A typically oriental epithet.

CONVENTIONAL INSCRIPTIONS

A large majority of the conventional inscriptions on the coins are religious. Of these

some are Koranic, some call down blessings on Muhammad and his family and companions,

some praise 'A1i or the Mahdi, some intercede on behalf of the ruler or the mint, some intro-

duce the clause on the striking of the coin, and others are general expressions of piety. They

are grouped in the order given, being listed alphabetically within each group, and are

followed by secular inscriptions.

A. Koran1c Verses

1. The praise (is) unto God; 1:1.

2. The praise (is) unto God, master of the worlds;

i:1.

3. The honor (is) unto God; 10:66.

4. God (is) excellent as a preserver, and he (is the)

most merciful of the merciful; 12:64.

5. God (is) our master; 7:87, 42:14.

Ljj <JJI

6. God (is the) friend (of); 2:258, 3:61, 45:18.

7. God renders victorious; 30:4.

_raij- (for Koranic D I) <JJ I

8. Verily God (is) observant with the servants;

40:47.

- . ,. J- - *-

9. Verily God commands the justice and the

goodness and sheltering of (the) owners of

kinship, and he forbids the immorality and the

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wrongdoing and the injustice; 16:92.

Conventional Inscriptions 37

10. Verily we have opened for thee a manifest open- Jjjf ^ 'jj^J (Ui s S3 Qci U

ing so that God may pardon thee for what has - "- -

preceded among thy sin and what came later, SZl ') li; L

and may perfect his grace upon thee, and may

guide thee on a straight path, and that God gtAc. (for Koranic <i^)

may render thee victorious with an honorable

v1ctory; 48:1-3. c5 j-^j Ul^ t^jy j

. - o-,= .

I J, JC <D I

11. In (the) name of God; passim. <L)I Jl

12. In (the) name of God the merciful, the com- >^ 1 ft-j

passionate; passim.

13. May he be blessed who (has) in his hand the J & .A"

kingdom, and he (is) over every thing power- o _ ,

ful;67:1. ^"jT

14. May he be exalted; 27:64. JCj

BE tm y O 5

15. I have relied upon God; 11:59. ^* <Jc

AiJl .-i.

16. My sufficiency (is) God; 9:130, 39:39. D I lSr-

17. My sufficiency (is) God, and how excellent is the <^ I (f0r Koranic uj) ^

trustee; 3:167. , c...

18. Our master, judge between us and our people as ^IJ J*1 k ^j* crrJ..> "2

to the truth, and thou (art the) best of the

arbitrators; 7:87.

19. Our master (is) God; 22:41, 41:30, 46:12. ^jf

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20. Our master, upon thee we have relied and unto ,&^\j SLJc j

thee we have returned and unto thee (is) the ,

result; 60:4.

21. God has been merciful to him; 6:16 (Allah <i)T<I3

understood in Koran).

22. God has spoken truth; 3:89, 48:27. <LT JI^

23. Upon him I have relied; 9:130 etc. liS'JT <Si

38 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

24. Upon him I have relied and unto him I return; > .j Jjj- ^

I1:90, 42:8

25. Say (that) nothing befalls us except what God ^1 Q ii)T ~-f U Sfl lT~ v*[ jj

has written for us; he (is) our master, and on '

God then let the believers rely; say do you oy*>Jl J^>^ Jcj L;V^

await; 9:51-52. _ , ,

26. (There is) no god except God; passim. ^jjj */l V

'J> $\ aJl'

27. (There is) no god except him; 2:158. 'A S7l V

28. (There is) no god except him the merciful, the in*\!r) l 0*0l y ^l <Jl ^

compassionate; 2:158.

29. (There is) no partner unto him; 6:163. i

30. (There is) no strength except in God; 18:37. .'J*^ 1

J ,5s-l

31. Muhammad (is the) messenger of God; 48:29. <Dl Oyj-****

32. Muhammad (is the) messenger of God; he has a.3'} iS-^\ <AJl

sent him with the guidance and (the) faith of

the truth, so that he may proclaim it above )^i < <j'..^,, Jc ^a" J J*)l

every faith, even if the polytheists dislike (it); . , u,u+ ,

9:33, 61:9 (first four words paraphrased). ^> -r*1l v

t> , u _ o -

33. And whoever has recourse to God, then he has JJ ^ [..*." 1 cr* (

already been guided on a straight path; 3:96. _,

a * - Go.

34. Victory (is) from God; 61:13. <.lJl J^. ^

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35. Victory (is) from God and conquest (is) near; ^. J ^i) <Dl j*

61:13.

36. God has rendered him victorious; 9:40. aDl ^

37. (The) victory of God (is) near; 2:210. r:J^ (for Koranic

38. He (is) the first and the last and the evident and -r?1^lJ ^*'l >*

the hidden, and he (is) in every thing om- o, ',,_.,,

niscient; 57:3. pr isT JH *)

Conventional Inscriptions 39

39. And dread a day on which you will be brought ^ <IM Jl

back to God; then every man will be paid o t j s

what he has earned; and they will not be * ) c-JT U <_rJL; J5 Jy

wronged; 2:281.

40. And I entrust my affair to God; 40:47. <Dl Jl j,y \}

41. And God guides whomever he wishes on a ll _^- Jl L-. ^ iS-y j

straight path; 2:209, 24:45.

42. And your god (is) a single God; 2:158. julj a)l

43. And deliver (the) good news to the believers; OopT

2:223 etc.

44. God has promised to those among you who have l>L_ j |JC^. J.jJ l <JJ l jlcj

believed and have practised good works that ' B ~m B .

he will make them successors on the earth as u*j^l ft'. j*i<-ij -^UJLaJl

he made those who preceded them successors; , . u , .

24:54. (*M O? ot^Jl -*!**- l3

45. And certainly we have written in the psalms, .y ^ uJj

after the invocation, that my servants the ej

righteous shall inherit the earth; 21:105. 0>*)Ul &}*\t'j.j,j3\ o1

S -o U O 5 j U w -o _____

46. And (there is) not the victory except from beside <JJ| xc ^ Vl i.)

God; 3:122.

47. And (there is) not the victory except from <iJl ^ Vl ^l U>

beside God the strong, the wise; 3:122.

48. And whatever (is) unto you of a pleasant (kind), <D l ^ ^ ^ ^ Uj

then (it is) from God; 16:55.

49. And you will not will unless God has willed; 00 <Dl ol<Ul >l o}!^" Uj

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verily God is knowing, wise; 76:30. [j^. Cle

50. And (there is) not my success except with God; *Ul * j

11:90.

51. And (there is) not any god except God; 5:77 <Ul >l ^l ^ Uj

(paraphrased). o _0,

(for Koranic j-lj Jj)

> ! . - S<* "

52. And whoever desires other than Islam as a faith, ^ ^ (5*-*' ^=

then it will not be accepted from him; 3:79.

40

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

53. And whoever desires other than Islam as a faith, ,o -fl"'r.r ^o;.': - -

then it will not be accepted from him, and - -1 5 i-^ ^

he (will be) in the end among the perishing; ^^JjjT<^ j J*j

3:79. ^""^"'

54. And whoever fears God, he will establish a way

of escape for him, and will provide for him

from whence he is unaware; 65:2. ':^ y

55. And whoever relies upon God, then he (is) his ^ , ^ v ^

sufficiency; verily God (is) attaining his com- "''

mandment; 65:3. .J.1 k~

56. And whoever relies upon God, then he (is) his <Ul o[ v-* . ^ JTj-:1:

sufficiency; verily God (is) attaining his com- ,, , o. v > -

mandment; certainly God has appointed for ^ J^! <L)I

every thing a measure; 65:3.

57. And he (is) master of the mighty throne; 9:130. r^*-" <^v*JI j*j

58. 0 you who have believed, endure and be patient 1'-T*1 ^1 ^ -

and persevere and fear God, then perhaps you ,, T, . , ,' , <'

.r , t~ r j (for Koran1c I^WiI >j)

w1ll succeed; 3:2oo. 1 -

59. O you who have believed, obey God and obey l^jJlj<lJl L^l L

the messenger and (the) holders of command ,u c:u- 1,

among you; 4:62. IX> y-Vl Jjlj J^.JI

**--_-^_r

60. O thou prophet, we have sent thee as a witness l-t*Li liS'Li-jl LI ,^Jl L^.' L

and a bringer of good news and a warner and a * - ,

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summoner to God; 33:44-45. aJl JI ^1 JJ j I ^*j

61. Day of the faith; passim. J.IJl

Conventional Inscriptions 41

B. For the Prophet Muhammad

No useful purpose would be served by a detailed analysis with individual translations

of the large group of conventional inscriptions which ring changes on the single theme: the

blessing of God be upon our chief Muhammad and upon his family and companions. An

alphabetical list with occasional notes follows.

62.

63-

64.

65.

-u ko_- ^ <ill

66.

JUst* k".U_ ^ <u|

67-

-Ust* ko_~ ^ <u| ^

68.

-Ust ta-. Mi\

69.

JU** L'JU. 41ll ^

70.

JUSM kj__ ^ <Ul

72.

-Ua* k-U_ Jc <U|

73-

74-

75.

(OuJl ^ seal of the prophets is Koranic; 33:40)

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76. Jlj -Usw Jc ill ^

77. a^^a" Oi^i\ <Jlj Jc J-

78. <Jl Jc>-U** Jc <ul

79. LL-T (J-J "Jl Jcj J* <Ul J*.

80. LL-; (J-j Jcj ju jc <ul J*.

81. <ic Oll

82. ,Jl.j Uc <ul J-

83. Ul_r |Ju-j <Ae <ul

84. Muhammad (is the) messenger of God and his juc> ul

servant.

85. Muhammad (is) our messenger. U.u**

86. Muhammad (is) his messenger and his servant. .-l*> J^-j -u

87. Muhammad (is the) servant of God and his j U>l -Vs

messenger.

88. Muhammad (is) his servant and his messenger. iy)i

89. jua^a k Vkj 41il

90. And Muhammad (is) our prophet. La-,' JUscj

C. For 'AlI (Shi'ite)

91. 'Ah (is the) most distinguished of the agents and t>L-Jl j j.jjj uj-^yl J-il ^ (j)

minister of (the) best of the messengers.

92. 'Ah (is the) friend of God. <ul U Je

42 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

D. For the Mahd1

93. (The) messenger of God, who delivered the good oil Jj-j <. jl.

news of it.

E. For the Ruler (relig1ous)

94. I ask help of God; how excellent is the helper. uJll ^ oil o^-\

95. God help him and render him victorious. j^,j

96. God help him and render him victorious by grace c-r <c j <uI

of his compact.

97. I had recourse to God. <ul c^ce\

98. I have trusted in God. <ul c^A

99. God help ... <ul jJ

1oo. God help his commandment and render strong j*. jclj <ul o.J

his victory.

101. God help him. ul

102. God may he be exalted help him. JLr <ul .-U

103. God may he be exalted help him and render JL <a\

him victorious.

104. God help him and render him victorious. j ml .o, I

105. My trust (is) in God alone. *x*j <ul

106. My sufficiency (is) God alone. <ul ^r-

107. He has summoned.

108. God render victorious ... <ul ^

109. Our defense (is) in God. oil L"^

110. (The) friend of God. oil Jj

111. He asks help of God. <ul o^-.

112. He has recourse to (the) compact of God. (Com- ul j-*, |-~

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pare Koran 3:98).

F. For the Mint (relig1ous)

113. God may he be exalted preserve it for the oyLJi JL" <dI LI* I

Moslems.

114. God protect it. <ul 1^1

115. God may he be exalted protect it. JL ul 1^1

116. God may he be exalted protect it by his ofj o: JL" ul 1^1

grace and his generosity.

117. God guard it. uI l^.^

118. God guard it by his grace. cc oil l^.^*.

119. God may he be exalted guard it. JL oil \-j-

120. God may he be exalted guard it by his <t JL <ul

grace.

121. God may he be exalted guard it by his o f} JL <uI L-,^

grace and his generosity.

122. God may he be exalted guard it and protect } JL <ul L-^

it.

Conventional Inscriptions

43

G. For the Str1king (relig1ous)

Most of this group of inscriptions are variations or abridgments of the formula: in the

name of God the merciful, the compassionate this dinar (or dirhem) was struck at .. .

123.

124.

125.

126.

127.

128.

129. (used only on Jami'id: 24a)

130.

131-

132.

133.

134.

l*e-Jl Cf)\

\ ^J* (^-Jl <u| |*~.

j V> (^Jl a^Jl <l (--.

j pjJl v> ^Jl ^Jl <ul ^

i XlW (l)a* v> ^Jl <>l ^

jL Jl JU y<Ul idSTjc {jr)\ x\

j jb Jl li* <-i jo )\ <u\ ^

^ _>b Jl aa y^i; jA <Ul

J v_J Jo Oil >

^jjl (l)JU Jo Oil

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j jfjJl (l)4* <ul |

H. Other Relig1ous Inscr1pt1ons

135. The whole commandment (is) unto God.

136. The whole commandment (is) unto God alone.

137. The reliance (is) upon God.

138. God (is) the preserver.

139. The truth.

140. The praise (is) unto God alone.

141. The might and the strength (are) in God.

142. The thanksgiving (is) unto God.

143. The grandeur (is) unto God.

144. The Koran (is) our leader.

145. The Koran (is the) proof of God.

146. The Koran (is the) word of God.

147. God has fostered whoever has relied upon him.

148. God has rendered victorious whoever has relied

upon him.

149. God (is) a friend of whoever has relied upon him,

and has rendered victorious whoever executes

his commandment.

150. The kingdom (is) unto God.

151. The kingdom (is) unto God alone.

152. The grace (is) unto God.

153. The one (is) God.

154. God help them.

155. At (the) commandment of God.

156. May (God) bless it.

uto

4jb-j u &

* J* J*> to

<ul JaUl

J*"

0>.J Ol JujJl (j)

u(l) ;yalj J^Jl (j)

<u ULJl (j)

Uu\ o\ji\

Oil jl ji\

<ul Ji\

u ddll (j)

u 5Clll

<ul al^l

Oil ^-U

<ul yl

44 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

157. (There is) no god except God alone. <ul VI Jl V

158. (There is) no might and no strength except in God. ul, Vl iji Vj J_p- V (j)

159. (There is) no conqueror except God. (Nasrid

motto) <uI Vl Jfe V (j)

160. For (the) unity of the eternal God. ju^II o->J

161. How near (is the) succor of God. (Early Ziyanid *u1 gj ^J\ U

motto)

162. What God has wished. <ul b. U

163. How excellent the powerful (is) God. <ul jjlill ^

164. And the asking help (is) unto God. ul iUL->lj

165. And the thanksgiving (is) unto God for his grace. <u*" Jc <u _dlj

166. And the power (is) unto God. hi S>o)Ij

167. And the guidance (is) from God. <ul y ilojlj

I. For the Ruler (secular)

168. May his victory become illustrious. j*i

169. Power. Zje

170. At (the) command of . . . y\ je

J. For the M1nt (secular)

171. The guarded (applied to Bijayah and Sabtah).

172. (The) vicinity (of . . .)

173. (The) district (of . . .):

174. (The) city (of . . .) oo<

175. City of (the) power of Islam and (of . . .) j ^L.Vl jc

K. For the Str1k1ng (secular)

176. It has been struck.

177. It has been struck at . . .

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178. It has been struck in . . . ^ ^j

179. This dirhem has been struck. ^jjl i* ^,

180. It has been coined at . . .

.1 <-, j*0

L. Other Secular Inscr1ptions

181. Quarter of the dinar.

182. Year.

183. Year.

184. (On the) first day of Sha'ban (the eighth month).

185. In (the) year.

<*-*

186. In Sha'ban (the eighth month).

187. In (the) month of the spring (the third or fourth

month).

188. In (the) month of Sha'ban (the eighth month).

189. Former weight.

fJi Ojj

EPIGRAPHY AND ORNAMENTATION

The style and script traditional in the caliphal coinage, round fields surrounded by

unbroken margins in plain Kufi, are characteristic of all the coins at the opening of this

survey. The Zirid coins continued to be based on Fatimid models; the Hammudid silver

was a debased version of that struck by the Spanish Umayyads; the Murabits combined

these styles into a strong simple style of their own which was a model of clarity. A few

Naskhi or part-Naskhi pieces are found among their silver, but Kuf1 greatly predominated.

All this was deliberately changed by the Muwahhids, probably to fulfill the prophecy

that power would be seized by a leader who would alter the currency on the occasion of a

conjunction of certain planets. The style then introduced, which lasted with minor changes

and exceptions for the balance of the late medieval period, included square silver, chiefly in

the cursive Naskhi script, and round gold with field inscriptions in a square inscribed in a

circle, the segments of which also held legends, all in Naskh1 script except for some orna-

mented Kufi introduced by certain early Hafsids and Marinids.

This ornamented Kufi is the script erroneously termed Qarmatic (karmathic) by

many orientalists, although it has no connection whatever with the Qarmat1 heretical

sect. This fallacy has persisted despite complete refutation by Fraehn in the Journal

Asiatique for 1828. The script, which had a wide but short-lived popularity in the last half

of the thirteenth Christian century and the first decade of the fourteenth, was probably

introduced into North Africa by refugees from Andalusia after the fall of Seville.

Vagaries in the spelling of the inscriptions abound. Abu- and ab1- are used inter-

changeably by the Hafsids; masculine and feminine dates, by the Murabitts. Alifs are

inserted in or omitted from such words as ibn-, rahman, ta'ala, and dinar according to the

whim of the engraver. Diacritical marks are usually entirely absent; when present they are

more often ornamental than significant.

In rare cases, punches were used by the engraver to incise straight lines and circles,

especially on Hammudid coins. The general practice, however, was to engrave the design

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by hand in reverse on a die like the one described by Marcais. This inevitably led to such

minor errors as the omission or duplication of letters and even of whole words, but these

were held to a reasonable minimum by careful supervision, and faulty dies were frequently

withdrawn and corrected. An index of coins with engraving errors is supplied for the use of

those who desire to pursue this line of inquiry further.

Very few of the dies are signed: two with the name Sa'd in tiny letters, possibly one

with Malik.

Ornamentation, as distinguished from lettering, is extremely limited. None of the

coins bears a pictorial device, and only a few pieces of silver, separately indexed, have a

face covered by a geometrical design. Individual letters and blank spaces are often enhanc-

46

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

ed by the application of minor scrolls and flourishes, though the effort to decode any

meaning they may have conveyed has been fruitless. Otherwise it is limited to line and

dotted squares surrounding field inscriptions, and occasional lengthening of letters to fill

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areas in an esthetically satisfying manner.

MINTING TECHNIQUE

The methods used in striking the late medieval North African coinage are nowhere

clearly described, but can easily be deduced from the money itself and from the coin die

described by Marcais. The obverse was engraved on one tool, the reverse on a base, a cold

metal flan of the correct size was inserted, a blow was struck, and the finished coin was

removed. No cast coins have been found.

Some control was exercised so that obverse and reverse appeared in the desired

relative position, but this was subject to great relaxation. Occasional coins survive, and

are listed in the miscellaneous index, with errors in striking, including the combining of

two obverses, the use of a flan of the wrong size, and such mistakes. Misstruck and double-

struck specimens, however, are not specially noted.

Very few names of mint-masters appear on these coins. Yashir, Malik, and Ibn-Kaukab

may be Murabit mint-masters; others may be indicated by the relatively frequent mint-

marks, consisting of one or more letters of the alphabet.

No systematic study of these mint-marks has been attempted. They are frequently

not mentioned by persons recording coins, so that the existing data are necessarily in-

complete, but they are separately indexed for ready reference.

Mention should be made here of certain Murabit silver on which one side has been

deliberately left blank. Vives ascribes this to a system of indicating denominations, though

not all extant coins fit into his table. These coins are listed in the miscellaneous index, as

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are coins with only an ornament on one side instead of a legend.

METROLOGY

Much the larger portion of the coins under examination were made of gold. The Zirid

and Murabit dinar, and presumably the Hammadid, was designed to weigh about 4.2 grams,

with halves and quarters and even eighths weighing correct fractions of that figure. The

Z1rid dinar, of which surviving specimens average 4.11 grams and are known as heavy as

4-35, was 22-24 millimeters in diameter; the Murabit, averaging 4.05 grams and never

over 4.3, was 23-27 millimeters across. Half dinars were 15-16 millimeters, quarters 13-15,

and eighths about 11.

The coins as struck were apparently fairly uniform in size and weight, and the gold

was of good quality. It came across the Sahara from the negroes' regions, in sufficient

quantity to strike a rich and variegated coinage.

With the advent of theMuwahhids the quality and quantity of the gold used apparently

was sustained, but the standard of weight and size was permanently altered. A wide, thin

double dinar was introduced, averaging 4.55 grams, 27-32 millimeters in diameter. The

dinar, averaging 2.27 grams, was 19-22 millimeters; the half, at 1.15 grams, 14-16 milli-

meters, the quarter, at .55, about 13 millimeters. Successor dynasties followed these

specifications with minor alterations; some Hafsid double dinars were slightly smaller,

some Marinid slightly broader; most dinars somewhat broader; a few Ziyanid and Marinid

halves considerably broader; but in general the plan was adhered to without significant

modification.

After the middle of the Muwahhid period the number of specimens diminishes sharply,

with Ziyanid and Wattasid gold definitely scarce. The quality was never seriously di-

minished, and purchasing power remained high, though definite analyses belong rather to

economic than to numismatic history. Apparently far more need of fractional gold existed

under the later dynasties than under the Murabits, whose dinars account for over 99%

of their surviving gold.

The place of silver in the various dynastic coinages varied greatly. For the Hammudids

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only silver so base as to be readily considered copper was struck, whereas the Zirids followed

the Fatimids in seldom using silver. The Murabits struck large quantities of silver, both

dirhems of traditional appearance with dates and mints and 1-gram qirats and fractions

thereof as subsidiary small change.

A few electrum coins survive for the Murabits, but no data is available indicating

their denomination or purpose.

The square silver struck by the Muwahhids and Hafsids is plentiful and found

widespread contemporary acceptance being counterfeited extensively among the

Christians of Spain and France. The square dirhems averaged about 1.5 gram and were

13-19 millimeters square. They survive in great numbers, making more unaccountable the

Metrology

49

lack of identifiable Ziyanid silver and the relative scarcity of silver attributable to the

Marinids and the Waftasids.

Silver was presumably mined locally in Morocco and Spain. Its value relative to gold

fluctuated, being never more than one tenth and seldom less than one twentieth by weight.

The purity of the alloy also suffered fluctuations, being depreciated and restored on several

occasions.

Copper was simply not recognized as a precious metal suitable for coinage. Dinars and

square and round dirhems were occasionally imitated in copper or struck in silver so base

as to be distinguishable only with difficulty from it, but the few attempts to coin copper

openly met with violent popular opposition. Only at the very end of Hafsid rule were a

few coppers struck, foreshadowing modern token currency, but this development was

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impossible throughout most of the late medieval period in North Africa.

THE RULERS AND THEIR COINAGES

The following chapters cover the coinage of each dynasty as a separate unit. Before

each has been inserted a chronological list of rulers, with a condensed genealogical tree for

each except the Fatimids, the Hudids, and the Ottomans, which have but one ruler apiece

affected by North African numismatic history for the late medieval period. The information

in the lists of rulers has been derived from medieval inscriptions and documents and from

extensive comparison of medieval Arabic histories, chronicles, geographies, biographies,

and other works; it has been corrected or confirmed from evidence found on the coins

themselves. Although the actual coins have been consulted whenever possible, the other

sources have been used in the best modern published versions, as listed in the bibliographies.

When such sources conflict, the more probable has been determined and utilized; when

gaps remained after exhaustive research, I have filled them from modern sources or from

my own conclusions as to the most likely of possible alternatives.

After each item of information there has been placed, within parentheses, a short

reference to one or more sources, in this order: gold (g), electrum (e), silver (s), and copper

(c); inscriptions (B and a number, referring to the historical reference bibliography, part B);

documents (C and a number); medieval Arabic works (A and a number). Failing these,

modern sources (D and a number) or my own conclusions (H) supply the data. Although

this system is rather unwieldy and unattractive, no better way of supplying this essential

reference material has presented itself; it is hoped that familiarity will render it less ob-

jectionable. The parentheses following Christian dates indicate the source from which the

month of the Moslem year was derived, enabling me to specify the correct one of the two

possible Christian years.

The 'Abbasids in North Afr1ca

Sunnite khalifahs of the BanuH-'Abbds of Baghdad a.H. 132-656 (a.D. 749-1258):

1-25 too early.

26-31 generically on Murabrt gold 26-90, 92-446.

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31 al-Muqtafi-li-amr-Allah (g, A35h) abu-'Abd-Allah (g, A35h) Muhammad (A35h) ibn-

Ahmad (28; A35h) a.H. 530 (A35h) -555 (A35h) a.d. 1136 (no alternative) -1160

(A35h): generically on Z1rid gold 24a and Murabrfc gold (see above), specified on

Hammadid gold 25.

32-35 no African coins.

36 al-Mustansir-bi-Allah (s, A35h) abu-Ja'far (s, A35h) al-Mansur (A2oa) ibn-Muhammad

(55; A35h) a.H. 623 (A35h) -640 (A2oa) a.d. 1226 (no alternative) -1242 (A2oa):

generically on Hiidid gold 540 and silver 1117-1120, specified on Hudid silver 1121.

The Rulers and their Coinages

5i

37 al-Musta'sim-bi-Allah (A35h), abu-Ahmad (A35h) 'Abd-Allah (A35h) ibn-al-Mansur

(36; A35h) a.h. 640 (A35h) -656 (A35h) a.d. 1242 (A35h) -1258 (A35h): generically on

Hiidid gold 541.

26

Muhammad

27

28

II

29 31

II

30 32

33

34

35

36

37

The 'Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad had once controlled all North Africa, but their sway

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had ended with the attainment of independence by the Aghlabids and the Idrisids about

a.d. 8oo, just as it had previously been terminated in Spain by the establishment of the

Umayyad am1rate. The Fattimid conquests in the tenth century had closed all Africa to

them permanently.

With this in mind, it is clear that the appearance of 'Abbasid names and titles on late

medieval North African coins in no respect represented a revival of their temporal power.

What it did signify was a spiritual submission to the theory of a single orthodox Sunnite

caliphate.

This distinction is clearly seen in the Murabit gold coinage. With a single unexplained

exception (91) every piece of Murabit gold accords the epithet 'Abd-Allah and the caliphal

titles al-imam and amir al-mu'minin to this distant and shadowy suzerain, who was never

individually named, though occasionally generically called al-'Abbasi on the later dinars.

For themselves the Murabits adopted the lesser titles al-amir and amir al-muslimin, never

aspiring to full caliphal rank. The silver, not restricted by Moslem political theory to the

caliph, does not carry the deferential formulas.

Shortly after the downfall of the Murabits in a.h. 541, two of their neighbors rendered

analogous numismatic homage to the 'Abbasids. Yahya, the 9th Hammadid, specified al-

52

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Muqtafi on a dinar dated 543 (25) reported by Ibn-Khaldun, while the Jami'id Rashid of

Gabes followed the Murabit formula in his 551 dinar (24a). Both of these coins indicate

anti-Fatimid sentiment similar to that motivating the great Zirid revolt, in which 'Abbasid

banners and prayers were substituted for Fatimid, though for some reason the 'Abbasid

caliphs were never mentioned on the Sunnite Zirid coins of al-Mu'izz.

Both Yahya and Rashid fell, like the Murabits, before the powerful Muwahhid military

machine, and the 'Abbasids disappeared from North African coins for nearly eighty years.

The Banu-Ghaniyah, collateral descendants of the Murabitts, invaded Tunisia from their

Balearic stronghold, and referred to the 'Abbasids as suzerains in their Friday prayers,

following family tradition, but no coins exist for their decades of banditry on the Muwahhid

frontiers. If any are ever located, they may be expected to bear 'Abbasid formulas.

During the Muwahhid collapse after a.h. 624 Ibn-Hud made good his independence in

Spain and struck several coins in nominal allegiance to the distant 'Abbasid caliph, as an

act of defiance to the Muwahhids. The only Hudid coins considered in this study are those

few struck in North Africa; during the three months of a.h. 630 that Ibn-Hud controlled

Ceuta both gold (540) and silver (1117-1120) were apparently struck there, with pro-

'Abbasid legends replacing the normal Muwahhid ones.

A further step was taken by the shaykh al-Yanashti, who governed Ceuta for the next

five years and coined silver in the name of the 36th 'Abbasid, al-Mustansir,dated635 (1121).

The final 'Abbasid coin struck in North Africa (541), although mintless and dateless,

can confidently be ascribed to the amir al-'Azafi at Ceuta between a.h. 647 and the termin-

ation of the 'Abbasid caliphate in 656 by the Mongol Hulagu.

With the end of the caliphate proper came the end of numismatic recognition in

North Africa, for the puppet-caliphs maintained by the Mamliiks at Cairo seem to have

exercised no such dominance over occidental loyalties as their legitimate predecessors had

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done for five centuries.

The Fatimids in North Afr1ca

ShiHte imams of the Banu-Fatimah of Cairo a.h. 297-567 (a.d. 909-1171).

1-7 too early.

8 al-Mustansir-bi-Allah (g, A35e) abu-Tamim (g, A41a) Ma'add (g, A35e) ibn-'Ali (7; A35e)

a.H. 427 (A18b) -487 (A18b) a.d. 1036 (A18b) -1094 (A18b): specified on Zirid gold 1,

2, 15-23.

9-14 no African coins.

Although the Shi'ite Fatimid imams had risen to power in Tunisia, they resolved in

a.D. 969 to shift their seat of government to newly-conquered Egypt, leaving North Africa

under a governor. For this post was chosen the able Sanhajah Berber general Bulukkin

ibn-Ziri; the demands of loyalty were dutifully fulfilled by him, by his son al-Mansur, and

by al-Mansur's son Badis. By the fourth generation, however, the bonds had greatly

slackened, and the combined motives of personal ambition, Sunnite proclivities, and

apparent security from reprisal led to the Zirid revolt of al-Mu'izz ibn-Badis.

The historians give a variety of dates for the various steps in this revolt; the coins

afford an exact chronology. The standard Fatimid dinars minted at al-Mahdiyah and al-

The Rulers and their Coinages

53

Mansuriyah through a.H. 438 represent the old order; both mint cities were named for

Fatimid founders. The first sign of aversion appeared in 439, when the old name Sabrah was

used instead of al-Mansuriyah, though Fatimid formulas were retained and al-Mustansir

was named as suzerain; no further change occurred in 440.

With 441, however, the revolt became unequivocal. The dinars of that and subsequent

years eliminated all reference to al-Mustansir, substituted Sunnite for Shi'ite formulas,

and were usually minted at Kairouan. As far as Arabic historians disclose, the revolt was

final, though numismatists have long known of later coins naming al-Mustansir and struck

at al-Mahdiyah.

Apparently Farrugia de Candia was the first to make the obvious deduction that the

Zirids must have sought a reconciliation with their vindictive former overlord, who had

sent the Banii-Hilal and the Banu-Sulaym to ravage Tunisia. Whether this tardy remorse

was accepted by al-Mustansir cannot now be determined, but since the new series con-

tinued for ten years, it may be supposed to have met with some measure of success.

The net effect from the Fatimid point of view may be briefly recapitulated. Until 438,

normal dinars. In 439 and 440, normal dinars (1, 2) except for the ominous change in

mint-name. From 441 to 449, rebellion. From 449 to 454, resumption of normal dinars

under al-Mu'izz. From 454 to 459, continuation of normal dinars under Tamim. After 459,

nothing, despite one coin reported for 480 but rejected as unbelievable.

Thus the long history of Fatimid coinage in North Africa came to its final close in 459,

as far as surviving coins indicate. The last quarter-century, analysed here, was perhaps the

most important, revealing as it does a vital diplomatic development of which no written

record seems to have survived.

The nominal Fatimid suzerainty over the Hammadids of eastern Algeria probably

lasted somewhat longer but does not seem to have been reflected on coins, for the only

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recorded coin of this dynasty (25) is said by Ibn-Khaldun to have been struck on the

occasion of the disavowal of Fatimid supremacy.

The Z1rids of Tun1s1a

Sanhdjah Berber rulers of the Banu-Ziri of Tunisia a.H. 362-543 (a.d. 972-1148).

1-3 too early.

4 abu-Tamim (B11, A27b) al-Mu'izz (B11, A35e) ibn-Badis (3; B11, A35e) a.h. 406 (A35e)

-454 (A35e) a.d. 1016 (A41a) -1062 (A36c):

First series (for Fatimid 8) a.h. 439 (g) -440 (g, A35e) gold 1, 2.

Second series (independent) a.h. 441 (g,A41a) -449 (g) anonymous gold 3-14,

anonymous silver 871.

Third series (for Fatimid 8) a.h. 449 (g) -454 (A35e) gold 15-17.

4A Hammu (A35e) ibn-Malil (A35e) independent Barghawatah Berber governor of Sfax

a.h. 451 (A35e) -493 (A35e) a.d. 1059 (H) -1099 (D9) anonymous gold 24.

5 abu-Yahya (A30c) Tamim (Bn, A35e) ibn-al-Mu'izz (4; Bn, A35e) a.h. 454 (g, A35e)

-501 (A35e) a.d. 1062 (A36c) -1108 (A36c):

First series (for Fatimid 8) a.H. 454 (g, A35e) -459 (g) gold 18-23.

Second series (independent) a.h. 459 (H) -501 (A35e) no coins.

54

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

6 abu-Tahir (A36c) Yahya (A35e) ibn-Tam1m (5; A35e) a.h. 501 (A35e) -509 (A35e)

a.d. 1108 (A41a) -1116 (A41a) no coins.

7 abii'l-Futuh (A35e) 'Ali (A35e) ibn-Yahya (6; A35e) a.h. 509 (A35e) -515 (A35e) a.d.

1116 (A41a) -1121 (A41a) no coins.

8 abu-Yahya (A36c) al-Hasan (A35e) ibn-'Ali (7; A35e) a.h. 515 (A35e) -543 (A35e)

a.d. 1121 (A41a) -1148 (A41a) no coins.

8A Rashid (g) ibn-Rashid (g, A35e) independent Jami'id Arab governor of Gabes a.h.

5xx (?) -554 (A84e) a.d. 115x (?) -1159 (H) gold (for 'Abbasid 31, not identified) 24a.

Zir1 Not related

I 4A, 8A

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The history of the Sanhajah Berber dynasty known as the Zirids is successively one of

prosperity, disaster, and redirection. From a.h. 372, the effective date of Bulukk1n's

governorship, to 438 their numismatic history is that of provincial Fatimid mints.

This study opens in 439 with the first stirrings of revolt, the substitution on otherwise

normal Fatimid dinars of the ancient name Sabrah for theFatjimid al-Mansuriyah. Al-Mu'izz

struck Shi'ite dinars of this type through 440, anonymous Sunnite coins from 441 to 449,

and Shi'ite dinars from 449 to his death in 454; these were continued through 459 by his

son Tamim. Apparently no further coins were struck by members of the main Zirid dynasty.

These sparse facts suggest many questions, to which only the most tentative answers

can be supplied. The motives for the revolt are well known: al-Mu'izz's ambition and

Sunnism buttressed by his misplaced feeling of security. Apparently no one event was the

occasion for his rebellion, but rather a general sense that the time was ripe.

Numismatically, the changes made in 441 were not far-reaching. The shape, weight,

and diameter of the standard dinar were retained; quarters and eighths were occasionally

minted for change, with scanty silver, just as under the Fatimids. Only the inscriptions

were altered, but this was done thoroughly. The Shi'ite praise of 'Ali was eliminated from

the obverse face; for the Fatimid names and titles on the reverse face was substituted a

The Rulers and their Coinages

55

Koranic quotation; another replaced the previous obverse margin; even the mint inscription

on the reverse margin was altered.

The new style lasted at Kairouan through 448, with a similar coin from Sfax ascribed

to 449. In that year al-Mu'izz fled to the fortified port of al-Mahdiyah, leaving the rest of

Tunisia to be pillaged by the Arab invaders. His coins from 449 to his death in 454 were

struck at al-Mahdiyah, where his son Tamim as governor had already coined Sunnite

dinars for him in 446 and 447.

The unexpected fact is that the final group is Shi'ite in every respect. 'Ali is venerated;

al-Mustansir is named and accorded caliphal titles; the concentric style is revived. There

can be no possible doubt as to the significance of all this: an attempt at reconciliation with

al-Mustansir, inexplicably ignored or suppressed in medieval Arabic histories.

This Shi'ite series was continued by Tamim through 459; its duration, and the variety

in styles utilized, suggest acceptance by Cairo as a Fatimid mint in good standing from

449 to 459. Motives on both sides are easy to understand: the Zirids seeking any ally

against the ferocious horde devastating Tunisia and vainly hoping that al-Mustansir could

control the destroyers he had loosed; the Fatimid delighted with his revenge and welcoming

the subservient penitent as a testimony to his firm way with dissenters.

Between 459 and the Sicilian conquest of al-Mahdiyah in 543, the Zirids, ruling chiefly

the capital with little or no hinterland, capitalized on adversity by turning seaward. A

judicious alternation of commerce and corsairship partially restored their power and

prosperity. For what reason, then, did they not resume coining money?

The answer must surely be sought in the cutting by nomad Arabs of their source of

supply for raw gold, previously shipped across the Sahara by camel caravan. What gold

they secured by trade or raid was already minted, and adequate to their needs. Silver had

always been rare in Tunisia, even in Aghlabid times. And finally, if any coins were struck by

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the later Zirids, they were probably looted by the Sicilian Normans and eventually melted

into bullion.

The relatively few surviving Zirid coins are chiefly gold dinars weighing about 4.05

grams, with a diameter of about 23 millimeters, neatly struck, in Kuf1 script. The inscrip-

tions on the Sh1'ite series are identical with standard Fatimid legends; the Sunnite ones,

being anonymous, are remarkable only in the unusual minting phrase "struck in (the) city

of (the) power of Islam and al-Qayrawan", ironic in view of the fact that Kairouan would

soon lie utterly in ruins.

An anonymous dinar of Zirid type (24) is, because of its mint and date, ascribed by

Farrugia de Candia to the independent Barghawatah Berber governor of Sfax Hammu

ibn-Malil, whose attack on al-Mahdiyah was defeated by Tam1m. Its date, 461, is the latest

known for Tunisia before the Sicilian conquest.

A still more unusual Murabit-style dinar (24a) is reported by Prieto y Vives as struck

at Qabis in 551 by al-Rashid ibn-Rafi'. Since his illustration is execrable, and since the al-

Rashid to whom he refers died in 543 and was not the son or descendant of Rafi', I at first

reluctantly rejected this coin, until I located the Schulman specimen, the clear photograph

of which disproves its ascription to Qadis (Cadiz) for 552. Prolonged scrutiny led me to the

present reading, al-Rashid ibn-Rashid, suggesting one of the two sons of Prieto's al-Rashid

who ruled between his death and the Muwahhid conquest of Gabes in 554, with Sicilian

56 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

interruptions. Ibn-Khaldiin gives their names as Muhammad and Mudafi'; the latter

signifies postponing and is probably a nick-name, so it seems a reasonable assumption

that the dinar was struck by the last Jami'id under his real name al-Rashid.

Any alternative explanation would have either to identify another person named al-

Rash1d who could have ruled Gabes in 551 or to explain why the first al-Rashid was not

ibn-Kamil, .as Ibn-Kaldun calls him, as well as the discrepancy in dates. Perhaps my

solution requires fewer untenable assumptions than its competitors.

No coins are recorded for the other local Arab and Berber rulers of cities or tribes in

Tunisia, Tripolitania, or eastern Algeria during this turbulent period, though some few of

them may have minted a little gold.

Sanhdjah Berber rulers of the Banu-Hammdd of eastern Algeria a.h. 405-547 (a.d.

1014-1152).

1 too early.

2 al-Qa'id (A35e) ibn-Hammad (j; A35e) a.h. 419 (A35e) -446 (A35e) a.d. 1028 (A41a)

-1055 (A41a) no coins.

3 Muhsan (A35e) ibn-al-Qa'id (2; A35e) a.h. 446 (A35e) -447 (A35e) a.d. 1055 (A41a)

-1055 (A41a) no coins.

4 Bulukkin (A35e) ibn-Muhammad ibn-Hammad (j; A35e) a.H. 447 (A35e) -454 (A35e)

a.d. 1055 (A41a) -1062 (A41a) no coins.

5 al-Nasir (C12,A35e) ibn-'Alannas ibn-Hammad (j; A35e) a.H. 454 (A35e) -481 (A35e)

a.d. 1062 (A41a) -1088 (A41a) no coins.

6 al-Mansfir (A35e) ibn-al-Nasir (5; A35e) a.h. 481 (A35e) -498 (A35e) a.d. 1088 (A41a)

-1104 (D9,D14) no coins.

7 Badis (A35e) ibn-al-Mansur (6; A35e) a.h. 498 (A35e) -498 (A41a) a.d. 1104 (D9,D14)

-1105 (A41a) no coins.

The Hammad1ds of Eastern Alger1a

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Zirid 1

Muhammad

'Alannas

The Rulers and their Coinages 57

8 al-'Azlz (A35e) ibn-al-Mansur (6; A35e) a.h. 498 (A41a) -515 (A35e) a.d. 1105 (A41a)

-1121 (A60b) no coins.

9 Yahya (g,A35e) ibn-al-'Aziz (8; g.Atfe) a.H. 515 (A35e) -547 (A35e) a.d. 1121 (A60b)

-1152 (C11) gold (for 'Abbasid 31) 25.

The numismatic history of the Hammadid dynasty must be based oh somewhat

inadequate material, for the sad fact is that no coin survives which has been soundly

attributed to these Sanhajah Berber cousins and rivals of the Zirids.

Between Hammad's declaration of independence in a.h. 405 and al-Mansur's accession

in 481 no coins were minted, according to Ibn-Khaldun, but between 481 and the Muwahhid

conquest in 547 several coins must have been struck; we know only the 543 dinar (25)

described by Ibn-Khaldun, of which no surviving specimen is recorded. M. de Beylie, who

excavated Qal'at Bam-Hammad, provided in an appendix to his volume a group of

preposterous sketches, purporting to represent this and other Hammadid coins; fortunately,

he expressed serious doubts of their reliability. He also included a photograph of a coin he

dug up and attributed to al-Mansur, the 6th Hammadid, on unascertainable grounds. It

appears to be a well-worn Fatimid dinar of indeterminable mint and date; the original,

supposedly in the Bibliotheque Nationale, cannot be located.

The external politics of the Hammadids were to counter their kinsmen, the Zirids.

Whichever supported the 'Abbasids would find its neighbor in the Fatimids' camp. Each

strove to turn the Arab hordes, and the Sicilian Normans, against the other. Before the

Arab invasions they were military rivals; afterwards, piratica1. When the last Zirid was

defeated by the Sicilians, he fled for refuge to the last Hammadid, who put him in prison.

The Hammud1ds 1n North Africa

'Alid Arab rulers of the Banu-Hammud of Malaga a.h. 407-449 (a.d. 1016-1057).

1-5 too early.

6 Idris II (s,A48a) ibn-Yahya I (3; A48a) a.h. 434 (A6b) -446 (s,A6b) a.d. 1043 (A48a)

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-1055 (notes to A48a):

Without heir a.h. 434 (A6b) -439 (H) a.d. 1043 (A48a) -1047 (H) too early.

With heir Muhammad (9; s,A27c) a.h. 439 (s) -446 (s, A6b) a.D. 1047 (H) -1055

(notes to A48a) silver 872-879.

7-9 no African coins.

interregnum between end of dynasty proper and independence of 9A a.h. 449 (D9) -453

(A27c) a.D. 1057 (D9) -1061 (H).

9A Saqaut (s.c.A9o) ibn-Muhammad (H) Barghawatah Berber governor of Ceuta a.H.

453 (A27c) -471 (A90) a.d. 1061 (H) -1078 (H):

With heir al-'Izz (9B; s,c,A27c) silver 880-886, copper 1157-1160.

9B al-'Izz (s,A27c) ibn-Saqaut (9A; A35e) Barghawattah Berber governor of Ceuta a.h.

471 (A90) -476 (A35e) a.d. 1078 (H) -1083 (A35e):

With heir Saqaut (9C; s) silver 887.

58 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Hammud

Not related

9A

9B

9C

Pre-eminent among the petty kings who divided up Umayyad Spain in the early

eleventh century were, at first, the Hammudids of Malaga, but by a.h. 439, when this study

starts, they had been outmatched by the 'Abbadids of Seville, and even within their tiny

state they dissipated their strength in internecine warfare. A branch of the family held

Algeciras, while the main dynasty also ruled Ceuta in Africa, bringing them within the

scope of this study.

The only member of the dynasty proper to coin at Ceuta after 439 was the6th, Idris II,

with his son Muhammad as heir. He struck only silver of poor alloy, like all his family, of

whom Muhammad I, Idris III, and al-Qasim II were at war with him after 438. It was for

this reason that he was often forced to take refuge at Ceuta, where his support was centered,

though he also spent some time in prison there.

His dirhems are similar to those of the later Spanish Umayyads and the other petty

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kings in style and content. He assumed caliphal titles and epithets but did not mention his

descent. The script is a thin degenerate Kuf1.

After the collapse of the dynasty in 449, Ceuta was held by a succession of non-royal

adventurers culminating in the Barghawatah Berber Saqaut and his posterity. His coins,

in an illegible stubby Kuf1 script on silver so base it is usually termed copper, are none-

theless important. They are said by Vives to date from 455 to 467, but del Rivero, who is

far from infallible, challenges all dates prior to 464. 462 does exist; for 455 and 456, doubt

may be justified.

They are crowded with names, titles, and epithets. Saqaut is al-Mansur, al-Ma'an,

Baha'-al-Daulah. He, or some person unknown, is al-imam, 'Abd-Allah, amir al-mu'min1n.

His son al-Tzz is al-hajib, the chancellor.

The tough, elderly ex-slave who assumed this welter of nomenclature died in battle

against the Murabit Yiisuf ibn-Tashfin, leaving al-Tzz to continue the defense of Ceuta.

This he managed for an incredible five additional years before being captured; by insolence

he provoked Yusuf into killing him untortured. His embattled tenure 471-476 is

represented numismatically by a mintless, dateless base silver dirhem with the field

inscriptions inside octagons.

Again he, or some unknown and unspecified person, is al-imam, 'Abd-Allah, am1r al-

mu'minin. He is Diya'-al-Daulah, which is, like his father's Baha'-al-Daulah, an epithet

The Rulers and their Coinages

59

with an oriental flavor not found elsewhere in this study. And al-hajib is Saqaut, Diya'-al-

Daulah too. Though the latter is generally presumed to be al-Tzz's father, no explanation

has been offered for the change in epithets or for his appearance as chancellor following his

undoubted death. My own conclusion is that a third generation is involved, with the

younger Saqaut as heir to his father al-Tzz and sharing the same epithet. He is not

mentioned by historians.

Of the other pre-Murabit rulers of Morocco no coins survive dated after a.h. 439,

unless some of the curious small gold coins ascribed by Brethes to the Banu-Khazriin of

Sijilmasah are that late. As noted in the corpus, these coins are not available for study, nor

are published descriptions and plates adequate; there are probably many such coins to be

unearthed by archaeologists and ethnologists in Morocco for the use of later generations of

scholars.

The Murab1t Sect

Lamtunah Berber rulers of the Murdbitun a.h. 448-541 (a.d. 1056-1147).

j Abu-Bakr (g,s,c,A35e) ibn-'Umar (g,s,c,A35e) a.h. 448 (A84e) -480 (g,A35e) a.d. 1056

(A84e) -1087 (A84d) gold (for 'Abbasids 26 and 27, not identified) 26-52, silver 888-890,

copper 1161.

1A 'Ali (g) ibn-x (?) governor of Sijilmasah about a.h. 459 (H) a.d. 1067 (H) gold (for

'Abbasid 26, not identified) 53.

1B Ibrahim (g) ibn-Abi-Bakr (1; g) governor of Sijilmasah a.H. 462 (g) -467 (g) a.D. 1070

(H) -1074 (H) gold (for 'Abbasid 26, not identified) 54-57.

2 Yusuf (g,s,Bn,A35e) ibn-Tashfin (cousin of 1; g,s,Bn,A35e) a.h. 480 (g,A35e) -5oo

(g,A36c) a.d. 1087 (A84d) -1106 (A36c):

Without heir a.h. 480 (g,A35e) -496 (A84d) a.d. 1087 (A84d) -1103 (A84d) gold

(for 'Abbasids 27 and 28, not identified) 58-120, silver 891-901.

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With heir 'Ali (3; g,s,A35e) a.h. 496 (A84d) -5oo (g,A36c) a.d. 1103 (A84d) -1106

(A36c) gold (for 'Abbasid 28, not identified) 121-151, silver 902-904.

3 'AH (g,e,s,c,A35e) ibn-Yusuf (2; g,e,s,c,A35e) a.h. 5oo (A36c) -537 (g,A35e) a.d. 1106

(A36c) -1143 (A36c):

Without heir a.h. 5oo (A36c) -522 (g) a.d. 1106 (A36c) -1128 (no alternative) gold

(for 'Abbasids 28 and 29, not identified) 152-291, electrum 939, silver 905-938,

940-967, 970-972, anonymous silver 968, 969, copper 1162-1169.

With heir Sir (3A; g,e,s,A51b) a.h. 522 (g) -533 (g) a.d. 1128 (no alternative) -1139

(H) gold (for 'Abbasids 29-31, not identified) 292-361, electrum 991, 992,

silver 973-990, 993, 994.

With heir Tashfin (4; g,s,A35e) a.h. 533 (g,A84d) -537 (g,A35e) a.d. 1139 (H) -1143

(A36c) gold (for 'Abbasid 31, not identified) 362-403, silver 995-1017.

4 Tashfin (g,s,A35e) ibn-'Ali (3; g,s,A35e) a.h. 537 (g,A35e) -540 (g.As1c) a.d. 1143

(A84e) -1145 (A51c):

Without heir a.h. 537 (g, A35e)~538 (A91) a.d. 1143 (A84e) -1144 (A91) gold (for

'Abbasid 31, not identified) 404-421, silver 1018-1033.

With heir Ibrahim (5; g,s,A35e) a.H. 538 (g.A91) -540 (g.As1c) a.D. 1144 (A91)

-1145 (A51c) gold (for 'Abbasid 31, not identified) 422-432, silver 1034-1038.

6o

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

5 Ibrahim (A35e) ibn-Tashfin (4; Atfe) a.H. 540 (A51c) -540 (H) a.d. 1145 (A51c) -1145

(H) no coins.

6 Ishaq (g,s,A35e) ibn-'Ali (3; g,s,A35e) a.H. 540 (g) -541 (g,A35e) a.d. 1145 (H) -1147

(A35e) gold (for 'Abbasid 31, not identified) 433-442, silver 1039-1052.

6A Yahya (g,A35e) ibn-Ab1-Bakr ibn-'AH (3; g,A35e), called al-Sahrawi (A35e), rebel at

Ceuta against Muwahhids a.H. 542 (A35e) -543 (g,A84e) a.d. 1147 (H) -1148 (H) gold

(for 'Abbasid 31, not identified) 443.

6B Yahya (C11,A35e) ibn-'Ali (C11, A35e), called Ibn-Ghaniyah (A35e), Massufah Berber

governor of Granada a.h. 541 (A51c) -543 (C11,A35e) a.d. 1147 (A51c) -1148 (Cn)

gold (for 'Abbasid 31, not identified, and the Banu-Tashfin) 446, silver (for the Banu-

Tashfin) 1053-1056.

6C Maymun (A35e) ibn-Badr (Codera) Lamtunah Berber governor of Cordova until a.h.

549 (A35e) a.d. 1154 (H) gold (for 'Abbasid 31, not identified, and the Banu-Tashfin)

445.

6D unidentified governor of Nul Lamtah about a.h. 542 (g) a.d. 1147 (H) anonymous

gold (for 'Abbasid 31, not identified) 444.

Related

through

mother

6B

Talakakin

'Umar

Yahya

1B

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Ibrahim

Tashfin

Not related

1A?

6C

6D?

Abu-Bakr

6A

3A

After the sparse coinage of their predecessors and contemporaries, the Murabits

provide a splendid contrast. Here we have available a rich and bountiful series generous in

proper names, titles, mints, and dates.

None of this was to be expected of the puritanical sect established by the reformer

'Abd-Allah ibn-YaS1n among the veiled (mulaththimun) tribesmen of the Sahara. After

the death, in battle against negroes of Ghana to the south, of the founder and of his skilled

general Yahya ibn-'Umar, al-Lamtum, Yahya's brother Abu-Bakr assumed command of

the Murabit (outpost) army, and is generally considered to have been the first temporal

ruler of the sect and the founder of the ruling dynasty.

Sijilmasah, the first important city taken by the Murabits, fell in a.h. 446; Abu-Bakr

assumed command in 448; his first surviving dinar was struck there in 450. Yet the pattern

The Rulers and their Coinages

61

established by this grave and uncultured desert chieftain in this remote Moroccan stronghold

was followed without important alteration by his veiled successors ruling not only Morocco

but all Moslem Spain, and was fully worthy of that prosperous and civilized land.

The coinage was based on the gold dinar, with a weight of about 4.2 grams and an

average diameter of 25 millimeters. Over 15oo specimens are reported, with over 4oo having

recorded weights averaging 4.05 grams. Much of this was struck in Spain, through the raw

gold doubtless was obtained from the negroes south of the Sahara, and was thus the first

large quantity of gold struck in western Europe since Roman times. Spanish Christian gold

was directly patterned on that of their Moslem foes.

Very little fractional gold is known: two half dinars (52, 210) and a single quarter

dinar (91). Of more interest are the few electrum coins reported (939, 991, 992), the only

instance in this study of the use of this alloy; I have not discovered the name applied to

these electrum coins or their relative value.

A substantial amount and great variety of Murabit silver exists. Denominations

include both the old dirhem, the size of a dinar but varying in weight, and the new qirat,

about 13 millimeters in diameter and averaging .95 gram, with halves, quarters, eighths,

and even sixteenths thereof. Mints are often named, but more often not; the great assort-

ment of types suggests widespread minting with considerable local autonomy.

Copper is restricted to a few imitation dinars and dirhems which may have been

debased official issues but were probably contemporary forgeries.

Nearly half the known gold coins included in this survey are Murabit, and nearly half

the total number of specimens recorded. This prolific minting within less than a century

must reflect an extraordinary prosperity, which had the usual effect of softening up the

heirs of the warriors so that they fell easy prey to the next wave of hardy Berber invaders,

the fanatical Muwahhids.

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Except for a few silver pieces in Naskhi, or Kiifi and Naskhi, the Murabit coins are

engraved in a plain Kiifi, somewhat coarse at the start but usually clear and elegant. The

usual terse religious invocation precedes the name and title of the ruler and of his heir, if

any, on the obverse field.

The reverse field is normally devoted to the 'Abbasid caliph: al-imam, 'Abd-Allah,

amir al-mu'minin, sometimes al-'Abbasi. The obverse margin is Koranic; the reverse

contains the minting inscription with mint and date, an estimable custom from the

historian's point of view. Because of this, there is little difficulty in attributing Murabit gold,

while the silver is almost equally straightforward.

Abu-Bakr, with the title al-amir, struck dinars at Sijilmasah from 450 to 480. The 450

pattern recurs for every succeeding year except three small clusters: 452-453, 459-460, and

464-466. In 452 a slightly different pattern was tried, but soon discarded. The second gap

probably corresponds to the dinar (53) dated 45x, the last digit being punched out, struck

by one 'Ali, who is otherwise completely unidentified; the assumption is that he was a

relative or lieutenant left in command while Abu-Bakr led a military expedition southward.

The same theory would account for the dinars (54-57) dated 462 to 466 or 467 and struck

by al-amir Ibrahim ibn-Abi-Bakr, obviously a son left in temporary command, though he

is overlooked by the Arabic historians.

These historians say that in 453 Abu-Bakr turned Morocco over to his cousin and

62

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

lieutenant Yusuf ibn-Tashfin, devoting the remainder of his life to spreading Islam by

militant methods among the negroes of the Senegal region. Yusuf's 27-year tenure as

viceroy, before Abu-Bakr's death in battle in 480, left no slightest numismatic traces in

direct contradiction of several Arabic chroniclers though during this period he founded

Marrakesh, conquered Fez and Ceuta in Morocco, took Tlemcen in Algeria, and defeated

the Spanish Christians at Zallaca.

Again contrary to the evidence of the Arabic historians, when Yusuf did assume power

in 480 he did not adopt the title amir al-muslimin, for all his coins limit themselves simply

to al-amir.

Commencing with Sijilmasah alone, Yiisuf slowly added other mints: Ceuta (484),

Fez (484), Aghmat (486), Cordova (486), Seville (489), Jativa (489), Marrakesh (490), San

Lucar (491), Almeria (492), Granada (493), Tlemcen (494), Nul (494), Malaga (494),

Denia (495), Alcantara (496), and Baeza (497). Not all of these struck annually, but they

turned out a substantial number of standardized dinars and a handful of silver.

Among the few innovations found on Yusuf's dinars are mint-marks (often once j,)

and the first instance of the substitution of Je for its synonym <i_, year (112). Both of

these novelties were to become very common on later Murabn) gold.

In 496 Yusuf had his son 'Ali proclaimed heir apparent, and this event was reflected

on half of the surviving issues of 497, while by 499 all the mints then striking had redesigned

their dies to honor the heir. Apparently each mint was free to do this when and how it

willed, to judge from the variety of solutions contrived; even mints using the mark K,

thought by some to designate a common mint-master, followed no common course. A

Sijilmasah dinar (172) outdid itself by implying that 'Ali rather than Yusuf was ruling, a

change which actually occurred in 5oo, on the first day of which Yusuf died at a very

advanced age.

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All coins of Yusuf dated 5oo (132, 140, 146, 147) are presumably posthumous issues

from previously prepared dies; for convenience they are grouped with his regular coins.

The coinage as inherited by 'Ali might be characterized thus; mostly gold, of high

quality and regularity, well engraved and well struck at almost every important city of

Morocco and Andalusia, with considerable autonomy at each mint as regards selection and

arrangement of legends on both gold and silver. During his tranquil reign of 37 years it

flourished and proliferated abundantly. Chronological subdivisions are provided by the

proclamation as heir apparent of his son S1r in 522 and of his son Tashfin in 533 after

Sir's death.

His African mints in 500 were Aghmat, Sijilmasah, and Marrakesh, to which were

added Fez (501), Nul (501), Tlemcen (505), Sala (508), Ban1-Tawada (513), and Ceuta and

Meknes (dateless silver). Sijilmasah, which had recognized him prematurely, continued to

accord him only the family title al-amir until 520, but the others used the sub-caliphal

amir al-muslimin from 5oo.

Mints for dinars in Spain were Seville (from 510), where a slight rearrangement of the

obverse face was made, and where a mint-master named Yashir added his name to the

coins after 519, Valencia (5oo-512), Algeciras (507-509), Denia (5oo-504), Jativa (5oo only),

Granada (from 501), where a new reverse margin was introduced in 519 and in 520 a

special annotation treated in the following paragraph, Cordova (503 only), Loja (511 only),

The Rulers and their Coinages

63

Malaga (5oo-506), Murcia (501-512), where oddly anonymous dirhems were also struck,

and Almerica (from 506). It is noteworthy that only Seville, Granada, and Almeria were in

operation as this period ended.

Granada's innovation of 520 was the insertion of the words "waznu qadimu", former

weight, outside the inner circle. This implication of a deficiency made good will not bear

scrutiny; 30 Granada dinars struck between 501 and 520 average 3.97- grams, while 12

with the new claim average 3.94+; apparently this was merely bureaucracy at work, twelfth

century model.

Several of the dinar mints also struck silver, as did Saragossa, Jerez, and Cuenca.

Much of the mintless silver is also probably attributable to Spain; it is varied and well-

executed, but does not require detailed comment.

The eleven years in which Sir was heir, 522-533, found his name added by each mint

as local option specified. Aghmat, Sijilmasah, Fez, Marrakesh, and Nul Lamtah continued

to be the African dinar mints, with Ceuta and Tangier coining silver. Seville, with Yashir

as mint-master, Granada, and Almeria struck dinars in Spain; Murcia continued dirhems.

The final years 533-537, with Tashfin as heir, used the same five Moroccan dinar

mints, with Tlemcen in western Algeria, while Ceuta still coined silver. Al-'Abbas! was

often added to the reverse field, and minor varieties proliferated. Only Seville and Almeria

continued in Spain, where insurrection threatened, with silver from Jaen.

Thus over the long generation of 'Ali's reign the coinage remained fairly stable in

appearance, weight, and legends, but the mints gradually closed and those which stayed

open lost their fine judgment, changing styles rapidly and overcrowding fields and margins

as if the insertion of an extra pious phrase afforded more in spiritual merit than it cost in

artistic self-respect.

The same mints for gold that had served Tashfin as heir of 'Ali continued to serve him

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as ruler. His own dinars, especially those on which his son Ibrahim appears as heir, tend to

be overcrowded in field and margin, and their style was changed more frequently than

necessary. Codera made skillful use of the 540 Tlemcen dinar (406) to refute the Arabic

historians' oft-repeated assertion that Tashfin's death occurred at Oran in Ramadan of 539.

His silver is wholly mintless except for a Cordovan coin which must have been struck by

the petty king Hamdin ibn-Muhammad.

No coins exist for Ibrahim's brief reign in 540.

Hamdin must also have been responsible for two (441, 442) of the few dinars bearing

Ishaq's name; they were minted at Cordova in 540 and 541. Granada was revived as a

dinar mint along with Seville, for Almeria had fallen to Christian assailants. Similarly,

available mints in Morocco were limited to Aghmat, Marrakesh, and Nul Lamtah, and the

number of issues dropped sharply under heavy Muwahhid pressure, though a good deal of

mintless silver was coined.

The fall of Marrakush and execution of Ishaq in 541 brought the main dynasty to its

close, but Murabit garrisons held out in several strongholds. The dinar (443) struck by al-

Sahrawi at Ceuta in 543 gives his genealogy, his sub-caliphal and extraordinary spiritual

pretensions, and the true date of his surrender, often set at 542. The dinars (445, 446) and

silver minted in memory of the Banii-Tashfin mark the continued resistance of Cordova

and Granada.

64

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Nul Lamtah, too, must have held out for a few months, as the anonymous dinar (444)

indicates, but no record survives of the governor responsible.

The other petty rulers who struck coins in Spain either, like Hamdin, just prior to 541,

or between Murabit and Muwahhid rule, fall outside the scope of this study. It should

not be forgotten that it is to this transitional period that the unique Jami'id (24a)

and Hammadid (25) dinars belong, as well as the partisan Muwahhid gold and silver

struck in Africa and Spain.

The larger significance of the Murabit coinage as historical documentation is evident

when it is compared with the extreme paucity of their epigraphic and documentary remains

and with the extraordinary meagerness of the historical sources concerning their supre-

macy. Ibn-Khaldun, for example, devotes about one-fifth as much space to the Murabits

as to the Muwahhids, and his colleagues do likewise, so that much of the information

derivable from the legends on the gold fills a vacuum left by the historians.

The Muwahhid Sect

Kumiyah Berber rulers of the Muwahhidun a.h. 524-668 (a.d. 1130-1269).

0 al-Mahdi (g,s,c,A35e) Muhammad (A35e) ibn-Tiimart (A35e) spiritual leader a.h. 515

(A35e) -522 (A35e) a.d. 1121 (A85c) -1128 (no alternative) no coins; mentioned

posthumously on most Muwahhid and Hafsid coins.

interregnum between death of o and proclamation of 1 a.h. 522 (A35e) -524 (A35e)

a.d. 1128 (no alternative) -1130 (A15).

1 abu-Muhammad (g,s,B1,A51b) 'Abd-al-Mu'min (g,s,B1,A35e) ibn-'Ali (g,s,B1,A35e)

a.h. 524 (A35e) -558 (A35e) a.d. 1130 (A15) -1163 (A35e):

Without heir a.h. 524 (A35e) -551 (C11) a.d. 1130 (A15) -1156 (C11) anonymous

partisan gold 446a, gold 447-472, anonymous partisan silver 1057-1061,

partisan silver 1062-1064, silver 1065-1074.

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With heir abu-'Abd-Allah (g,A35e) Muhammad (1A; g,A35e) a.h. 551 (C11) -558

(A35e) a.d. 1156 (C11) -1163 (A84d) gold 473-480.

With heir abu-Ya'qub (g,A35e) Yusuf (2; g,A35e) a.h. 558 (A35e) -558 (A35e)

a.D. 1163 (A84d) -1163 (A35e) gold (see 2 as ruler).

2 abu-Ya'qiib (g,B1,C2,A35e) Yusuf I (g,C2,A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min (j; g,B1,A35e)

a.h. 558 (A35e) -580 (A35e) a.d. 1163 (A84d) -1184 (A51c):

First series, as amir a.h. 558 (A35e) -563 (A35e) a.d. 1163 (A35e) -1168 (A84d)

gold 481-492.

Second series, as amir al-mu'mimn a.h. 563 (A35e) -580 (A35e) a.d. 1168 (A84d)

-1184 (A51c) gold 493-498.

2A Mazdara' (g,A84d) ibn-Hayyan (A51c) Sanhajah Berber rebel at Taza a.h. 559 (A84d)

-559 (A84d) a.d. 1164 (H) -1164 (A84d) gold 499.

3 abu-Yusuf (g,A35e) Ya'qub (g,A35e) ibn-Yusuf I (2; A35e) a.h. 580 (A35e) -595 (A35e)

a.d. 1184 (A84d) -1199 (A35e):

Without heir a.h. 580 (A35e) -587 (A35e) a.d. 1184 (A84d) -1191 (H) gold 500-503.

With heir abu-'Abd-Allah (s,A5ic) Muhammad (4; Atfe) a.h. 587 (A35e) -595

(A35e) a.d. 1191 (H) -1199 (A35e) silver 1075.

The Rulers and their Coinages

65

4 abu-'Abd-Allah (g,A51c) Muhammad (g,A35e) ibn-Ya'qub (3; A35e) a.H. 595 (A35e)

-610 (A35e) a.d. 1199 (A35e) -1213 (A51c) gold 504-506.

5 abii-Ya'qub (g,A85c) Yusuf II (g,A35e) ibn-Muhammad (4; A^e) a.H. 610 (A35e) -620

(A35e) a.d. 1213 (A51c) -1224 (A35e) gold 507-509.

6 abu-Muhammad (A35e) 'Abd-al-Wahid I (A35e) ibn-Yusuf I (2; A35e) a.h. 620 (A35e)

-621 (A35e) a.d. 1224 (A35e) -1224 (A35e) (opposed during 621 by 7) no coins.

7 abu-Muhammad (C2,A35e) 'Abd-Allah (B1,C2,A35e) ibn-Ya'qub (3; A^$e) a.H. 621

(A84d) -624 (B1,A35e) a.d. 1224 (A84d) -1227 (B1,A35e) (opposed during 621 by 6 and

during 624 by 9) gold 510.

7A abu-Muhammad (A35e) 'Abd-Allah (A35i) ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-

Mu'min (1; A^Se) rebel at Baeza a.h. 621 (A35e) -626 (A35e) a.d. 1224 (H) -1229 (H) no

coins.

8 abu'l-'Ula (g,A35e) Idris I (g,A35e) ibn-Ya'qub (3; g,A35e) a.h. 624 (A35e) -629

(A84d) a.d. 1227 (A84e) -1232 (A84d) (opposed 624-629 by 9):

First series, with al-Mahdi a.h. 624 (A35e) -627 (A84e) a.d. 1227 (A84e) -1230

(A84e) gold 511.

Second series, without al-Mahdi a.h. 627 (A84e) -629 (A84d) a.d. 1230 (A84e)

-1232 (A84d) no coins.

9 abu-Zakariya' (g,A84d) Yahya (g,A35e) ibn-Muhammad (4; Atfe) a.h. 624 (A35e) -633

(A35e) a.D. 1227 (A84d) -1236 (A84d) (opposed during 624 by 7, 624-629 by 8, and

630-633 by 10) gold 512.

9A abu-Musa (s,A35e) 'Imran (s,A84d) ibn-Ya'qub (j; A35e) rebel amir at Ceuta a.H. 629

(A84d) -630 (A35e) a.d. 1232 (H) -1232 (D15) silver 1076, 1077.

jo abu-Muhammad (g,A85c) 'Abd-al-Wahid II (g,A35e) ibn-Idris I (8; g,A35e) a.h. 630

(A35e) -640 (A35e) a.d. 1232 (A35e) -1242 (A84d) (opposed 630-633 by 9):

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First series, without al-Mahdi a.h. 630 (A35e) -631 (H) a.d. 1232 (A35e) -1234 (H)

gold 513, silver 1078-1084.

Second series, with al-Mahdi a.h. 631 (H) -640 (A35e) a.D. 1234 (H) -1242 (A84d)

gold 514-517.

'Ali Not related

I o, 2A

1A 2 'Umar

3 6 Ishaq Muhammad

4 7 8 9A 12 7 A 13

5 9 10 11

66

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

11 abii'l-Hasan (g,A35e) 'Ali (A35e) ibn-Idris I (8; g,A35e) a.h. 640 (A35e) -646 (A35e)

a.d. 1242 (A84d) -1248 (A35e) gold 518-521.

12 abu-Hafs (g,A35e) 'Umar (B23,C19,A35e) ibn-Ishaq ibn-Yusuf I (2; g,C19,A35e) a.h.

646 (A35e) -665 (A35e) a.d. 1248 (A35e) -1266 (A84e) (opposed during 665 by 13)

gold 522-536, gold medal M1.

13 abii'l-'Ula (g,A35e) Idris II (A35e) ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min

(j; g,A35e) a.h. 665 (A35e) -668 (A35e) a.d. 1266 (A84d) -1269 (A36c) (opposed during

665 by 12) gold 537-539.

2-13 and Hafsids: anonymous silver 1085-1116, anonymous copper 1170, 1171.

The parallels between Murabit and Muwahhid history are striking. Each was a fanatic-

ally militant sect founded by a religious reformer in a remote section of Morocco, drawing

its initial support from a previously unimportant group of tribes, sweeping irresistably

over the strongly defended cities, and finally conquering all of Moslem Spain. Muhammad

ibn-Tumart, called al-Mahdi, played 'Abd-Allah ibn-YaSin's role with a considerable

difference; he was not a warrior-missionary like his prototype but a subtle theologian who

wrote a book of unitarian anti-anthropomorphic doctrine. He recruited supporters among

the Masmudah Berbers of the high Atlas, while the first Murabrfcs had been Lamtah and

Lamtunah Berbers of Sanhajah stock from the edge of the Sahara. His opposition was

more unified and better organized than had been the case in the preceding century, and

after overcoming it his generals struck eastward rather than southward.

Numismatically the contrast was complete and spectacular. The Murabit gold had

derived its style and weight standard from a long Moslem tradition ascending to the

Umayyad caliphs of Damascus; this was deliberately repudiated by the Muwahhids

(unitarians). The new dinar had a diameter of 19-22 millimeters and a standard weight of

2.4 grams; 146 weighed specimens average 2.27. The metal remained excellent, as did the

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quality of engraving and minting.

A cursive Naskhi script replaced the traditional Kufl. The field inscription was placed

in a square inscribed in a circle, with the four segments available for additional legends

instead of the former single margin. The new style, with only slight modifications, was

retained by all the later dynasties considered in this study, so that a.h. 540 may be con-

sidered as a numismatic watershed. Double dinars as well as fractions were soon introduced

to provide flexibility; the large coins served admirably to house the extended genealogical

inscriptions and epithets on which the Muwahhids laid so much importance. The range of

their diameters is 27-32 millimeters; 275 weighed specimens average 4.55 grams.

The content of the legends underwent an equally drastic revision. The Mahdi's

preeminence was added to the usual religious dogmas, while 'Abd-al-Mu'min and his

successors with their names, titles, epithets, and genealogies gradually crowded all other

phrases off the coins. Dates were never noted, and mints only occasionally, so that the

gains for the historian are offset by these losses.

The most important point, and one which has never heretofore been adequately

stressed, is the conscientious precision in terminology. A large proportion of the perfectly

clear late Muwahhid double dinars have been badly misread by competent scholars who

nevertheless changed duals to plurals or made comparable errors. Lane-Poole, Lavoix,

Vives, Prieto, and others analyzed these coins and corrected individual misreadings while

The Rulers and their Coinages

67

perpetuating others because they did not apprehend this underlying principle, which may

readily be confirmed from the coins or the plates.

In the silver as in the gold spectacular changes were introduced by 'Abd-al-Mu'min.

After a few trial pieces he jettisoned the traditional style in favor of square silver in a

cursive Naskhi script; his heirs developed this into the anonymous square dirbem which

was struck for decades throughout North Africa and Andalusia in enormous quantities,

and was counterfeited extensively by the Christians.

With occasional exceptions the remaining silver considered in this study, by whatever

dynasty it was minted, is square with legends derived from the Muwahhid pattern. Thus

the net effect of the numismatic reforms introduced by one man and developed by his heirs

was to last for over four centuries.

As was true for the Murabits, the Muwahhids left no copper coins except a few debased

or fraudulent dirhems. Al-Marrakushi noted that gilded copper dinars were minted to

ransom the sayyid 'Isa ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min from his Arab captors, but none has survived,

and the anecdote may be apocryphal.

The first partisan issues, oddly inscribed gold (446a) and silver (1057-1064), soon gave

way to a standardized coinage with a variety of African and Andalusian mints. The

conquests of the Muwahhids were promptly reflected on their dinars, possibly as a deliberate

method of propaganda, possibly by opening mints to coin the captured gold and silver for

paying the soldiers. Any late Zirid and Hammadid coins may have been lost to posterity in

this way, although a full assortment of late Murabn; coins survived.

'Abd-al-Mu'min used the caliphal title amir al-mu'minin on both gold and silver.

Mint-names and mint-marks occur in various positions on his gold, most of which was

struck in Africa. A preponderance of his silver, aside from the mintless variety, came from

Spanish mint-towns, including Murcia, not captured until nine years after his death.

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In 551 he made his son abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad his heir and added his name to

the gold with the title al-amir al-ajall. Though both of these events are recorded by

reputable historians, the resulting series of dinars has usually been ascribed to the 4th

Muwahhid, of the same name, Silvestre de Sacy's correct attribution having been dis-

regarded.

Just before his death in 558 'Abd-al-Mu'min chose another son, Yusuf, as heir instead

of the dissolute Muhammad. It is impossible to distinguish any dinars on which Yusuf may

have appeared as heir from those of the early part of his own reign, during which he

contented himself with the title al-amir al-ajall. Seville is his only Spanish mint, both

before and after his election as amir al-mu'minin in 563.

No silver bears Yusuf's name or that of most of his successors, for it was at this

period that the anonymous square dirhems were introduced. It is almost impossible to

ascribe these coins to individual rulers, or even to dynasties, as the Hafsids continued to

strike them for an indeterminate period. Blancard's study on the European imitations

enables them to be recognized with comparative ease by their confused engraving, while

Bel and Farrugia de Candia have made valuable studies of these coins, but except for

distinguishing those in ornamented Kufi as definitely Hafsid, it is still necessary to

consider those in Naskhi or plain Kufi as belonging to any of a number of Muwahhids or

Hafsids.

68

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

During 559, early in Yusuf's reign, Mazdara* ibn-Hayyan rebelled at Taza, struck

gold of which no specimen has been reported in modern collections , and was sup-

pressed.

Ya'qub struck the first of the splendid series of double dinars, with his father and

grandfather named on the reverse field and himself on the reverse segments. Some numis-

matists refer to these double dinars as dinars, but the correct value is established by the

"quarter dinar" denomination specified on coin 446a, weighing .55 gram, about one eighth

of the normal weight of the double dinars. An odd square silver piece (1075) may refer to

his son Muhammad as heir, but this attribution is questionable.

As caliph, Muhammad struck double dinars quite unlike the series of dinars often

erroneously ascribed to him. His conquest of the Baleares is reflected in the appearance of

Majorca and Minorca as mints for anonymous silver.

His son Yusuf II continued to add his name to those of his ancestors on the gold, but

he was soon replaced by his great-uncle 'Abd-al-Wahid I, for whom no coins are known.

The latter's nephew and successful opponent 'Abd-Allah is assigned an undescribed dinar.

The rebel al-Bayyasi struck no coins which have survived. Coins of any of this group may

be found in future excavations.

Idris I is said by the historians to have deleted al-Mahdi's name from the gold in 627,

but his only surviving double dinar (511) must have preceded that event, as it is orthodox

except for having six lines instead of five in each field. His nephew and opponent Yahya

also has but a single known double dinar, while Idris' brother Tmran, who made himself

independent at Ceuta, apparently coined only silver (1076, 1077) with the title al-amir.

'Abd-al-Wahid II inherited his father's anti-Mahd1 coinage and developed it in both

gold and silver. His early gold praised the Koran instead of the Mahdi; his early silver was

round and substituted his own epithet al-Rashid for the Mahdi as imamuna. Suggestions

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of a date appear on some of this silver, but clearer specimens must be found to determine

whether the historical date for the restoration of al-Mahdi's name, 631, is confirmed or

contradicted by the silver. The later gold coins show that this restoration actually did

occur. One of these bears an unidentified mint misread by Prieto as Malaqah (Malaga).

His brother 'Ali struck a few normal double dinars; he was succeeded by a distant

cousin named 'Umar who minted a variety of gold. 'Umar's mints included Ceuta, Sijil-

masah, and an unidentified city, also misread by Prieto as Malaqah. An interesting gold

medal is owned and described by Brethes.

The final Muwahhid, another distant cousin named Idris II, struck a few more gold

pieces to close out the numismatic history of this distinguished dynasty, since no coins are

reported for the several Muwahhid pretenders who arose after the Marinid victory in 668.

The Hud1ds 1n North Africa

Arab rulers of the Banu-Hud of Murcia a.h. 625-668 (a.d. 1228-1269).

/ abii-'Abd-Allah (notes to A84e) Muhammad I (A35e) ibn-Yusuf (A35e) a.h. 625 (A26)

-635 (A35e) a.d. 1228 (A48a) -1238 (A48a) anonymous gold (for 'Abbasid 36, not

identified) 540, anonymous silver (for 'Abbasid 36, not identified) 1117-1120.

The Rulers and their Coinages

69

1A abu'l-'Abbas (A26) Ahmad (A35e) ibn-x (?), called al-Yanashti (A35e), independent

amir of Ceuta a.h. 630 (A26) -635 (s,A35e) a.d. 1233 (A84e) -1238 (A84e) silver (for

'Abbasid 36) 1121.

2, 3 no African coins.

3A abu'l-Qasim (A35e) Ibrahim (notes to A8ob) ibn-abi'l-'Abbas (A7ob), called al-

'Azafi (A35e), independent amir of Ceuta a.h. 647 (A35e) -677 (H) a.d. 1249 (H) -1278

(notes to A8ob) anonymous gold (for 'Abbasid 37, not identified) 541.

4 no African coins.

The Hudids, as one of the petty dynasties of Moslem Spain which arose on the ruins of

the Muwahhid empire, are excluded from this study except for their North African issues.

After the Muwahhid amir Tmran had declared himself independent at Ceuta in a.h.

629, he found himself unable to hold out, so in 630 he exchanged the town for a sinecure

under Ibn-Hiid, who retained Ceuta for three months under the governorship of one al-

Qashtini. To this period may be ascribed a double dinar (540) and several square dirhems

(1117-1120) on which references to the Mahdi and the Muwahhids were replaced by

generalized homage to the 'Abbasid caliph, never individually specified. The approximate

date of these coins is determined by the style, analogous to contemporary Muwahhid

pieces, and the attribution follows because Ibn-Hud is the only ruler during this period

who both controlled African territory and acknowledged 'Abbasid suzerainty.

Later in 630 Ibn-Hud's governor was expelled by the inhabitants, who gave the

command to the amir Ahmad al-Yanashti. This amir kept power for five years, including

a sea blockade by the Genoese, whom he bought off for a large ransom. To him must be

attributed the round dirhem dated 635 (1121), which was struck in the name of the 'Abbasid

caliph abu-Ja'far, al-Mustansir-bi-Allah.

Then Ceuta passed into Muwahhid control until 643, and into Hafsid vassaldom until

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647, but for the next three decades it was again independent under the local amir abu'l-

Qasim, al-'Azafi, who struck a double dinar (541) of Hafsid type with pro-'Abbasid legends

at some time before 656, when the last 'Abbasid caliph was killed by Hulagu during the

sack of Baghdad. The date is established by the date of the Hafsid coins from which it

clearly derives; the attribution rests on the elimination of other possibilities for this date

and 'Abbasid recognition.

The Hafs1ds of Tunis1a and Eastern Algeria

Masmudah Berber rulers of the Banu-Hafs of Tunisia and eastern Algeria a.H. 627-982

(a.D. 1230-1574).

1 abu-Zakariya' (g,C18,A35e) Yahya I (g,B13,A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Wahid (g,B13,C18,A35e)

a.h. 627 (A84e) -647 (A35e) a.d. 1230 (A84e) -1249 (A35e):

First series, Muwahhid name a.h. 627 (A84e) -634 (A35e) a.d. 1230 (A84e) -1236

(D4) gold 542-544.

Second series, Muwahhid and Hafsid names a.h. 634 (A35e) -640 (A85c) a.d. 1236

(D4) -1242 (A85c) gold 545, 546.

Third series, Hafsid name a.h. 640 (A85c) -647 (A35e) a.D. 1242 (A85c) -1249

(A35e) gold 547-552, partisan gold 553-556.

70

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

2 abu-'Abd-Allah (g,C17,A35e) Muhammad I (g,C15,A35e) ibn-Yahya I (1; g,C18,A35e)

a.h. 647 (A35e) -675 (A35e) a.d. 1249 (A35e) -1277 (A35e):

First series, as amir a.h. 647 (A35e) -650 (A85c) a.d. 1249 (A35e) -1253 (A85c)

gold 557-561.

Second series, as amir al-mu'minin a.h. 650 (A85c) -675 (A35e) a.d. 1253 (A85c)

-1277 (A35e) gold 562-566, copper 1172.

2-8 anonymous silver 1122, 1123.

3 abu-Zakariya' (g,C12,A85c) Yahya II (g,A35e) ibn-Muhammad I (2; A35e) a.h. 675

(A35e) -678 (A35e) a.d. 1277 (A35e) -1279 (A35e) (opposed 677-678 by 4) gold 567,568.

4 abu-Ishaq (g,A35e) Ibrahim I (g,A35h) ibn-Yahya I (1; g,A35e) a.h. 677 (A85c) -681

(A35e) a.d. 1279 (A85c) -1283 (A35e) (opposed 677-678 by 3 and during 681 by 4A)

gold 569.

4A Ahmad (A35e) ibn-Marzuq (A35e), called Ibn-abi-'Umarah (A35e), impostor pretend-

ing to be abu'l-'Abbas (g) al-Fadl (g,A35e) ibn-Yahya II (3; Atfe) a.h. 681 (A35e) -683

(A35e) a.d. 1282 (A65) -1284 (A35e) (opposed during 681 by 4, 681-682 by 5, and

during 683 by 6) gold 570.

5 abii-Faris (A35e) 'Abd-al-'Aziz I (A35e) ibn-Ibrahim I (4; A35e) a.h. 681 (A35e) -682

(A35e) a.d. 1283 (A35e) -1283 (A35e) (opposed 681-682 by 4A) no coins.

6 abu-Hafs (g,Bn,C12,A35e) 'Umar I (g,A35h) ibn-Yahya I (1; a.h. 683 (A35e)

-694 (A35e) a.d. 1284 (A65) -1295 (A35e) (opposed during 683 by 4A and 683-694 by

6A) gold 571-573.

6A abu-Zakariya' (g,C12,A35e) Yahya (A35e) ibn-Ibrahim I (4; Atfe) amir at Bougie

a.h. 683 (A35e) -7oo (D4) a.d. 1284 (D4,D14) -1301 (D4) (opposed 683-694 by 6 and

694-7oo by 7) gold 574-576.

7 abii-'Abd-Allah (g,C12,A35e) Muhammad II (g,C12,A35e) ibn-Yahya II (3; C12,A35e)

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a.h. 694 (A35e) -709 (A35e) a.d. 1295 (A35e) -1309 (A35e) (opposed 694-7oo by 6A and

7oo-709 by 8) gold 577-579.

8 abu'l-Baqa' (g,A35e) Khalid I (g,C12,A35e) ibn-Yahya (6A; C12,A35e) a.h. 7oo (D4)

-711 (A35e) a.d. 1301 (D4) -1311 (A85c) (opposed 7oo-709 by 7, during 709 by 9,

710-711 by 10, and during 711 by 11):

First series, as amir at Bougie a.h. 7oo (D4) -709 (A35e) a.d. 1301 (D4) -1309

(A35e) no coins.

Second series, as amir al-mu'minin a.h. 709 (A35e) -711 (A35e) a.d. 1309 (A35e)

-1311 (A85c) gold 580.

9 abu-Yahya (A35e) Abu-Bakr I (A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Rahmanibn-Abi-Bakr ibn-Yahya I

(j; A35e) a.h. 709 (A35e) -709 (A35e) a.d. 1309 (A35e) -1309 (A35e) (opposed during

709 by 8) no coins.

jo abu-Yahya (g,C14,A35e) Abu-Bakr IT (g,C14,A35e) ibn-Yahya (6A; C12,A35e) a.h. 710

(A35e) -747 (A35e) a.d. 1310 (A18b) -1346 (A35e) (opposed 710-711 by 8, 711-717 by

11, 717-723 by 12, 721-730 by 12A, 724-725 by 12B, and 729-732 by 12C):

First series, as amir at Bougie and Constantine a.H. 710 (A35e) -718 (A85c) a.D.

1310 (A18b) -1318 (A85c) gold 581-583.

Second series, as amir al-mu'minin a.H. 718 (A85c) -747 (A35e) a.D. 1318 (A85c)

-1346 (A35e) gold 584-591.

The Rulers and their Coinages

7i

11 abu-Yahya (g,C2,A35e) Zakariya' I (g,C2,A35e) ibn-Ahmad ibn-Muhammad (brother

of 1; C2,A35e) a.h. 711 (A35e) -717 (A35e) a.d. 1311 (A65) -1318 (A85c) (opposed

during 711 by 8 and 711-717 by 10) gold 592, 593.

12 abu-'Abd-Allah (g,A35e) Muhammad III (g,A35e) ibn-Zakariya' I (11; A35e) a.H. 717

(A35e) -723 (A35e) a.d. 1317 (A35e) -1323 (no alternative) (opposed 717-723 by 10 and

721-723 by 12A) gold 594.

12A abu-'Abd-Allah (A35e) Muhammad (A35e) ibn-Abi-Bakr ibn-Musa (cousin of 1;

A35e) pretender a.h. 721 (A35e) -730 (A35e) a.d. 1321 (A35e) -1330 (A35e) (opposed

721-730 by 10, 721-723 by 12, 724-725 by 12B, and 729-730 by 12C) no coins.

12B abu-Ishaq (A35e) Ibrahim (A35e) ibn-Abi-Bakr I (9; A35e) pretender a.h. 724 (D14)

-725 (A35e) a.d. 1324 (D14) -1325 (A35e) (opposed 724-725 by 10 and 12A) no coins.

12C abu-Muhammad (H) 'Abd-al-Wahid (A35e) ibn-Zakariya' I (11; A^e) pretender a.h.

729 (A35e) -732 (A35e) a.d. 1329 (H) -1332 (A35e) (opposed 729-732 by 10 and

729-730 by 12A) no coins.

13 abu-Hafs (g,A35e) 'Umar II (g,A35e) ibn-Abi-Bakr II (10; g,A35e) a.h. 747 (A35e)

-748 (A35e) a.D. 1346 (A35e) -1347 (A85c) (opposed during 747 by 14) gold 595, 596.

14 abu'l-'Abbas (A35e) Ahmad I (A35e) ibn-Abi-Bakr II (10; Atfe) a.H. 747 (A35e) -747

(A35e) a.d. 1346 (A35e) -1346 (A35e) (opposed during 747 by 13) no coins.

interregnum under Marinid 11 between death of 13 and independence of 15 a.h. 748 (A35e)

-749 (A35e) a.d. 1347 (A85c) -1348 (D4,D14).

15 abu'l-'Abbas (g,A35e) al-Fadl (g,A35e) ibn-Abi-Bakr II (10; g,A35e) a.H. 749 (A35e)

-751 (A35e) a.d. 1348 (D4,D14) -1350 (A35e) (opposed 749~751 by 15A and 15B):

First series, at Bougie a.h. 749 (A35e) -749 (A35e) a.d. 1348 (D4,D14) -1349

(D14) gold 597, 598.

Second series, at Tunis a.h. 750 (A35e) -751 (A35e) a.d. 1350 (A85c) -1350 (A35e)

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gold 599, 600.

15A abu-Zayd (g,A35e) 'Abd-al-Rahman (g,A35e) ibn-Muhammad ibn-Abi-Bakr II (10;

A35e) amir at Constantine a.h. 749 (A35e) -755 (A35e) a.d. 1348 (D4,D14) -1355

(D14) (opposed 749-751 by 15 and 751-755 by 16) gold 601.

15B abu-'Abd-Allah (g,A35e) Muhammad (g,A35e) ibn-Yahya ibn-Abi-Bakr II (10;

g,A35e) amir at Bougie a.h. 749 (A35e) -753 (A35e), 761 (A35e) -767 (A35e) a.d. 1348

(A35e) -1352 (D14), 1360 (D14) -1366 (A61b) (opposed 749-751 by 15 and 761-767 by

16 and 17):

First reign (see above) gold 602.

Second reign, Marinid influence (see above) gold 603.

16 abu-Ishaq (g,C5,A35e) Ibrahim II (g,C5,A35e) ibn-Abi-Bakr II (10; g,C5,A35e) a.h. 751

(A35e) -770 (A35e) a.d. 1350 (A35e) -1369 (A65) (opposed 751-755 by 15A, 761-767 by

15B, and 755-758, 761-770 by 17) gold 604-607.

17 abu'l-'Abbas (g,B2o,C2,A35e) Ahmad II (g,B20,C14,A35e) ibn-Muhammad ibn-Abi-

Bakr II (to; g,C14,A35e) a.h. 755 (A35e)-758 (A35e),761 (A35e) -796 (A35e) a.d. 1354

(D14) -1357 (D4,D14), 1360 (A85c) -1394 (A35e) (opposed 761-767 by 15B, 755-758,

761-770 by 16, and 770-772 by 18):

First reign (see above) gold 608.

Second reign, Marinid influence (see above) gold 609.

72

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

18 abu'l-Baqa' (A35e) Khalid II (A35e) ibn-Ibrahim II (16; A35e) a.h. 770 (A35e) -772

(A85c) a.d. 1369 (A65) -1370 (A85c) (opposed 770-772 by 77) no coins.

79 abu-Faris (g,C2,A35e) *Abd-al-'Aziz II (g,C2,A85c) ibn-Ahmad II (77; g,C2,A35e)

a.h. 796 (A35e) -837 (A85c) a.d. 1394 (A35e) -1434 (A85c) gold 610-625.

20 abu-'Abd-Allah (g,A85c) Muhammad IV (g,A85c) ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz II

(/9; A85c) a.h. 837 (A85c) -839 (A85c) a.d. 1434 (A85c) -1435 (A85c) gold 626.

20A abii'l-Hasan (g,A85c) 'Ali (g,A85c) ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz II (79; g,A85c) amir at Bougie

a.h. 839 (A85c) -856 (A85c) a.D. 1435 (A32) -1452 (D4) (opposed839-856 by 21) gold 627.

21 abu-'Amr (g,C12,A85c) 'Uthman (g,C2,A85c) ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz II

(79; C2,A85c) a.h. 839 (A85c) -893 (A69) a.d. 1435 (A85c) -1488 (A69) (opposed

839-856 by 20A):

First series, Hafsid style: gold 628-636.

Second series, Hafsid style with 4-line reverse field: gold 637, 638.

Third series, Marinid style with 4-line fields: gold 639, 640.

22 abu-Zakariya' (A85c) Yahya III (A85c) ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Uthman (27; A69) a.h.

893 (A69) -894 (A69) a.d. 1488 (A69) -1489 (A69) (opposed during 894 by 23) no coins.

23 abu-Muhammad (H) 'Abd-al-Mu'min (A69) ibn-Ibrahim ibn-'Uthman (21; A69) a.h.

894 (A69) -895 (D4) a.d. 1489 (A69) -1490 (D4) (opposed during 894 by 22) no coins.

24 abu-Yahya (D4) Zakariya' II (A69) ibn-Yahya III (22; A69) a.h. 895 (D4) -899 (A18a)

a.D. 1490 (D4) -1494 (A18a) no coins.

25 abu-'Abd-Allah (g,A18a) Muhammad V (g,A18a) ibn-al-Hasan ibn-Muhammad ibn-

'Uthman (21; A18a) a.h. 899 (A18a) -932 (A18a) a.d. 1494 (A18a) -1526 (A18a)

gold 641-643.

26 abu-'Abd-Allah (g,A18a) Muhammad VI (g) ibn-Muhammad V (25; g,A18a) a.h. 932

(A18a) -941 (D14), 942 (D14) -948 (D14) a.d. 1526 (A18a) -1534 (D14), 1535 (D14)

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-1542 (D14):

First reign, as amir al-mu'minin (see above) gold 644.

Second reign, as vassal of Charles I of Spain (see above) no coins,

interregnum under Khayr-al-Din and Turks between deposition and restoration of 26

a.h. 941 (D14) -942 (D14) a.d. 1534 (D14) -1535 (D14).

27 abu'l-'Abbas (c,A18a) Ahmad III (s,c,A18a) ibn-Muhammad VI (26; s) a.h. 948 (D14)

-977 (D14) a.d. 1542 (D14) -1569 (D14) silver 1124-1132, copper 1173,1174.

interregnum under Turks between deposition of 27 and installation of 28 a.h. 977 (D14)

-981 (A32) a.d. 1569 (D14) -1573 (D14).

28 abu-'Abd-Allah (A18a) Muhammad VII (D14) ibn-Muhammad VI (26; D14) vassal of

Philip II of Spain a.h. 981 (A32) -982 (A32) a.d. 1573 (D14) -1574 (A32) no coins.

The Hafsids claimed the spiritual and political succession from the Muwahhids, and

their coins were designed accordingly. Their double dinars, dinars, and smaller gold pieces

followed the Muwahhid standards, and surviving specimens average slightly better weight

than those of their predecessors. By restricting the field inscriptions to three lines, they

avoided over-crowding them; the script used was a cursive Naskhi or a highly ornamented

Kufi. Silver in the latter script is definitely Hafsid; otherwise, their anonymous silver is

very difficult to distinguish from that struck by the Muwahhids.

The Rulers and their Coinages

73

abu-Hafs 'Umar

abu-Muhammad 'Abd-al-Wahid I

l_

~i

6A

Abu-Bakr

'Abd-al-Rahman

al-Fadl 7

(impersonated

by 4A)

-\ r

10

12B

1 T" 1 1 f

13 1 4 15 Muhammad Yahya 16

r-H

15A

17

_L

18

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19

Muhammad

21

~~l

20A

20

Muhammad

22

24

al-Hasan

26

I,

Ibrahim

23

Muhammad

Ahmad

Distantly

related

12A

Not related

44

_L

J3

12c

27

28

74

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

The inscriptions on the gold almost invariably include, in the obverse field, one of

several phrases in honor of the Mahdi; the sequence of these fields affords one of the

best methods of dating these dateless gold pieces. The reverse field and segments normally

give the current ruler's name, title, epithets, and condensed genealogy. Mints occur on

many of these coins but dates are unknown until near the end of the dynasty, when

they appear on the silver in the form of numerals, under Ottoman influence.

The power of the Hafsids lasted for over three centuries, with minor interruptions by

Marinid invaders in the fourteenth century and major conflicts with Turks and Spanish

in the sixteenth, at which time the legibility of the coins was seriously impaired.

The attribution of Hafsid gold, though not as automatic as that of the Murabit and

Muwahhid pieces, is seldom difficult, because of the sequence of obverse styles and scripts.

Yahya I's gold falls into three series corresponding to the stages by which he passed from

being a Muwahhid governor to being an independent sovereign, though contenting himself

with the title al-amir al-ajal1. In 627, when his suzerain Idris I renounced the unitarian

doctrines of the Mahdi and removed him from the coins, Yahya seized the opportunity to

disown this heresy and strike coins in the name of the Mahdi and 'Abd-al-Mu'min, friend of

his grandfather abii-Hafs 'Umar, a virtual declaration of independence. In 634 he added

his own name; in 640 he deleted that of 'Abd-al-Mu'min, completing the political separation

from the Muwahhids, but he and his heirs never repudiated the Mahdi or deleted his name

from their money. Of particular importance are the coins struck for Yahya by vassals in

Morocco (553, 554) and Spain (555, 556), as each can be linked with a particular event in

his intricate maneuvering for power. Ceuta acknowledged him from 643 to 647, between the

Muwahhid domination and its freedom under al-'Azafi, whose gold is described with that

of the Hudids. Sijilmasah under al-Khazraji recognized his authority only in 640 and 641.

Seville sought his aid during its final siege by the Christians, while Granada recognized

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him briefly before Ibn-al-Ahmar established independent Nasrid rule there, to endure until

a.D. 1492.

Muhammad I, the opponent of Louis IX of France in his fatal crusade, did not inherit

his father's foreign holdings, but his prosperous home province was an ample heritage which

he carefully strengthened, while developing commerce with Italy. His coins fall into two

series, as he used the title al-amir al-ajall until 650, when he adopted the caliphal amir

al-mu'minin.for which he secured international approval after the Mongol conquest of Bagh-

dad in 656. It is on the latter series that the ornamented Kuf1 script was introduced, possibly

by exiles from Seville, who were very numerous and influential in Muhammad's court.

The gold of his son Yahya II was patterned on his, but when Ibrahim I seized power

he reverted to the earlier style and the title al-amir al-ajal1.

The impostor Ibn-abi-'Umarah, claiming to be al-Fadl ibn-Yahya II, who had been

murdered in prison, left a single double dinar (570), which has not heretofore been correctly

ascribed. No coins can be attributed to his rival 'Abd-al-'Aziz I, whose reign lasted less

than a year.

Several ornamented Kufi coins were struck by 'Umar I and by his contemporary at

Bougie, Yahya, who used the title al-amir. A small group of double dinars in both scripts

can safely be ascribed to Muhammad II, and a single ornamented Kufi one to his rival

Khalid I, with no coins for the short reign of Abu-Bakr I.

The Rulers and their Coinages

75

During his long embattled tenure Abu-Bakr II struck a big group of gold coins, while

his opponents Zakariya' I and Muhammad III left a few with unusual obverse inscriptions.

The three pretenders did not leave coins.

A double dinar belongs to 'Umar II, and the eighth dinar of Paris is probably his, but

he murdered his brother Ahmad I before the latter had a chance to mint gold. The Marinid

invasion caused by this event led to partition among al-Fadl, 'Abd-al-Rahman, and

Muhammad, each of whom struck distinctive gold; the double dinar (603) struck by

Muhammad during his second reign after captivity among the Marinids is particularly

noteworthy for the Marinid phraseology in the reverse segments.

A group of double dinars struck by Ibrahim II, including the last ornamented Kufi

gold piece, precedes two minted for his opponent Ahmad II, the second of which (609)

followed his Marinid captivity, judging by its five-line fields. Khalid II's short reign left no

numismatic records.

The long and prosperous reign of 'Abd-al-'Aziz II is reflected by his plentiful gold, in

much of which the diameter is wrong for the denomination indicated by the legends and

weight. One double dinar may be attributed to his successor Muhammad IV, though this

is not certain, and one to his son 'Ah at Bougie.

'Uthman's long rule produced a quantity of gold, some of which, struck in Algeria, is

unusual in the wording and arrangement of the legends and in the modified Kufi script.

No coins are reported for his three ephemeral successors, while the gold assigned

Muhammad V is either partly illegible, the wrong size, or tentative. Muhammad VTs single

gold piece also has illegible segments; it was during his reign that the Turks and Spaniards

fought each other for control of Tunis. It is apparent that the troubles which overwhelmed

the Hafsid state after 'Uthman's death seriously affected both the quantity and the quality

of the gold, which now ceased entirely.

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For the long, turbulent reign of Ahmad III no gold survives, but a quantity of dated

silver showing Turkish influence has been found, and a few pieces of copper. No coins are

reported for the final Hafsid, Muhammad VII, nor for the many independent Hafsid

amirs or local Arab and Berber rebels.

This lengthy series of Hafsid gold, with the final silver and copper pieces, is most

useful in correcting existing lists of the Hafsid rulers. Extensive revisions have been made

in such points as nomenclature and relationships, following the excellent start made by

Brunschvig and Farrugia de Candia.

The Z1yan1ds of Western Alger1a

Zandtah Berber rulers of the Banu-Ziyan (Banii-'Abd-al-Wdd) of western Algeria

a.H. 633-964 (a.d. 1236-1556).

1 abu-Yahya (B8,A81) Yaghmurasan (B8,A35e) ibn-Ziyan (B8,A35e) a.H. 633 (A35e)

-681 (A35e) a.d. 1236 (A81) -1283 (A35e) anonymous gold, Hafsid style 645.

2 abu-Sald (A81) 'Uthman I (A35e) ibn-Yaghmurasan (j; A35e) a.H. 681 (A35e) -703

(A35e) a.d. 1283 (A35e) -1304 (A81) no coins.

3 abQ-Ziyan (A35e) Muhammad I (A35e) ibn-'Uthman I (2; A35e) a.H. 703 (A35e) -707

(A35e) a.d. 1304 (A81) -1308 (A35e) no coins.

76 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

4 abu-Hammu (C12,A35e) Musa I (g,A35e) ibn-'Uthman I (2; A35e) a.h. 707 (A35e) -718

(A35e) a.d. 1308 (A35e) -1318 (A35e) gold 646.

5 abu-Tashfin (B1o,C12,A35e) 'Abd-al-Rahman I (g,C14,A35e) ibn-Musa I (4; Atfe)

a.h. 718 (A35e) -737 (A35e) a.d. 1318 (A35e) -1337 (A35e) gold 647-649.

interregnum under Marinid 11 between death of 5 and independence of 6 a.h. 737 (A35e)

-749 (A35e) a.d. 1337 (A35e) -1348 (A35e).

6 abu-Sa'id (A35e) 'Uthman II (A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman ibn-Yahya ibn-Yaghmu-

rasan (7; A35e) a.H. 749 (A35e) -753 (A35e) a.d. 1348 (A35e) -1352 (A35e) no coins.

7 abu-Thabit (A35e) al-Za'im I (A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman ibn-Yahya ibn-Yaghmu-

rasan (j; A35e) a.h. 753 (A35e) -753 (A35e) a.d. 1352 (A35e) -1352 (A75) no coins.

interregnum under Marinids 12 and 13 between death of 7 and independence of 8 a.H. 753

(A35e) -760 (A35e) a.d. 1352 (A75) -1359 (A35e).

8 abu-Hammu (B8,A35e) Musa II (g,B8,A35e) ibn-Yusuf ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman ibn-

Yahya ibn-Yaghmurasan (j; B8,A35e) a.H. 760 (A35e) -791 (A35e) a.d. 1359 (Asa)

-1389 (A35e) (opposed 762-779 by 8A and 788-791 by 9) gold 650, 651.

8A abu-Ziyan (A35e) Muhammad (A35e) ibn-'Uthman II (6; A35e) pretender a.H.

762 (A35e) -779 (A35e) a.d. 1360 (D14) -1377 (Dl4) (opposed 7^~779 by 8) no

coins.

9 abu-Tashfin (A35e) 'Abd-al-Rahman II (g,A35e) ibn-Musa II (8; B8,A35e) a.h. 788

(A35e) -795 (A35e) a.d. 1387 (D14) -1393 (A35e) (opposed 788-791 by 8) gold 652.

10 abu-Thabit (A5c) al-Za'im II (Asa) ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman II (9; A35e) a.h. 795 (A35e)

-795 (Asa) a.d. 1393 (A35e) -1393 (Asa) no coins.

11 abu'l-Hajjaj (A8) Yusuf (A35e) ibn-Musa II (8; A35e) a.h. 795 (Asa) -796 (A35e)

a.d. 1393 (Asa) -1394 (A75) no coins.

12 abu-Ziyan (A35e) Muhammad II (g,A35e) ibn-Musa II (8; A^e) a.h. 796 (A35e) -802

(Asa) a.d. 1394 (A75) -1399 (Asa) gold 653.

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13 abu-Muhammad (g,A75) 'Abd-Allah I (g,A5a) ibn-Musa II (8; Asa) a.h. 802 (Asa) -804

(Asa) a.d. 1399 (Asa) -1402 (Asa) gold 654.

14 abu-'Abd-Allah (A75) Muhammad III (g,B8,Asa) ibn-Musa II (8; B8,Asa) a.H. 804

(Asa) -813 (B8.A75) a.D.1402 (Asa) -1411 (B8.A75) gold 655-657.

15 abu-Tashfin (H) 'Abd-al-Rahman III (g,A75) ibn-Muhammad III (14; A75) a.h. 813

(A75) -814 (A75) a.d. 1411 (A75) -1411 (A75) gold 658.

16 abu-x (?) al-Sa'id (A75) ibn-Musa II (8; A75) a.h. 814 (A75) -814 (A75) a.d. 1411 (A75)

-1411 (A75) no coins.

17 abu-Malik (B8) 'Abd-al-Wahid (g,B8,A85c) ibn-Musa II (8; B8,A85c) a.h. 814 (A75)

-827 (A75), 831 (A75) -833 (B8.A75) a.d. 1411 (A75) -1424 (A75), 1428 (A75) -1430

(B8.A75) gold 659-662.

18 abu-'Abd-Allah (g,A75) Muhammad IV (A85c) ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman II (9; A85c) a.H.

827 (A75) -831 (A75), 833 (A75) -834 (A75) a.d. 1424 (A75) -1428 (A75), 1430 (A75)

-1431 (A75) gold 663, 664.

19 abil'l-'Abbas (g,B8,A85c) Ahmad I (g,B8,A85c) ibn-Musa II (8; A85c) a.h. 834 (A75)

-866 (A75) a.d. 1431 (A75) -1462 (A75) gold 665-668.

20 abii-'Abd-Allah (g,B8,A75) Muhammad V (g,B8,A85c) ibn-Muhammad ibn-al-Za'im II

(jo; A75) a.h. 866 (A75) -873 (D1) a.d. 1462 (A75) -1468 (D1) gold 669.

The Rulers and their Coinages

77

21 abu-Tashfin (D1) 'Abd-al-Rahman IV (H) ibn-Muhammad V (20; D1) a.h. 873 (D1)

-873 (D1) a.d. 1468 (D1) -1468 (D1) no coins.

22 abii-'Abd-Allah (B8) Muhammad VI (B8) ibn-Muhammad V (20; D18) a.h. 873 (D1)

-910 (D1) a.d. 1468 (D1) -1505 (D1) no coins.

23 abu-'Abd-Allah (B8) Muhammad VII (B8) ibn-Muhammad VI (22; B8) a.h. 910 (D1)

-922 (D1) a.d. 1505 (D1) -1516 (D1):

Independent a.h. 910 (D1) -918 (H) a.d. 1505 (D1) -1512 (D14) no coins.

Vassal of Ferdinand II of Aragon a.h. 918 (H) -922 (D1) a.d. 1512 (D14) -1516 (D1)

no coins.

24 abu-Ziyan (D14) Ahmad II (H) ibn-Muhammad VI (22; D14) vassal of Ottoman Salim I

(9) a.h. 922 (D14) -922 (D14), 923 (D14) -924 (D14) a.d. 1516 (D14) -1516 (D14), 1517

(D14) -1518 (D14) (opposed 923-924 by 25) no coins.

25 abu-Hammu (D18) Musa III (D18) ibn-Muhammad V (20; D18) vassal of Charles I of

Spain a.h. 922 (D14) -934 (D1) a.d. 1516 (D1) -1528 (D1) (opposed 923-924 by 24)

no coins.

Ziyan

2 abu-Zakariya' Yahya

J_

Muhammad

20

1I

5I

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4 abu-Zayd 'Abd-al-Rahman

6 7 abu-Ya'qiib Yusuf

II

8A 8

"1 I I \ \ \

11 12 13 14 16 17 19

I1

10 18 15

II1

21 22 25 26

r~^1 1 1 1

23 24 2J 28 29

78

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

26 abu-Muhammad (B8) 'Abd-Allah II (g,B8) ibn-Muhammad V (20; D18) a.h. 934 (D1)

-947 (D1) a.d. 1528 (D1) -1540 (D1):

Vassal of Ottoman 10 a.h. 934 (D1) -942 (D14) a.d. 1528 (Di) -1535 (D14)

gold 670.

Vassal of Charles I of Spain a.h. 942 (D14) -947 (D1) a.d. 1535 (D14) -1540 (D1)

no coins.

27 abu-'Abd-Allah (g,D14) Muhammad VIII (g,D14) ibn-'Abd-Allah II (26; D18) a.h. 947

(D14) -949 (D14), 949 (D1) -950 (D14) a.d. 1540 (D14) -1543 (H), 1543 (D1) -1543

(D14):

First reign, as vassal of Ottoman 10 (see above) gold 671.

Second reign (see above), as vassal of Charles I of Spain, no coins.

28 abu-Ziyan (D18) Ahmad III (D18) ibn-'Abd-Allah II (26; D18) vassal of Ottoman

10 a.h. 949 (D14) -949 (Di), 950 (D14) -957 (D1) a.d. 1543 (H) -1543 (D1), 1543 (D14)

-1550 (D1) no coins.

29 abu-Muhammad (g,D14) Hasan (g,D14) ibn-'Abd-Allah II (26; D18) a.h. 957 (D1) -964

(D1) a.d. 1550 (D1) -1556 (D1) gold 672.

Crushed between their powerful neighbors, the Hafsids and the Marinids, the Ziyanids

were frequently besieged or driven from their capital at Tlemcen into the mountains,

and were occasionally overthrown, with subsequent interregnums, yet they managed to

survive as a dynasty for well over three centuries, until the controversy between Turks and

Spaniards was settled by the Ottoman conquest. During this span they also suffered an

excessive amount of intra-dynastic rebellion, yet their capital prospered and a fair amount

of gold was coined there.

Relatively few specimens of this Ziyanid gold are extant, and their attribution is made

more difficult by the repetition of proper names in the family, but by correlation with

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Brosselard's epigraphic studies and with the historians of the earlier period, a reasonable

certitude may be achieved. Thus the anonymous gold piece inHafsid style, identical except

for mint with the contemporary gold of Morocco, is ascribed to Yaghmurasan because at the

period when it was struck he was master of Tlemcen, and because he, like his Marinid

contemporaries, was nominally a Hafsid vassa1.

No coins can be ascribed to 'Uthman I and Muhammad I, but the double dinars

inscribed "ma aqrabu farju Allah" surely belong to Musa I and 'Abd-al-Rahman I,

referring as they do to the unexpected lifting of the eight-year siege of Tlemcen at the

death of the Marinid Yusuf.

Two of the most puzzling coins in the corpus (648, 649) are reluctantly inserted here,

but I have been completely unable to account for the title amir al-mu'minin and the other

anomalous features, or to read the last line of the reverse field, of which all reported versions

are demonstrably wrong. The Algiers issue may be questionable but the Tlemcen coin does

exist; it was struck by an 'Abd-al-Rahman with caliphal pretensions; his name and title

and the Tlemcen mint are perfectly clear but inexplicable.

For the brothers 'Uthman II and al-Zalm I, who ruled between the two Marinid

conquests, no gold is known to have survived, though 'Uthman is said by Yahya Ibn-

Khaldun to have struck some.

11

The Rulers and their Coinages

79

Musa II's long reign bore fruit in one double dinar and probably in one dinar, while a

similar double dinar exists for 'Abd-al-Rahman II, if Brethes' attempt to paint the name of

Yaghmurasan on the sole extant specimen has not misled me.

No coins exist for the short reigns of al-Zalm II and Yusuf, but Moyse reports a double

dinar of Muhammad II and the Paris specimen seems to fit 'Abd-Allah I, though ascribed

to Muhammad V.

Three gold pieces are assignable to Muhammad III by the epithet al-Wathiq-bi-Allah,

and a Paris dinar tentatively to 'Abd-al-Rahman III, with no coins for al-Sa'id, who ruled

for less than a year.

An assortment of gold coins bears the name of 'Abd-al-Wahid, while similar coins can

be attributed to his opponent Muhammad IV. Ahmad I left a group of gold pieces with his

epithet al-Mu'tasim-bi-Allah, and a half dinar may belong to Muhammad V or one of his

namesakes.

No coins have been assigned to the next five rulers, whose reigns were very disturbed

by Turkish-Spanish combats. To 'Abd-Allah II and Muhammad VIII can confidently be

assigned the two double dinars (670, 671) which bear besides their names and titles that

of am1r al-mu'minin abu'l-Rab1' Sulayman. An incredible amount of fruitless controversy

among such experts as Lavoix, van Berchem, Prieto, and Fasmer has been fomented by

these coins, which were obviously struck by these vassals of the Ottoman sultan Sulayman,

called the Magnificent by Europeans and the Lawgiver by his own people.

The fact that he did not actually bear the kunyah abu'l-Rabi' is no objection; all

Sulaymans in the occident used this name, and it was ascribed to him as unhesitatingly

as abu-Ya'qub to Yusuf ibn-Tashfin or abix'l-Hasan to his son 'Ali by later historians,

though as their gold shows the Murabitts, like the Ottomans, did not use names in abu-. In

Tunisia, on the other hand, an inscription termed Sulayman abu'l-Futuh with equally

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little justification.

With this discussion permanently closed, it may be hoped, we may skip Ahmad III,

with no coins reported, for the final Ziyanid gold piece, a half dinar of Hasan.

The numismatic history of this dynasty is sketchy because of the scarcity of available

specimens; it is possible that future archaeological finds will complete the representation of

this family.

No silver and copper can be ascribed to the Ziyanids, although they must certainly

have struck some silver during their lengthy control of western Algeria; Leo Africanus'

assertion that at least the later rulers of this dynasty coined both silver and copper is

probably correct, especially by analogy with the late Hafsid pieces.

The Mar1n1ds of Morocco

Zandtah Berber rulers of the Banii-Mann of Morocco a.h. 592-869 (a.d. 1196-1465).

1 abii-Muhammad (A92) 'Abd-al-Haqq I (g,B4,C14,A35e) ibn-Mahyu (A35e) a.h. 592

(A92) -614 (A35e) a.d. 1196 (A92) -1217 (A84e) no coins.

2 abu-Sa'id (A35e) 'UthmanI (A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Haqq I (j; A35e) a.h. 614 (A35e) -638

(A92) a.D.1217 (A84e) -1240 (A92) no coins.

8o

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

3 abu-MVruf (A84CI) Muhammad I (A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Haqq I (r; A35e) a.h. 638 (A92)

-642 (A35e) a.d. 1240 (A92) -1244 (A84d) no coins.

4 abu-Yahya (A35e) Abu-Bakr (A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Haqq I (1; A35e) a.H. 642 (A35e) -656

(A35e) a.d. 1244 (A84d) -1258 (no alternative) anonymous gold, Hafsid style 673-712,

anonymous silver 1133, 1134.

5 abu-Hafs (A5b) 'Umar (A35e) ibn-Abi-Bakr (4; Atfe) a.h. 656 (A35e) -658 (A92)

a.d. 1258 (no alternative) -1259 (A92) (opposed 656-658 by 6) no coins.

6 abu-Yusuf (B4,C14,A35e) Ya'qub (g,B4,C14,A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Haqq I (1; g,B4,C14,

A35e) a.h. 656 (A35e) -685 (A35e) a.d. 1258 (no alternative) -1286 (A35e) (opposed

656-658 by 5):

First series, Hafsid style a.h. 656 (A35e) -668 (A35e) a.d. 1258 (no alternative)

-1269 (A35e) anonymous gold (see 4).

Second series, Marinid style a.h. 668 (A35e) -685 (A35e) a.d. 1269 (A35e) -1286

(A35e) gold 713, 714, anonymous silver 1135.

7 abii-Ya'qub (Bn,C12,A35e) Yiisuf (A35e) ibn-Ya'qub (6; B24,A35e) a.h. 685 (A35e)

-706 (B24,A35e) a.d. 1286 (A35e) -1307 (B24,A35e) anonymous gold 715-725, ano-

nymous silver 1136-1140.

8 abu-Thabit (C12,A35e) 'Amir (A35e) ibn-'Abd-Allah ibn-Yusuf (7; A84d) a.h. 706

(A35e) -708 (A35e) a.d. 1307 (A35e) -1308 (A35e) no coins.

9 abu'l-Rabi' (C12,A35e) Sulayman (A35e) ibn-'Abd-Allah ibn-Yusuf (7; A84d) a.h. 708

(A35e) -710 (A35e) a.d. 1308 (A35e) -1310 (A35e) no coins.

10 abu-Sald (g,B4,C14,A35e) 'Uthman II (g,B4,A35e) ibn-Ya'qub (6; B4,C14,A35e)

a.h. 710 (A35e) -731 (A35e) a.d. 1310 (A35e) -1331 (A35e) (opposed 714-731 by 10A)

gold 726-745.

10 A abfi-'Ali (g,B4,A35e) 'Umar (g,B4,A35e) ibn-'Uthman II (10; A35e) amir at Sijilma-

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sah a.h. 714 (A35e) -733 (A35e) a.d. 1315 (A84e) -1333 (D17) (opposed 714-731 by 10

and 731-733 by 11) no coins.

11 abu'l-Hasan (B4.C14.A35e) 'Ali (B4,A35e) ibn-'Uthman II (jo; B4.C14.A35e) a.h. 731

(A35e) -752 (B9,A35e) a.d. 1331 (A35e) -1351 (B9,A35e) (opposed 731-733 by 10A and

749-752 by 12):

First series, Marinid inscriptions: anonymous gold 746-749, anonymous silver

1141-1146.

Second series, Marinid and Nasrid inscriptions a.h. 731 (A35e) -740 (A35e) a.d.

1331 (A35e) -1340 (A35e) anonymous gold 750-758.

Third series, Marinid and Ziyanid inscriptions a.h. 737 (A35e) -752 (B9,A35e) a.d.

1337 (A35e) -1351 (B9,A35e) anonymous gold 759-768, anonymous silver 1147.

12 abu-'Inan (B4.C12.A35e) Faris (g,B4,A35e) ibn-'Ali (11; B4,A35e) a.h. 749 (A35e) -759

(A35e) a.D. 1348 (A35e) -1358 (A35e) (opposed 749-752 by 11):

First series, Marinid style: gold 769-777.

Second series, Hafsid style: gold 778-786.

12A abu-Ziyan (Asb) Muhammad (Asb) ibn-Faris (12; A$b) pretender a.h. 759 (A5b)

-759 (Asb) a.d. 1358 (Asb) -1358 (A5b) no coins.

13 abu-'Abd-Allah (g) Muhammad II (A35e) ibn-Faris (12; A^e) a.h. 759 (A35e) -760

(A35e) a.d. 1358 (A35e) -1359 (A35e) gold 787.

The Rulers and their Coinages

81

14 abu-Salim (B2,C14,A35e) Ibrah1m (A35e) ibn-'Ali (11; B2.C14.A35e) a.h. 760 (A35e)

-762 (A35e) a.d. 1359 (A35e) -1361 (A35e) gold 788, anonymous silver 1148.

25 abu-'Umar (A35e) Tashfin (A35e) ibn-'Ali (11; A^e) a.h. 762 (A35e) -763 (A35e)

a.D. 1361 (A35e) -1361 (A35e) no coins.

16 abu-Muhammad (A39a) 'Abd-al-Halim (A35e) ibn-'Umar (10A; Atfe) a.H. 763 (A35e)

-764 (A35e) a.d. 1361 (Asb) -1362 (A35e) (opposed 763-764 by 17) no coins.

1 j abu-Ziyan (A35e) Muhammad III (g,A35e) ibn-Ya'qiib ibn-'Ali (11; A35e) a.H. 763

(A35e) -767 (Asb) a.d. 1361 (A35e) -1366 (Asb) (opposed 763-764 by 16 and 764-765

by 17 A) gold 789-792.

17A abu-Malik (g) 'Abd-al-Mu'min (g,A35e) ibn- 'Umar (10A ; g,A35e) am1r at Sijilmasah

a.h. 764 (D14) -765 (H) a.d. 1362 (D14) -1363 (H) (opposed 764-765 by 17) gold 793.

interregnum under vizir between death of 17 and accession of 18 a.h. 767 (Asb) -768

(A35e) a.d. 1366 (Asb) -1366 (A35e).

18 abu-Faris (B4,Asb) 'Abd-al-'Aziz I (g,B4.A35e) ibn-'Ali (11; B4,A35e) a.h. 768 (A35e)

-774 (A35e) a.d. 1366 (A35e) -1372 (A35e) gold 794-796.

19 abu-Ziyan (Asb) Muhammad IV (g,A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz I (18; A^e) a.H.774 (A35e)

-776 (A35e) a.d. 1372 (A85c) -1374 (A35e) gold 797-799.

20 abu'l-'Abbas (g,C14,A35e) Ahmad (g,s,A35e) ibn-Ibrahim (14; C14,A35e) a.H. 775

(Asb) -786 (A35e), 789 (A35ej -796 (A35e) a.d. 1373 (Asb) -1384 (Asb), 1387 (A35e)

-1393 (A35e) (opposed 776-784 by 20 A):

First series, without am1r al-muslimin or Nasrid inscription: gold 800-805.

Second series, without amir al-muslimin, with Nasrid inscription: gold 806-809.

Third series, with amir al-muslimin, without Nasrid inscription: gold 810-829,

silver 1149.

Fourth series, with amir al-muslimin and Nasrid inscription: gold 830.

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20.4 abu-Zayd (A7ob) 'Abd-al-Rahman (g,s,A35e) ibn-'Ali ibn-'Umar (10A; g,s,A35e)

sayyid at Marrakesh a.h. 776 (A35e) -784 (A35e) a.d. 1374 (A7ob) -1382 (A35e)

(opposed 776-784 by 20) gold 831, 832, silver 1150.

21 abu-Faris (g.Asb) Musa (g,A35e) ibn-Faris (12; Atfe) a.h. 786 (A35e) -788 (Asb) a.D.

1384 (A35e) -1386 (Asb) gold 833, 834.

22 abu-Ziyan (Asb) Muhammad V (g,A35e) ibn-Ahmad (20; A35e) a.h. 788 (Asb) -788

(A35e) a.d. 1386 (Asb) -1386 (A35e) gold 835.

23 abii-Ziyan (Asb) Muhammad VI (A35e) ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Ali (11; A35e) a.H. 788

(A35e) -789 (A35e) a.d. 1386 (A35e) -1387 (A35e) no coins.

24 abu-Faris (A35e) 'Abd-al-'Aziz II (g,A35e) ibn-Ahmad (20; A35e) a.h. 796 (A35e) -799

(Asb) a.d. 1393 (A35e) -1396 (Asb):

First series, Marinid style: gold 836-839.

Second series, Hafsid style: gold 840-854.

25 abu-'Amir (Asb) 'Abd-Allah (g.Asb) ibn-Ahmad (20; Asb) a.h. 799 (Asb) -8oo (Asb)

a.d. 1396 (Asb) -1398 (Asb) Hafsid style gold 855-859.

26 abu-Sa'id (B4,Asb) 'UthmanHI (g,C14,Asb) ibn-Ahmad (20; C14,Asb) a.H. 8oo (Asb)

-823 (A74) a.d. 1398 (Asb) -1420 (A74) Hafsid style gold 860-867.

27 abu-'Abd-Allah (A74) Muhammad VII (A32)ibn-'Abd-Allah ibn-abi-Tariq ibn-Faris (12;

H) a.h. 823 (A74) -830 (D6) a.d. 1420 (A74) -1427 (H) (opposed 823-830 by 28) no coins.

82

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

28 abu-Muhammad (B4,A32) 'Abd-al-Haqq II (s,B4,A85c) ibn-'Uthman III (26; B4.A32)

a.H.823 (D6.D9) -869 (A85c) a.d. 1420 (D6,Dg) -1465 (A85c) (opposed 823-830 by 27)

silver 1151, 1152.

Mahyu

1r

'Abd-Allah 10A

I 1 I-

8 9 'Ali 16 17A

10

12

_L_

it

III

20A 12A 13 21 abu-Tariq 20

23

17 19

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14 15 Ya'qub 18 Muhammad

'Abd-AUah 22

27

24

25

26

28

The numismatic history of the Mar1nids is essentially simple, but the necessary

preliminary groundwork has never been done, so that all major collections contain more or

less large groups of "unascribed Moorish gold". This anonymous gold can easily be divided

into two portions by the number of lines in each field, and it is the three-line Hafsid type

which must be considered first.

No Marinid gold bearing proper names in known for any ruler earlier than Ya'qub,

whose accession occurred in a.h. 656. The anonymous gold was not struck by the Hafsids,

as the Mahdi is not named and the mint towns were not under Hafsid control, nor by the

Ziyanids, by reason of the mints; there are no such objections to terming it Marinid, which

it obviously is. In style and legends it most closely resembles the earlier Hafsid gold,

especially as some of it is in ornamented Kiif1 script corresponding to that used by the

Hafsids for a few decades starting about 650. The early Marinids were nominal Hafsid

vassals; presumably this gold was struck by Abu-Bakr and Ya'qub chiefly, but not

entirely, before the final overthrow of the Muwahhids in 668. It is likely, but less certain,

that much of the anonymous silver with similar inscriptions was also struck by these two

rulers.

Next come two gold pieces of Ya'qub with his name and titles, probably struck after

668, and then another gap during the prosperous reign of his son Yusuf. This can promptly

The Rulers and their Coinages

83

be filled with a single fine series from the five-line group, as shown in the corpus, a group

whose style and legends are intermediate between those of Ya'qub and those of 'Uthman II,

and whose mints are plentiful but limited to Morocco. Anonymous silver bearing similar

legends can also be assigned to Yusuf. For 'Amir and Sulayman no coins are extant.

A substantial series of gold bears the name of 'Uthman II, from several mints within

Morocco, but none survives for his son and opponent 'Umar, am1r of Sijilmasah, and none

bearing the name of 'Uthman's son and successor 'Ah, a pious but ambitious man who

invaded Spain but was disastrously defeated by the Christians at Tarifa, conquered Algeria

and Tunisia, was again disastrously defeated by Arabs near Kairouan, and was the victim

of domestic rebellion, shipwreck, and exile.

To him belongs the balance of the anonymous gold, some of which bears the Nasrid

motto and was doubtless struck before his defeat at Tarifa in 740, and some of which bears

the Ziyanid motto and was struck, after the conquest of Tlemcen in 737, at mints which

include not only Fez and Sijilmasah but Tlemcen, Algiers, Bougie, and Tunis. To these

groups of gold exactly fitting the known facts of 'Ali's career may be added corresponding

groups of anonymous silver.

His son and rival Faris assumed the title of am1r al-mu'minin, and a full series of gold

displays it for mints which include Tlemcen and Bougie, again victims of Marinid conquest.

A parallel series of Hafsid-type gold with three-line fields also bears Faris' name and titles.

For the rulers who followed in quick succession a handful of gold survives: none for

the pretender Muhammad, one tentatively for Muhammad II, one for Ibrahim if my

reading of Brethes' illegible specimen is correct, none for Tashfin, none for 'Abd-al-Halim,

three or four for Muhammad III, and one fine double dinar for the am1r 'Abd-al-Mu'min at

Sijilmasah.

'Abd-al-'Aziz I again conquered Tlemcen and left numismatic evidence of his achieve-

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ment, with two other double dinars from Fez. Muhammad IV minted three coins at Fez.

The only silver attributable to this troubled era is an anonymous piece ascribed to

Ibrahim because of similarity to the gold which seems to bear his name.

For Ahmad's bisected reign a large quantity of gold and a little silver is extant, while

his rival at Marrakesh, 'Abd-al-Rahman, also minted both gold and silver.

Again rulers gained and lost power rapidly: Miisa two years, two issues; Muhammad V

less than a year, one double dinar; Muhammad VI one year, no coins. In his three years

'Abd-al-'Aziz II struck four coins in Marinid style and several in Hafsid style, with an

unexpected change to the three-line field. This was continued on a handful of gold by

'Abd-AUah, who reigned only one year, and on a larger group by 'Uthman III, who ruled

until 823.

No coins exist for Muhammad VII and no gold for 'Abd-al-Haqq II, though one silver

piece may definitely be ascribed to his violent reign and another tentatively.

This dynasty's numismatic history, then, can readily be understood by matching each

group of anonymous gold and silver to its most likely originator on considerations of style,

inscriptions, and mints. When this is done a steady development is made available for

study instead of the jagged, gap-filled outlines heretofore published.

Considered as a whole, Marinid gold of each denomination is somewhat broader than

its Hafsid equivalent but extant specimens average slightly lighter. 4.57 grams is the

84

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

average weight of 182 double dinars and 2.26 grams of 51 dinars. The style is less attractive

and the inscriptions less legible than those of all but the last Hafsids, but they are not

inferior to the Ziyanids'. The silver is adequately engraved and struck, but the general

effect is one of steady decline from the high Muwahhid standards.

The Nasr1ds 1n North Afr1ca

Arab rulers of the Banu-Nasr (BanuH-Ahmar) of Granada a.h. 629-887 (a.D.1232-1492)

1 abu-'Abd-Allah (B14,C17) Muhammad I (B14,C17,A35e) ibn-Yusuf (B14, A84d) a.h.

629 (A84d) -671 (B14,A74) a.d. 1232 (D9) -1273 (B14) no African coins; gold struck as

vassal of Hafsid 1 556.

2 no African coins.

3 abu-'Abd-Allah (B15,C17,A48a) Muhammad III (C17,A35e) ibn-Muhammad II (2;

B15,C17,A35e) a.h. 701 (B14,A35e) -708 (B14,A35e) a.d. 1302 (B14,A35e) -1309

(B14,A35e) see below.

4 abu'l-Juyush (B14,A35e) Nasr (B14,A35e) ibn-Muhammad II (2; B14, A35e) a.h. 708

(B14,A35e) -713 (A48a) a.d. 1309 (B14,A48a) -1314 (A48a) see below.

5-7 no African coins.

8 abu-'Abd-Allah (B15,A35e) Muhammad V (g,B15,A35e) ibn-Yusuf I (7; g,B15,A35e)

a.h. 755 (A35e) -760 (A35e), 763 (A35e) -793 (A48a) a.d. 1354 (A35e) -1359 (A35e),

1362 (A35e) -1391 (D9,D14) gold 868.

3, 4, or 8 anonymous silver 1153.

9-21 no African coins.

Yusuf

1 Isma'il

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1i

2 Faraj

Ii

345

.L

89

The Nasrids of Granada controlled Ceuta from a.h. 705 to 709 and from 786 to 789.

The square silver (1153) bearing the name of this mint and their motto "wa-la ghalibu

ilia Allah" could belong to either of these periods, but similar silver reported for Fez must

be tentatively rejected, as the Nasrids never held secure control of the inland capital. If the

Fez coins should be confirmed as correct, they might be ascribed to the Marinid 'Ali, who

The Rulers and their Coinages

85

struck gold bearing the Nasrid insription; this would raise the question of whether he also

struck the Ceuta coins.

The only Nasrid gold reported from North Africa is a double dinar (868) minted at

Ceuta by Muhammad V, though the first Nasrid ruler before declaring his independence

struck a double dinar (556) at Granada for the Hafsid Yahya I.

Except for the coins just discussed, the numismatic history of the Nasrids falls outside

the scope of this study.

The Wattas1ds of Morocco

Zanatah Berber rulers of the Banu-Wattds of Morocco a.h. 869-961 (a.d. 1465-1554).

1 abu-'Abd-Allah (H) Muhammad I (g,A29b) ibn-Yahya (A29b) a.H. 869 (D6) -910 (D6)

a.d. 1465 (D6) -1504 (D6) gold 869.

2 abu-'Abd-Allah (notes to A32) Muhammad II (g,s,C6,A32) ibn-Muhammad I (1;

C6.A32) a.h. 910 (D6) -932 (A29b) a.d. 1504 (D6) -1525 (D6) gold 870, silver 1154.

3 abii'l-Hasan (A32) 'AH (s,A29b) ibn-Muhammad I (1; A32) a.h. 932 (A29b) -932

(A29b), 961 (A29b) -961 (A29b) a.d. 1525 (D6) -1526 (A29b), 1554 (A29b) -1554 (A29b)

silver 1155.

4 abu'l-'Abbas (A29b) Ahmad (s,C6,A32) ibn-Muhammad II (2; C6,A29b) a.H. 932

(A29b) -952 (D6), 956 (D14) -957 (D14) a.d. 1526 (A29b) -1545 (D6), 1549 (D14) -1550

(D14) silver 1156.

5 abu-'Abd-Allah (H) Muhammad III (A32) ibn-Ahmad (4; A32) a.h. 952 (A32) -956

(D14) a.d. 1545 (D6) -1549 (D14) no coins.

interregnum under Sharifs between surrender of 4 and restoration of 3 a.h. 957 (D14) -961

(A29b) a.d. 1550 (D14) -1554 (A29b).

Ziyan

abii-Zakariya' Yahya Mansur

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abii-Zakariya' Yahya 1 Yiisuf

2 3 abii'l-Hasan 'Ah

During the reign of the last Marinid, 'Abd-al-Haqq II, who came to the throne as a

child, the vizirial power was held by several members of the Wattasid family, a few of

whom survived a massacre arranged by 'Abd-al-Haqq when he reached maturity. At his

death they competed for power with the rising Sharifs, and succeeded in controlling part

of Morocco for nearly a century.

86

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Very few coins are attributed to the Wattasids. A small series of silver in a thin

Naskhi script, reported and illustrated by Brethes, seems fairly safe because of the sequence

of names; the few gold coins are less satisfactory. Studies by Massignon and Cour have

established the names and dates of this obscure dynasty; it may be that further gold will

be discovered.

The Ottomans in North Afr1ca

Sultans of the Osmanli Turks (Banu-'Uthmdn) of Constantinople a.h. 699-1342.

(a.d. 1299-1924).

1-9 no African coins.

jo Sulayman I (g,B13) ibn-Salim I (9; D18) a.h. 926 (D18) -974 (D18) a.d. 1520 (D18)

-1566 (D18) specified on Ziyanid gold 670, 671.

11-37 excluded from this study.

The Ottoman Turks, who conquered Tunisia and Algeria from the Hafsids and

Ziyanids, are excluded from this study. An exception is made for the two gold pieces

struck in the name of Sulayman I by his Ziyanid vassals, and for a Hafsid square dirhem

(1102) counterstamped *].

The gold pieces show no Ottoman influence; the name abu'l-Rabi' prefixed to Sulay-

man shows that no Ottoman had any part in designing them.

The counter-stamp is presumably an Ottoman validation of a current piece of Hafsid

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silver.

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CORPUS OF COINS

struck in North Africa,

or struck elsewhere by North African rulers,

between a.h. 439 (a.d. 1047)

and the Ottoman and Sharifian conquests

of the late tenth Moslem (16th) century.

Abbreviations (other than bibliographic) used in this corpus:

a above

b beneath

d date

F field

fig. figure

m mint

M margin

o obverse

p. page

pi. plate

r reverse

s segment

sp. specimens

v. volume

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Bibliographic reference abbreviations are listed on pages 286-306.

GOLD

'Abbasid Gold

struck in North Africa after a.H. 439 (a.d. 1047)

in the name of the Sunnite khalifahs,

the Banu'l-'Abbas

of Baghdad.

As the 'Abbasids exercised no direct control over North Africa during this period, all

coins bearing their name were actually struck by independent local rulers, and are therefore

listed under the respective dynasties: Z1rid, Hammadid, Murabit, and Hiidid.

Fatim1d Gold

struck in North Africa after a.H. 439 (a.d. 1047)

in the name of the Shi'ite imams,

the Banu-Fatimah

of Cairo (al-Qahirah).

As the Fatimids exercised no direct control over North Africa during this period, all

coins bearing their name were actually struck by Z1rid rulers, and are therefore listed under

the latter dynasty.

Z1r1d Gold

struck in North Africa after a.h. 439 (a.d. 1047)

by the Sanhajah Berber rulers of Tunisia,

the Banu-Z1ri

(or by their contemporaries in Tunisia)

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in Kuf1 script.

90 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

abu-Tamim al-MuHzz ibn-Badis

a.h. 406-454 a.d. 1016-1062

Coins struck by the earlier Zirids, and by al-Mu'izz prior to a.h. 439, are excluded

from this corpus.

First (Shi'ite) series:

Struck in a.H. 439 and 440 in the name of the Fatimid imam

abu-Tamim Ma'add ibn-'Alf

a.h. 427-487 a.d. 1036-1094

1. Sabrah - 439 - dinar. Plate I

OF <ul Vl <|l V RF -UV|

OM $' J) P"a-dl J*M Cj?) iS^\ aLw jl <uV J j**j>

RM (date) i~ (mint) j j*M li* <al

BN III 337 (pi. 1v): om ends with ydl, mint given as Tabariyah (corrected by Monchicourt).

F.Fatimites 165 (pi. 1v): om ends with 15"; 166 (2 sp.): mint given as ^ (misprint).

2. Sabrah - 440 - dinar.

As 1.

F.Fatimites 166 note: d, m only. F.Fatimites II44: om ends with if.

Second (Sunnite) series:

Struck anonymously by al-Mu'izz between a.h. 441 and 449 after his repudiation of

Fatimid suzerainty.

3. al- Qayrawan - 441 - dinar.

OF <ulVlJlV RF J* 7. Cfi

om Jl Ul-jj lj) lj~j>) la*L tl ^l 1^l l

RM (date) <i- (mint) ) ^>L.Vl o4c ul ^

KM II 855 (pi. v). Welzl 12232,12233 (2 sp.): illustrated in Schiepati (pi. n, no. 14). Soret .F

129 note. F.Fatimites 168. Farrugia: d, m only.

As 3.

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4. al-Qayrawan - 442 - dinar. Plate I

F.Fatimites 169 (pi. 1v), 170 (2 sp.): j J rf. Farrugia: d, m only.

5. al-Qayrawan - 442 - dinar.

As 3 except om: o_>*]U)l ^jU l^v. ol Jjll 4- j* J Lfuilj

Welzl 12234: illustrated in Schiepati (pi. n, no. 15).

6. al-Qayrawan - [44]3 - quarter dinar.

As 3 except om, which ends at Uj.

KM II 856 (pi. v): d illegible, margins largely illegible. Soret .F 130: margins partly illegible.

F.Fatimites 171: d illegible, lj.Xj omitted from om (misprint, corrected by letter).

Corpus of Coins: Z1rid Gold 91

7. al-Qayrawan - 444 - dinar.

As 3.

Schiepati 70 (pi. n, no. 1): d uncertain. F:Fatimites 171 note: d, m only. B 793 bis (p. 271):

d, m only. F :Fatimites II46.

8. al- Qayrawan - 445 - dinar.

As 3 except om, which ends at I J_Jij, and of: oil VI <|l V

Schiepati 71 (pi. n, no. 2): d uncertain. F :Fatimites 171 note. F :Fatimites II 47: length of

om not specified.

9. al- Qayrawan - 446 - dinar.

OF <i\ RF <j>

om (inner) J^-j ju <ul VI V

om (outer) as om of 3.

rm (inner) Jjl pUill A

rm (outer) as rm of 3.

F :Fatimites II49.

10. al- Qayrawan - 8/[4]46 - dinar.

As 3 except rm: oil ^ omitted, iu. preceded by oL*i :J..

0 2106: description inaccurate, identified from impression furnished by Galster. F:Fati-

mites II 48.

11. al-Qayrawan - 448 - dinar.

As 3 except om, which ends at LcUj, and rm, which has errors in engraving.

Farrugia: j a rf.

12. Madinat Safaqus - 449 - dinar.

of as of of 3. rf as rf of 3.

om as om of 1.

rm as rm of 1 plus .

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Farrugia.

12a. al-Mahdiyah - 446 - dinar.

As 3 except rm: (date) ii_ (mint) * .-,j+ oil .

0 2105: description inaccurate, identified from impression furnished by Galster.

13. al-Mahdiyah - 8/447 ~ dinar.

Not described; presumably as 3 except rm:

(date) c- oLii ^ (mint) j jbjl li* oil ^

Casanova 1318: d, m only.

14. (mint ?) - [4]4x - eighth dinar.

Apparently as 3.

BN II 934 (pi. 1x): margins largely illegible, rf worn.

92 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Third (Shi'ite) series:

Struck between a.h. 449 and 454 in the name of the Fatimid imam

abu-Tamim Ma'add ibn-'Ali

a.H. 427-487 a.D. 1036-1094

following resumption of acknowledgment of Fatimid suzerainty.

15. al-Mahdiyah - 449 - dinar.

As 1 except rm:

(date) i_ (mint) j ji Jl li* ^>^*-)\ ^Jl <ul ^.

Farrugia.

16. al-Mahdiyah - 4/451 - dinar.

of <ul Vl 4\ V RF a-

<u| J<ul J^::..)l

om as om of 1 through _/Al.

rm (date) ,J\ jti. ^ (mint) j jiJl li* <ul ^ .

Bergmann 17 (pi., no. 4: r only).

17. al-Mahdiyah - 453 - dinar.

May be as 15.

Blau :2V 98: d, m only.

abu-Yahyd Tamim ibn-al-MuHzz

a.H. 454-501 a.d. 1062-1108

Shi'ite series:

Struck between a.h. 454 and 459 in the name of the Fatimid imam

abu-Tamim Ma'add ibn-'Ali

a.H. 427-487 a.d. 1036-1094

prior to final repudiation of Fatimid suzerainty.

18. al-Mahdiyah - 454 - dinar.

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of j** ^UVl RF <ul

om (inner) (o~) J-\ s*- jjjj 0*i*J\ J-*l <"l J_yj <ul V

om (outer) as om of 1.

RM (inner) ju^Jl j** ^UVl Icj

rm (outer) as rm of 1.

BN III 389: mint defective, al-Mahd only.

19. al-Mahdiyah - 455 - dinar. Plate I

As 18 except om (inner) which ends at , and has J* instead of ^t.j.

BM IV 166 (pi. 11): jb of.

Corpus of Coins: Z1r1d Gold 93

20. al-Mahdiyah - 455 - dinar. Plate I

om (inner) <ul Jy-j oil Vl Jl V

om (middle) cA-jy- jjOj^j" J-*l j

om (outer) as om of 16.

rm (inner) oo^l jy\ <ul,

rm (middle) as rm (inner) of 18.

rm (outer) as rm of 1.

ANS; Miles 383 (pi. 1v).

21. al-Mahdiyah - 456 - dinar.

Apparently as 20.

Balog.

22. al-Mahdiyah - 8/457 ~ dinar.

of as rf of 18. RF as OF of 18.

om (inner) as om (inner) of 19.

om (outer) as om of 1.

rm (inner) as rm (inner) of 18.

rm (outer) as rm of 16, with oL*i instead of ^Jl.

BM IV 167: j b of.

23. al-Mahdiyah - 8/459 - dinar.

As 18 except rm (outer): as rm of 13.

F:Fatimites II 41: inner om ends at j^-.

No coins are reliably reported for the rest of Tamim's reign, a.h. 460-501. Blau :N 101,

ascribed to al-Mahdiyah for a.h. 480 without further description, is presumably misread;

Blau..AT 103, ascribed to al-Mahdiyah for an illegible date, is, because of the criss-cross

design, almost certainly an issue of the Sicily (Siqilliyah) mint.

abu-Tahir Yahyd ibn-Tamim

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a.H. 501-509 a.D.1108-1116

No coins reported.

abuH-Futuh 'Ali ibn-Yahyd

a.h. 509-515 a.d. 1116-1121

No coins reported.

abu-Yahyd al-Hasan ibn-'Ali

a.H. 515-543 a.D. 1121-1148

No coins reported.

No coins are reported for the local Arab and Berber rulers in Tunisia and Algeria

other than the Zirids and Hammadids in the interval between the Arab invasion of

a.h. 443 (a.d. 1051) and the completion of the Muwahhid conquest in a.h. 555 (a.d. 1160)

with the following two exceptions.

94

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Hammu ibn-MalU

independent Barghawattah Berber governor of

Sfax (Safaqus)

a.h. 451-493 a.d. 1059-11oo

24. Safaqus - 461 - anonymous dinar.

of as of of 3. rf as rf of 3.

om as om of 1 through jl\.

rm as rm of 1.

Farrugia.

Rashid ibn-Rashid

independent Jami'id Arab governor of

Gabes (Qabis)

a.h. 5*x-554 a.d. 115X-1159

Struck in the name of the 'Abbasid khalifah, who was not individually identified:

al-Muqtafi-li-amr-Allah, abii-Abd-'Allah Muhammad ibn-Ahmad

a.H. 530-555 a.d. 1136-1160

24a. Qabis - 551 - dinar. Plate I

OF <UI Vl JlV RF Ji. Vl

-uiJl j^Vl .oil

OM cx.^-Wl i>VI j y>} O JJb Ji Lj ^L-Vl jj- ft <y j

rm (date) (mint) j Jl l-U ._^ ^Jl <ul p.

S:Beyram 293 (pi. n): given as 552 Qadis (Cadiz) (disproved by piate), of misread.

P:Misceldnea p. 128 (fig.) of misread. This coin is termed "rashid1" by Ibn-Khaldun

(Kitab al-Ubar, Bulaq edition, vol. VI, p. 167).

Hammadid Gold

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struck in North Africa after a.h. 439 (a.d. 1047)

by the Sanhajah Berber rulers of eastern Algeria,

the Banu-Hammad

in Kuf1 script.

No Hammadid coins are reported for the period prior to a.h. 439.

Corpus of Coins: Hammad1d Gold 95

al-Qa'id ibn-Hammdd

a.H. 419-446 a.D. 1028-1055

No coins reported.

Muhsan ibn-al-Qd'id

a.h. 446-447 a.d. 1055-1055

No coins reported.

Bulukkin ibn-Muhammad

a.H. 447-454 a.d. 1055-1062

No coins reported.

al-Ndsir ibn-'Alannds

a.H. 454-481 a.d. 1062-1088

No coins reported.

al-Mansur ibn-Ndsir

a.H. 481-498 a.d. 1088-1104

(mint ?) - (date ?) - dinar.

om (inner) as om (inner) of 20.

om (middle) as om (middle) of 20.

om (outer) illegible.

rm (inner) illegible.

rm (middle) as rm (inner) of 18.

rm (outer) illegible.

Beylie (fig. 74): not described; tentatively reconstructed from figure; attribution to this

ruler not expiained; apparently an illegible Fatimid dinar falling outside the scope of this

corpus. Ibn-Khaldun states that this ruler was the first Hammadid to mint coins.

Bddis ibn-al-Mansur

a.h. 498-498 a.D. 1104-1105

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No coins reported.

al-'Aziz ibn-al-Mansur

a.H. 498-515 a.D. 11o5-1121

No coins reported.

Yahyd ibn-al-'Aziz

a.h. 515-547 a.D. 1121-1152

Struck in the name of the 'Abbasid khalifah

al-Muqtafi-li-amr-Allah, abfi-'Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn-Ahmad

a.H. 530-555 a.D. 1136-1160

96 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

25. al-Nasiriyah - 543 - dinar.

OF <lll J>-j JU*. <Ul Vl .Jl V RF .Oil juc ym\ ^UVl

OM 0V |f j j^-i'U jT" Jy |^ <ul Jl o 0l_j, J

rm (date) ii (mint) j jbjl Ii* ^Jl ^Jl <ul ^

This coin is not listed in any modern collection, and it is possible that no specimens have

survived. It is, however, fully described (except for division into lines) by Ibn-Khaldun

(Kitab al-'ibar, Bulaq edition, vol. VI, page 177). The purported illustration in de Beylie's

appendix (fig. 6) is, like the other alleged coins from the same source, incredible, as de Beylie

realized.

Hammud1d Gold

struck in North Africa after a.h. 439 (a.d. 1047)

in the name of

the Banu-Hammud

of Malaga (Malaqah)

or of their Barghawatah Berber governors.

No gold reported.

No coins are reported for the period following a.h. 439 for the petty pre-Murabit

Berber rulers in Morocco with the exception of Hammudid silver and copper, to be de-

scribed later, and a curious group of small gold coins B 774-793 (pi. xn) ascribed by

Brethes to the Banu-Khazriin, who ruled Sijilmasah until the Murabit conquest of a.H. 446,

and to their contemporaries. His readings are too tentative and fragmentary, and his

plates too illegible, to permit intelligent discussion of these coins, although they clearly

demand careful study and comment when they can be made available to scholars.

Murabit Gold

struck in North Africa and Spain

by the Lamtunah Berber rulers of

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the Murabitun sect

in Kufi script.

Almost all Murabit gold was struck in the name of the 'Abbasid khalifah, who was

never individually identified, but was generically termed "al-imam, 'Abd Allah, amir

al-mu'minin" and sometimes also "al-'Abbasi".

Corpus of Coins: MurIbit Gold

Abu-Bakr ibn-'Umar

a.h. 448-480 a.d. 1056-1087

26. Sijilmasah - 450 - dinar. Plate I

OF aI Vl i\ V RF fUVI

rm (date) ii- (mint) j Jl i* ._,^ .

V 1425 (AV). BN II 507 (pi. n): engraving errors. C:Decadencia p. 375, no. 1 (pi. 1).

27. Sijilmasah - 451 - dinar.

As 26.

V 1426 (AV). Rivero: M 97 (pi. n). 0 2069: om largely illegible.

28. Sijilmasah - 452 - dinar. Plate I

OF VI .Jl V RF ju> yi\

om as om of 26.'

rm as rm of 26.

S:Beyram 288 (pi. n). B 794 (pi. xm): date given as 454 (disproved by piate.)

29. Sijilmasah - 454 ? - dinar.

As 28.

B 795 (pi. xm): date illegible in piate.

30. Sijilmasah - 454 ? - dinar.

As 26.

Soret:F 131: date uncertain.

31. Sijilmasah - 455 - dinar.

As 26.

B 796-802 (pi. xm: 801; coin illustrated under no. 800 is 38) (7 sp.).

32. Sijilmasah - 456 - dinar.

As 26.

V 1427. BN II 508 (pi. n). S:Beyram 287.

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33. Sijilmasah - 457 - dinar.

As 26.

V 1428. BM V 1 (pi. 1): ^ for y>j in om (misprint). B 803, 804 (2 sp.).

34. Sijilmasah - 458 - dinar.

As 26.

B 805, 806 (2 sp).

35. Sijilmasah - 461 - dinar.

As 26.

V 1429 (AV). KM II 563. 0 2070.

98

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

36. Sijilmasah - 462 - dinar.

As 26.

V 1430 (AV). BN II 509. 0 2071.

37. Sijilmasah - 463 - dinar.

As 26.

Welzl 12235. 0 2072.

38. Sijilmasah - 467 - dinar.

As 26.

V 1431 (AV). B 807 (pi. xm, under no. 800).

39. Sijilmasah - 468 - dinar.

As 26.

V1432 (AV). BN II 510. Cerda 350: d, m only. Spink (1902) 79532. Sotheby 379: d, m only.

S:Michael II453.

40. Sijilmasah - 469 - dinar.

As 26.

V 1433 (AV). BN II 511. L:Calvert 45. Spink (1907) 36491: d, m only. B 808.

41. Sijilmasah - 470 - dinar.

As 26.

S: Michael II 454, 455 [2 sp.). See also copper: 1161.

42. Sijilmasah - 471 - dinar.

As 26.

HSA 13156: for yja in rm (engraving error). V 1435 (AV). J :Mohammedan p. 267:

date read as 491 but presumably this year since ruler is given as Abu-Bakr. S:White2ljj.

S:Judice II3089. Sotheby 379: d, m only. S :Michael II456, 457? (pi. n) (2 sp. ?). S :Grantley

2158. S:Gotha 975 (pi. x1).

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43. Sijilmasah - 472 - dinar.

As 26.

ANS. V 1436 (AV). Adler: C 85 (pi. vi). S: Michael II 458. S: Grantley 2159.

44. Sijilmasah - 473 - dinar.

As 26.

HSA 15796. V 1437 (AV). Spink (1902) 79531: d, m only. Sotheby 379: d, m only.

45. Sijilmasah - 474 - dinar.

As 26.

V 1438 (AV, Campaner). B 809.

46. Sijilmasah - [4]75 - dinar.

As 26.

V 1439 (AV). B 810.

47. Sijilmasah - 476 - dinar.

As 26.

V 1439 bis (p. 393). BN II 512. B 811. Balog: engraving errors in rm.

48. Sijilmasah - 477 - dinar.

As 26.

V 1440 (AV, 2 others). Cerda 351: d, m only. B 812, 813 (2 sp.).

Corpus of Coins: MurIb1t Gold 99

49. Sijilmasah - 478 - dinar.

As 26.

V1441 (AV, 1 other), 1442 (AV). BM V 2: Vl for J>V| in om (engraving error). Markov: E

p. 90, no. 1: d, m only. B 814, 815 (2 sp.).

50. Sijilmasah - 479 - dinar.

As 26.

L:Calvert 46. B 816.

51. Sijilmasah - 480 - dinar.

As 26.

B 817.

52. (mint ?) - (date ?) - half dinar.

OF as of of 26. rf ^.Vl

(jo

om illegible.

rm largely illegible.

B 818 (pi.xm), 818 bis (2 sp.): description indicating no margins disproved by piate showing

remains of margins rendered illegible by clipping.

'Ali ibn-?

governor of Sijilmasah

probably about a.h. 459 (a.d. 1067)

53. Sijilmasah - 45x - dinar. Plate I

As 26 except of: Vl Jl V

<Ul

Jc

B 821 (pi. xm): last digit of date punched out, misread as 450.

Ibrahim ibn-Abi-Bakr

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governor of Sijilmasah

a.H. 462-467 a.d. 1070-1074

54. Sijilmasah - 462 - dinar.

As 26 except of: <ul Vl <ll V

V1446. BMV3 (pi. 1: o only). BN II 514: l-i* je for i* ^ in rm (engraving error).

Marsden 350 (pi. xx1) :la* for i* in rm.

55. Sijilmasah - 465 - dinar. Plate I

As 54.

V I447. BN II 515 (pi. n).

100

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

56. Sijilmasah - 466 - dinar.

As 54.

V 1448 (AV).

57. Sijilmasah - 467 ? - dinar.

As 54.

B 820 (pi. x1n): piate largely illegible, including date.

V 1465 (Merle). BM V 4, 5 (2 sp.): Sb rf. Bartholomaei 60. Calvo p. 191.

59. Aghmat - 487 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1466 (AV). BN II 516: Sb rf. Soret:F 132: Sb rf. C:Decadencia p. 376, no. 2 (pi. 1):

Sb rf. B 836.

60. Aghmat - 488 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1467 (AV). BN II 517 (pi. n): Sb rf. Weyl:G 1183: d, m only. Markov: p. 90, no. 4:

d, m only. B 837.

61. Aghmat - 489 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1468 (AV). BM V 6 (pi. 1): without S BN II 518: without S Markov: p. 881 no. 4a:

d, m only. Rivero:M 100 (pi. n): Sb rf.

62. Aghmat - 490 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1469 (AH, AV 2 sp.). BN II 519: without S. B 838.

63. Aghmat - 590 (for 490) - dinar.

As 58; the erroneous date apparently represents an engraving error.

V 1470. BM V 7: Sb rf.

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64. Aghmat - 491 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1471 (PG, AV). BN II 520: Sb rf. L:Calvert 47: Sb rf. B 839.

65. Aghmat - 492 - dinar.

As 58.

V1472 (AV). BN II521: Sb rf. CunhaII 1524. Markov :E p.966, no.4b: d, m only. J :Mo-

hammedan p. 267: d, m only. Sotheby 380: d, m only. B 840.

66. Aghmat - 493 - dinar. Plate I

Yusuf ibn-Tdshfin

a.h. 480-5oo

58. Aghmat - 486 - dinar.

As 26 except of:

a.D. 1087-1106

As 58.

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t Gold IoI

HSA 13173: Sb rf. V 1473 (AV, 1 other), 1474. BM Xp. 3, no. 91: Sb rf. BN II 522:

Sb rf. Soret:F 133: Sb rf. Demaeght v. IX, p. 202 (fig.): Sb rf. Markov :E p. 90, no. 5:

d, m only. S:White 2179: d, m only. 0 2074: illegible letter b rf.

67. Aghmat - 494 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1475 (AV). BN II 523: Sb rf. H6st: and N 4 (pi.xxxm): Sb rf. Weyl:G 1184: d,

m only. Markov: p. 90, no. 6: d, m only. 0 2075.

68. Aghmat - 495 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1476 (AV). BN II 524: Sb rf. Weyl:G 1185: d, m only. Markov:E p.90, no.7: d, m only.

69. Aghmat - 496 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1477 (AV), 1478. BN II 525: Sb rf. Colson p. 241: d, m only.

70. Aghmat - 497 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1479 (AV). B 841.

71. Aghmat - 498 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1480 (PG, AV). B 842-847 (pi. xn1: 847) (6 sp.): Sb rf.

72. Tilimsan or Balansiyah - 494 - dinar.

As 58.

L:Calvert 48: mint Sb rf. If date is correctly read, mint is presumably Tilimsan, as

Balansiyah was not taken until 495.

73. Sabtah - 484 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1464 (AV, 1 other). MA 488. Cerda 354: d, m only. Rivero:M 99 (pi. n): without S.

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74. Sijilmasah - 480 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1449 (Howland): d, m in om (misprint). BN II 527 (pi. 1n): without S. Spink (1902)

79533. Sotheby 380: d, m only. B 822.

75. Sijilmasah - 481 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1450 (AV). Weyl:G 1182:^, m only. Markov:p. 90, no. 3: d, m only. 0 2073. B 823,

824 (2 sp.).

76. Sijilmasah - 482 - dinar.

As 58.

ANS: without S. V 1451 (AV).

77. Sijilmasah - 483 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1452 (FC, AV). D.Lorichs 4705. Cerda 352: d, m only. Markov:E p. 880, no. 3a: d, m only.

B 825 (coin illustrated under no. 825 in pi. xm is 78).

102 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

78. Sijilmasah - 484 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1453 (PG, AV). BM X p. 3, no. 3k: z> (for S?) b Rf. BN II 528: Sb rf. Cerda 353:

d, m only. Colson p. 241: d, m only. B 825 bis (pi. xin, under no. 825): Sb rf.

79. Sijilmasah - 485 - dinar.

As 58.

HSA 13182: Sb rf. V1454 (AV 2 sp., 2 others), 1455 (AV). BM X p. 3, no. 3m: => (for S ?)

b rf. BN II 529: without S. Cerda 355: d, m only. Markov :E p. 880, no. 3b: d, m only. S:

White 2178 (?): reference or date wrong.

80. Sijilmasah - 486 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1456 (AV 2 sp.). Cerda 356: d, m only. Zambaur II 267: without S. B 826-828 (3 sp.).

81. Sijilmasah - [4387 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1457 (PG, AV, 1 other). B 829.

82. Sijilmasah - 488 - dinar.

Presumably as 58.

Cerda 357: d, m only.

83. Sijilmasah - 490 - dinar.

As 58.

B830.

84. Sijilmasah - 491 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1458 (PG, AV 3 sp.). L:Khedivial p. 328: date read as 471 but presumably this year since

Yusuf is given as ruler, Sb rf.

85. Sijilmasah - 493 - dinar.

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As 58.

V 1459 (AV).

86. Sijilmasah - 494 - dinar.

As 58.

Markov: p. 881, no. 6a: d, m only. Ziya 2028. B 831, 832 (2 sp.).

87. Sijilmasah - 495 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1460 (AV 2 sp.). BN II 530: without S. B 833, 834 (2 sp.).

88. Sijilmasah - 496 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1461 (Campaner). Weyl:G 1186: d, m only. Markov: p. 90 no. 8: d, m only.

89. Sijilmasah - 497 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1462 (AV). BN II 53i:without S. S:Gotha 976.

90. Sijilmasah - 498 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1463 (AV).

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t Gold

103

91. Sijilmasah - (no date) - quarter dinar: Kufi and Naskhi script.

Plate I

<Ul Jj"J -Use.

(mint)

No margins.

BN II 532 (pi. 1n), 533 (2 sp.):: before mint (not visible in piate). D:Lorichs 4707: described

as one third of a dinar in Naskhi script, may be this coin. S :White 2180: denomination only.

B 849-852 (pi. x1n: 852) (4 sp.).

92. Mad1nat Fas - 484 - dinar.

Presumably as 58.

Colson p. 241: d, m only. May be a specimen of 93 misread.

93. Madinat Fas - 494 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1484 (AV).

94. Fas - 497 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1485 (AV): date faultily engraved, read as 499 but probably this year since 'Ali is not

designated heir.

95. Madinat Marrakush - 490 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1481 (AV 2 sp.). BM X p. 3, no. ft (pi. xx1): without S. Brooke p. 77 (pi. v1, no. 2):

96. Mad[1nat] Marrakush - 491 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1482. BM V 8: without S. Marsden 351 (pi. xx1): without S.

97. Marrakush - 4(9)1 - dinar.

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As 58; date faulty, 9 omitted.

V 1483. BN II 534: without S.

98. Nul - 494 - dinar.

Presumably as 58.

Colson p. 241: d, m only.

(mint ?) - (date ?) - dinar.

As 58.

B 848 (pi.xin): Sb rf; this coin is a dinar with margins rendered illegible by clipping, not a

half dinar as recorded.

(mint ?) - (date ?) - dinar.

OF .ill Vl .Jl V RF rLV1

without S.

.oil -u;

om as om of 26.

rm as rm of 26.

104

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

This coin, the inscriptions of which are reported by al-Maqrizi, citing abu-Muhammad 'Abd-

al-Hal1m al-Gharnati, has not been reported as existing in any modern collection; since the

legends correspond to those of Murabit coins struck several decades later, it can be con-

fidently rejected as erroneous. Likewise coins, reported by several Moslem historians, with

Yusuf termed "amir al-mu'minin" are certainly non-existent.

Spanish mints.

99. Ishbiliyah - (4)89 - dinar.

Presumably as 58.

Yale.

100. Madinat Ishbiliyah - [49]1 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1492 (AV): date partially illegible.

101. Madinat Ishbiliyah - 493 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1493 (AV).

102. Ishb1liyah - 496 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1494 (PG).

103. Ishbiliyah - 497 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1495 (AV). BN II 535 (pi. ui):Sb rf. Longperier :D p. 429: d, m only. Rivero: (pi. 1n,

no. 1): Sb rf.

Balansiyah or Tilimsan - 494 - dinar.

See 72.

104. Balansiyah - 496 - dinar.

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As 58.

V 1503 (AV). Markov:E p. 881, no. 8a: d, m only.

105. Balansiyah - 497 - dinar.

Presumably as 58.

Longperier :D p. 429: d, m only, 'AH is not designated heir.

106. Bayyasah - 497 - presumably a dinar.

Presumably as 58.

C:Qecas p. 343: d, m only; mint given as Bayasah (error).

107. Daniyah - 495 - dinar.

As 58 except that om is followed by oil

KM II 565: without S.

108. Sanh1kah - 491 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1491 (PG).

Corpus of Coins: MurIb1t Gold

105

109. Shatibah - [4]89 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1490 (Andujar).

110. Gharnatah - 493 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1500 (AV), 1501 (Lahoz). Colson p. 241: d, m only.

111. Madinat Qurtubah - 486 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1486. BN II 540 (pi. 1n): without S.

112. Madinat Qurtubah - 490 - dinar.

As 58 except rm, in which replaces

V 1487 (PG).

113. Madinat Qurtubah - 492 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1488. BM V 9 (pi. 1, r only): j. b rf.

114. Qurtubah - 496 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1489 (PG). Z:Tratado p. 196, no. 1 (pi. xx): without S.

115. al-Qantarah or Qantarat al-Sayf - 496 - dinar.

Presumably as 58.

Colson p. 241: d, m only; mint given in Spanish, may be either of above forms in Arabic.

116. Madinat Malaqah - 494 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1502 (AV).

117. al-Mariyah - 492 - dinar.

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As 58.

V 1496 (AV).

118. al-Mariyah - 494 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1497 (AV). BN II 543 (pi. 1n): without S. Longperier:D p. 429: d, m only. Rivero:M 101

(pi. n): without

119. al-Mariyah - 495 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1498 (FC, AV).

120. Madinat al-Mariyah - 495 - dinar.

As 58.

V 1499 (AV, Campaner). Gonzalez p. 82 (fig. 18): without S, mint uncertain.

a.H. 496-5oo

121. Aghmat - 498 - dinar.

With heir

'Ali ibn-YUsuf

a.D. 1103-1106

Io6

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

As 26 and 58 except of: <ul Vl <JI V

<111 J j-) -Use*

V 1524 (AV 2 sp.). BN II 526: for .mV1 in fourth line of of, Sb rf. B 859: Sb rf.

122. Aghmat - 499 - dinar.

As 121.

V 1525 (AV).

Sijilmasah - 499 - dinar.

See 172.

123. Marrakush - 499 - dinar.

As 26 and 121 except of: <ul Vl V

<lll J_J-J -Use*

B 858 (pi. x1n): j>J (?) 6 rf.

124. Nul - 497 - dinar.

Presumably as 121.

B 856: /J (?) 6 rf.

Spanish mints.

125. Ishbiliyah - 498 - dinar. ^( <( ^

As 121 except of, top line of which is changed to <J II.

B 857: Sb rf; presumably this of, description incomplete.

126. Ishbiliyah - 499 - dinar.

As 125.

V 1526 (AV). Caballero p. 16: d, m only, Sb rf.

127. Balansiyah - 497 - dinar. Plate I

As 26 and 121 except of: <ul Vl A\ V

V 1505 (PG, AV 2 sp., 1 other). BM X p. 4, no. 9I: no letter b rf, ascribed to 'Ali. BN II 536

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(pi. n1): no letter b rf. KM II 564 (pi. m): no letter b rf.

128. Balansiyah - 498 - dinar.

As 127.

V 1506 (PG, AV 2 sp., 2 others). BN II 537: no letter b rf. Longprier:D p. 429: d, m only.

129. Balansiyah - 498 - dinar.

As 127 except rm, from which <i- is omitted (engraving error).

V 1507 (AV, 2 others). MA 489: at end of rm. S :Ciscar 31 (pi. 1): rm obscure in piate, no

letter b rf. S .Gotha 977.

Corpus of Coins: MurAb1t Gold 107

130. Balansiyah - 499 - dinar.

As 26 and 121 except Of: ul Vl V

V 1528 (FC, AV, 1 other). Colson p. 241: d, m only.

131. Balansiyah - 499 - dinar.

As 58 plus Jc b Rf.

V 1516 (PG, AV).

132. Balansiyah - 5oo (posthumous) - dinar.

As 131 plus <ul ^-a. at end of rm.

V 1517 (PG, AV 2 sp., 1 other). BM X p. 4, no. 9s: description inaccurate, ascribed to 'Ali,

Oy-- for ^~>- in rm (engraving error). Colson p. 241: d, m only.

133. Daniyah - 497 - dinar.

As 127.

V 1508. BN II 538: no letter b rf. Longperier:D p. 429: d, m only. D .Lorichs 4706: d, m only.

Weyl:G 1188: d, m only. Markov :E p. 90, no. 10: d, m only.

134. Daniyah - 498 - dinar.

As 127 except rm, in which replaces

V 1509 (AV). Longperier.D p. 429: d, m only. Caballero p. 15, no. 2:Sb rf.

135. Daniyah - 498 - dinar.

As 131.

V 1518 (PG). BN II 539: no letter b rf. C:Tratado p. 197, no. 4 (pi. xx): no letter b rf.

Caballero p. 14, no. 1.

136. Daniyah - 499 - dinar.

As 131 except rm, in which replaces

V 1519 (AV). Caballero p. 15: not specified.

137. Daniyah - 499 - dinar.

As 121 except rm, in which replaces

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V 1522 (UV, AV, 1 other), 1523 (AV).

138. Daniyah - 499 - dinar.

As 123 except rm, in which replaces li..

Caballero p. 15, no. 3.

139. Daniyah - 499 - dinar.

As 137 except of: <a\ Vl Jl V

V 1521 (Garcia).

140. Madinat Daniyah - 5oo (posthumous) dinar.

As 131.

V 1520 (AV). Caballero p. 15, no. 4.

io8

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

141. Shatibah - 497 - dinar. ^ ^

As 127 except of, first line of which is changed to: ^) _ ll.

V 1504 (AV).

142. Shatibah - 498 - dinar.

May be as 141 or as 125 and 143.

Weyl:G 1189: d, m only.

143. Shatibah - 499 - dinar.

As 125.

V 1527 (AV).

144. Qurtubah - 497 - dinar.

As 58 and 131 except rf: <il .us .UVl

V 1510. BN II 541: ^ b rf. Longperier:D p. 429: d, m only.

145. Qurtubah - 498 - dinar.

As 144.

V 1511 (Garcia).

146. Madinat Malaqah - 5oo (posthumous) - dinar.

As 26 and 121 except of: ul Vl i\ V

'Jc

V 1529 (1 other). BN II 542: JJ} for Jj on of (misprint), no letter b rf.

147. Malaqah - 5oo (posthumous) - dinar.

As 146 except rm, in which Jl ^*>-)\ follows <ul ^.

V 1530 (AV). Longperier:D p. 429: d, m only.

148. al-Mariyah - 497 - dinar.

As 58 and 131 except rm, in which Jc replaces and rf:

^ fUVl

'y

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cr\l_jll jj\

V 1512. BN II 544: no letter b rf. Longperier:D p. 429: d, m only. Weyl:G 1187: d, m only.

Markov :E p. 90, no. 9: d, m only.

149. al-Mariyah - 497 - dinar.

As 136.

V 1513 (AV).

150. al-Mariyah - 498 - dinar.

As 136.

V 1514 (PG, AV).

Corpus of Coins: MurIb1t Gold

109

151. al-Mariyah - 499 - dinar.

As 136.

V 1515 (AV).

Yusuf with 'Ali as heir; recapitulation of types. All coins as 58, standard type of

Yusuf, with following modifications (coins on which Je replaces ii- in rm are designated

by*).

rf: I juc rUVI / 4ul / oc* y\\ ^1 / s^s: 148*.

rf: oil -lp fUVl / oca y\\ I j/J\: 144, 145.

Jc ^Vl b rf: 131, 135, 136*, 140, 149*, 150*, 151*.

Je. ^iVl b rf, <ul ^s- at end of rm: 132.

Last 3 lines of of: a. ^-y. / ^1 (%*it / 121, 122, 124, 137*.

As preceding type with top line of of: | lI : 125, 126, 143.

Last 3 lines of of: <ul J^-j -u* / uuit & >-i-j,. / Jc ;130.

Last 3 lines of of: It a. <-*-y. ^ / 6y^/ Je: 123, 138*.

Last 2 lines of of: It a <jl.j, j^Vl / Jc j^Vl <>Li : 139*.

Last 2 lines of of: ^Vl a J* / o.^-y.: 127, 128, 133, 134*.

As preceding type but omitted: 129.

Mi Ii V

As type of 127 with top line of of: <| II : 141, 142?.

Last 3 lines of of: Jj .JL.y- / -i^e / Je. ; 146.

As preceding type with ^Jl ^rJl after ul in rm: 147.

'Ali ibn-Yiisuf

a.H. 500-537 a D. 1106-1143

See also posthumous dinars of Yusuf: 132, 140, 146, 147.

152. Aghmat - 5oo - dinar.

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OF <uI Vl <)l V RF fUVl

Oil J JJ 0sfc

OuLil jrvl <UI

y- <j. <jc*y\\ jy\

OM JA ijiVl j jAJ <A JJi jl b J pOfl

rm (date) li- (mint) j jbjl i* ^Jl ^Jl <ul ^

V 1552 (AV). BM X p. 4, no. 9t: Sb rf. Colson p. 242: d, m only.

153. Aghmat - 501 - dinar.

As 152 but ^Jl omitted from rm.

V 1553 (AV). BM V 10: Sb rf. BN II 547: Sb rf. Marsden 352 (pi. xxi): Sb rf (given as

y, corrected from piate). Fraehn:0 p. 26 (frontispiece of "Lexici Meninskiani" vol. IV).

154. Aghmat - 502 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1554 (AV). Zambaur II 268: Sb rf.

no

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

155. Aghmat - 503 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1555 (AV).

156. Aghmat - 504 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1556 (AV). BN II 548: Sb rf.

157. Aghmat - 505 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1557 (AV). Lisbon.

158. Aghmat - 506 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1558 (PG, AV). MA 516. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. Balog: Sb Rf.

159. Aghmat - 507 - dinar.

As 153.

HSA 531: Sb rf. V 1559 (AV). BN II 549: Sb rf.

160. Aghmat - 508 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1560 (AH, AV). Lagumina p. 100, no. 1: Sb rf, for <yj in om (misprint ?).

Figanier 274: Sb of (misprint Si corrected by letter).

161. Aghmat - 509 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1561 (AV). B 866 (pi. x1n): S b rf. Thorburn: om illegible, S b rf.

162. Aghmat - 510 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1562 (AV 2 sp.). Markov: p. 881, no. 12a: d, m only.

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163. Aghmat - 511 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1563 (AV), 1564 (AV), 1565 (AV). BM V 17 (pi. 1): Sb rf. BN II 550: Sb rf. KM II 590:

Sb rf.

164. Aghmat - 512 - dinar.

As 153.

HSA 9174:^6 rf. S:Michael I 1668: Sb rf. B 872 bis: Sb rf, description incompiete.

165. Aghmat - 513 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1566 (PG, AV).

166. Aghmat - 514 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1567 (AV). BM X p. 4, no. 18t: Sb rf.

167. Aghmat - 515 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1568 (AV). BM V 20: Sb rf.

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t Gold

h1

168. Bani-Tawada - 513 - dinar.

As 153 except rm, in which Je replaces ii-.

Colson p. 242: d, m only. B 873 (pi. x1v): mint given as Talaveira (error), illegible letters

b rf, date illegible in piate.

169. Tilimsan - 505 - dinar.

As 1B2.

0 2080.

170. Tilimsan - 511 - dinar.

As 168; iU for i* in rm (engraving error).

V 1585. BM V 18: Sb rf. Marsden 354 (pi. xx1): Sb rf.

171. Madinat Tilimsan - 511 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1584 (AV). Colson p. 242: d, m only.

172. Sijilmasah - 499 - dinar. This coin, if correctly reported, was struck for 'Ali as heir

before the death of Yusuf.

As 153 except of: <ul Vl V

<lll J_j~.J -Use*

a J*

V 1545 (AV).

173. Sijilmasah - 5oo - dinar.

As 172.

V 1546 (AV). B 835: three letters after date, ascribed to Yusuf, may be this coin misread.

174. Sijilmasah - 502 - dinar.

As 172.

V 1547 (AV).

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175. Sijilmasah - 504 - dinar.

As 172.

S .Gotha 981 (pi. xi): no letter b rf.

176. Sijilmasah - 505 - dinar.

As 172.

V 1548 (AV).

177. Sijilmasah - 508 - dinar.

As 172.

V 1549 (AV).

178. Sijilmasah - 511 - dinar.

Presumably as 172.

B 872: Sb rf, description inaccurate.

179. Sijilmasah - 513 - dinar.

As 172.

V 1550 (AH).

112

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

180. Sijilmasah - 518 - dinar.

As 172.

V 1551 (PG): date faulty (misprint ?).

181. Sijilmasah - 520 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1590 (AV).

182. Sijilmasah - 521 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1591. BM X p. 5, no. 29c: top line of of divided <ul / V| A)l V (error), no letter b rf.

183. Sala - 508 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1583 (AV).

184. Madinat Fas - 501 ? - dinar.

As 152 except rm, in which replaces ii

V 1569: date uncertain. BM V 12: date uncertain, 5th line of of illegible, S b rf.

185. Madinat Fas - 508 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1570 (AV).

186. Madinat Fas - 508 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1571 (AV). BN II 560: Sb rf.

187. Madinat Fas - 509 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1572 (AV), 1573 (Codera Imp.).

188. Madinat Fas - 511 - dinar.

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Presumably as 168.

B 871: description incompiete.

189. Madinat Fas - 512 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1574 (PG).

190. Madinat Fas - 515 ? - dinar.

As 168.

V 1575 (Garcia): date uncertain.

191. Madinat Fas - 520 - dinar.

Presumably as 168.

Spink (1900) 63240, (1902) 79537 (2 sp.): d, m only. B 882: description incompiete.

192. Madinat Fas - 521 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1576 (UV, PG, FC, AV 2 sp.). MA 517. Spink (1901) 68378: d, m (given as Fas) only.

193. Madinat Fas - 522 - dinar.

Presumably as 168.

B 884: description incompiete.

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t Gold

113

194. Marrakush - 5oo - dinar.

Probably as 152.

G p. 182: d, m only.

195. Marrakush - 510 - dinar.

Presumably as 168.

B 867: Sb rf, description incompiete.

196. Marrakush - 516 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1586 (AH, AV).

197. Marrakush - 518 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1587. MA 518.

198. Marrakush - 519 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1588 (PG).

199. Marrakush - 520 - dinar.

As 184.

B 880 (pi. x1n): ifb rf, description inaccurate. Seaby G992: d, m only.

200. Marrakush - 521 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1589. MA 519. D:Garcia 6088.

201. Nul - 501 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1577 (UV).

202. Nul - 509 - dinar.

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As 153.

Marcais p. 182 (pi. 1): Sb rf, mint dubious, may be Aghmat (161).

203. Nul - 510 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1578. BN II 572 (pi. m): Sb rf.

204. Nul - 511 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1579 (AV).

205. Nul Lamtah - 513 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1580 (AV). B 885: r6rf, description incompiete, date given as 523, mint given as Nul,

may be this coin, as Sir is apparently not designated heir.

206. Nul Lamtah - 515 - dinar.

Presumably as 153.

WeyhG 1197: d, m only. Markov :E p. 90, no. 14: d, m only.

114 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

207. Nul Lamtah - 516 - dinar.

As 153.

KM II 628: Sb rf.

208. Nul Lamtah - 518 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1581 (UV).

209. Nul Lamtah - 522 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1582. MA 515. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. S .Gotha 980 (pi. x1): date uncertain, given as

523 (error), Sb rf.

210. (no mint) - (no date) - half dinar.

of as of of 152. rf as rf of 152.

No margins (this is not a clipped dinar).

Longperier:D p. 430: not described. B 886 (pi. x1v): Sb rf; misread.

Spanish mints.

211. Ishbiliyah - 510 - dinar.

As 153 except of, top line of which is divided ^ ^ .

B 868: description incompiete.

212. Ishbiliyah - 515 - dinar.

As 211.

V 1655 (PG), 1656 (AV). MA 521. Cerda 365: d, m only.Figanier 275: Si b rf (confirmed by

letter).

213. Ishbiliyah - 516 - dinar.

As 211.

V 1657 (UV, PG, AV 3 sp., 1 other). BN II 575: Si b rf. MA 522. KM II 582, 583 (pi. 1n)

(2 sp.): Si b rf. Tychsen, O. p. 42. Dorn.vl p. 401. Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only. D.Lorichs

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4710: d, m only. Cerda 367: d, wonly. h.Oriental p. 235: Si b rf, reported as 153 (error).

Calvo (pi. x1, no. 5): mint given as al-Mariyah (disproved by piate), S-) b rf. Figanier 276

(pi. v): piate shows Si b rf. Thorburn: d, m only.

214. Ishbiliyah - 516 - dinar.

As 211 except rm, in which replaces

HSA 7896: Si b rf. V 1658 (FC, AV 3 sp.). BN II 576: Sb rf (error for J3). MA 522 note.

Tornbergp. 275, no. 1: for OuLA\ (error), Si b rf. Fraehn: N p. 87, no. 2: Si b rf,

description inaccurate. Dorn I p. 55, no. 7, 8 (2 sp.): Si 6Jrf. Markov:T 183(= Swedish

Royal Museum 1123).

215. Ishbiliyah - 517 - dinar.

As 211.

ANS: Si b rf. V 1659 (PG 2 sp., FC, AV 2 sp.). BM V 22: Si b rf. MA 523. KM II 584:

<_& b rf. Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only, with heir Tashfin (error). Fraehn:iV p. 87, no. 4:

Si b rf, description inaccurate. Cerda 369: d, m only. Dorn I p. 56, no. 11: for ii-

in rm (error ?), Si 6rf. Brosset col. 400: d, monly. Weyl:G 1202: d, wonly. Markov:Ep. 91,

111

Corpus of Coins: MurIb1t Gold

"5

no. 19, 20 (2 sp.): d, m only. Spink (1898) 46650, (1901) 68380, (1902) 79534 (3 sp.): d, m

only.

216. Ishbiliyah - 518 - dinar.

As 211.

HSA 13155: JO b rf. V 1660 (UV, AV 4 sp.). BM V 23: ^mUJl for J.^-lil in om, Si b rf.

BN II 578: iSi (read as J) b rf. MA 524 (2 sp.). KM II 585: S b rf. Cerda 371: d, m only.

Dorn I p. 56, no. 13: for <i~ in rm (error ?), Si b rf. Brosset col. 400: d, m only.

C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. Markov:E p. 91, no. 21: d, m only. SJudice II 3092 (pi. n):

Si b rf. 0 2086: description inaccurate, Si b rf. B 876: Si b rf, description inaccurate.

Figanier too: Si b rf, mint and date incorrectly recorded.

217. Ishbiliyah - 518 - dinar.

As 211 but with ii~ repeated in rm (engraving error).

HSA 13184: ^-lil for in om, Si b rf. V 1661 (UV).

218. Ishbiliyah - 519 - dinar.

As 211 but with j& b RF.

HSA 9175. V 1662 (UV, PG, AV, 2 others). BM V 24, 25 (2 sp.). BN II 577: date given

as 517 but probably this year as appears. MA 525. KM II 586. Cerda 372: description

incomplete. Dorn I p. 56, no. 15, 16 (2 sp.): for iU in rm (error?), Si b RF (error?).

Weyl:G 1204: d, m only. Markov :E p. 91, no. 22, 23 (2 sp.): d, m only. L:Khedivial p. 329.

B 878: description inaccurate.

219. Ishbiliyah - 520 - dinar.

As 218.

HSA 13154. V 1663 (UV, PG, AV 3 sp., 1 other), 1664 (AH, PG, AV): date faulty. BM V 16:

date 510 but probably engraving error for this year as jii> appears; 27 (2 sp. ?). BN II 579.

MA 526 (2 sp.). Cerda 375: description incompiete. Spink (r898) 46651, (1901) 68379, (1902)

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79536 (3 sp.). S Judice II 3093. B 879 (pi. x1n).

220. Ishbiliyah - 521 - dinar. Plate I

As 218.

ANS. V 1665 (UV 2 sp., PG, AV 3 sp.). BM V 29 (pi. 1). BN II 580. MA 527 (3 sp.). KM II

587: ^lil for a.j-^ in oM. Cond p. 279 (pi. 1n, no. 5): several slight errors. Longperier:D

p. 430: d, m only; with heir Tashfin (error). Cerda 378: description incompiete.

221. Ishbiliyah - 522 - dinar.

As 218 except rm, in which replaces

HSA 13205: -> for j in (engraving error ?). V 1666 (PG, AV). MA 528: as 218, corrected

by Vives. Cerda 380: description incompiete.

Ighranatah - 504-522 - dinars.

See 241-256.

222. Balansiyah - 500 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1592 (PG, AV, 2 others), 1593 (AV): - at end of rm. MA 493. Fleischer p. 387 (pi.):

J after in rf (error), no letter b rf. Sentenach (pi. xv1, no. 1): no letter b rf.

s*

116 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

223. Balansiyah - 501 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1594 (AV).

224. Balansiyah - 504 - dinar.

As 152.

V1595 (UV, AV, 1 other). BNII581: no letter b rf. Colson p. 242 (4 sp.): d, m only. D :Lorichs

4709: d, m only. Bartholomaei 61. Cerda 361: d, m only. Sotheby 381: d, m only. B 862

(pi. x1v): description inaccurate, no letter b rf.

225. Balansiyah - 505 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1596 (PG, AV, 1 other). BN II 582: no letter b rf. KM II 591: no letter b rf. Longpe-

rier:D p. 430: d, m only. Colson p. 242 (4 sp.): d, m only.

226. Balansiyah - 508 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1597 (AV). BN II 583: u- b rf. MA 494. D: Garcia 6083: ^ b rf.

227. Balansiyah - 509 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1598. BN II 584 (pi. 1n): ^ b RF. Colson p. 242: d, m only.

228. Balansiyah - 512 - dinar.

As 184.

V 1599 (PG, AV). Longprier:D p. 430: d, m only. Colson p. 242 (2 sp.): d, m only. D.Garcia

6085: omitted from rm (error ?). Cerda 363: d, m only.

229. Madinat Balansiyah - 512 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1600 (AV). MA 495. Colson p. 242 (2 sp.): d, m only.

230. al-Jazirah - 507 - dinar.

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As 153; iU for -U in rm (engraving error).

V 1634 (UV, PG, AV). BN II 585 (pi. 1v), 586 (2 sp.): Sb rf. Longperier:Z1 p. 430: d, m only.

Colson p. 242 (15 sp.): d, m only. Caballero p. 16: d, m only, Sb rf. Markov :E p. 90, no. 12:

d, m only. Rivero: M 105 (pi. n): S~ b rf. 0 2082: misread, identified from impression

furnished by Galster.

231. al-Jazirah - 507 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1635 (AV).

232. al-Jazirah - 508 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1636 (AH, AV, 1 other). BN II 587: S b rf. Longprier :D p. 430: d, m only. Colson p. 242

(7 sp.): d, m only. Caballero p. 16: d, m only, iS"b rf. 0 2083: misread, identified from

impression furnished by Galster. B 864 (pi. xiv): date read as 507 (corrected from piate),

Sb rf, description incompiete.

233. al-Jazirah - 509 - dinar.

Presumably as 168.

Longperier :D p. 430: d, m only. Weyl:G "95: d, m only.

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t Gold

117

234. Madinat Daniyah - 5oo - dinar.

As 172.

V 1544 (PG). B 860 (pi. x1n): no letter b rf, description incorrect.

235. Daniyah - 5oo - dinar.

As 152.

V 1601 (AV 2 sp.). Conde p. 278 (pi. 1n, no. 4): slightly misread, no letter b rf. Longperier .D

p. 429: d, m only. L :Oriental p. 235: incorrectly described, no letter b rf. Caballero p. 17.

236. Daniyah - 501 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1602 (AV). Caballero p. 17.

237. Daniyah - 504 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1603 (AV). Caballero p. 17.

238. Madinat Shatibah - 5oo - dinar. ^ ^ ^

As 172 except of, top line of which is changed to 4 ll .

V 1543 (Garcia).

239. Gharnatah - 501 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1606 (AV): for -i* in rm (misprint ?). BN II 588: no letter b rf, mint given as

<ItljZ (misprint). Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only. Rivero:M 104 (pi. n).

240. Gharnatah - 502 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1607 (AV, 1 other). Weyl:G 1194: d, m only. Markov: p. 90, no. 11: d, m only.

241. Ighranatah - 504 - dinar.

As 153.

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V 1608 (AV). Colson p. 242: d, m only. B 861: description inaccurate.

242. Ighranatah - 508 - dinar.

. As 153.

V 1609 (AV). Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only. Colson p. 242: d, m only.

243. Ighranatah - 509 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1610 (UV 2 sp., FC, AV 2 sp.). BN II 589: no letter b rf. KM II 594: mint given as

Ighranatah (error ?), no letter b rf. Colson p. 242: d, m only. Cerda 362: d, m only. Figanier

157. See also copper: 1163.

244. Ighranatah - 515 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1612 (AV). Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only. C:Monedas p.381: d, m only. B 874: S b rf,

description incompiete.

245. Ighranatah - 515 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1613 (AV). BM V 19: U a of, lXI b rf. BN II 590: U a of, Si (given as J) 6 rf. MA

496 (2 sp.).

n8 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

246. Ighranatah - 516 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1614 (PG 2 sp., AV 2 sp.). BM V 21: U a of, l) b rf. BN II 591: U a of, b rf.

MA 497 (2 sp.). KM II 595: U a of, cXJ b rf. Marsden 355 (pi. xx1): description inaccurate,

piate shows U a of, iJ3 6 rf. G p. 182: d, m only. Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only, with

name <iUU. Fraehn:0 p. 26: description incompiete, citing Aurivillius pi. 1v, no. 7. Weyl:G

1199 (2 sp.): d, m only. Markov : p. 90, no. 15; p. 91, no. 16 (2 sp.): d, m only.

247. Ighranatah - 516 - dinar.

As 168.

HSA 10624: U a of, JTJ b rf. KM II 596: U a of, JO 6 rf. Dorn I p. 55, no. 4, 5, 6 (?)

(3 sp. ?): U a of, JO b rf.

248. Ighranatah - 5,17 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1615 (PG, AV 2 sp.). BN II 592: L. a of, jTj b rf. MA 498 (2 sp.). KM II 597: L. a of,

lX) 6 Rf. D :Lorichs 4711: m only. Cerda 368: d, m only. Weyl .G 1201: d, m only. Markov :E

p. 91, no. 18: d, m only.

249. Ighranatah - 517 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1616 (AV). Dorn I p. 55, no. 9, 10 (2 sp.): U a of, jTj 6 rf.

250. Ighranatah - 518 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1617. MA 499.

251. Ighranatah - 519 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1618 (AH, UV 2 sp., PG, AV). MA 500. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. L:Calvert 49: <-J

b Rf.

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252. Ighranatah - 519 - dinar.

As 152 except rm: (date) (mint) ^ jbjl i* y^i, y\ *u\ ^.

V 1619 (AH 2 sp., 1 other). MA 501.

253. Ighranatah - 520 - dinar.

As 252.

V 1620 (UV, AV). KM II 598: jl b rf (reported as ornament). L:Khedivial p. 329. 0 2087:

description of rm inaccurate.

254. Ighranatah - 520 - dinar.

As 252 plus ojj a rf and *j3 b RF (outside of inner circle).

V 1621 (AH, AV). MA 502. KM II 599 (pi. m): 1 b rf (reported as ornament). Cerda 374:

description incompiete. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only.

255. Ighranatah - 521 - dinar.

As 254.

V 1622 (AV, 1 other). BN II 593 (pi. 1v): 1 (read as J) b rf. MA 503. KM II 600: \ b rf

(reported as ornament). C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. Weyl:G 1205: d, m only. Markov:E

p. 91, no. 25: d, m only.

11 t' l

Corpus of Coins: Mttrab1t Gold

ng

256. Ighranatah - 522 - dinar. Plate I

As 254.

V 1623 (PG, AV). BM V 32 (pi. 1): { (read on p. xxfas yf) b rf. BN II 594: |i (read

as J) b rf. MA 504 (2 sp.). C:Tratado p. 198, no. 5 (pi. xx): jl b rf. B 883 (pi. xm): (Urf.

257. Qurtubah - 503 - dinar. ^ ^

As 152 except of, top line of which is changed to: ll.

V 1654 (PG). MA 520 (2 sp.). KM II 603: *) (read as Jl) b rf. Rivero: (pi. 1n, no. 4):

*J b rf. Gonzalez p. 96 (fig. 25): illegible letter b rf.

258. Laushah ? - 511 - dinar.

As 153.

B 869 (pi. xm): mint given as "EL OUAKHA (LOJA)", for which correct Arabic name is

Laushah, piate shows Ojll (?), no letter b rf. This may be a poorly engraved specimen

of 278.

259. Malaqah - 5oo - dinar.

As 152 or 184.

D .Lorichs 4708: d, m only. 0 2078: Oy b rf.

260. Malaqah - 501 - dinar.

As 184.

V 1604 (AV). BN II 598 (pi.1v): j b rf. Longperier:D p.430: d, m only. Cerda 360: d, m only.

261. Malaqah - 502 - dinar.

Probably as 184.

Colson p. 242: d, m only.

262. Malaqah - 506 - dinar.

As 153 except rm, in which ^ precedes .

V 1605 (PG).

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263. Mursiyah - 501 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1624 (UV, PG, AV, 1 other). BM V n: - outside o inner circle. KM II 606: ^ outside o

inner circle. Longperier:i p. 430: d, m only. Colson p. 242: d, m only.

264. Mursiyah - 502 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1625 (FC, AV 2 sp.). Colson p. 242: d, m only.

265. Mursiyah - 502 - dinar.

As 184.

KM II 607: . a of (error ?), j b rf (error for ^ ?).

266. Mursiyah - 503 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1626 (UV, AV, 1 other).

267. Mursiyah - 504 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1627 (PG, FC, AV 3 sp., 1 other). Colson p. 242: d, m only. Sotheby 380: d, m only.

0 2079: no letter b Rf.

120

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

268. Mursiyah - 505 - dinar.

As 152.

ANS: no letter b rf. V 1628 (AV, 2 others). BM V 13: no letter b rf. BN II 599 (pi. 1v): no

letter b rf. MA 505. Longprier :D p. 430: d, m only. Colson p. 242 (2 sp.): d, m only. 0 2081:

no letter b rf.

269. Mursiyah - 506 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1629 (PG, AV, 1 other). MA 506. Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only.

270. Mursiyah - 508 - dinar.

As 184.

V 1630 (AV), 1631 (AV, 2 others). BN II 600: no letter b rf. Colson p. 242 (2 sp.): d, m only.

271. Mursiyah - 509 - dinar.

As 184.

V 1632 (UV, PG, 1 other). MA 507. Colson p. 242 (2 sp.): d, m only. 0 2084. B 865 (coin

illustrated under no. 865 in pi. xm is 272): ^ b rf, description inaccurate.

272. Mursiyah - 512 - dinar.

As 184.

V 1633 (PG, FC, AV, 2 others). BM X p. 4, no. 18f: ^ b rf. C:Donativo 10. S.Gotha 978

(pi. x1): ^b rf. B 870 (pi. xm, under no. 865): ^ b rf (misread as j), description inaccurate.

273. al-Mariyah - 506 - dinar.

As 152.

V 1637 (Morales), 1638: j. Jl for Jl in RM (engraving error). BM V 14: j. Jl for jL Jl

in rm, no letter b rf. Conde' p. 281 (pi. 1v, no. 4): misread, apparently this date. B 863: ^

(read as ^1) b rf, description inaccurate.

274. al-Mariyah ? - 507 - dinar.

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As 153.

Soret:D 88: Sb rf, mint uncertain.

275. Madinat al-Mariyah - 508 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1639. BM V 15: ^ b rf. Marsden 353 (pi. xxi): ^ b rf. Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only.

276. Mad1nat al-Mariyah - 509 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1640 (AV).

277. al-Mariyah - 510 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1641 (UV 2 sp., AV). MA 508. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only.

278. al-Mariyah - 511 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1642. MA 509. D.Garcia 6084.

279. al-Mariyah - 512 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1643 (AV).

Corpus of Coins: MurIb1t Gold

121

280. al-Mariyah - 513 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1644 (AV).

281. al-Mariyah - 514 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1645 (UV, PG, AV). BN II 601 (pi. iv): no letter b rf.

282. al-Mariyah - 515 - dinar.

As 153.

Adler:C 86 (pi. v1): . b rf. Thorburn.

283. al-Mariyah - 515 - dinar.

As 168.

HSA 7895, 13147 (2 sp.): f b rf. V 1646 (UV 2 sp., PG, FC, AV 2 sp.). BM X p. 5, no. 20d:

j. b rf. BN II 602: b rf. MA 510 (5 sp.). KM II 608: f b rf. Fraehn:iV p. 87, no. 1: -1 at

end of rm. Cerda 364: d, m only. Dorn I p. 54, no. 1; p. 55, no. 2, 3 (3 sp.): ^ (read as y)

b rf. London p. 92 (2 sp.): date given as 525 but probably this year since Sir is not designated

heir. Weyl:G 1196: d, m only. L:Oriental p. 235: date given as 525 but Sir not designated.

Markov :2s p. 90, no. 13: d, m only. S :Judice II 3091.

284. al-Mariyah - 516 - dinar.

As 168.

HSA 13165: f b rf, J at end of rm. V 1647 (pG, AV): - at end of rm. BN II 603, 604

(2 sp.): ^ b rf. MA 511. KM II 609: ^ b rf, - (?) at end of om and of rm. Welzl 12236.

Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only. Fraehn:5 13: ^ b rf. Cerda 366: d, m only. Weyl:G 1198: d,

m only. Spink (1898) 46649, (1901) 68381 (2 sp.): d, m only. S :White 2181: d, m only. 0 2085:

rm misread. B 875 (pi. xm): ^ b rf. Lisbon.

285. al-Mariyah - 517 - dinar.

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As 168.

V 1648 (UV, PG 2 sp., AV 3 sp.). BN II 605: f b rf. KM II 610: f b rf. LongperierD p. 430:

d, m only. Fraehn :2V p. 87, no. 3:. (read as y) b rf. D .Lorichs 4712: d, m only. Dorn I p. 56,

no. 12: ^ (read as y) b rf. Weyl:G 1200: d, m only. Markov: p. 91, no. 17: d, m only.

286. al-Mariyah - 518 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1649 (UV, AV 2 sp.). BN II 606: f b rf. MA 512. KM II 611: - b rf. Dorn:4 p. 401.

Fraehn:iV p. 87, no. 5: ^ (read as y) b rf. Cerda 370: d, m only. Dorn I p. 56, no. 14: ^

(read as ^) b rf. B 877: description incompiete.

287. al-Mariyah - 519 - dinar.

As 168.

HSA 13148: ^ b rf, outside inner r circle. UM: ^ b rf. V 1650 (AH, PG, AV 2 sp.). BM

V 26: ^ b rf. Weyl:G 1203: d, m only. Markov :E p. 91, no. 24: d, m only. Spink (1902) 79535:

d, m only. S:Judice II3096 (pi. n): date given as 529 (corrected from piate), ^ b rf, outside

inner r circle.

288. Madinat al-Mariyah - 520 - dinar.

Presumably as 168.

B 881: u b rf, description incompiete.

122

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

289. al-Mariyah - 520 - dinar.

As 184.

V 1651 (UV, PG 2 sp., AV 2 sp.). BM V 28: ^ b rf. BN II 607: . b rf, outside inner r

circle. MA 513 (2 sp.). Longperier:/! pi. lv, no. 8):. b rf. Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only,

with heir Tashf1n (error). D.Lorichs 4713: d, m only. Cerda 373: d, m only.

290. al-Mariyah - 521 - dinar.

As 153.

V 1652 (AH, PG, AV, 1 other). BN II 608: ^ b rf, outside inner r circle. Tornberg p. 275,

no. 2: <jc.jll for OwL-ll in of (error), ^ (read as y) b rf. Soret:F 134: ^ 6 rf. Long-

perier:D p. 430: rf, w only, with heir Tashfin (error). Fraehn:AT p. 87, no. 6: . (read as y)

b rf, for ii- in rm (error ?). Cerda 377: d, m only. Dorn I p. 56, no. 17: ^ (read as y)

b rf, for <i- in rm (error ?).

291. al-Mariyah - 522 - dinar.

As 168.

V 1653 (UV, PG, AV). BM V 31: ^ b rf, outside inner r circle. BN II 609: f i rf, . outside

circle. MA 514 (2 sp.). Cerda 379: d, m only. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. Markov:Ep. 881,

no. 25a: d, m only. L:Khedivial p. 329: 6 rf, outside circle.

'Ali without heir; recapitulation of types. All coins as 153, standard type of 'Ali, with

following modifications (coins on which ^ replaces <i- in rm are designated by *).

Standard: 153-167, 168*, 170*, 171*. 181-183, 185, 186-193*, 195-198*, 200*, 202-209,

229*, 230, 231-233*, 241-244, 245*, 246, 247*, 248, 249*. 250, 251, 258, 274-280, 281*,

282, 283-287*. 288*?, 290, 291*.

Top line of of: <ul / Vl <|l V: 211-213, 214*. 215, 216.

As preceding type with <* repeated in rm: 217.

As type of 211 with ^.U rf: 218-220, 221*.

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With ^Jl after <Ll ^ in rm: 152, 169, 184*, 194 ?, 199*, 201, 222-227, 228*,

235-237, 239, 240, 259* ?, 260*, 261* ?, 263, 264, 265*, 266-269, 270-272*, 273, 289*.

As preceding type with top line of of: j II : 257.

With ^ preceding <L_ in rm: 262.

With rm: J jlijl i* v>> y\ <ul p-i: 252*, 253*.

As preceding type plus ^jS ojj in rf: 254-256*.

Last 2 lines of of: a > -f^l / ^-y. 172-180, 234.

As preceding type with top line of of: J II : 238.

Without margins (half dinar): 210.

With heir

Sir ibn-'Ali

a.H. 522-533 a.D. 1128-1139

292. Aghmat - 523 - dinar.

Probably as 295.

B 901: d, m only.

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t Gold

123

293. Aghmat - 527 - dinar.

Probably as 295.

B 914: d, m only, S' b rf.

294. Aghmat - 528 - dinar.

Probably as 295.

B 921: d, m only, S b rf.

- 295. Aghmat - 529 - dinar.

As 153 except of:

V 1723 (UV 2 sp.). MA 564. Weyl:G 1207: d, m only. Markov:E p. 91, no. 26: d, m only.

B 924: d, m only, S b rf.

296. Aghmat - 530 - dinar.

As 295.

HSA 15793: Sb rf. V 1724 (FC, AY). Cerda 388: description incompiete. Markov: p.91,

no. 27: d, m only.

297. Aghmat - 531 - dinar.

As 295.

V 1725. BN II 55r (pi. 1n): J"Z> rf. Weyl:G r2o8: d, m only. Markov: p. 91, no. 30: d,

m only. B 930: d, m only.

298. Aghmat - 532 ?- dinar.

As 295.

V 1726 (UV): date uncertain.

299. Aghmat - 533 - dinar.

As 295.

V 1727 (UV 3 sp.): date uncertain. B 957 (pi. x1v): Sb rf, Tashfin for Sir (disproved by

piate), description inaccurate.

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300. Sijilmasah - 523 - dinar.

As 153 and 295 except of: nil V

V 1713 (UV).

301. Sijilmasah - 524 - dinar.

As 300.

HSA 13166: no letter b rf. S'.White 2182: d, m only.

302. Sijilmasah - 525 - dinar.

As 300.

V 1714. BN II 554, 555 (2 sp.): no letter b rf.

124

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

303. Sijilmasah - 526 - dinar.

As 300.

V 1715. BN II 556 (pi. 1n): no letter b rf. B 911: d, m only.

304. Sijilmasah - 527 - dinar.

As 300.

V 1716. BN II 557: no letter b rf. KM II 592: no letter b rf.

305. Sijilmasah - 528 - dinar.

As 300.

V 1717 (UV).

306. Sijilmasah - 529 ? - dinar.

As 300.

V 1718 (UV): date uncertain.

307. Sijilmasah - 530 - dinar.

As 300.

V 1719 (AV). B 929: d, m only.

308. Sijilmasah - 531 - dinar.

As 300.

V 1720 (UV 2 sp.). B 935: d, m only.

309. Sijilmasah - 532 - dinar.

As 300.

V 1721. BN II 558: no letter b rf. S Judice II 3097. B 937: d, m only.

310. Sijilmasah - 533 - dinar.

As 300.

V 1722 (PG, AV). KM II 593: no letter b rf.

311. Madinat Fas - 524 - dinar.

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As 295 except rm, in which replaces i

V 1728 (AV). B 905 (pi. x1v): S'b rf; piate not clear, may be 311a.

311a. Madinat Fas - 524 - dinar.

As 311 but with y_ shifted from 4th to end of 3rd line of of.

BN II 561: Sb rf.

312. Madinat Fas - 525 - dinar.

As 311.

V 1729 (UV 2 sp., PG, 1 other). B 907 (without Madinat ?), 908 (2 sp. ?): Sb rf, description

incompiete.

313. Madinat Fas - 526 - dinar.

May be as 311 or as 314.

Sotheby 381: d, m only.

314. Mad1nat Fas - 527 - dinar.

As 168 and 311 except of: <11l Vl <ll V

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t Gold

125

V 1758 (UV 2 sp., PG, AV 2 sp.). MA 565 (3 sp.). C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. B 915:

d, m only.

315. Madinat Fas - 528 - dinar.

As 314.

V 1759 (UV, AV). MA 566. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. B 920: d, m only.

316. Madinat Fas - 529 - dinar.

As 314.

V 1760 (AV). BN II 562: Sb rf. B 922: d, m only.

317. Madinat Fas - 530 - dinar.

As 314.

V 1761 (UV, AV). MA 567. B 927: d, m only.

318. Mad1nat Fas - 531 - dinar.

As 314.

V1762 (UV, AV 2 sp.). BN II563: Sb rf. Weyl:G 1210: d, m only. Markov :E p. 91, no. 28, 29

(2 sp.): d, m only. 0 2101: rm incorrectly reported, Sir misread as illegible letter b

rf. B 932 (coin illustrated under no. 932 in pi. x1v is 319): d, m only.

319. Madinat Fas - 532 - dinar.

As 314.

V 1763 (PG, AV 2 sp., 1 other). BN II 564: Sb rf. C.Donativo 12. B 936 (pi. x1v, under

no. 932): date given as 523 (misprint), Sb rf.

320. Madinat Fas - 533 - dinar.

As 314.

V 1764 (PG). BM X p. 5, no. 39c!: J)) for J) on of (engraving error ?), Sb rf. B 938: d,

m only.

321. Marrakush - 522 - dinar.

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As 311.

V 1734 (PG). Soret:S 76. B 896 bis: Sb rf, description incompiete.

322. Marrakush - 523 - dinar.

As 311.

V 1735 (AV). BN II 569: Sb rf. MA 561. T>.Lorichs 4714. B 899: Sb rf, description in-

compiete.

323. Marrakush - 524 - dinar.

As 311.

V 1736 (UV). KM II 604: Sb rf. 0 2089: rm incorrectly described. B 904 (pi. x1v): S b rf,

description inaccurate, date illegible in piate.

324. Marrakush - 525 - dinar.

As 311.

HSA 13152: Sb rf.' V 1737 (UV, AV). MA 562. S Judice II 3095. Rivero:M 108 (pi. 1n):

Sb rf. B 906: Sb rf.

325. Marrakush - 527 - dinar.

As 311.

V 1738 (UV, AV). KM II 605: Sb rf. B 916: d, m only, Sb rf.

126 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

326. Marrakush - 528 - dinar.

As 311.

V 1739 (AY}. B 918: d, m only, Sb rf.

327. Marrakush - 529 - dinar.

As 295.

V 1740. BM II 570: Sb rf. B 923: d, m only, Sb rf.

328. Marrakush - 530 - dinar.

May be as 295 or 311.

B 926: d, m only, Sb rf. B 895 with this date and mint is, from its numerical position,

presumably a misprint for an undeterminable date. Lisbon: d, m only.

329. Marrakush - 531 - dinar.

As 311.

HSA 13131: Sb rf. B 934: d, m only, Sb rf.

330. Marrakush - 533 - dinar.

Presumably as 311.

B 940: d, m only.

Nul Lamtah - 520 - dinar.

B 894: this date, with Sir, is obviously a misprint.

331. Nul Lamtah - 522 - dinar.

As 153 and 295 except of: <ul Vl <)l V

B 898 (pi. x1v, under no. 897): Sb rf, description inaccurate.

332. Nul Lamtah - 523 - dinar.

As 153 and 295 except of: ul Vl Jl V

V 1711 (UV). MA 553: jmV1 for j in fourth line of of (error ?). C:Monedas p. 381: d, m

only. B 897 (pi. x1v, under no. 898): Sb rf, description inaccurate.

333. Nul Lamtah - 524 - dinar.

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May be as 295 or 332.

B 902: description incompiete.

334. Nul Lamtah - 525 - dinar.

As 295.

HSA 13153: Sb rf. V 1730 (PG, AV). S Judice II 3094 (pi. n): Sb rf. B (pi. x1v, under

no. 939, r only; o is 385): not described, Sb rf.

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t Gold

127

335. Nul Lamtah - 527 - dinar.

As 153 and 295 except of:

V 1712 (AV). B 917: d, m only.

336. Nul Lamtah - [52]8 - dinar.

As 295.

V 1731 (UV): date partially illegible.

337. Nul Lamtah - 530 - dinar.

As 295.

V 1732 (PG, AV). MA 563. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. B 925: d, m only, Sb rf.

338. Nul Lamtah - 531 - dinar.

As 295.

V 1733 (PG, 1 other). BM V 38 (pi. 1): lil for co-lil in om, S b rf. BN II 573: S b rf.

KM II 629: Sb rf. B 931 (pi. x1v): S b rf.

338a. Nul Lamtah - 532 - dinar.

As 295.

0 2090: misread, identified from impression furnished by Galster.

338b. Nul Lamtah - 533 - dinar.

Presumably as 295.

Thorburn.

339. Ishbiliyah - 522 - dinar.

As 331, except rm, in which replaces lu., and rf, under which jt\ occurs.

HSA 13185: J following V 1754 (AH, AV, 1 other). BMV30: j following Cerda

381: description incompiete. B 896 (pi. x1v): j following ^il, description inaccurate.

340. Ishbiliyah - 523 - dinar.

As 295 plus jil b rf.

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V 1755 (AV). KM II 588: <- for c- in rm (engraving error). B 900: description incompiete.

341. Ishbiliyah - 524 - dinar.

Presumably as 340.

B 903: description incompiete.

342. Ishbiliyah - 525 - dinar.

As 340.

V 1756 (AV). BM V 36: j following jZi. Cerda 383: description incompiete. B 910:

description incompiete.

343. Ishbiliyah - 526 - dinar.

As 340.

V 1757 (AV). Cerda 384: description incompiete.

Spanish mints.

128

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

344. Ighranatah - 523 - dinar.

OF <ul Jl V RF

<iil ul J_^~,

om as om of 152.

rm as RM of 252.

V 1710. BM V 33: |l (read on p. xxi as jP) b rf.

345. Tghranattah ?- 524 - dinar.

Probably as 311.

Leite 22: description incompiete, Sb rf.

346. Ighranatah - 527 - dinar.

Probably as 344.

Cerda 385: description incompiete.

347. al-Mariyah - 522 - dinar.

As 295 except of, as of of 311a.

V 1741 (PG, AV, 1 other): as 295 (error ?). MA 554. 0 2088: rm incorrectly described.

348. al-Mariyah - 522 - dinar.

As 311a.

KM II612: J at end of om, ^ b rf, outside inner R circle. C: Tratado p. 200, no. 8 (pi. xx):

. b rf, outside circle.

349. al-Mariyah - 523 - dinar.

As 347.

V 1742 (PG, AV): as 295 (error ?). BM V 34: ^ b rf, outside circle. Marsden 356 (pi. xx1):

. b rf, outside circle, description inaccurate. Longperier:D p. 430 (2 sp.): d, m only.

Markov:E p. 881, no. 25b: d, m only. L:Khedivial p. 329: . b rf, outside circle.

350. al-Mariyah - 524 - dinar.

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As 347.

V 1743 (UV, PG, AV): as 295 (error ?). BM V 35: f b rf, . outside circle. MA 555 (2 sp.).

V 1744 (PG, AV 2 sp.): as 295 (error ?). BN II 610: as 295, f b rf, outside circle. MA 556.

KM II614: b rf, outside circle. Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only, with heir Tashfin (error).

Cerda 382: description incompiete. Weyl:G 1206: d, m only. S:Karabaczek 863: wrong

reference given. S:Dodgson 59: wrong reference given. B 909: ^ b rf, description incompiete.

352. al-Mariyah - 526 - dinar.

As 311.

V 1745 (PG, AV). MA 557: as 311a (error). KM II615:- b rf, .outside circle. D.Lorichs

351. al-Mariyah - 525 - dinar.

As 347.

Corpus of Coins: MttrIb1t Gold 129

353. al-Mariyah - 527 - dinar.

As 295.

V 1746 (UV, PG, FC, AV). B 913: d, m only, f b rf.

354. al-Mariyah - 528 - dinar.

As 295.

V 1747 (UV, PG). BN II 611: f. b rf, . outside circle. KM II 616: j. b rf, outside circle.

B 919: d, m only, ^ 6 rf.

355. al-Mariyah - 529 - dinar.

As 295.

V 1748 (PG, AV). MA 558: as 347 (error). Longprier:D p. 430: d, m only. Cerda 386:

description incompiete. Sotheby 382: d, m only.

356. al-Mariyah - 529 - dinar.

As 311.

V 1749 (AV). BN II 612: ^ b rf, . outside circle. MA 558 note: as 311a (error). KM II 617:

^ b rf, outside circle. Cerda 387: description incompiete. C:Donativo 11.

357. al-Mariyah - 530 - dinar.

As 311.

V1750 (PG, AV3 sp.). BM V 37: . b rf, . outside circle. MA 559: as 311a (error). KM II 618:

f. b rf, outside circle; 619: . b rf (2 sp.). B 928: rf, w only,. b rf.

358. al-Mariyah - 531 - dinar.

As 311.

V 1751 (PG, AV). BN II 613: . b rf. KM II 620: f b rf. Weyl:G 1209: d, m only. Markov:

p. 91, no. 31: d, m only. Spink (1898) 46652, (1901) 68383, (1902) 79538 (3 sp.). B 933: d, m

only, ^ b rf.

359. al-Mariyah - 532 - dinar.

As 295, but with # repeated before 5th line of of (engraving error).

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HSA 15795: ^ b rf. KM II 621: . b rf.

360. al-Mariyah - 532 - dinar.

As 311.

V 1752 (PG, AV 2 sp.). BN II 614: . b rf. MA 560: as 311a (error). C:Monedas p. 381: d, m

only. Spink (1898) 46653, (1901) 68382, (1902) 79539 (3 sp.).

361. al-Mariyah - 533 - dinar.

As 311.

V 1753 (AV). KM II 622: . b rf. Cond p. 280 (pi. 1v, no. 3): ^ b rf, several slight errors.

Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only.

'Ali with Sir as heir; recapitulation of types. All coins as 153, standard type of 'Ali,

with following modifications (coins on which replaces <i- in rm are designated by *).

Last 3 lines of of; J. ic ^uUl j\ / ^ J, Ul-j. / > ^Vl: 292-299, 311*, 312*, 313* ?,

321-326*, 327, 328-330*, 333 ?, 334, 336-338b, 345*, 352*, 353-355, 356-358*, 360*,

361*.

As preceding type with b RF; 340-343.

As type of 292 with J. repeated before last line of of: 359.

130

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Last 3 lines of of: ym a ^ OuUl ^ / Jj / jj- -c^l: 311a*. 347, 348*, 349-351.

Last 3 lines of of: a. Jc 0>1ll j~l / jmV| Ji / j*-: 300-310.

Last 3 lines of of: J* OuLil jr^l / j j^-: 331.

As preceding type with b Rf: 339*.

Last 3 lines of of: Jc uulJLl ^.l / ^ Jj / j*. jJti\: 314-320*.

Last 3 lines of of: J, Jc ouLil jy\ / _x~j>. / jj-: 332.

Last 3 lines of Of: ^ oUll j Mlj _i~j>. a. / sr- jy'- 335.

Different of and rm; rf: fUVl / <ul ju / oo^l j~l / >- ^Vl: 344*, 346* ?.

With heir

Tashjin ibn-'AU

a.h. 533-537 a.D- 39~"43

362. Aghmat - 533 - dinar.

As 153 and 295 except of: <ul Vl J| V

Oil Jj^mj JUx*

g (JruL-ll jrv>l

V 1790 (PG, AV, 1 other). D.Lorichs 4716: description incomplete. Markov:E p. 91, no. 32:

d, m only. S .Gotha 979.

363. Aghmat - 533 - dinar.

As 153 and 362 except of: <ul Vl Jl V

Ol l J J

^ OjJu-il jy\

V 1779. BM V 39: l5"6 rf. BN II 552: J"6 rf.

364. Aghmat - 535 - dinar.

As 363.

V 1780. MA 575. B 951: Sb rf, description inaccurate.

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365. Aghmat - 536 - dinar.

As 363.

V 1781 (AV). B 959: Sb rf, description inaccurate.

366. Madinat Tilimsan - 534 - dinar.

of as of of 362. RF as rf of 152 and 362.

om as om of 152 and 362 plus <ul

rm as rm of 168 and 311.

V 1800. BN II 553 (pi. 1n): Sb rf.

367. Madinat Tilimsan - 535 - dinar.

As 366.

V 1801. BM V43: Sb rf.

Corpus of Coins: MttkIb1t Gold

131

368. Madinat Tilimsan - 536 - dinar.

As 366.

V 1802 (PG). MA 578.

369. Sijilmasah - 533 - dinar.

As 153 and 362 except of:

HSA 13151: no letter b rf. V 1782 (AV). MA 576: date uncertain. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m

only.

370. Sijilmasah - 534 - dinar.

As 362 or 369.

371. Sijilmasah - 535 - dinar.

As 362 but with j.. shifted from 4th to end of 3rd line of OF.

V 1789: of as of of 362 (error). BN II 559: j after in 4th line of of (error), no letter

b Rf.

372. Sijilmasah - 536 - dinar.

Probably as 362 or 371.

B 961: description incompiete.

373. Madinat Fas - 533 - dinar.

As 153 and 362 except rm, in which fW replaces o., and OF:

V 1783 (PG ?, 1 other).

374. Madinat Fas - 534 - dinar.

As 373.

ANS: Sb rf. V 1784 (UV, PG, AV). BM V 42: J"6 of and b rf.

375. Fas - 534 - dinar.

As 362.

B 947: <-fi rf.

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376. Fas - 535 - dinar.

OF <uI VI Jl V RF as rf of 152 and 362.

B 948: S'b rf, description incompiete.

J* (jruluJtl j*\

9*

132

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

om as om of 152 and 362 plus ul Jju,.

rm as rm of 184.

KM II 6o1: Sb rf.

377. Fas - 535 - dinar.

As 376 except rf:

Plate I

HSA 13134: Sb rf. V 1807 (PG, FC, AV). BM X p. 5, no. 42! (pi. xxi): Sb rf. BN II 565

pi. 1n): Sb rf. MA 579. Adler:C 87 (pi. v1): Sb rf. Cerda 396: description incompiete.

Weyl:G 1211: d, m only. Markov :E p. 91, no. 33: d, m only. B 949: Sb rf, description

incompiete, rf as rf of 379 (error ?).

378. Madinat Fas - 536 - dinar.

of , Vl <)I V rf J,Vl

om as om of 152 and 362 plus <ul o^l.

RM (date) (mint) . . jt,Jl i* ^, ja <ill Siy. ^.)\ u1 .

HSA 13132: Sb rf. V 1808 (PG, FC, AV, 1 other): for jyti\ on oF (error ?). BM

V 45 (pi. i): S b rf. BN n 566: Sb rf. KM II 602: Sb rf. C:Decadencia p. 381, no. 7

(pi. 1): Sb rf. B 956 (pi. x1v): Sb rf, description inaccurate. Mateu I p. 482 (pi. xxxv,

om as om of 152 and 362.

rm as rm of 184 and 376.

V 1809 (AV): om as om of 366 (error ?). BN n 568: Sb rf.

380. Marrakush - 533 - dinar.

As 362 except rm, in which replaces .

V 1791 (UV, PG, AV). B 958 (coin illustrated under no. 958 in pi. x1v is 383): Sb rf,

description inaccurate.

381. Marrakush - 534 - dinar.

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As 380.

V 1792 (PG). BN II 571 (pi. m): Sb rf. Markov: p. 881, no. 32a: d, m only.

no. 1): Sb rf.

379. Madinat Fas - 537 - dinar.

of u1 Vl <|1 V

<UI i}y) J~XA

RF

Corpus of Coins: MurIb1t Gold

133

382. Marrakush - 535 - dinar.

OF Vljl V RF

om as om of 366.

rm as rm of 184 and 376.

V 1803 (UV). B 950: Sb rf, description inaccurate.

383. Marrakush - 536 - dinar.

of as of of 382. rf as rf of 382.

La) l (jrC.^ll

om as om of 152 and 362.

rm as rm of 152.

B 954 (pi. x1v, under no. 958): Sb rf, description inaccurate.

384. Marrakush - 537 - dinar.

As 382 except om, as om of 152 and 362.

V 1804: as 382 (error ?). BM V 46: Sb rf.

385. Nul Lamtah - 533 - dinar.

Probably as 371.

B 939 (pi. x1v, o only; r is 334): not described.

386. Nul Lamtah - [5133 - dinar.

As 362 except last line of of: Oviit.

V 1785. BM V 41: Sb rf.

387. Nul Lamtah - 534 - dinar.

As 362.

V 1793 (AV).

388. Nul Lamtah - 534 - dinar.

As 386.

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V 1786 (PG, AV 2 sp.). J :Mohammedan p. 267: d, m only. Sotheby 381: d, m only. Rivero:M

109 (pi. in): Sb rf. Lisbon.

389. Nul Lamtah - 535 - dinar.

As 386.

V 1787 (UV 2 sp.). B 952: Sb rf, description inaccurate.

390. Nul Lamtah - 536 - dinar.

Probably as 386.

B 955: description incompiete.

391. Nul Lamtah - 537 - dinar.

As 362.

Soret:S 77 (pi. xv, no. 13: mint only): as 380 (error ?). Figanier 277 (pi. v):Sb rf (given

as SJ, corrected from piate).

392. Nul Lamtah - 537 - dinar.

As 386.

V 1788 (PG). BN II 574: Sb rf. MA 577. B 962: description inaccurate.

134 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Spanish mints.

393. Ishbiliyah - 535 - dinar.

Probably as 394.

B 953: illegible letter b rf, description incompiete.

394. Ishbiliyah - 536 - dinar.

OF ilVNlV RF UVl

om as om of 152 and 362.

rm (date) (mint) j ^jj* ^-J\ J\ ul ^J.

V 1805 (PG, AV, 1 other): or ^ 6 rf. BM X p. 6, no. 44d: Sb rf (confirmed by letter

from John Walker).

395. Ishbiliyah - 537 - dinar.

As 394.

V1806 (Howland): b rf. KM II589 (pi.lli): ^b rf, J-ll for i>ul_Il in of (engraving error).

396. al-Mariyah - 533 - dinar.

As 380.

V 1794 (PG, AV). BM V 40: f b rf. BN II 615: f b rf.

397. al-Mariyah - 534 - dinar.

As 362.

ANS: ^ 6 rf. V 1795 (PG, AV, 1 other). Cerda 395: description incompiete. Sotheby 382:

d, m only.

398. al-Mariyah - 534 - dinar.

As 371.

KM II 623: f b rf. Fraehn: 14.

399. al-Mariyah - 534 - dinar.

As 380.

V 1796. BM X p. 5, no. 4of: ^b rf.

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400. al-Mariyah - 535 - dinar.

As 380.

V 1797 (PG 2 sp., AV 2 sp.). BN II 616: ^ b rf. Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only.

400a. al-Mariyah - 535 - dinar.

As 371 except rm, in which replaces <i-.

BM V 44 fb rf. KM II 624, 625 (2 sp.): ^ b rf.

401. al-Mariyah - 536 - dinar.

As 380.

HSA 13133: { b rf. V 1798 (PG, AV 2 sp.). BN II 617: ^ b rf. Cerda 397: description in-

compiete. B 960 (pi. x1v): ^ b rf, description inaccurate.

Corpus of Coins: MurIb1t Gold

135

401a. al-Mariyah - 536 - dinar.

As 400a.

HSA 13197: ^ b rf.

402. al-Mariyah - 537 - dinar.

As 362.

V 1799 (PG 2 sp., AV). Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only. Markov: p. 881, no. 33a: d, m

only. S :Beyram 289. Balog: d, m only.

402a. al-Mariyah - 537 - dinar.

As 371.

KM II 626, 627 (2 sp.): ^ b rf. C:Tratado p. 201, no. " (pi. xx): . 6 rf.

403. al-Mariyah - 537 - dinar.

As 400a.

BM X p. 6, no. 45m: ^ b rf.

'Ali with Tashf1n as heir; recapitulation of types. All coins as 153, standard type of

'Ali, with following modifications (coins on which replaces <i- in rm are designated by *).

Last 3 lines of of: a J* *_>w1l1 jy\ / j^Vl} ^i-^ / Cnidr: 363-365.

Last 3 lines of of: a. ^ M / Jj^yJ cniit ^Vl: 362, 372 ?, 375, 380*, 381*,

387, 391, 396*, 397, 399*, 400*. 401*. 402.

As preceding type plus <ul ^-i at end of om: 366-368*.

As type of 362 but with y. in 3rd line: 371, 385 ?, 398, 400a*, 401a*, 402a, 403*.

Last 3 lines of of: v_i-j,. ct J* OwL-h / ^Vl / utizk: 369, 370 ?.

As type of 362 with VVl omitted from last line of of: 386, 388-390, 392.

Last 3 lines of of: ^OuL-ll j?\ / ^ Jj / Oviilr: 373*, 374*.

Last 3 lines of of: OuLil j*\ / oc J} / qjiit: 376* (margins with added words).

As preceding type except rf: fL.VI / ^ UI / <uI jlc / <j*J.\ jy\: 377*.

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Different of, om, rm; rf: fL.Vl / oil -uc / ^U1 / oc-^ll ^1: 378*.

Different of, om, rm; rf: ^UVl / *ul oji/ oj^jll / :379*.

Different of, rm; rf: fUVl / / <uI / ^.1 /^-Ul: 393-395*.

Different of, om, rm; rf: fL.Vl / -lc / <ul / Ul c.c^ll ^1 / 382*, 383, 384*.

Tdshfin ibn-'Ali

a.H. 537-540 a.D. 1143-1145

404. Aghmat - 537 - dinar.

OF <ul V RF fUVl

rm (date) fW (mint) .. Jl i* r.>r* *ul ^ .

B 971 (coin illustrated under no. 971 in pi. xv is 422): Sb rf, description incompiete.

136

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

405. Aghmat - 538 - dinar.

Probably as 404.

B 974: <S"b rf, 983: with heir Ibrahim (error ?) (2 sp. ?): description inaccurate.

406. Madinat Tilimsan - 540 - dinar.

OF

RF

RF

<u1 Vl Jl V

uviil"

Margins as on 404.

V 1865: error in engraving mint (misprint ?). MA 593.

407. Sijilmasah - 544 (presumably for 540) - dinar.

OF <ul Vl Jl V

<Ul J_y-J -Wat

om as om of 404.

rm (date) As (mint) .. jb Jl

V 1860. BM X p. 7, no. 7op.

408. Madinat Fas - 537 - dinar.

of oil VI Jl V

Ae o; cni-l" u^JuJll

Margins as on 404.

V1853. BNII 567:lT6rf.

409. Madinat Fas - 537 - dinar.

of <ul VI Jl V

om as om of 404 plus <ul ^.

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rm as rm of 404.

V 1851. MA 588. om without <ul corrected by Vives

410. Madinat Fas - 538 - dinar.

OF , Vl Jl V RF

fUVl

^Ul <ul

fUV1

<jrC_jll jv\

RF

fUVl

rf as rf of 404.

JI <UI Jj-J

l" jjc _j,_ ^ I

fuv1

jwl oil

(jji_jll

Corpus of Coins: MurIb1t Gold

137

om as om of 409.

rm as rm of 407.

V 1852 (PG, AV). BN II 638 (pi. rv): S~b rf. MA 589: rf and om incorrectly described,

corrected by Vives. S.Gotha 982. B 973 (pi. xv) :fb rf, description inaccurate. Figanier 278:

om without oil > (misprint, corrected by letter).

411. Marrakush - 537 - dinar.

As 404.

B 970 (pi. xv): Sb rf.

412. Marrakush - 538 - dinar.

As 404.

V 1857 (AV), 1858. BN II 640 (pi. iv): Sb rf.

413. Nul Lamtah - 537 - dinar.

As 407 except of: oil VI <]l V

Oil -Usm

C/VLik QuiuJll

B 972: Sb rf.

414. Nul Lamtah - 538 - dinar.

As 413 except rm, in which replaces .

V 1854. BN II 641 (pi.iv): Sb rf. KM II 652: Sb rf. Host :E and N 3 (pi.xxxm): Sb rf.

0 2103: illegible letter b rf. B 975 (pi. xv): S~b rf, description inaccurate.

415. Nul Lamtah - 539 - dinar.

As 414.

V 1855. MA 591.

416. Nul Lamtah - 540 - dinar.

As 414.

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V 1856 (AV).

Spanish mints.

417. Ishbiliyah - 538 - dinar.

OF oil Vl ^1 V rf fL.Vl

^0 'ml J_) -Uaw wuc

LU jju-j Jc oil oil

<jryLil" (jul lI tX<_jll ,l

Margins as on 404.

V 1859. BN II 642 (pi. 1v): ^ to left and to right of ^LJl in rf.

418. al-Mariyah - 538 - dinar.

As 407 except of: oil Vl Jl V

Oil J_>-J .Use*

j,#k_j QruL tl jvl

Jc # t>uilr ^Jl

138

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

V 1861 (AV 2 sp., 2 others). BN II 643 (pi. 1v): ^b rf. KM II 649: . b rf. LongpeVier:Z)

p. 430: d, m only. B 976 (pi. xv): ^ b rf.

419. al-Mariyah - 538 - dinar.

As 418 except rm, in which II. replaces .

V 1862 (PG). BN II 644: . b rf. KM II 648: f 6 rf.

420. al-Mariyah - 539 - dinar.

As 418.

V 1863 (PG, AV). MA 590.

421. al-Mariyah - 539 - dinar.

As 419 except rm, in which ^.J\ follows <ul ~j .

V 1864 (PG).

With heir

Ibrahim ibn-Tashjin

a.H. 538-540 a.D.1144-1145

422. Aghmat - 539 - dinar.

of apparently as of of 427. rf as rf of 404.

om as om of 404.

rm as rm of 414.

B (pi. xv, under no. 971): not described, reconstructed from piate, of not clear, <_T6rf.

423. Aghmat - 539 - dinar.

As 414 except of: ul Vl <Jl V

yUit QuL-ll jm\ .ulc

V 1866 (AV): rm wrongly reported.

424. Mad1nat Sijilmasah - 538 ? - dinar.

of <ul VNl V rf as rf of 417.

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om as om of 404.

rm as rm of 407.

B 981: S'b rf.

425. Madinat Fas - 539 - dinar.

of as of of 424. rf as rf of 404.

om as om of 404.

rm as rm of 407.

V 1867: rm wrongly reported. BM V 68: Sb rf. B 982 (pi. xv): mint given as Fas and date

Corpus of Coins: MurIb1t Gold

139

as 538 (corrected from piate), jCb rf, omitted from rm (engraving error), description

inaccurate.

426. Madinat Fas - 539 - dinar.

As 425 except rf, as rf of 410.

BN II639: J~6 rf, o^c for J^fi in fourth line of of (engraving error).

427. Marrakush - 539 - dinar.

of <ul Vl <|l V rf as rf of 404.

.UJl JJ -Ujm

<jrui_ll jy\ |Ju.J

om as om of 409.

rm as rm of 404.

B 984 (pi. xv): date given as 537 (corrected from piate); 985 (2 sp.): Sb rf, description

inaccurate.

428. Marrakush - 540 - dinar.

Probably as 427.

B 987: description incompiete.

429. Nul Lamtah - 539 - dinar.

Probably as 427.

B 986: description incompiete.

Spanish mints.

430. Ishbiliyah - 539 - dinar.

of , VNl V rf as rf of 417.

al 'I

L.l..." jju-_j <le

~Al/.I jrwVl aOC

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Margins as margins of 404, but with replacing in rm.

V 1868 (PG, Gil). C:Tratado p. 203, no. 1 (pi. xx1): rf.

430a, Ishbiliyah - 539 - dinar.

Apparently as 430 except of, as of of 424.

T) :Lorichs 4717: description incompiete.

431. Ishbiliyah - 540 - dinar.

As 417 except of: VNl V |(

V 1869. BM V 70 (pi. 1): Sb rf.

140

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

432. al-Mariyah - 539 - dinar.

As 409 except rm, in which <l replaces ^W, and of:

ul V| J| V

jml <ul J_^-j ^ujm

<y_M j-ik) OjJll

V 1870 (AV, 2 others). BM V 69: of .j^c shifted to start of last line of of, ^ b of, f 6 rf.

BN II 645-647 (3 sp.): a of aa^c omitted (error), 6 of, b rf. MA 592 (3 sp.): 6 of,

om without <ul j^j, corrected by Vives. KM II650 (pi. 1n), 651 (2 sp.): p b of, om without

<ul (visible in piate), . b rf, (jjJuJl for in rf (error). Fraehn:B 15: gjb of, ^ (read

as ^) 6 rf. Sawaszkiewicz p. 204: d, m only. Longperier .D p. 431: d, m only. Markov :E p. 92,

no. 43: d, m only. Rodgers 7981: of, description inaccurate. C .Decodencia p. 383, no.8

(pi. 1): 6 of, ^ 6 rf. Ziya 2029 (pi. n): ^ b of, description inaccurate, piate illegible.

Rivero:M 1n (pi. m): g^b of, b rf.

Ibrahim ibn-Tdshfin

a.H. 54O-540 a.D.I145-I145

No coins reported.

Ishdq ibn-'Ali

a.h. 540-541 a D- 1145-1147

433. Aghmat - 540 - dinar.

As 425 except Of: <ul Jl V

<Jll i}y>J Just*

ul J*

a. ^ a.

B 995: vi'fi rf, description incompiete.

434. Marrakush - 540 - dinar.

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As 433.

B 994: S"b rf, description inaccurate.

435. Marrakush - 541 - dinar.

As 433.

B 996 (pi. xv): Sb rf.

436. Nul Lamtah - 540 - dinar.

As 414 except of, in which JU-.l replaces eniilr.

B 993 (pi. xv): S"b rf, description incorrect.

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t Gold 141

Spanish mints.

437. Ishbiliyah - 541 - dinar.

As 417 except of: Vl jl V n

UlJ <ie <lil

V1892 (AV): ^>-J\ not reported in rm (error ?). KM II656 (pi. in): S"b rf. Rivero :M

115 (pi. 1n): J"6 rf.

438. Ighranatah - 540 - dinar.

of <ul Vl i\ V rf as rf of 406.

<1|I

<~*-y. a Jc a

om as om of 404.

rm as rm of 407, but with jbjl badly confused in engraving.

V1889. BN II 653 (pi. 1v): o (read as j) b of, >.(?)6 rf. KM II 657: o b of, (?) b rf.

439. Ighranatah - 540 - dinar. Plate I

OF oil Vl )I V RF fUVl

oil <ll1 J_j j

om as om of 404 plus oil ml jow.

rm as rm of 404.

HSA 13202: o b of, 6 RF. v l890 (PG, AV). BN II 652 (p1. iv): (read as j) 6

of, (?) 6 rf, oil J-t omitted (visible on piate). KM II658: J b of, (?) 6 rf, oil Ju

omitted (error ?). S:Michael I 1669: b of, (?) b rf.

440. Ighranatah - 541 - dinar.

of as of of 439. rf as rf of 439.

om as om of 404.

rm as rm of 407.

HSA 15794: Sb rf, rm largely illegible, date and mint uncertain. V 1891 (FC). Sawasz-

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kiewicz p. 204: d, m only.

441. Qurtubah - 540 - dinar struck presumably by Hamdin ibn-Muhammad.

As 417 and 437 except of: Vl .Jl V u

ml J_jj x^xj

(jUt-l OjJll jmI

a Je . a.

V 1888 (Codera Imp.).

142 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

442. Qurtubah - 541 - dinar struck presumably by Hamdin ibn-Muhammad.

of as of of 437. rf as rf of 417 and 437.

om as om of 409.

rm as rm of 421.

V 1893. BN II 654 (pi. v): rf.

Murabit partisans after a.h. 541 (a.d. 1147).

Many coins in Murabit styles were struck after the downfall of the main dynasty at the

death of Ishaq; most of these were struck in Spain by local rulers and are therefore ex-

cluded from this corpus, but can be found in section 6a of Vives; those with North African

mints, or with Spanish mints but struck in the name of the "Bani-Tashfm", follow.

Struck in North Africa.

443. Sabtah - 543 - dinar struck by a final Murabit rebel against Muwahhid rule, Yahya

ibn-Abi-Bakr ibn-'Ali, called al-Sahraw1.

As 404 except of: ul Vl <Jl V

jwl ^l jL.m <5J|

cf. J* a.

C.Familia p. 155.

Sijilmasah - 544 - dinar.

See 407.

444. Nul Lamtah - 542 - anonymous dinar struck by an unidentified governor.

As 153 and 436 except of: <ul Vl Jl V

Ol| J>-J

B 1004 (pi. xv): Sb rf, piate largely illegible.

Struck in Spain in the name of

the Bani-Tashfin.

445. Madinat Gharnatah - 545 - dinar struck by the Lamtunah Berber governor Maymun

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ibn-Badr, who surrendered in 549.

As 407 except of: <til

Vl <J| V

411l J yJ JUsm

V 1979 (Codera Imp.).

446. Madinat Qurtubah - 542 - dinar struck by the Massufah Berber governor Yahya.

ibn-'Ali, known as Ibn-Ghaniyah, who died in 543. Plate I

Corpus of Coins: Muwahh1d Gold

143

of as of of 445. rf as rf of 406.

om as om of 404.

rm as rm of 153 and 414.

HSA 14169: JCJ b rf. V 1978 (AV, 2 others). BM V 81 (pi. 1): J3 b rf, JJl misread

as j^-jt ^Vl.

Coins struck by the descendants of Ibn-Ghaniyah during their reign in the Balearics

are excluded from this corpus, and no coins are known to have been struck by them during

their North African invasions in the later Muwahhid and early Hafsid periods.

Muwahh1d Gold

struck in North Africa and Spain

by the Kumiyah Berber rulers of

the Muwahhidun sect

in Naskhi script.

Debased gold struck by Muwahhid partisans in North Africa before the downfall of

the Murabits in a.h. 541 (a.d. 1147), in the name of the Mahdi, Muhammad ibn-Tumart.

446a. (no mint) - quarter dinar: Kufi script. Plate II

of ^ll V RF Lj <ul

HSA 14156. S Judice II 3105 (pi. n): 4th line of of uncertain, 4th line of rf illegible.

abu-Mnhammad 'Abd-al-Muymin ibn-'Alx

a.H. 524-558 a.d. 1130-1163

447. Bijayah (b of and b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 547. Plate II

OF Vl <Jl V RF fU ^a^ll

JU3M Oil 4*Vl

OS jusk Jc <ul (left) ^Jl Jl <ul ^ (top)

UJl (right) OuJJl Jlj (bottom)

ANS.

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RS ^zc'-C?^ XeJ^w

448. Madinat (a rf) Bijayah (6 rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 547.

As 447.

V 2056. P 1k. MA 663. B 1024.

449. Tadghah ? (a rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 540.

As 447.

Bartholomaei 62: mint given as Bad'ah.

144

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

450. Tunis (b OF and b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 554.

As 447.

J .Gold 2. Sotheby 384: m only.

451. Sabtah (b of and b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 541.

As 447.

V 2055. P 1j. BM V 84 (pi. n). LJnedited 10. Weyl:G 1218. S:White 2183. B 1027, 1028

(2 sp.).

452. Sabtah (b Of, a rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 541.

As 447.

S:Gotha 986 (pi. xn).

453. Sabtah (b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 541.

As 447.

ANS. V 2054 (PG). P 1i. BM V 85. Weyl:G 1219 (2 sp.). S:Karabaczek 914, 918 ? (2 sp. ?).

C:Lebrija p. 564.

454. Sala, (b OF and b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 540.

As 447.

P 10. B 1008 bis (pi. xv1, under no. 1008).

455. Sala (b of) - dinar struck after a.h. 540.

As 447.

V 2059. P 1n. BN II 711 (pi. v1). Markov:E p. 93, no. 1: m only. S:Michael I 1670.

S.Gotha 985.

456. Fas (b of and b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 540.

As 447.

V 2051. P 1e. BM X p. 8, no. 84d. L:Khedivial p. 329. S :Ciscar 34 (pi. 1): mint illegible in

piate. S:Comte 664. B 1011-1021 (" sp.).

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457. Fas (a Of, b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 540.

As 447.

J :Gold 3. B1010 (pi. xv1, under no. 1010 bis): description inaccurate, mint illegible in plate.

458. Fas (b of) - dinar struck after a.h. 540.

As 447.

HSA 13192: c b rf. V 2048 (PG, AV). P 1b. BN II 712. MA 661. Sotheby 383: m only.

S:Judice II 3106: p (?) b rf.

459. Fas (a of) - dinar struck after a.h. 540.

As 447.

V 2049. P 1c. MA 662. KM II 683 (pi. 1v): ^.U for ^li a rf and at end of 4th os (both

disproved by piate). Thorburn.

460. Fas (b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 540.

As 447.

HSA 13191. V 2050 (AV 2 sp.). P 1d.

461. Madinat (b rf) Fas (b of) - dinar struck after a.h. 540.

As 447.

P 1f.

Corpus of Coins: Muwahh1d Gold

145

462. Mad1nat (a rf) Fas (b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 540.

As 447.

Vollers 13 (pi. 1): Je for ^li b rf (disproved by piate).

463. Madinat (a rf) Marrakush (b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 541.

As 447.

B 1022 (pi. xvi), 1023 (2 sp.): mint illegible in piate.

464. Miknasah (b of and b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 540.

As 447.

V 2053 (AV). P 1h. B 1025 (pi. xv1), 1026 (2 sp.): mint illegible in piate.

465. Miknasah (b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 540.

As 447.

V 2052 (AV). P 1g. BN II 713 (pi. v1). KM II 684. Cerda 420: description incompiete.

S :Ciscar 35.

466. (no mint) - dinar struck presumably after a.h. 540.

As 447.

ANS: ^ b rf. HSA 535, 7899, 10627, 13167, 13172, 13189 (6 sp.). V 2047 (AH, PG 12 sp.,

AV 7 sp.): plsJ for ^la)l in rf (misprint). P 1a (pi. 1). BM V 86, 87 (2 sp.).BN II 715:

^ b of and b rf, 716 (2 sp.). MA 660, 664: ^ b of and b rf (2 sp.). KM II 686-688 (3 sp.).

Cond p. 285 (pi. h1, no. 8): slightly misread. Welzl 12238. D.Garda 6128. Cerda 421:

description incompiete. 'L:Muwahhids p. 154, no. 1 (pi. vi), 2 (2 sp.). Weyl:G 1217: slight

errors in om and rf. Spink (1901) 68337: ^ b rf, 68338, 68339, (1902) 79540, 7954T (5 sp.):

mintless, not described. J.Gold 1 (2 sp.). Sotheby 383 (2 sp.). Maguelonne p. 22 (fig. 2).

S:Karabaczek 916. S:Castro 421. S.Gotha 987. 0 2109. B 1033-1045 (13 sp.): mint-marks

include ^, x, J, ^- 6 of, rf, or both. Rivero: (pi. 1v, no. 10). Lisbon.

467. (no mint) - half dinar.

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of as of of 447. rf ^ji^I1

OS j^Jl <ul

rs as rs of 447.

V 2060 (PG, AV, 2 others). P 2 (pi. 1). BM V 88 (pi. n). BN II 717. S:Karabaczek 917.

S:Beyram 371. S.Grantley 2160. B 1009 (pi. xv1): description inaccurate.

468. (no mint) - half dinar.

of as of of 447 and 467. rf as rf of 467.

OS UI

rs as rs of 447 and 467.

V 2060 note.

Spanish mints.

469. Ishbiliyah (b rf) - dinar struck after a.h. 541.

As 447.

10

146 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

V 2057. P11. BM X p. 8, no. 85c!: mint spelledIshbiliyah. S:Karabaczek 915. Rivero.M 132

(pi. 1n).

470. Madinat (a rf) Ishb1liyah (b rf) - dinar struck after a.H. 541.

As 447.

HSA 10628 ?, 13190,13193 (3 sp. ?). V 2058 (PG 2 sp., AV 2 sp., 1 other). P 1m. BN II 714:

<ul for os in 4th rs (misprint). Cerda419: Madinat misread as Mursiyah, description in-

complete. C:Tratado p. 221, no. 3 (pi. xxn). S:Judice II 3107. B 1031, 1032 (2 sp.).

471. Jayyan (location on coin not indicated) - dinar struck after a.H. 541.

Presumably as 447.

C:f ecas p. 343: m only, given as J^- (error), termed double dinar (error).

472. Madinat (a of) Qurtubah (b of) - dinar struck after a.h. 542.

As 447.

B 1029.

With heir

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn-'Abd-al-Mifmin

a.H. 551-558 a.D. 1156-1163

473. Bijayah - dinar.

OF jst)\ *n\ ^ rf <ul

<llI VI V -U*. UiiJl

(mint)

OS J^lj

RS Oil OJ> j.1 JfVl j

V 2072 (AV). P 9d. Spink (1901) 68377, l1*)02) 79555 (2 Sp.): m oruy, ascribed to 'Abd-Allah.

].Gold 16 (2 sp.). Sotheby 389: m only, ascribed to "Abd-Mohammad". S:Michael I 1671.

B 1148 (pi. xvi): description incompiete, mint illegible in piate.

474. Madinat Bijayah - dinar.

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As 473.

B 1147: description incompiete.

475. Ribat al-Fath - dinar.

As 473.

V 2071 (AV): L>j for ]\,j (error). P 9b (pi. 1): lotj for b\,j (disproved by piate).

476. Fas - dinar.

As 473.

B 1150: description incompiete.

477. Madinat Fas - dinar. Plate II

As 473.

Corpus of Coins: Muwahhid Gold

147

HSA 7898. P 9c. Spink (1901) 68376, (1902) 79554 (2 sp.): m only, ascribed to 'Abd-AUah.

J.Gold 17 (2 sp.). Sotheby 389: m only, ascribed to "Abd-Mohammad".

478. Marrakush - dinar.

As 473.

HSA 13170. V 2070 (AV). P 9a. Cerda 426: description incompiete. Spink (1901) 68374,

68375, (1902) 79553 (3 sp.): m only, ascribed to 'Abd-Allah. J.Gold 18 (3 sp.). Sotheby 389

(2 sp.): m only, ascribed to "Abd-Mohammad". Rivero:M 135 (pi. 1n). B 1149 (pi. xv1):

description incompiete, mint illegible in piate.

479. Madinat Marrakush - dinar.

As 473.

HSA 13194. Leite 24: J*VI omitted from 1st rs (misprint ?), u*) <ul for in 2nd os

(error). J.Gold 19. S:Judice II 3108 (pi. n): mint and rs illegible in piate.

480. (no mint) - dinar.

As 473.

Sacy p. 539: uVl for JVI in 1st rs (error). Maguelonne p. 22 (fig. 1): misread.

With heir

abu-Ya'qub Yusuf ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min

a.H. 558-558 a.d. 1163-1163

Since the coins struck while Yiisuf was heir are identical with those struck during the

early part of his reign, they are listed under his own name as amir: 481^492.

abu-Y cfqub Yusuf I ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min

a.H. 558-580 a.d. 1163-1184

First series: as am1r

a.H. 558-563 a.D. 1163-1168

481. Bijayah - dinar.

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As 473 except rs:

V 2064 (AV). P 3b. BN II 724 (pi. v1). Spink (1901) 68350. Sotheby 384: m only. B 1083,

1084 (2 sp.) (pi. xv1, unnumbered). Rivero: (pi. 1v, no. 11): mint uncertain.

482. Madinat Bijayah - dinar.

As 481.

Spink (1901) 68349. J'Gold 6.

483. Madinat Tilimsan - dinar.

As 481.

J .Gold 7. Sotheby 385: m only.

484. Tunis - dinar.

As 481.

Spink (1901) 68368, (1902) 79552 (2 sp.): m only. J .Gold 8 (2 sp.). Sotheby 385: m only.

10*

148

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

485. Sijilmasah - dinar.

As 481.

P 3d (p. 113). KM II 691. ]:Gold 9. Sotheby 385: m only. B 1077. Mateu II 21 (pi. xvm,

no. 3).

486. Madinat Fas - dinar.

As 481.

Spink (1901) 68340-68343, (1902) 79542, 79543 (6 sp.): m only. ].Gold 10 (5 sp.). Sotheby

387: m only.

487. Marrakush - dinar.

As 481.

Spink (1901) 68357-68363, (1902) 79548 (8 sp.): m only. J.Gold n (15 sp.). Sotheby 387

(3 sp.): m only.

488. Hadr Marrakush - dinar.

As 481.

P 3c (pi. 1): ;_ri>- for jU*- (disproved by piate). Spink (1901) 68364-68367, (1902) 79549,

7955o (6 sp-): m only- J'-Gold 12 (8 sp.). B 1078 (pi. xv1): -j for jix* b of (error),

Marrakush b rf (error ?), illegible in piate.

489. Madinat Marrakush - dinar.

As 481.

Spink (1901) 68354-68356, (1902) 79546, 79547 (5 sp.). J.Gold 13 (4 sp.). B 1079-1082

(4 sp.): Marrakush repeated b rf (error ?).

490. Nul Lamtah ? - dinar.

As 481.

Spink (1901) 68351-68353 (3sp.): mint given as Cl y~. J.Gold 14(5 sp.): mint given as -uSCl.

491. (no mint) - dinar.

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As 481.

V 2063. P 3a. BM V 89 (pi. n: o only). BN n 726-728 (3 sp.). KM n 692. Conde p. 284

(pi. 1n, no. 7): misread, name of amir uncertain. Sacy p. 534: for JVl in 1st rs (error).

L:Khedivial p. 329. Spink (190T) 68369-68372, (1902) 79551 (5 sp.): mintless, not described.

J :Gold 4 (231 sp.). Sotheby 386 (5 sp.): mintless, not described. S:Karabaczek 919: misread.

Spink (1917) 57100: mintless, not described. Codrington, H.: Ceylon 1. S.Gotha 988. 0 2113.

B 1085-1099 (15 sp.).

Spanish mint.

492. Ishbiliyah - dinar.

As 481.

].Gold 5 (9 sp.). Sotheby 384: m only.

Second series: as amir al-mu'minin

a.H. 563-580 a.D.1168-1184

493. Sabtah - dinar.

As 481 except 1st rs: jml .

S:White 2185: reference uncertain, may be as 481.

Corpus of Coins: Mttwahh1d Gold

149

494. Marrakush - dinar.

As 493.

HSA 10629. p 4b (pi- 1).

495. (no mint) - dinar.

As 493.

ANS (2 sp.). HSA 10630, 13169, 13171, 13195 (4 sp.). V 2061 (AH, AV 4 sp.). P 4a. BM V

90-96 (pi. n: 92) (7 sp.). MA 670 (3 sp.). KM II 693. Castiglioni 244 (pi. x). Fraehn:i? p. 623,

no. 1. Sacy p. 540. D:Garcia 6130. D:Lorichs 4721. Cerda 424: description inadequate.

L:Muwahhids p. 157, no. 3 (pi. v1). Weyl:F 6494 (4 sp.). C:Tratado p. 222, no. 5 (pi. xxn).

Weyl:G 1224. Lagumina p. 101, no. 1. Markov. p. 93, no. 2: mintless, not described.

L:Khedivial p. 329. S:Karabaczek 920. S:Beyram 290. S:Ciscar 36-38 (pi. 1: 36) (3 sp.).

S:Castro 422. C.Lebrija p. 564. Codrington, H.: Ceylon p. 158. Rivero:M 133 (pi. 1n). Spink

(1933) 22476. Mateu II 20 (pi. xvni, no. 2). Thorburn.

496. (no mint) - half dinar.

OF Vl <Jl V rf ^ajil

-U-sw Oll <iU-

ul .ml

oS a3m #l ijojv\

Jecf. O*^ -V

RS <1 ji l Oojiwl

UM. V 2065 (AV). P 5 (pi. 1). Cerda 425: description inadequate. B 1100 (pi. xvi), 1101

(2 sp.). Rivero: (pi. 1v, no. 13).

Spanish mints.

497. Ishbiliyah - dinar.

As 493.

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HSA 13168. V 2062. P 4c. BN II 725 (pi. v1). D:Lorichs 4720. Spink (1901) 68344-68348,

(1902) 79544, 79545 (7 sp.). S:White 2184.

498. Madinat Ishbiliyah - dinar.

As 493.

Demaeght v. VIII, p. 245 (fig.): j preceding mint (error ?).

Mazdara Hbn-Hayydn

rebel at Taza

a-H. 559-559 a.d. 1164-1164

499. (Taza ?) - dinar?

OF RF J**

Ibn-Abi-Zar' (... Rawd al-qirjds, ed. Tornberg, p. 137, line 21) notes coins of this

Sanhajah Berber rebel bearing the inscription noted, but does not specify metal or style,

or divide the inscription into lines or even into obverse and reverse. As no specimens have

been reported in modern collections, this reconstruction is tentative.

15o

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

abii-Yusuf Ya 'qub ibn-Yusuf I

a.H. 580-595 a.D. 1184-1199

500, Fas - double dinar.

OF ^Jl }\ <uI *-> RF iiiil <ul y\, ^li|l

<UlVI4)IV Ocu^ll^lJ*

oiI J

(mint)

OS ^Jl ^Jl y% Vl all V juIj<II^Ij

V 2067. P 6b. BM V 99.

501. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 500.

ANS (electrotype). HSA 13175. V 2066 (AV). P 6a (pi. 1). BM V 100,101 (2 sp.). BN II 729.

Sacy p. 530 (pi.), p. 539 (2 sp.): os slightly misread. Grotefend p. 242 (fig.): cross soldered

over rf. L:Muwahhids p. 158, no. 1: j for ^ in 3rd os (error). Weyl:F 6495 (2 sp.):

mintless, not described. Weyl:G 1225: description incompiete. Lagumina p. 102, no. 2.

L:Khedivial p. 329: description uncertain, may be 502. Holu 749: a. omitted from 3rd rs

(error). Spink (1901)68373. J .Gold 15 (2 sp.). Dieulafoyp.57 (140 sp.): description inaccurate.

Sotheby 388 (2 sp.): mintless, not described. S:Beyram 291: "variant", may be 502. Spink

(1917) 57101: mintless, not described. Rivero:M 134 (pi. 1n). B 1103-1123 (21 sp.): descrip-

tion incompiete. Rivero: (pi. 1v, no. 12).

502. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 500 but with ^. shifted from 2nd to start of 3rd line of RF.

BM V 102 (pi. n), 103 (2 sp.). KM II 694 (pi. IV), 695 (2 sp.). L:Muwahhids p. 159, no. 2, 3

(pi. v1) (2 sp.): j for in 3rd os (error). S :White 2186. B 1102 (pi. xv1): description in-

compiete.

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(no mint) - dinar.

As 502 but with weight of dinar.

L:Muwahhids p. 159, no. 4, 5 (2 sp.): it seems improbable that these coins were intended as

dinars.

503. (no mint) - half dinar.

OF Vl )1 V RF iiii.

J>-"J J* a y\

OS >*.>!. J*.I *"C**y\\ j<+\

rs as rs of 496.

V 2069: 3rd and 4th os misread. P 7: 4th os misread. Weyl:G 1226: description incompiete.

Corpus of Coins: Muwahh1d Gold

151

With heir

abii-'Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn-Ya'qub

a.H. 587-595 a.D. 1191-1199

No gold reported.

aba-' Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn-Ya'qilb

a.H. 595-610 a.D. 1199-1213

Dinars 473-480, usually ascribed to this khalifah, were struck by 'Abd-al-Mu'min

with heir Muhammad.

504. Fas (b of) - double dinar.

of as of of 500. rf as rf of 502.

OS -Usw <lll y \ O^jll jy>\

j.xi1j1 tail a.

rs as rs of 500.

P 8b (pi. 1): mint obscure in piate. Mateu I p. 483 (pi. xxxv1, no. 8): given as 508 (disproved

by piate), mint obscure in piate.

505. Fas (b rf) - double dinar.

As 504.

B 1124 (pi. xv1), 1125 (2 sp.): description incompiete, piate partly illegible, including mint.

506. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 504.

HSA 13181. V 2073 (AV). P 8a. BN II732: iiiil for Utl a. in 3rd os (engraving error),

2nd rs largely illegible. KM II 696. Sotheby 388: mintless, not described. Rivero:^4 p. 24,

no. 11 (pi. 1x). B 1126-1146 (21 sp.). Gonzalez p. 106 (fig. 29).

abu-Ya'qub Yusuf II ibn-Muhammad

a.H. 610-620 a.D. 1213-1224

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507. Fas (b of) - double dinar. Plate II

of as of of 500 and 504. rf as rf of 502 and 504.

os ^y**> y \ o^*^\

ij.JLilJl Ui-I J.. i-i-_j,.

RS cr&Jil <j, ^y, <JL.y_ y \ CfCj>^.\

V 2075: jjl omitted from 3rd rs (corrected by Prieto), s*\ for Iy\ in 4th rs (error). P 10b:

jwl for Iy\ in 4th rs (error). BN II 733 (pi. v1): ^.1 omitted from 3rd rs, j?\ for Iy\ in 4th

rs (both corrected from piate).

508. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 507.

P 10a (pi. n): j*\ for Iy\ in 4th rs (disproved by piate). Sallet p. 147 (fig. 2). KM II 698: s*\

for \y\ (error).

152

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

509. (no mint) - dinar.

of as of of 473 and 493. rf as rf of 473 and 493.

OS i_)yu y\ OCj>y\\

Jl Ull j.

rs as rs of 493.

P 11. BM V 97, 98 (pi. n) (2 sp.): ascribed to Yiisuf I. L:Muwahhids p. 156, no. 1, p. 157,

no. 2 (2 sp.): ascribed to Yiisuf I. h:Khedivial p. 329: ascribed to Yiisuf I. Rodgers 7982.

dbu-Muhammad 'Abd-al-Wahid I ibn-Yusuf I

a.H. 620-621 a.D. 1224-1224

(opposed during 621 by 'Abd-Allah).

No coins reported

dbu-Muhammad 'Abd-Allah ibn-Ya'qub

a.H. 621-624 a.D. 1224-1227

(opposed during 621 by 'Abd-al-Wahid I

and during 624 by Yahya).

510. Marrakush - dinar.

Not described.

S:White 2187. Coins ascribed to this ruler by Spink were presumably struck by 'Abd-al-

Mu'min with heir Muhammad: 473, 477, 478.

abu-Muhammad 'Abd-Allah ibn-Muhammad

rebel at Baeza (Bayyasah)

a.h. 621-626 a.d. 1224-1229

No coins reported.

abuH-'Uld Idris I ibn-Ya'qub

a.H. 624-629 a.D. 1227-1232

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(opposed 624-629 by Yahya).

First series: before suppression of al-Mahdi's name

a.H. 624-627 a.D. 1227-1230

511. (no mint) - double dinar. Plate II

OF jv^Jl iyrj\ <ul ^ RF <iJjLl <ul j*\>p\A\

a>J 4.0 .ui.l j uyu* y\ crC<jll

<ul Jyj a. <^X~ym y\ 0*y^\ jy\

Corpus of Coins: Muwahhid Gold

153

OS JJI y \ cft^^ll j?\ OyH\

RS uC._jll I j*\ & oaw <UI J^p _j,.l OjU^I

V 2076 (AV): jy\ for ^^.1 in 4th os (corrected by Prieto), for 1 in 2nd rs (error).

P 13 (pi. n): jy\ for Iyl (disproved by piate). BM V 106 (pi. n): jy\ for Iy\ (disproved

by piate), for -t*Uil in 1st os (error). B 1151 (pi. xv1): description incompiete, piate

partly illegible.

Second series: after suppression of al-Mahdi's name

a.H. 627-629 a.d. 1230-1232

No coins reported.

abu-Zakariyd3 Yahyd ibn-Muhammad

a.H. 624-633 a.D. 1227-1236

(opposed during 624 by 'Abd-Allah,

624-629 by Idris I,

and 630-633 by 'Abd-al-Wahid II).

512. (no mint) - double dinar.

of as of of 500. rf ju*. y\ iail tiil j,\

J.JLil)\ UiI al

RS Ulll O: <Ul OjC J>.l <jjl^.1

P 12 (pi. n). Sawaszkiewicz p. 205: ruler only, may be this coin.

abu-Miisd 'Imran ibn-Ya'qiib

rebel amir at Sabtah

a.h. 629-630 a.d. 1232-1232

No gold reported.

abu-Muhammad 'Abd-al-Wahid II ibn-Idris I

a.H. 630-640 a.D. 1232-1242

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(opposed 630-633 by Yahya).

First series: before restoration of al-Mahdi's name

a.h. 630-631 a.d. 1232-1234

154 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

513. (no mint) - double dinar. Plate II

of ^J\ oil RF iiill <Ul y\, pUl

<UI Vl V ^,jt* y\ u&>J,\

<lll Jj0*sw <_i~j,I <Jni_jll

<li1 <- o1>)1 a-^1j1cr.l

OS U9.I_yII -US JuPrA y \ o-iJl O^^il >l

RS 0^_)il ^1 <ul ,J.j ^ JJbUll

P 14. Figanier 158 (pi.): U for in last line of of.

Second series: after restoration of al-Mahdi's name

a.h. 631-640 a.d. 1234-1242

514. Azammur (b of) - double dinar.

As 513 except last line of of: <*Vl ^Ul ^o^ll.

B 1152: mint in 4th rs (error ?), 1153 (2 sp.): description inaccurate.

515. Sabtah (6 of) - double dinar struck after a.h. 635.

As 514.

P 1sb. B 1154: description inaccurate.

516. (mint ?) - double dinar. Plate II

As 514.

P 15c (pi. n): mint given as Malaqah (error), piate shows ol U.

517. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 514.

V 2077 (Canovas). P 15a. BM V 107 (pi. n): o*Ul for jaUI1 in 1st rs (error). BN II 734:

jj^aill omitted from 4th os. Weyl:G 1227: description incompiete. B 1155 (pi. xv1):

description inaccurate, piate largely illegible.

abii'l-Hasan 'Ali ibn-Idris I

a.H. 640-646 a.D. 1242-1248

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518. Sabtah (location on coin not indicated) - double dinar struck, if mint is correctly

identified, in a.h. 640 before revolt.

of as of 514. RF JUjm y \ iiiil <ul _^l<

axt1)\ tail a.\ jy\ J.I

rs juaJ1 o*J.\ j?\ ct-^lJl l^l o: >.l

(jo^i1 t/.1 jlc ^ y 1

B 1157.

0J-a-

Corpus of Coins: Muwahhid Gold

155

519. (no mint) - double dinar. Plate II

As 518.

V 2078: several errors. P 16 (pi. n). MA 672: several errors. 0 2108: many errors, ascribed

to 'Abd-al-Mu'min. B 1156 (pi. xvn): piate partly illegible.

620. (no mint) - double dinar.

of as of of 500. rf as rf of 513 except last line:

OS <ul "U-Vl CK*^S jy\

Ocjll Icj. 0y^\ a. tj-^~^

aoilJl Uil a\ JJI J c,j.\i\

P 17: f\ for ^.1 in 3rd rs (error ?).

521. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 520 but with Je a. shifted to the start of 3rd line of rf.

P 17 note: y\ for ^1 in 3rd rs (error ?).

abu-Hafs 'Umar ibn-Ishdq

a.H. 646-665 a.D. 1248-1266

(opposed during 665 by Idris II).

522. Sabtah - double dinar struck after a.h. 647.

of ^-J\ j*.J\ tiiI !*_; rf -Ul joJI1

j^x* jc <ul j* <ul y\ ^la)l

<ul Vl a)1 V ^1 -uc JU*. y.\

(mint)

OS Cs. a*** yl <"l ^"J1 uj>^ll j?\

RS "r1^". t}C*jll jmI

ANS. BM V 113".

523. Sabtah - double dinar struck after a.h. 647.

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As 522 plus JIj at end of 2nd line of of.

P 18b: oi-l for ui-lj in 3rd line of of (error ?).

524. Sabtah - double dinar struck after a.h. 647.

As 523 except os:

P 19c: several slight differences (errors ?). BM V 112. B 1174-1184 (" sp.): some of these

specimens may have mint Madinat Sabtah. Seco p. 469.

156

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

525. Madinat Sabtah - double dinar struck after a.h. 647.

As 524.

V 2081 (AV): several slight differences (errors ?). P 19b: several slight differences (errors ?).

BM V 108-111 (pi. n: 108) (4 sp.). BN II 735. MA 674 (3 sp.). D.Garcia 6135 (pi. xv1, no. 5,

not pi. xv): > before mint (disproved by piate). L:Muwahhids p. 162, no. 1 (pi. v1), p. 163,

no. 2-3 (3 sp.). L:Khedivial p. 329. B 1165, 1173 (pi. xvn: both) (2 sp.). Mateu I p. 483

(pi. xxxv1, no. 9): given as 531 (disproved by piate).

526. Sabtah - dinar struck after a.h. 647.

of as of of 473. rf as rf of 473.

f+J,\ ^l ^ujl

RS ^ i..y ^ytm jl l t>l*_jll j*a\

P 20c. BM X p. 9, no. 117d.

527. Madinat Sabtah - dinar struck after a.H. 647.

As 526.

V 2084 (AV): a.l for jl in 4th os (error). P 20b (pi. 1n). B 1185-1188 (pi. xvn: 1185)

(4 sp.). Gonzalez p. 109 (fig. 31).

528. Sijilmasah - double dinar.

As 524.

V 2082 (AV): several slight differences (errors ?). P 19d: several slight differences (errors ?).

BM V 114. MA 675 (2 sp.). Rivero:M 136 (pi. in): misread slightly. B 1159-1164 (pi. xvn:

1159) (6 sp.).

529. Sijilmasah - dinar.

As 526.

B 1166-1172 (pi. xvn: 1166) (7 sp.): description inaccurate.

530. (mint ?) - double dinar. Plate II

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As 524.

P 19e (pi. m): mint given as Malaqah (error), piate shows W.; -ul| for .ul-lj in 3rd line of

of (disproved by piate).

531. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 523.

V 2079 (AV): juL\ for juJ-l j in 3rd line of of (error). P 18a (pi. n): -ull for-ullj (disproved

by piate). BM V 116.

532. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 523 but with os divided differently:

V 2079 note: -uil for in 3rd line of of (error ?). P 18 note: -ull for -uilj (error ?).

BM V 117.

Corpus of Coins: Muwahh1d Gold

157

533. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 524.

V 2080 (AH, PG, AV 3 sp.): several slight differences (errors ?). P 19a: several slight

differences (errors ?). BM V 115. BN II 736, 737 (2 sp.). MA 673 (n sp.). KM II 699: .i* y,

for uai>- y) in 2nd os (engraving error). Tychsen, O.: Introductionis p. 49. Conde p. 285

(pi. 1v, no. 1). Sacy p. 537. Soret:i7 134 note. D.Garda 6136. D.Lorichs 4723. L:Muwahhids

p. 163, no. 4, 5 (2 sp.). C:Tratado p. 224, no. 4 (pi. xxn). Markov:E p. 93, no. 3: mintless,

not described. Sotheby 390: mintless, not described. S:Karabaczek 921 (pi. n). S.Gotha 989.

0 2114: engraving errors, 2115 (2 sp.). B 1189-1209 (21 sp.). Figanier 279 (pi ): os slightly

misread. Mateu I p. 483 (pi. xxxvi, no. 10). Seco p. 468 (pi. xxm) (4 sp.).

534. (no mint) - dinar.

As 526.

V 2083 (PG, AV): jr| for ^l in 4th os (error). P 20a. BM X p. 9, no. 117e, II7f (2 sp.).

B 1210-1219 (coin illustrated under no. 1219 in pi., xvn is 536) (10 sp.). Thorburn.

535. (no mint) - dinar.

As 526 except rs:

HSA 13187. P 20 note. MA 676: for j*UJ| in 3rd os (error).

536. (no mint) - half dinar.

As 503 except os:

V 2085 (PG, AV). P 21 (pi. 1n). BM X p. 8, no. 103k (pi. xxi): ascribed to Ya'qQb, apparently

this coin with 2nd and 4th os misread. BN II 738 (pi. vi): y.\ omitted from 2nd rs (error).

MA 677: os misread. KM II 700 (pi. 1v). D.Garcia 6137-6139 (3 sp.). S.Gotha 990. B 1220,

1221 (pi. xvn, under no. 1219, 1220, 1221) (3 sp.): description incomplete, piate partly

illegible.

See also medal of this ruler M1.

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abiVl-'Uld Idris II ibn-Muhammad

a.H. 665-668 a.D. I266-I269

(opposed during 665 by 'Umar).

537. (no mint) - double dinar.

of as of of 523. rf as rf of 522.

os J.l JJl y\ <ul 0^>ll jy\

iiSL\ -J ^yuu. ^l| OA- y \ <U| JUC ^il ax-

RS as rs of 522.

V 2086. BM V 118, 119 (2 sp.). L:Muwahhids p. 164, no. 1 (pi. v1).

538. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 537 but with l'-u~ for -u~ in 3rd and 4th os.

V 2086 note. P 22. BM V 120 (pi. n). Sotheby 390: not described. B 1222-1225 (pi- xvn.

under no. 1226 bis) (4 sp.): description incompiete. Thorbum.

158

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

539. (no mint) - half dinar.

As 503 and 536 except os:

JJI y.\ -Ulil

V 2087 (PG). P 23 (pi. 1n). MA 678 (2 sp.). D.Garcia 6140-6142 (3 sp.): 4th rs misread.

Rivero:M 137 (pi. m). B 1226-1228 (pi. xvn: 1226) (3 sp.).

No coins are known to have been struck by the several Muwahhid pretenders who

arose in North Africa for decades after the downfall of the dynasty in a.h. 668 (a.d. 1269).

Hud1d Gold

struck in North Africa

by the Banu-Hud

of Murcia (Mursiyah)

(or by their contemporaries)

in Naskhi script.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad I ibn-Yusuf

a.H. 625-635 a.D. 1228-1238

Anonymous gold (Muwahhid style) probably struck in a.h. 630, when this ruler

controlled Sabtah for three months, in the name of the 'Abbasid khalifah, who was not

individually identified:

al-Mustansir-bi-Allah, abu-Ja'far al-Mansur ibn-Muhammad

a.H. 623-640 a.D. 1226-1242

540. (no mint) - double dinar. Plate III

OF tf-)\ .oil j*-. RF <uI j\ ftol

^1 j Just* JC ^UVl iilil

oil Jl V

os fL.Vl iai1

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RS JU-lj A\

- ^)\ ^rjI - y> V| J| V

P 63 (pi. vn). Weyl:G 1212 and S:Karabaczek 926: described as double dinars with legends

in four lines, may be specimens of this coin.

Corpus of Coins: Hud1d Gold

159

Anonymous gold (Hafsid style) probably struck at Sabtah between a.h. 647 and 656

by the independent am1r abii'l-Qasim Ibrahim ibn-abi'l-'Abbas, al-'Azafi, in the name of

the last 'Abbasid khalifah, who was not individually identified:

al-Musta'sim-bi-Allah, abu-Ahmad 'Abd-Allah ibn-al-Mansur

a.H. 640-656 a.d. 1242-1258

541. (no mint) - double dinar. Plate III

oF <Ul J\ RF til

OS ju*. Jc oil J <ul ^

LL-t pij .Jl Jcj

RS <>^^l

P 62 (pi. vn): <ulfor <u in 3rd line of rf, -U for ^jU in 4th rs (errors, corrected by Fasmer).

J):Garcia 6134 (pi. xv1, no 4): ascribed to Muwahhid Idr1s I.

Hafs1d Gold

struck in North Africa and Spain

by the Masmudah Berber rulers of Tunisia and eastern Algeria,

the Banii-Hafs

in Naskhi or ornamented Kufi script.

abu-Zakariya' Yahyd I ibn-'Abd-al-Wahid

a.H. 627-647 a.D. 1230-1249

First series: with Muwahhid name

a.h. 627-634 a.d. 1230-1236

542. Madinat (a of) ? (b of) - double dinar.

OF RF ^^ll .ucy\

<UI iiii. ^Afll <U ->i-I

OS Jc Oll ^Jl ^Jl *u\

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^Jl ja-jl y, Vl *lI V "olj )1 jQlj

RS <ul ^ i^; ^ |^TU> <ul VI <)I ^ U>

u1 J1 <Sj\ j>j\j tul Vl yjy l.j

B 1007 (pi. xv1): mint obscure in piate, read as Madinat Fas (error ?), ascribed to the

Muwahhid 'Abd-al-Mu'min.

160 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

543. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 542.

Prieto no. o (p. 112). KM II 685. B 1008 (coin illustrated under no. 1008 in pi. xv1 is 454).

All ascribed to 'Abd-al-Mu'min.

544. (no mint) - half dinar with diameter of dinar. Attribution tentative.

OF Vl <ll V RF iJal|

JuMj> 41l| iiii.

os - [ ? ] [ p*Jl ] a>Jl ^ n

-[ ? ]- [ ? ]

RS [ ? ] - [ ^Jl ] ^Jl <ul r-

-[ ? ]- [ ? ]

BN II 1032, 1033 (2 sp.): segments largely illegible.

Second series: with both Muwahhid and Hafaid names

a.H. 634-640 a.d. 1236-1242

545. (no mint) - double dinar.

of as of of 542. rf as rf of 542.

os as os of 542 except 2nd: -u** Ujl- ^ <ul

^ a. J^** ^ a.

P 29. BN II 935: <ul for in last os (error).

546. (no mint) - dinar. Plate III

OF Vl <Jl V RF fUl ^all

OS .u** Jc <ul ^Jl ul

rs as rs of 545.

P 30 (pi. 1v). BM V 159. B 1229 (pi. xv1n), 1230 (pi. xvn1:0 only) (2 sp.): description

incompiete, piates largely illegible.

Third series: with Hafsid name only

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a.H. 640-647 a.D. 1242-1249

547. Bijayah (b of) - double dinar.

As 545 except rf: <i Jli\

Oil J_>i-)lj

P 31b (pi. 1v). B 1233 (pi. xv1n): mint b rf (disproved by piate).

Corpus of Coins: Hafs1d Gold 161

548. Tilimsan (b of) - double dinar struck probably in a.h. 640.

As 547.

P 31c (coin illustrated under no. 31c in pi. 1v is 556). D.Garcia 6641. Rivero:M 142 (pi. 1n):

description inaccurate.

549. Jaza'ir (b of) - double dinar.

As 547.

Soret:F 138: i\ for <u in 1st and 2nd lines of rf (error)> mint read as Jl (?).

550. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 547.

P 31a. BN II 936 (pi. 1x), 937 (2 sp.): <iil for y> in 4th os (disproved by piate). B 1231: de-

scription incompiete.

551. (no mint) - dinar.

As 546 except 3rd and 4th os:

LL) jJl-j <l| Jcj

ANS. P 32. BM V 158 (pi. 1n). BN II 938. KM II 857 (pi. v), 858 (2 sp.). Lavoix:H p. 260

(pi. cxc1, no. 1): termed quarter dinar. Chalon p. 389 (fig.): termed quarter dinar. Weyl:G

1228. S:White 2193. S:Karabaczek 867. Ziya 1764 (pi. n). S.Gotha 991. 0 2116: incorrectly

reported. F .Hafsites 1 (pi. 1). B 1235 (pi. xvm).

552. (no mint) - half dinar.

of as of of 544. rf as rf of 544.

os as rs of 545.

rs Uj <il cJu>\

ul *"' Cf

P 33 (pi- Iv). BN II 939 (pi. 1x), 940 (2 sp.). KM II 859. Weyl:F 6498: wrong reference.

Dorn II p. 65, no. 1. Spink (1933) 22477. F.Hafsites 1 note. B 1236 (pi. xvm, o only; r

belongs to an unidentified coin, illegible), 1237 (pi. xvm): diameter of dinar (2 sp.).

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There is historical testimony that in a.h. 673 this ruler struck a few gold coins for gifts

to courtiers in denominations of 2/5 and 1/5 of a dinar.

Hafsid partisans in Morocco.

553. Sabtah (b of) - double dinar struck between a.h. 643 and 647 by abu-'Ali ibn-Khalas

or his successor abu-Yahya ibn-Zakariya*, called Ibn-al-Shahid.

As 547.

P 31d. B 1234 (pi. xvm): mint b rf (error), illegible in piate.

554. Sijilmasah (b of) - dinar (Muwahhid style) struck in a.h. 640 or 641 by 'Abd-Allah

ibn-Zakariya', al-Khazraji.

As 493 except os, as rs of 545.

P p. 53.

Hafsid partisans in Spain.

555. Ishbiliyah (b of) - double dinar struck presumably by abu-Faris ibn-Yiinus, cousin

and representative of Yahya I a.h. 641-643, 644-646.

11

162

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

As 547, but without l;.u in 2nd os.

P 31f (pi. 1v): ascribed to siege. Seco p. 469: mint illegible.

556. Gharnatah (b rf) - double dinar struck presumably by abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad

ibn-Yusuf, called Ibn-al-Ahmar, before a.h. 647, when he became independent as the

first ruler of the Nasrid dynasty. Plate III

As 547.

P 31e (pi. 1v, under no. 31c, noted by Fasmer). B 1232 (pi. xvm: r only).

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad I ibn-Yahyd I

a.H. 647-675 a.D. 1249-1277

First series: as am1r

a.H. 647-650 a.D. 1249-1253

557. Bijayah (b of) - double dinar.

As 547 except rs:

(j; -Ust* <lll -Lfi y \ J*.VI

BN II 941 (pi. 1x).

558. Bijayah (b rf) - dinar.

As 551 except rs, as rs of 557.

B 1239 (pi. xvm): piate shows reverse of 2 sp., no obverse, description inaccurate.

559. (no mint) - dinar.

As 558.

ANS: j of Juj shifted to end of 3rd os. BN II 943: j shifted to end of 3rd os (not noticed

by Lavoix; read by G. C. Miles). Lavoix:H p. 262 (pi. cxcn, no. 1). Weyl:G 1229: description

incompiete. L:Khedivialp. 329. S:Karabaczek 866. F:Ha/s7t's4(pi.1): j shifted to end of 3rd os.

560. (no mint) - half dinar.

of Vl <jl V rf J. [fj

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-Use* <UI ij JUat*

OS <_$oll oil

<ul iiii

RS Juc yl J* Vl

a a. J^A <uI

BM V 159a (pi. 1n). D.Garda 6645: description inaccurate. 0 2117. F:Hafsites 4 note.

561. (no mint) - quarter dinar.

OF VI V RF oil J2S

<Jll <ic AJ

os ^iVl

JUsm <lll J-C at I

RS a. [fj ^1 a.

Soret:F 139: r obscure, misread. F:Hafsites 4 note.

Corpus of Coins: Hafs1d Gold

163

Second series: as am1r al-mu'minin

a.h. 650-675 a.d. 1253-1277

562. Bijayah (b rf) - double dinar: ornamented Kufi script.

OF iiii RF <ul JU y\

OS kx-. Jc Oil ^Jl Oj| J*-. <Ul J^;^*" <]l V -Ust.

RS <d>

(JO^l <Ul J*ii

S:Karabaczek 922 (pi. n). F.Hafsites 2 (pi. 1). B 1238 (pi. xvm).

563. Bijayah (b of) - dinar: ornamented Kuf1 script.

OF RF <ul a-c y|

<ul <a. l ^Vl a

os as os of 562.

rs as rs of 562.

BN II 942 (pi. x): of misread.

564. (no mint) - double dinar: ornamented Kufi script.

As 562.

BM X p. 11, no. 160k (pi. xx1, r only), 160I (2 sp.): ascribed to Muhammad II. BN II 946.

D .Garcia 6131: script not specified, ascribed to Muwahhids. F .Hafsites 3. B 1240.

565. (no mint) - dinar: ornamented Kufi script.

As 563.

Conde p. 286 (pi. 1n, no. 6). Cimino p. 220 (fig. 30, bottom: r only). Rivero:M 143 (pi. m):

description inaccurate.

566. (no mint) - dinar: ornamented Kufi script.

As 563 except rf, as rf of 562.

D.Garcia 6132: script not specified, ascribed to Muwahhids. B 1241. 566 maybe 565 misread.

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abu-ZakariycP Yahyd II ibn-Muhammad I

a.H. 675-678 a.D. 1277-1279

(opposed 677-678 by Ibrah1m I).

567. (no mint) - double dinar.

of as of of 562. RF \fj y\

os as os of 562.

rs J^m j*^ll <Ulj;ljl|

BM V 160 (pi. 1n). B 1242 (pi. xvn1).

164

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

568. (no mint) - dinar.

of as of of 563. rf as rf of 567.

os as os of 562 and 567.

rs as rs of 567.

B 1243 (pi. xv1n).

abu-Ishdq Ibrahim I ibn-Yahyd I

a.h. 677-681 a.d. 1279-1283

(opposed 677-678 by Yahya II

and during 681 by Ahmad ibn-Marzuq).

569. (no mint) - double dinar. Plate III

of as of of 542. rf ^ 1/3 ^

.Xm ^) v.

os as os of 545.

RS y \ J~VI oil j jlaUJ1

BN II 947 (pi. x): l'-u- omitted from 2nd os (error). KM II 860. Tychsen, O. p. 128:

misread. Lagumina p. 105, no. 2: for -uUll in 1st rs (error). 61244,1245 (pi. xvm:

both) (2 sp.): description incorrect.

Ahmad ibn-Marzuq

called Ibn-ab1-'Umarah

pretending to be

abiiH-'A bbds al-Fadl ibn- Yahyd II

a.H. 681-683 a.D. 1282-1284

(opposed during 681 by Ibrahim I,

681-682 by 'Abd-al-'Aziz I,

and during 683 by 'Umar I).

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570. Tunis (b rf) - double dinar. Plate III

OF <UI cS-^l RF J^t

os as os of 562.

RS *u\ J ^lill J^ii Jj^aA\

B 1252 (pi. x1x): wrongly ascribed.

Corpus of Coins: Hafs1d Gold 165

abu-Faris 'Abd-al-'Aziz I ibn-Ibrahim I

at Bijayah

a.H. 681-682 a.D. 1283-1283

(opposed 681-682 by Ahmad ibn-Marzuq).

No coins reported.

abu-Hafs 'Umar I ibn-Yahyd I

a.H. 683-694 a.d. 1284-1295

(opposed during 683 by Ahmad ibn-Marzuq

and 683-694 by Yahya).

571. Bijayah (b rf) - double dinar: ornamented Kufi script.

Presumably as 572.

B 1248 bis: m only. If mint is correctly given, this coin must have been struck in a.h. 683

or 684, as 'Umar I lost Bijyah to Yahya in 684.

572. Tunis (b rf) - double dinar: ornamented Kufi script. Plate III

of as of of 562. RF y\

os as os of 562.

RS <ul

BM X p. 11, no. 16od (pi. xx1). BN II 948 (pi. x), 949 (2 sp.). Longperier:^4 (pi. lv, no. 9).

D.Garcia 6133: for in 2nd rs (error ?), J^i. for in 3rd rs (error ?), mint

misspelled, script not specified, ascribed to Muwahhids. Lavoix:#p. 265 (pi. cxc1, no. 3):

description inaccurate. S.Gotha 992 (pi. xn). F.Hafsites 5 (pi. 1), 6 (2 sp.). B 1247-1249

(pi. xvIn: all; o and R of 1248 in piate belong to different specimens) (3 sp.): segments of

1249 clipped off.

573. Tunis (b rf) - dinar: ornamented Kufi script.

of as of of 563. rf u***

os as os of 562 and 572.

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rs as rs of 572.

F.Hafsites 7: l^mVl for lin rf (misprint).

abu-Zakariya' Yahya ibn-Ibrahim I

amir at Bijayah

a.h. 683-7oo a.d. 1284-1301

(opposed 683-694 by 'Umar I

and 694-7oo by Muhammad II).

i66

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

574. Bijayah (b rf) - double dinar struck after a.h. 684.

of as of of 542. rf as rf of 547.

os as os of 545.

rs <ul a-> w^iiil

ot-^Oll ytii a if)

F.Hafsites 8 (pi. 1), 9 (2 sp.).

575. Bijayah (6 of) - double dinar struck after a.h. 684: ornamented Kufi script.

As 574 except os:

Jc 4il J*. ^Jl ^a-Jl <ul ^

B 1246 (pi. xv1n): ai-lj for aJ|j in rf (disproved by piate).

576. (no mint) - double dinar: ornamented Kiifi script.

As 575 (Fasmer I p. 213 reads <i for <ul in 3rd line of rf).

BN II 950 (pi. x): partly illegible, for in rf (illegible in piate). Lavoix:// p. 266

(pi. cxcn, no. 2): partly illegible, aJ-l for <Jl) in rf (disproved by piate).

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad II ibn-Yahyd II

a.H. 694-709 a.D. 1295-1309

(opposed 694-7oo by Yahya

and 7oo-709 by KMlid I).

577. Tunis (b rf) - double dinar.

As 562 except Rf: ul .lc y l

F .Hafsites 10, n (pi. 1) (2 sp.).

577a. Tunis (b rf) - double dinar: ornamented Kiifi script.

As 577.

F.Hafsites 12 (pi. 1), 13 (2 sp.): as 562 (error, corrected by letter).

578. Tunis (b rf) - double dinar.

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As 577 but with y \ shifted from top line of rf to end of 4th rs.

T?.Hafsites 14.

579. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 578.

Lagumina p. 104, no. 1: segments partly illegible, ascribed to Muhammad I.

abuH-Baqa' Khdlid I ibn-Yahyd

a.H. 7oo-711 a D.1301-1311

(opposed 7oo-709 by Muhammad II,

during 709 by Abii-Bakr I,

710-711 by Abii-Bakr II,

and during 711 by Zakar1ya' I).

Corpus of Coins: Hafs1d Gold 167

First series: as amir at Bijayah

a.h. 7oo-709 a.d. 1301-1309

No coins reported.

Second series: as amir al-mu'minin

a.h. 709-711 a.d. 1309-1311

580. (mint ?) (b rf) - double dinar: ornamented Kufi script. Plate III

of as of of 562. rf Jli IsJl y\

axil J\

os as os of 562.

RS Jy*&\ <ul C.J jLJl

j<j>\ <lll J^ti

BN II 951 (pi. x): mint obscure in piate, given as Tarabulus (error).

abu-Yahyd Abii-Bakr I ibn-'Abd-al-Rahmdn

a.H. 709-709 a.D. 1309-1309

(opposed during 709 by Khalid I).

No coins reported.

abu-Yahyd Abii-Bakr II ibn-Yahyd

a.H. 71o-747 a.D. 131o-1346

(opposed 710-711 by Khalid I,

711-717 by Zakariya' I,

717-723 by Muhammad III,

721-730 by Muhammad ibn-Abi-Bakr,

724-725 by Ibrahim,

and 729-732 by 'Abd-al-Wahid).

First series: as amir at Bijayah and Qusan^inah

a.H. 710-718 a.d. 1310-1318

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581. Bijayah (b rf) - double dinar.

Presumably as 582, though os may differ.

Lagumina p. 106, no. 3: joull for ju^ll in 3rd rs, a} repeated before J\ in rf (errors?);

os dubious, given as:

[ ? ] ^Mljc,

582. Qusantinah (b rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 542. rf Ji y\ iJ*>_ f\

os as os of 575 but with 4)lj omitted from 4th s.

rs <ul jc jT>dl ^Vl

i68 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

BN II 960 (pi. x): os largely illegible, piate does not show OOjll reported at end of

4th RS.

(no mint) - double dinar.

of as of of 544. rf as rf of 582.

OS j^m j-j J* <ul J* <ul ^

rs jji jT^_iU <al aJ [ ? ]

Jb^ll oil <U| j*a^_ Oj^ll Ol|

Ziya 1765: probably a poor specimen of 581 or 582 misread.

583. (no mint) - dinar.

of <u JjJ\ RF y\

<iil <iii- 1>.-^lJl

os as os of 562.

rs <ul Jc jf^ll

F :Hafsites 30.

Second series: as amir al-mu'minin

a.H. 718-747 a.d. 1318-1346

584. Bijayah (b OF and b rf) - double dinar.

of <u J3\ rf as rf of 582.

<Jll iLU- ^J^ll

OS JUsw ta-- Jc ^Jl ^

Oil Ay) JU <al <]l V

RS <ul J* jTj^l

Ot*y\ jml <JI|

BN II 952 (pi. x), 955-957 (4 sp.). Lavoix:i/ p. 268 (pi. cxc1, no. 4): description incompiete.

585. Bijayah (b of) - double dinar.

As 584.

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F .Hafsites 19.

585a. Bijayah (b of) - double dinar.

As 584 except rs, rotated counter-clockwise 90 degrees.

B 1250 (pi. x1x): description incompiete.

586. Bijayah (b rf) - double dinar.

As 584.

BN II 953, 954 (2 sp.). KM II 863: for j>wl in 3rd rs, rs divided differently (errors ?).

B 1251 (pi. x1x).

Corpus of Coins: Hafs1d Gold

169

586a. Bijayah (b rf) - double dinar.

As 585a.

F .Hafsites 20 (pi. n), 21 (2 sp.): mint above 3rd line of rf (disproved by piate), rs as rs of 584

(disproved by piate).

587. Qafsah (b rf) - double dinar struck after capitulation in a.h. 735.

As 584, but with ju shifted from 2nd to start of 3rd OS.

F.Hafsites 23 (pi. 1n): os as os of 584 (disproved by piate).

588. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 584.

BN II 958, 959 (2 sp.): ascribed to Bijyah. 0 2118 (pi. v1): ^^ll for Jb^ll in 2nd rs (dis-

proved by piate). F .Hafsites 24-29 (pi. 1n: 28) (6 sp.).

589. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 587.

Codrington, O. p. 6: J^l for Jjl-lj in of (misprint ?).

590. (no mint) - dinar.

of as of of 563. rf as rf of 583.

os as os of 562 and 583.

rs ^.l nil Jc J5^1l

ijf*. Oj^jll

BM X p. 12, no. 16ot (pi. xx1).

591. (no mint) - half dinar.

of as of of 560. rf as rf of 583.

os as os of 560.

RS 0^j> jv>l

us*.

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BN II 961 (pi. x). F.Hafsites 31-35 (pi. m: 31) (5 sp.).

abii-Yahyd Zakariya' I ibr1-Ahmad

a.H. 711-717 a.d. 1311-1318

(opposed during 711 by Khalid I

and 711-717 by Abu-Bakr II).

592. (no mint) - double dinar.

OF <ill <J| V RF \>fj ^ y\

OS <U| y <u ell

RS <u| ^.l^U)l

F .Hafsites 16 (pi. n), 17 (2 sp.).

170

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

593. (no mint) - dinar.

OF J_y_j jusw RF

os [ ? ] hi ctM1

-[?]-[?]

RS <1l1 j\ jvLiJI

F:Hafsites 18: os largely illegible.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad III ibn-Zakariya' I

a.h. 717-723 a.d. 1317-1323

(opposed 717-723 by Abu-Bakr II

and 721-723 by Muhammad ibn-Abi-Bakr).

594. (no mint) - double dinar.

of <ul J^\J\ RF <uI .uc [ f\ ]

os [ *ul r->

- [? ] - [ ? ]

RS [>]^l [ ? ] ^.Vl

- [ "? ] - [ ?~ ]

BN II 980 (pi. x1): ascribed to Muhammad V, partly illegible.

abii-'Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn-Abi-Bakr

pretender

a.H. 721-730 a.d. 1321-1330

(opposed 721-730 by Abu-Bakr II,

721-723 by Muhammad III,

724-725 by Ibrahim,

and 729-730 by 'Abd-al-Wahid).

No coins reported.

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abu-lshaq Ibrahim ibn-Abi-Bakr I

pretender

a.h. 724-725 a.D. 1324-1325

(opposed 724-725 by Abu-Bakr II and Muhammad ibn-Abi-Bakr).

No coins reported.

Corpus of Coins: Hafstd Gold

abu-Muhammad 'Abd-al-Wahid ibn-Zakariya' I

pretender

a.h. 729-732 a.d. 1329-1332

(opposed 729-732 by Abu-Bakr II

and 729-730 by Muhammad ibn-Abi-Bakr).

No coins reported.

abu-Hafs 'Umar II ibn-Abi-Bakr II

a.h. 747-748 a.D. 1346-1347

(opposed during 747 by Ahmad I).

595. (no mint) - double dinar.

of as of of 584. RF ^ai*

os as os of 562.

rs as rs of 580.

F.Hafsites 36 (pi. 1n): os as os of 584 (disproved by piate).

596. (no mint) - eighth dinar.

of V RF jll jml

No segment inscriptions.

BN II 962 (pi. x).

abuH-' Abbas Ahmad I ibn-Abi-Bakr II

a.H. 747-747 a.D. 1346-1346

(opposed during 747 by 'Umar II).

No coins reported.

abiVl-'Abbas al-Fadl ibn-Abi-Bakr II

a.h. 749-751 a.D. 1348-1350

(opposed 749-751 by 'Abd-al-Rahman and Muhammad).

First series: as amir al-mu'minin at Bijayah

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a.h. 749-749 a.D. 1348-1349

597. Bijayah (b rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 584. RF Jiill ^-Ul y\

OC_jll jml jj;l

os as os of 562.

rs as rs of 584.

F .Hafsites 37 (pi. 1n).

172 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

598. Tarabulus (b of) - double dinar.

As 597.

F:Hafsites 38 (pi. 1v). B 1252 bis (p. 271): m only. Ashmolean.

Second series: as amir al-mu'minin at Tunis

a.H. 750-751 a.D. 1350-1350

599. Tunis (b rf) - double dinar struck in a.h. 750 or 751.

of as of of 584 and 597. RF J^i)l ^Ul y\

os as os of 562 and 597.

RS <ul j*S. <ul Jc Ji^dLi

B 1253: description of os uncertain, J*ii for ^ in 2nd rs (error ?).

600. (no mint) - half dinar.

of Vl Jl V rf JjJl

OS ^41| <U lyi\

<ul <-!>.

RS Oo^ll

lt^l

F :Hafsites 39.

abu-Zayd 'Abd-al-Rahman ibn-Muhammad

am1r at Qusantinah

a.h. 749-755 a.d. 1348-1355

(opposed 749-751 by al-Fadl

and 751-755 by Ibrahim II).

601. Qusantinah (b rf) - double dinar.

of <u JJ^\ rf axaij y_\

OS j.*. Je <u| J*, ^j)l <ul ^

RS [ ? <at ytll ] [ ? ]

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[ ? <al Jii jjjA\ ] [ ? ]

Bigonet p. 97: rs largely illegible.

Corpus of Coins: Hafs1d Gold

173

abii-'Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn-Yahyd

am1r at Bijayah

a.h. 749-753. 76l~767 a D. 1348-1352, 1360-1366

(opposed 749-751 by al-Fadl,

761-767 by Ibrahim II,

and 761-767 by Ahmad II).

First reign:

a.H. 749-753 a.d. 1348-1352

602. (no mint) - double dinar.

OF as OF of 601. RF \

os as os of 584.

RS _raM Oi

F:Hafsites 15 (pi. n): obscure in piate; ascribed to Muhammad II.

Second reign: Marinid influence

a.h. 761-767 a.d. 1360-1366

603. Madinat (at end of 1st rs) Bijayah (at start of 2nd rs) - double dinar. Plate III

OF <U jCi)I.) <U RF tX>j^l X^k*

*\ Vl iy V., a. if} j\ sA\ a.

<JlI ii-U- (^O^ll jy\

os as os of 562.

RS <-jjaJl (mint) ojui v

<tl xc jA

BN II 968 (pi. x1): a. in 4th rs (apparently disproved by piate), wrongly ascribed.

Lavoix:/f p. 270 (pi. cxcn, no. 4).

abu-Ishdq Ibrahim II ibn-Abi-Bakr II

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a.H. j51-770 a.D. 1350-1369

(opposed 751-755 by 'Abd-al-Rahman,

761-767 by Muhammad,

and 755-758, 761-770 by Ahmad II).

604. Tarabulus (b of) - double dinar.

of as of of 584. rf |r^U1 'J^1

os as os of 562.

rs as rs of 562.

174

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

BN II 966 (pi. xi): a. before J* ^ in 3rd line of rf (error ?, blurred in piate), <ul< at end

of 1st rs (disproved by piate). F.Hafsites 41: y \ for jl twice in 3rd line of rf, segments

partly illegible.

605. Qafsah (b of) - double dinar.

As 604.

F.Hafsites 40 (pi. 1v): y\ for ^l twice in 3rd line of rf, segments partly illegible.

606. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 604.

BM V 161 (pi. 1n): rs rotated counterclockwise 90 degrees (disproved by piate), y_\ for^l

in middle of 3rd line of rf (piate seems to have y\ for ^l twice in 3rd line of rf).

F.Hafsites 42: for ^l twice in 3rd line of rf.

607. (no mint) - double dinar: ornamented Kufi script.

As 604.

BN II 967: cj. before jl in 3rd line of rf (error ?).

abii'l-'Abbas Ahmad II ibn-Muhammad

a.h. 755-758, 761-796 a.d. I354~1357. 1360-1394

(opposed 761-767 by Muhammad,

755-758, 761-770 by Ibrahim II,

and 770-772 by Khalid II).

First reign:

a.h. 755-758 a.d. 1354-1357

608. (no mint) - double dinar.

of as of of 584. rf -w-l ^Ul y \

os as os of 562.

rs as rs of 584.

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BN II 964 (pi. x), 965 (2 sp.): ascribed to al-Fadl.

Second reign: Marinid influence

a.H. 761-796 a.D. 1360-1394

609. (no mint) - double dinar. Plate III

OF <u J-| RF JJf\ ^Ul y_\

os as os of 562 and 608.

RS <Ul <ul Jc jTyll

BN II 963 (pi. x): ^l omitted from 2nd line of rf (engraving error), ascribed to al-Fadl.

Lavoix:# p. 269 (pi. cxcn, no. 3): ^l omitted.

Corpus of Coins: Hafs1d Gold

175

abiiH-Baqa' Khdlid II ibn-Ibrahim II

a.H. 770-772 a.d. 1369-1370

(opposed 770-772 by Ahmad II).

No coins reported.

abii-Faris 'Abd-al-'Aziz II ibn-Ahmad II

a.h. 796-837 a.d. 1394-1434

610. Bijayah (b rf) - double dinar with diameter of half dinar.

of as of of 584. RF j_yi\ -ue ^jli y\

os as os of 584.

rs <a\ -1.^l <ul JJ^dll

.. (jo^ll jy>\ &\ Ja- iy a*Uil

F:Hafsites 44 (pi. 1v): segments illegible.

611. Biskirah ? (b rf) - double dinar.

As 610 but with jl shifted from 2nd to start of 3rd line of rf.

F .Hafsites 43 (pi. 1v): mint uncertain in piate, which shows ^l for y \ in 3rd line of rf.

612. Tunis (b rf) - double dinar.

As 610.

F .Hafsites 51 (pi. v).

613. Tunis (b rf) - double dinar.

As 611.

BN II 969 (pi. x1): mint poorly engraved. Lavoix:H p. 271 (pi. cxc1, no. 5; not, as given,

pi. cxcn, no. 3): description incompiete.

614. Turns (b rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 584 and 610. rf as rf of 611.

OS Lu- Jc <ul ^J\ J* J\ till (*_>

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rs j*uil [j*>*] jjyl]

BM V 162 (pi. 1n): 1st and 2nd rs misread.

615. Tunis (b rf) - dinar

of as of of 583. RF ^.jli y\

OS ^\}

- prJl o*Ji ~ * * V

RS >i\ a._^ll

BM V 163 (pi. 1n): ji*U)| for ji*UIl in 2nd rs (error). Marsden 360 (pi. xx1): misread,

ascribed to Sharifs.

176

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

616. al-Hammah (b rf) - double dinar.

As 611 except os, as os of 562.

F.Hafsites 45 (pi. 1v): mint read as al-Hammah (disproved by piate), segments partly

illegible.

617. Tarabulus (b rf) - double dinar with diameter of dinar.

As 611.

Cimino (fig. 31, lower left: r only) may be this coin; o not shown or described, rs largely

illegible. F.Hafsites 49 (pi. v), 50 (2 sp.): segments largely illegible.

618. Qusantinah (b rf) - double dinar with diameter of half dinar.

As 616.

BN II 970 (pi. x1): as 611 (apparently disproved by piate).

619. Qafsah (b rf) - double dinar.

As 610.

F.Hafsites 46 (pi. 1v): segments partly illegible, as 611 (disproved by piate).

620. Qafsah (b rf) - dinar.

As 615, but with j shifted from 3rd to start of 4th rs.

F.Hafsites 47 (pi. v).

621. Mahdiyah ? (b rf) - dinar.

As 615.

F.Hafsites 48 (pi. v): mint illegible in piate, segments largely illegible.

622. (no mint) - dinar.

As 615.

F.Hafsites 52: weight of double dinar; 53, 54 (3 sp.): # added to end of 2nd line of rf

of 53 and 54 (error ?).

623. (no mint) - dinar with diameter of half dinar.

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As 615.

BN II 971: segments largely illegible.

(no mint) - dinar with diameter of half dinar.

As 615 except 2nd line of of: <ul JjL\j.

BM V 164: 3rd line of of and all segments illegible; may be a poor specimen of 623 misread.

624. (no mint) - half dinar with diameter of quarter dinar.

of as of of 583 and 615. RF ^Ji yl

Segments illegible.

F.Hafsites 55. B 1254 (pi. x1x): piate illegible.

625. (no mint) - half dinar.

of as of of 601. RF as rf of 615.

os apparently as os of 615.

rs apparently as rs of 615.

Marsden 361 (pi. xx1): misread, clipped, ascribed to Sharifs.

(no mint) - half dinar with diameter of quarter dinar.

Corpus of Coins: Hafs1d Gold 177

OF <U Jli\ RF ^.Ji y\

Segments largely illegible.

BM V 165: probably a poor specimen of 625 misread.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad IV ibn-Muhammad

a.h. 837-839 a.D. 1434-1435

626. (no mint) - double dinar. Attribution tentative.

of as of of 584. rf ju** <ul jus y)

os as os of 562.

rs as rs of 572.

BN II 944: ascribed to Muhammad I. Longperier:.4 (pi. lv, no. n). Lavoix:// p. 262

(pi. cxc1, no. 2): os not given, reconstructed from piate, ascribed to Muhammad I. Blancard

p. 6 (fig.): os misread, ascribed to Muhammad I.

abuH-ffasan 'Ali ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz II

amir at Bijayah

a.h. 839-856 a.d. 1435-1452

(opposed 839-856 by 'Uthman).

627. Bijayah (b rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 584. rf J* y \

(jOji\ jr|

os apparently as os of 584.

rs illegible except 1st: <ul Jc jO^l-

Soret:D93 (pi. n, no. 12): os tentatively reconstructed from piate; u^ji\ j*\ given for

4th rs illegible in piate, probably error.

abu-'Amr 'Uthman ibn-Muhammad

a.H. 839-893 a.d. 1435-1488

(opposed 839-856 by 'Ali).

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First series: Hafsid style ,

628. Tuzar (b rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 584. rf oLk jyf j> l

12

178 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

os apparently as os of 584.

rs illegible.

F:Hafsites 56 (pi. v): segments largely illegible.

629. Tarabulus (b rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 584 and 628. rf as rf of 628.

OS .tulj^-jo^. J\ jf J\ oil |* >

ju*. Jc <ul oil VI <)l V

RS JJljJloil Jcjj^dl

oil Ja- ^* JjbUJl oil

BN II 975 (pi. xi): jf iox j jf m top line of rf. F:Hafsites 57 (pi. v): segments illegible,

diameter of half dinar.

630. Tarabulus ? (b rf) - dinar.

of as of of 583. rf ^.1

os illegible.

rs- j. - jTjil

Oil

BN II 976: segments largely illegible, mint uncertain, jf. for in top line of rf;

1st os starts in a rs (both tentative). F:Hafsites 58: 1st os starts ^Vl (misprint

,/VI, corrected by letter), mint uncertain, diameter of a half dinar.

631. Qusan^inah (b rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 584 and 628. rf as rf of 628.

03 as os of 562.

rs oil jc jTydl

Oil Jj ^ JOkUll

B 1256 (pi. x1x): jf for j J in top line of rf.

632. (no mint) - double dinar.

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Presumably as 628.

BN II977 (pi. x1): segments clipped off, for j yf. in top line of rf, piate shows traces of mint.

Sacy p. 541: segments illegible, size not indicated, slightly misread, ascribed to Marinid.

633. (no mint) - double dinar.

Presumably as 628 except of, as of of 601.

Sacy p. 541: segments illegible, slightly misread, ascribed to Marinid.

634. (no mint) - dinar with diameter of half dinar.

Presumably as 628.

BN II 978: segments illegible.

635. (no mint) - dinar.

of as of of 583 and 630. rf jjf y\

Segments illegible.

F:Hafsites 60.

Corpus of Coins: Hafsid Gold

179

636. (no mint) - half dinar.

of as of of 583 and 630. rf as rf of 635.

os illegible.

rs as rs of 630.

F:Hafsites 59 (pi. v): os starts <u dill (not visible in piate).

Second series: Hafsid style with 4-line rf

637. Jaza'ir (b rf) - double dinar: modified Kuf1 script. Plate III

of as of of 584 and 628. rf Oj^ll j?\

j. oil j\ 1 yJ\

os [ ? ^] j\ .on p-j

Jc <Ul J* <UI Vl <)l V JU*.

RS uo^il ^.1 <uI Jc jfydl

BN II 974 (pi. x1): segments partly illegible, for in 3rd line of rf. KM II 861

(pi. v): segments partly illegible.

638. Jaza'ir (b rf) - double dinar: modified Kufi script.

As 637 but with J.I shifted to start of 4th line of rf.

KM II 862: engraving errors, jf for jjl- in 3rd line of rf. Weyl:P" 6744 (pi. xln) (2 sp.):

apparently poor specimens of this coin misread.

Third series: Marinid style with 4-line of and rf

639. Tilimsan (b of and b rf) - double dinar.

of *u RF o-p y\

*u J^i\ ujijll jmI tiiI

till Vl <Jw" ul u<J

Segments illegible.

B 1255 (pi. x1x):j** for-ol in 4th line of rf (disproved by piate), 1st rs starts <ul

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640. Tanas (J of and 6 rf) - double dinar.

of <u RF <uI juc y\

<ul Sjill.j Jjil oUic

<Ill ^-t#lI <UI J._I

OS j)l tfr J\ <UI O^u l'JU~, ^ <UI

RS Jl ^a-JI <uI ^

BN II 972 (pi. x1): j). I for ^1 in 3rd line of rf (piate seems to show ^1).

18*

I8o

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

abu-Zakariya' Yahyd III ibn-Muhammad

a.h. 893-894 a.d. 1488-1489

(opposed during 894 by 'Abd-al-Mu'min).

No coins reported.

abu-Muhammad 'Abd-al-Mu'min ibn-Ibrahim

a.H. 894-895 a.D. 1489-1490

(opposed during 894 by Yahya III).

No coins reported.

abu-Yahyd Zakariya' II ibn-Yahyd III

a.H. 895-899 a.D. 149o-1494

No coins reported.

abu-''Abd-Allah Muhammad V ibn-al-Hasan

a.h. 899-932 a.d. 1494-1526

641. (no mint) - double dinar.

of as of of 584. rf [Ju^a] ^ j1.l

[ctjutljl] l^Vl

OS- [ ? ] - [ ? ]

RS [? J^jTjdl

- -l [ ? ] - [ ? ]

BN II 979 (pi. x1): 4th rs given as <ul Vl <l| V (disproved by piate).

642. (no mint) - double dinar with diameter of dinar.

OF <U jSd)l RF JUst* <ill J-c ji|

Segments illegible.

BN II 981: 3rd line of of uncertain.

643. (no mint) - half dinar. Attribution tentative. Plate III

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OF jml JUsm RF U-6 y_\

No inscriptions in segments.

ANS. BN II 982 (pi. x1).

Corpus of Coins: Z1yan1d Gold

181

abii-'Abd-Allah Muhammad VI ibn-Muhammad V

a.H. 932-941, 942-948 a.D. 1526-1534, 1535-1542

First reign: as am1r al-mu'minin

a.h. 932-941 a.d. 1526-1534

644. (no mint) - double dinar. Plate III

of as of of 584. rf ju <al -lc j>,l

Segments illegible except 1st rs: qIM.Jl.

BN II 983 (pi. x1). Lavoix:H p. 274 (pi. cxcn, no. 5).

Second reign: as vassal of Charles I of Spain

a.h. 942-948 a.d. 1535-1542

No coins reported.

abu-H-Abbas Ahmad III ibn-Muhammad VI

a.h. 948-977 a.d. 1542-1569

No gold reported.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad VII ibn-Muhammad VI

vassal of Philip II of Spain

a.H. 981-982 a.d. 1573-1574

No coins reported.

No coins are known to have been struck by the many independent Hafsid amirs who

flourished between the death of 'Uthman in a.h. 893 and the end of Hafsid rule in a.H. 982,

nor by local Arab and Berber rebels, while coins struck by the Ottoman sultans and their

local Turkish allies, and those struck by Spanish and Portuguese rulers, are excluded from

this corpus.

Z1yan1d Gold

struck in North Africa

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by the Zanatah Berber rulers of western Algeria,

the Banu-Ziyan

in Naskhi script.

abu-Yahya Yaghmurdsan ibn-Ziyan

a.H. 633-681 a.D. 1236-1283

Anonymous gold (Hafsid style) presumably struck by this ruler under nominal

Hafsid suzerainty after a.h. 640.

182

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

645. Tilimsan (b of) - double dinar. Attribution tentative.

OF oil oljJI RF 01 J&\

oil .5lT"olji)l oil S^sllj J^llj

OS -u** Iju- Jc oil 4>*o" p-i

^Jl y, Vl <01 V o^lj^ll^lj

rs ^Ulj^iy1j >VljJjVly,

B 1346 (pi. xx1v), ascribed to Marinids.

abu-Sa'id 'Uthmdn I ibn-Yaghmurdsan

a.H. 681-703 a.D. 1283-1304

No coins reported.

abu-Ziydn Muhammad I ibn-'Uthmdn I

a.H. 703-707 a.D. 1304-1308

No coins reported.

abu-Hammu Musd I ibn-'Uthmdn I

a.H. 707-718 a.D. 1308-1318

646. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - double dinar. Plate IV

OF pi-J\ |*-! ^ 06

osm ^ oil ^> ^1 y

Oil Vl a)1 V cruLil

oil Jjujm i>1UI v_ij ^

Oil j U j*aiJ Oil

OS 4)lVjUlj 4)l^lj

prJ\ - j* 1\

RS (mint) ii oc y

l^u1j JL" U-v

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BN II 1010. Demaeght v. VII, p. 66 (fig.). Berchem p. 326, no. 1, 2 (2 sp.): 4)l shifted

from 1st to start of 2nd rs (error ?). B 1323 (pi. xxn, under no. 1322): ascribed to Marinids,

mint given as Mad1nat Fas (error), segments illegible, apparently this coin misread; 1395

description inaccurate (2 sp. ?).

abu-Tdshfin 'Abd-al-Rahman I ibn-Musd I

a.H. 718-737 a.D. 1318-1337

647. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - double dinar.

OF pf-J\ J*J\ oil p-> RF oil ^ j*\

ju*. Jc oil J*. oil jc jTyll

oiIVI<))IV jrj^

Oil J_jj -Uaw uui-ll jmI

Oil ^jjil ,^aij oil .u,J

Corpus of Coins: Z1yan1d Gold

183

OS rQlj

rs as rs of 646.

BN II 1012.

648. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - double dinar. Attribution very doubtful.

Plate IV

OF <ul Vl i\ V RF p>.J\ J\ <ul

afij

li -15" yi\) C^u' <U jSljlj

AVl5>V, aJl^.E ? ]

OS 0\*- Jl -Vs OC^ll jrv.l

ajtil Jl Uil a\

RS (mint) at. -j

o;j...y <ul Liil

BM V 195 (pi. v): last line of rf starts <ul (error), for in 4th line of rf

(error). BN II 1on: last line of rf starts u J^l\} (error). Soret:F 137 (pi. n): segments

slightly misread. 0 2125: last line of rf starts <ul jf\ L(error). B 1396 (pi. xxv): last

line of rf starts Jl l jff\jjr (error), for c: in 4th line of rf (error). Thorbum.

649. Madinat (in 1st rs) Jaza'ir (2nd rs) - double dinar. Attribution very doubtful.

As 648.

B 1396 bis.

abu-SaHd 'Uthmdn II ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman

a.H. 749-753 a.d. 1348-1352

No coins reported, though Yahya Ibn-Khaldun says he struck gold.

abu-Thdbit al-Za'im I ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman

a.h. 753-753 a.D. 1352-1352

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No coins reported.

abu-Hammii Miisd II ibn-Yusuf

a.h. 760-791 a.d. 1359-1389

(opposed 762-779 by Muhammad ibn-'Uthman II

and 788-791 by 'Abd-al-Rahman II).

650. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - double dinar. Plate IV

OF p*J\ JrJ\ <U| ^J, RF <ul -UC y\

<ii\ Vl <ll V Je jTjil

<Ut ijyj -Use (jvJUl <-*J

184

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

os as os of 647.

rs as rs of 646.

BM V 194 (pi. v). Demaeght v. VII, p. 69 (fig.). Berchem p. 326, no. 3.

651. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - dinar. Attribution tentative.

of Vl <II V RF oil -lc

oil ^f-y

Oil J_j-J <*,J

os |X lj oil L, U

oil ^ l^s (y

rs as rs of 646.

Demaeght v. VII, p. 71 (fig.).

abu-Ziydn Muhammad ibn-'Uthman II

pretender

a.H. 762-779 a.D. 1360-1377

(opposed 762-779 by Musa II).

No coins reported.

abu-Tashfin 'Abd-al-Rahmdn II ibn-Musd II

a.H. 788-795 a.d. 1387-1393

(opposed 788-791 by Musa II).

652. Mad1nat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - double dinar.

of as of of 650. rf oil jlc j.\ ^

Oulll jryil

os as os of 647.

rs as rs of 646.

B 1394 (pi. xxv): description incompiete, division into lines and segments not indicated;

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tentatively reconstructed from partly illegible piate; name of ruler uncertain, ascribed to

Yaghmurasan.

abu-Thabit al-ZaHm II ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman II

a.h. 795-795 a.d. 1393-1393

No coins reported.

abifl-Hajjaj Yusuf ibn-Musd II

a.h. 795-796 a.D. 1393-1394

No coins reported.

Corpus of Coins: Z1yIntd Gold

185

abu-Ziydn Muhammad II ibn-Musd II

a.H. 796-802 a.D. 1394-1399

653. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - double dinar.

OF J-Ul j.\ <ul ol RF <ul j\ jp

blj Ol<1i1 Oou

os illegible except 2nd: Jc <ul

rs as rs of 646.

Moyse 4: ^1 for ^ in top line of rf (misprint ?).

abii-Muhammad 'Abd-Allah I ibn-Musd II

a.H. 802-804 a.D. 1399-1402

654. Presumably Madinat Tilimsan - double dinar.

OF [Jc Jfy*. 0**1 RF M .*+ cf\

<lll Ol t/ul ll jl

Ijo JjO <lil <ul a I cjJJl

Segments illegible.

BN II 1014 (pi. xn): ascribed to Muhammad V, rf misread.

abii-'Abd-Allah Muhammad III ibn-Musd II

a.H. 804-813 a.d. 1402-1411

655. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - double dinar. Plate IV

OF OC.j)l ul -*J KF <ul ^

OS^Jl^jl

JU>M kju- ^ <ul (J*,

rs (mint) oju <-j

JLr <ul L>.1

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B 1326,1327 (pi. xxn: both) (2 sp.): piate partly illegible, os misread, ascribed to Marinids.

I86

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

656. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - double dinar.

of lyA aj)l <ul RF B| Jlc y\ <jt-

os Lu- Jc <ul l^. Jl <ul

rs as rs of 646.

Moyse 1: i^j for l^lj in 4th rs (misprint ?).

657. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - dinar.

of 0:^l W!; ^ <ul jlc ^

l^Jsl l^.l 11l JJ JUaw

Jjlj J^-Jl'

OS Jc <ul ^Jl <u| ^

l.A._r jju-j <ll Jcj ju*w

rs as rs of 646.

Demaeght v. X, p. 229 (fig.): several slight errors.

abu-Tdshfin 'Abd-al-Rahmdn III ibn-Muhammad III

a.H. 813-814

658. Tilimsan (in 2nd RS) - dinar. Attribution tentative.

OF

RF

J6

rs (mint) j

BN II 1016 (pi. x1n): 4th line of rf uncertain.

a.D. 14II-14II

.V

jfydl nil

<u| Jc

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ai>w- ? al-Sa'id ibn-Musa II

a.H. 814-814 a.d. 1411-1411

No coins reported.

Corpus of Coins: Z1yan1d Gold 187

abu-Malik 'Abd-al-Wdhid ibn-Musd II

a.H. 814-827, 831-833 a.D. 1411-1424, 1428-1430

659. Madinat (in 3rd rs) Tilimsan (4th rs) - double dinar.

OF Jc JS>L RF <ul as. j>\

Oil Ja*. J* J-\J\ JL

OS ^ po-jl -

RS v> p>

(mint) iioe

D.Lorichs 4725: division into lines and segments not indicated, iyr a} for juIjII (error).

660. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - double dinar. Plate IV

of as of of 659. rf <ul as. j,\ ^

olj)I o-c

u\l-ll .A*1

rs as rs of 646.

HSA 10622.

661. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 660 except os:

jc <ul jt)\ <u1

Ll-j pL,j 4)I ^Jcj ju

Moyse 2: Ji^ll for jT/ll in 2nd line of rf (misprint ?). B 1397 (pi. xxv, unnumbered): de-

scription incompiete, piate partly illegible.

662. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tilimsan (2nd rs) - double dinar.

of as of of 659. rf as rf of 660.

oS Oil +j .Oil ^

RS (mint) our o

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Demaeght v. X, p. 226 (fig.): several slight errors, ascribed to Muhammad V.

i88

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad IV ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman II

a.H. 827-831, 833-834 a.D. 1424-1428, 1430-1431

663. Madinat (in 2nd rs) Tilimsan (3rd rs) - double dinar. Plate IV

of as of of 659. rf <ul a-c ^.l

(jr<ilinll jy>\

Oil JlC jil

os as OS of 655.

RS ii ac y

<ul V-j- (mint)

Rivero: . 4 p. 13, no. 2 (pi. v). Rivero:M 145 (pi. 1n): several slight errors. B 1399 (pi. xxv):

description incomplete, piate largely illegible.

664. Tilimsan (in 4th rs) - dinar.

OF J5>i j*3 RF -U: y|

3+ l Je jfell <al

Ol j>.l iJc

yt <ul <ul jlo

os not given.

(mint) ^ f?-

Brosselard p. III.

abuH-'Abbas Ahmad I ibn-Musd II

a.h. 834-866 a.d. 1431-1462

665. Madinat (in 2nd rs) Tilimsan (3rd rs) - double dinar.

OF l i^mcl RF <iil Jue y\

l |^ll

]e\ j*a Jl C>uL_l| jwl

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^ J til| OiJ

os illegible except 1st: J\ os\ ^s.

rs as rs of 663.

Mareschal p. 309 (2 sp.).

Madinat (in 2nd rs) ? - double dinar.

As 665 except rf: nil xc y\

<julu.il j^l ^

B 1398 bis: largely illegible, probably a poor specimen of 665 misread.

Corpus of Coins: Z1YiN1D Gold

189

666. Madinat (in 2nd rs) Tilimsan (3rd and 4th rs) - dinar.

OF <ul V( 4 V RF <il| .us y\^e.

<ul Jy->) a^w <u\ |>^TIl

os o* |X k>

<il o*

RS U ^

B 1398 (pi. xxv): segments largely illegible in piate.

667. Presumably Madinat Tilimsan - dinar. Plate IV

OF I****"- Cf) RF <U| jus ^l ^

ll^ Jl .ja* OuL.ll jy\

os illegible.

rs illegible except 4th, which ends in <ul.

BN II1013 (pi. xn): 4th line of rf -w Ul ^l (engraving error).

668. Madinat (in 2nd os) Tilimsan (3rd os) - half dinar.

OF Vl Jl V RF till aji

os as rs of 663 and 665.

RS Uj

<"l o** O*

Mareschal p. 308 (4 sp.).

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad V ibn-Muhammad

a.H. 866-873 a.D. 1462-1468

669. Madinat (in 2nd os) Tilimsan (3rd and 4th os) - half dinar. Attribution tentative.

of Vl i V RF -Us y\

OS ii OC. >_>

oL. lr

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RS <U|

r~Jl - o*J\

BN II 1015 (pi. xm): margins interchanged (error), mint largely illegible, ascribed to

Muhammad VI or VII.

190 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

abu-Tdshfin 'Abd-al-Rahmdn IV ibn-Muhammad V

a.H. 873-873 a.D. 1468-1468

No coins reported.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad VI ibn-Muhammad V

a.H. 873-910 a.D. 1468-1505

No coins reported.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad VII ibn-Muhammad VI

a.H. 910-922 a.d. 1505-1516

vassal of Ferdinand II of Aragon after a.h. 918 (a.d. 1512).

No coins reported.

abu-Ziydn Ahmad II ibn-Muhammad VI

vassal of Salim I (Ottoman)

a.H. 922-922, 923-924 a.D.1516-1516, 1517-1518

(opposed 923-924 by Miisa III).

No coins reported.

abu-Hammu Musd III ibn-Muhammad V

vassal of Charles I of Spain

a.h. 922-934 a.d. 1516-1528.

(opposed 923-924 by Ahmad II).

No coins reported.

abu-Muhammad 'Abd-Allah II ibn-Muhammad V

a.h 934-947 a.d. 1528-1540

vassal of Sulayman I (Ottoman)

a.H 934-942 a.D.1528-1535

Struck in the name of the Ottoman sultan

Sulayman I ibn-Salim I

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a.H. 926-974 a.D. 1520-1566

670. Madinat (in 2nd rs) (mint in 3rd rs illegible, presumably Tilimsan) - double dinar.

OF Ji\ -us y\ RF p*-J\ J\ Ull ~J

Corpus of Coins: Ziyan1d Gold

os apparently as os of 655.

rs iiue J

<ul [l^j*.] (mint)

BN II 987: segments partly illegible, j,\ for ^1 in 4th line of rf (error), ascribed to

Sulayman the Marinid. L:Khedivial p. 329: segments partly illegible, ascribed to Sulayman

the Marinid. Ascribed by Prieto (p. 86) to an unidentified vassal of the Ziyanids.

vassal of Charles I of Spain

a.H. 942-947 a.D. 1535-1540

No coins reported.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad VIII ibn-'Abd-Allah II

a.h 947-949. 949-950 a.d. 1540-1543, 1543-1543

vassal of Sulayman I (Ottoman)

a.h. 947-949 a.d.1540-1543

Struck in the name of the Ottoman sultan

Sulayman I ibn-Salim I

a.H. 926-974 a.D. 1520-1566

671. Madinat (in 2nd rs) Tilimsan (3rd rs) - double dinar. Plate IV

of oil .us y\ y> rf as rf of 670.

oil JU> jI

<**>j oil J I

os as os of 655.

rs as rs of 670.

BN II 986 (pi. xn): for ^1 in 4th line of of and of rf (disproved by piate), ascribed

to Sulayman the Marinid. Ascribed by Prieto as 670.

vassal of Charles I of Spain

a.H. 949-950 a.D. 1543-1543

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No coins reported.

abu-Ziydn Ahmad III ibn-'Abd-Allah II

vassal of Sulayman I (Ottoman)

a.H. 949-949. 950-957 a.d. 1543-1543. 1543-1550

No coins reported.

192

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

abu-Muhammad Hasan ibn-'Abd-Allah II

a.h. 957-964 a.D. 1550-1556

672. Madinat (in 2nd RS) Tilimsan (3rd and 4th rs) - half dinar.

of as of of 669. rf -u**j, l

Cr~

os as rs of 669.

rs as os of 669.

Moyse 3: ^l for y\ in top line of rf (misprint ?).

No coins are known to have been struck by local Arab and Berber rulers, while coins

struck by the Ottoman sultans and their local Turkish allies, and those struck by Spanish

and Portuguese rulers, are excluded from this corpus.

Mar1n1d Gold

struck in North Africa

by the Zanatah Berber rulers of Morocco,

the Banu-Marin

in Naskhi or ornamented Kufi script.

The Marinids from time to time controlled areas of varying extent in Spain, but no

coins with Spanish mints are reported for this dynasty.

abu-Muhammad 'Abd-al-Haqq I ibn-Mahyu

a.H. 592-614 a.D. 1196-1217

No coins reported.

abu-Sa'id 'Uthmdn I ibn-'Abd-al-Haqq I

a.H. 614-638 a.D. 1217-1240

No coins reported.

abu-Ma'ruf Muhammad I ibn-'Abd-al-Haqq I

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a.h. 638-642 a.D. 1240-1244

No coins reported.

abu-Yahyd Abu-Bakr ibn-'Abd-al-Haqq I

a.H. 642-656 a.d. 1244-1258

Anonymous gold (Hafaid style) presumably struck by this ruler and his successor

under nominal Hafsid suzerainty, chiefly before the conquest of Marrakush in a.h. 668

(a.D. 1269). Mint names appear beneath of unless otherwise specified.

Corpus of Coins: Mar1n1d Gold 193

673. Tunis ? - dinar.

OF Vl 4)l V rf *u d1ll

-Ujw .oil 01 -ui-lj

<ul J<u j^Jlj

OS -Use* kox- Jc <ul J ^Jl J*J\ <ul p->

llj x, j*i\ jcj

RS ^ Vl jvJl Lj

F :Hafsites 66. This mint seems improbable, historically, although Farrugia affirms its cor-

rectness by letter.

674. Sabtah ? - double dinar.

of .oil olj)l RF <u j3l

.oil fyTolJill <ul s^illj

OS JU*. l'-U- Jc<Jll jTj)1 <ul

y> VunV juIjJI^Ij

rs J>\J\j ylk)1j ^VljJjVl^

H6st:F and N 1 (pi. xxxm): no mint given, piate seems to indicate this mint, without

Madinat.

675. Madinat Sabtah - double dinar.

As 674.

P 34c (pi. 1v). D:Garrta 6657. B *347 (p1. xxiv).

676. Madinat Sabtah - dinar.

As 673 except 2nd os: jusk Jc <ul

P 38c: ^Ul for in 1st rs (error).

677. Madinat Sabtah - dinar.

As 676 except rf: <a jJ.\

<u dil1j

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P 38d: jJd\ for j^s\ in 1st rs (error).

678. Sijilmasah - double dinar. Plate IV

As 674.

P 34d. BM V 215 (pi. v), 216 (2 sp.). BN II 1019, 1020 (2 sp.): probably this coin with os

misread. Soret:F 135. Weyl:G 1215. S:Karabaczek 924. B 1349, 1352-1355 (pi. xx1v:

1352-1355; coin illustrated under no. 1349 in pi. xxm is H 10) (5 sp.).

679. Sijilmasah - double dinar: ornamented Kufi script. Plate IV

of as rf of 673. RF <u UiJl

13

i94

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

OS l'-u~ <ul J- J\ JrJ\ <il ^

a\Jj~jJuxa <al Vl <I| V ju*

RS alj <)l

B 1356 (pi. xx1v), 1357 (pi. xx1n, under no. 1381; coin illustrated under no. 1357 in pi. xx1v

is 680), 1380 (pi. xx1n): description inaccurate (3 sp.).

680. Sijilmasah - dinar: ornamented Kiifi script.

of as rf of 673. RF <u

tul Vl Sy

OS pa-J\ ^J\ <a\

rs as rs of 679.

B 1380 bis (pi. xx1v, under no. 1357; coin illustrated under no. 1380 bis is 691): description

inaccurate.

681. Sijilmasah - dinar.

As 677, but with j shifted from 3rd to start of 4th os.

P 38e: for in 1st rs (error), os as 677 (error ?). BM X p. 30, no. 224a.

Sijilmasah (in an os) - dinar.

OF and RF (identical) <ul Vl <ll V

<fll Jy-j JUaw

41* "ill jjiVj J^V

os starts: (mint) j yjo

rs Oi\ iy j*

rij* Cf*J

B 1371: description uncertain. This coin must be rejected, or possibly classed with the

hybrid gold.

682. Fas - double dinar.

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As 674.

ANS. P 34b. BM V 217, 218 (2 sp.). BN II 1023. H6st: and N 2 (pi. xxxm): apparently

this mint. Soret:.F 135 note. Lavoix:ff p. 273 (pi. cxc1, no. 6): slightly misread. B 1341,1342,

1342 bis (pi. xx1v, under no. 1358, 1359; coins illustrated under no. 1341, 1342 in pi. xxm

are 721) (3 sp.). Thorbum.

683. Madinat (b rf) Fas (b of) - double dinar.

As 674,

KM II 868.

684. Fas - double dinar.

As 674 except rf: <u

til jjd)|

-U.l Vl iy V

BM V 221.

Corpus of Coins: Mar1n1d Gold 195

685. Fas - double dinar.

of as of of 674. rf as rf of 684.

os as os of 681.

rs as rs of 673.

P 35: ^Ul for ^aJl in 1st rs (error).

686. Fas - double dinar: ornamented Kflfi script.

As 679.

B 1379 (pi. xx1n).

687. Fas - dinar.

As 676.

P38b: ^Ul for _raJl in 1st rs (error). BN II 1024: j shifted from 3rd to start of 4th rs

(error ?).

688. Fas - half dinar.

of as of of 673. rf jT^Jl

ulI J*

OS <UI ^. ...

- jT^1 - r)

RS oil j^,

B 1376 (pi. xx1v): description inaccurate, piate partly illegible.

689. Marrakush - double dinar struck presumably in, or shortly after, a.h. 668.

As 674.

P 34e. BM V 219. B 1348: description incomplete.

Madinat Marrakush (in os) - dinar.

of uoJ.I rf

os (mint) j [ ? ]

RS oil j*\

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B 1368, 1369 (2 sp.): description incompiete. This coin and its mint must be considered

dubious.

690. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 674.

P 34a. BM V 220. BN II1030,1031 (2 sp.). D.Garcia 6658: description uncertain. Fraehn:iV

p. 88, no. 4. Sotheby 395. S:Karabaczek 923: description incompiete. S.Gotha 995 (pi. xn).

0 2119-2121 (3 sp.). F:Hafsites 67, 68 (2 sp.). B 1298 (pi. xx1), 1299 ? (pi. xx1): both

ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz with mint given as Madinat Marrakush (disproved by piate),

segments largely illegible; 1360 (3 sp. ?).

13*

196

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

691. (no mint) - double dinar: ornamented Kufi script.

OF <ul <I V RF

<ul J JJ JUPt*

<o dill

os as os of 681 plus cL>) at end of 3rd.

rs dill .a- ^i)l iljLr

P 37 (pi. v). B 1381 (pi. xx1v, under no. 1380 bis; coin illustrated under no. 1381 in pi. xxm

is 679): os uncertain.

691a. (no mint) - double dinar?

As 679, but without at start of 2nd line of of.

Tychsen, O. p. 127: rs misread.

692. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 679 except Rs, in which ju is shifted from 3rd to end of 2nd s.

P 36. BM V 222 (pi. v).

693. (no mint) - double dinar: ornamented Kufi script.

As 679.

P 36 note: rs as rs of 692 (error ?). BN II 1028, 1029 (2 sp.): description of rs uncertain.

B 1383 (pi. xx1v; coin illustrated under no. 1383 in pi. xxm is half of 694 and half of 698):

description inaccurate.

694. (no mint) - dinar: ornamented Kufi script.

As 680.

B 1384 (pi. xxm, under no. 1382 top half and no. 1383 top half): description inaccurate,

for jSSJlj in 2nd line of rf (error).

695. (no mint) - dinar. Plate IV

P 38a (pi. v): jJd\ for in 1st rs (error). BM V 224. L:Khedivial p. 330. F.Hafsites 69.

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B 1373 (pi. xx1v, under no. 1372 and 1373) (2 sp. illustrated, though only 1 recorded).

696. (no mint) - dinar.

As 681.

BM X p. 30, no. 224b.

697. (no mint) - dinar.

of as of of 673. rf as rf of 684.

os as rs of 679.

rs as RS of 673, but with ul shifted from 2nd to start of 3rd s.

P 39: for j^rJl in 1st rs (error). BM X p. 30, no. 224c: <ul for <u in top line of rf (mis-

print). B 1372 (coin illustrated under no. 1372 in pi. xx1v is 695).

698. (no mint) - dinar: ornamented Kufi script.

of as of of 673. rf oi-l

As 676.

cnlUl

Corpus of Coins: Mar1nid Gold 197

OS p*J\ j*J\ oil jv-J

JUJM Oll

RS Ol tiil li> Ol Vl OjLli U,

LX Lie

B 1382 (pi. xxm, under no. 1382 bottom half and no. 1383 bottom half).

699. (no mint) - dinar.

OF Jiiy Uj RF ^,j *u\

Segments illegible.

BM X p. 32, no. 224g: for <y in 2nd line of rf (error, corrected by John Walker).

TOO. (no mint) - half dinar. Plate IV

As 688.

P 40 (pi. v). BN II 1036-1038 (3 sp.). L:Khedivial p. 330.

701. (no mint) - half dinar.

of as of of 673. rf Jf yJl

oil

til SjJl

OS ^ Uj

rs as rs of 688.

P 41: for Uj in 1st os (misprint). BN II 1035.

702. (no mint) - half dinar.

of as of of 673. rf L_,

oil ^

OS <ul pf*J\ <ul

RS Oll O* -r*

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P 42. BN II 1034 (pi. xm).

703. (no mint) - half dinar.

of as of of 673. rf as rf of 702.

OS <uI J*, ^Jl j* J\ oil

<0l ^Jcj .Use

rs as rs of 688.

BM X p. 32, no. 224p (pi. xxm), 224q (2 sp.). Dorn II p. 66, no. 2 (pi. 1): os misread, partly

illegible. B 1374 (pi. xx1v): diameter of quarter dinar, os uncertain. Fasmer I p. 212 suggests

that these coins are specimens of 702 misread; the piate in Brethes disproves this.

198 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

704. (no mint) - half dinar: ornamented Kiifi script.

OF c>\ RF ilTjt,

os <u j&d1

rs as rs of 688.

BN II 1039: os not described. B 1385: diameter of quarter dinar, division into lines and

segments not indicated.

705. (no mint) - half dinar with diameter of quarter dinar.

OF RF &j

No segments.

B 1375: division into lines and segments not indicated.

706. (no mint) - quarter dinar. Plate IV

OF <llI RF

No segments.

HSA13174. P43 (pi. v). BN II 1041: diameter of eighth dinar. Conde (pi. nl, no. 9). S:Gotha

996. 0 2130: rf read differently (error ?, impression furnished by Galster appears to be

this coin). F:Hafsites 70. B 1377 (coin illustrated under no. 1377 in pi. xx1v is 708).

707. (no mint) - quarter dinar.

OF <lll, RF 111

No segments.

B 1378.

708. (no mint) - quarter dinar.

OF <llI RF <lll

No segments.

B 1378 bis (pi. xx1v, under no. 1377).

709. (no mint) - quarter dinar with diameter of eighth dinar.

OF RF <1l1.

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No segments.

P 44. BN II 1040.

710. (no mint) - quarter dinar.

OF 11I Jc RF jZij

y^

No segments.

F :Ha/sites 72 (8 sp.).

Corpus of Coins: Mar1n1d Gold

199

711. (no mint) - eighth dinar.

of as OF of 710. RF

No segments.

F :Ha/sites 73 (45 sp.).

712. (no mint) - eighth dinar.

OF oil RF as RF of 710.

No segments.

F:Ha/sites 71.

abii-Hafs 'Umar ibn-Abi-Bakr

a.H. 656-658 a.D. 1258-1259

(opposed 656-658 by Ya'qiib).

No coins reported.

abu-Yusuf Ya'qiib ibn-'Abd-al-Haqq I

a.H. 656-685 a.D. 1258-1286

(opposed 656-658 by TJmar).

See also anonymous gold (Hafsid style) listed under Abu-Bakr 673-712 but struck

presumably by both rulers, chiefly before a.h. 668.

713. (no mint) - double dinar.

OF j*^1 (j*"J1 |*->. RF J*^j O^SJ\ jy\

Jc till J*, <fl J.Jl

oilVUlV jlljj^l

OS V <)I ^Ij

- r^J1 c^J( > "

rs as rs of 674.

B 1274 (pi. xx), 1274 bis, 1274 ter (3 sp.): *u\, for <u in 2nd line of rf (disproved by piate).

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714. (no mint) - dinar. Plate V

of as of of 713, but without 5th line. rf t>OJI jy\

.oil j^c jl1 Jo

os as rs of 679.

rs <u <JiJIj <u dill

P 67 (pi. v1n). Fasmer reads <u for <ul in 4th rs.

200

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

abu-Ya'qiib Yiisuf ibn-Ya'qiib

a.H. 685-706 a.D. 1286-1307

Anonymous gold struck presumably by this ruler.

715. Sabtah (b of) - double dinar.

OF as of of 713. rf <u dill

os as rs of 674.

rs as rs of 679.

P45d, and note: _^LJl for _raJl in 4th line of rf (error), description incompiete. BM V 204:

<ul for )1 in 2nd rs (engraving error). BN II 1018. KM II 866. B 1366: <ul for 4)l in 2nd rs

(engraving error); 1366 bis (pi. xxm: both) (2 sp.).

715a. Hadrat Sabtah (b of) - double dinar.

As 715.

S :Karabaczek 925: Jmisread as ^ y

716. Madinat Sabtah (6 of) - double dinar.

As 715.

P45e, and note: for in 4th line of rf (error), description incompiete. BM V

201-203 (3 Sp.). KM II 865 (pi. v): slight engraving errors. D.Garcia 6647: description

inadequate. Weyl:G 1214.

717. Sijilmasah (b of) - double dinar.

of as of of 713 and 715, plus rf as rf of 715.

4))lj at end of 2nd line.

os <ll V juIj 4)l SJb

rs as rs of 674 and os of 715.

P 45c (pi. v): jUl for j^.M in 4th line of rf, os as rs of 679 and 715 (both disproved by

piate). D.Garcia 6646: description inaccurate.

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718. Sijilmasah (b of) - double dinar.

As 717 but with Jo of J>1i\} shifted from 3rd to start of 4th rs, and with 4))l shifted

from 2nd to start of 3rd os.

BM V 196.

719. Fas (b of) - double dinar.

As 717.

P 4sb: for in 4th line of rf, os as rs of 679 and 715 (both errors). BM V 199: *i\

shifted from 2nd to start of 3rd os (error).

720. Fas (b of) - double dinar.

As 715 but with margins interchanged.

BN II 1022.

Corpus of Coins: Mar1n1d Gold

201

721. Fas (b of) - double dinar.

As 720 but with V shifted from 3rd to end of 2nd os.

BM V 197,198 (2 sp.). B 1367 (pi. xxn1, under no. 1341 and 1342) (2 sp. illustrated, though

only 1 recorded).

722. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 715.

P 45a, and note: _^U| for ^aJl in 4th line of rf (error), description incompiete. BM

V 204a.

723. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 715 but with ^ of JbU\j shifted from 2nd to start of 3rd os, and V from 3rd to

end of 2nd RS.

BN II 1027.

724. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 721.

Anderson.

725. (no mint) - double dinar. Plate V

As 717 but with )l shifted from 2nd to end of 1st os.

P 45a: for in 4th line of rf (error), os as rs of 679 and 715 (error ?). BM V

200 (pi. v).

(no mint) - double dinar.

As 725 except 5th line of of: <ul *yfo\

B 1361: 3rd and 4th lines of rf not described. This coin is probably a poor specimen of 725

misread.

abu-Thdbit 'Amir ibn-'Abd-Allah

a.H. 706-708 a.D. 1307-1308

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No coins reported.

abiiH-RabV Sulaymdn ibn-'Abd-Allah

a.H. 708-710 a.D. 1308-1310

No coins reported. Coins frequently ascribed to this ruler are listed under the later Ziyanid

rulers: 670, 671.

abu-Sa'id 'Uthman II ibn-Ya'qub

a.h. 710-731 a.d. 1310-1331

(opposed 714-731 by 'Umar).

726. Madinat (in 1st rs) Azammiir (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

of p*J\ j-J\ <u\ rf <ul (mint)

<Mj JUst. <U| <U| JUS y\

<u jusJl oUic 4-* ^l

<ul Vl )l V uuUl j?\

Oil J_JJ JUha s**} l

202

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

P 70c. BM X p. 13, no. 165f: Jui-lj for in 3rd line of of.

727. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sabtah (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 726.

P 70b (pi. vm). B 1282: description incompiete.

728. Madinat (in 1st line of rf) Sijilmasah (in 2nd line of rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 726. rf i, js_

os as rs of 679 and 728.

rs (mint) ojic v

[<f] JLr <u\ [I4-.

P 73. BM X p. 14, no. 165h: rs partly illegible, juIIj for 4Jl in 3rd line of of (error ?).

730. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 729 except os, as os of 726 and rs of 674.

P 72.

731. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 730 except 2nd line of Rf: J.JiilJ\ Jr.l, and rs:

(mint) iiac ja

P 74 (pi. vm): rs given as rs of 729 (corrected from piate, partly by Fasmer I p. 215), mint

illegible on piate.

732. Madinat (in-1st rs) Sijilmasah (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 726 except os, as rs of 679 and 728.

P 71b. BM X p. 14, no. 165g (pi. xx1): 1st rs not described (legible on piate), Jui-l) for -ui-l in

3rd line of of (disproved by piate). S:White 2189.

733. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 726, but with rs shifted clockwise 90 degrees.

B 1275 (pi. xx): description inaccurate, reconstructed from piate.

729.

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Cf- (mint)

OS and rs (identical) as rs of 679.

P 68. BN II 988 (pi. xn).

Madinat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (2nd rs) - double dinar.

of as of of 726. rf

Corpus of Coins: Marinid Gold

203

734. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (2nd rs) - dinar.

OF Vl <)l V

RF

<U JuiI

os as rs of 697.

rs as rs of 731.

B 1277 (pi. xx): m only, reconstructed from piate, 4th rs partly illegible.

735. Mad1nat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 728 except rf: (mint) oos ^>>

oil ju j*\ jc.

BM Xp. 15, no. 165k: jJ-Ijfor-ull in 3rd line of of (error ?).

736. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

Plate V

As 735 except os, as rs of 674 and os of 726.

HSA 10623. P 69 (pi. vm). BM X p. 15, no. 165m (pi. xx1): juilj for jJ-\ in 3rd line of of

(disproved by piate). BN II 989 (pi. xn). Spink (1902) 79556.

737. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 735 except rs, as rs of 674 and os of 726.

B 1279 (pi. xx): description incompiete, reconstructed from piate.

738. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

P 71a. BM X p. 14, no. 165i: .d-lj for -ull in 3rd line of of (error ?), 1st rs not described

(correct reading given by John Walker).

739. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 726.

P 70a. BM X p. 15, no. 165I: -ull} for jJI in 3rd line of of (error ?). BN II 990 (pi. xn).

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Dombay p. 789: os not described, divisions not indicated. B 1276 (pi. xx): reconstructed

from piate.

740. Madinat (in 1st os and 1st rs) Fas (in 1st line of of and of rf) - double dinar.

Both sides as reverse of 739, presumably by an error in striking.

BM X p. 15, no. 165n.

741. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

OF as of 726, but without ill} at end of RF as rf of 726 except 5th line:

2nd line. <ul vj

os as rs of 674 and os of 726.

B 1280 (pi. xx): ascribed to date of death, description incompiete, reconstructed from piate.

As 732.

204

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

742. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 2nd rs) - dinar.

of as of of 734. rf <ul jl

os as rs of 697 and os of 734.

rs 1^1 (mint) iijc, y ja

^ if ^

BM X p. 16, no. 165X (pi. xx1): rs partly illegible. Dombay p. 788: o:. added to 3rd rs

(error ?), divisions not indicated. B 1328: JUr for y\ in 4th rs (error ?), ascribed to 'Uth-

man III.

743. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 2nd rs) - dinar.

of as of of 734. rf as rf of 742 plus y\ at start of top line,

os as rs of 697 and os of 734.

RS j- (mint) oe. ^ja

(jc <aI W-

P 76: Vl at end of 1st os (error ?). BN II 991: Vl at end of 1st os (error ?). Demaeght v. X,

p. 232 (fig.): 4th rs illegible. B 1278 (pi. xx): m only, reconstructed from piate.

744. Madinat (in 1st rs) Marrakush (2nd rs) - dinar.

of as of of 734. rf <tl x

a j^ij <1l1

os as rs of 697 and os of 734.

rs (mint) iioc

y\ oil Vul

P 75. BM X p. 16, no. 165y: mint uncertain.

Madinat Marrakush (in r ?) - half dinar.

of as of of 673. rf not described.

OS <ul xc y> Vl l*j

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r&1 - j.jJ1

rs not described.

B 1281: division into lines and segments not indicated; as no reason is given for the ascription

to 'Uthman II, this coin must be tentatively rejected.

745. (mint ?) - half dinar.

OF Vl 4)1 V RF <ul wLc

-Uaw Oil -JL^. y \

Segments illegible.

B 1273 (pi. xx): description inaccurate, ascribed to 'Uthman I, 1329: 'Uthman omitted

(error ?), ascribed to 'Uthman III (2 sp. ?).

Corpus of Coins: Mar1n1d Gold

205

abu-'All 'Umar ibn-'Uthmdn II

amir at Sijilmasah

a.h. 714-733 a.d. 1315-1333

(opposed 714-731 by 'Uthman II

and 731-733 by 'Ali).

No coins reported.

abuH-Hasan 'All ibn-'Uthman II

a.h. 731-752 a.d. 1331-1351

(opposed 731-733 by 'Umar

and 749-752 by Faris).

First series: anonymous

746. Madinat (in 1st os) Azammur (2nd os, spelt Azamwar) - dinar.

of ul Vl <ll V RF 411 aJ-l

OS (mint) i<_Jir ja

JU" 41il

RS aJj <Il J^llj

- rrJ\ crJ\ - * J| V

P 52. BM X p. 31, no. 224c!.

747. Madinat (in 1st os) Azammur (2nd os, spelt al-Zamwar) - dinar. Plate V*

of as of of 746. rf *x*} u -ull

<ul Vl <ll V

os as os of 746.

rs as rs of 746.

P 54: of divided differently (error ?). BM X p. 32, no. 224f (pi. xm, under no. 224e).

748. Madinat (in 1st os) Azammur (2nd os, spelt al-Zamwar) - dinar.

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As 747 except of: <ul V| <lJ | V

<ul Jyj J^ca

<fll H\ iy V

P 53. BM X p. 31, no. 224e (coin illustrated under no. 224e in pi. xxm is 747): <ul for a

in 1st line of rf (disproved by piate).

* Mistakenly numbered as 746 on plate.

206

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

749. (no mint) - double dinar.

OF ^Jl jr J\ <ul RF HI <illll

<ul Vl a)l V <a SjJlj

<U| Jj-j JUaw <U jd)lj

OS ^Ulj jUi)lj >Vlj JjVl >

rs as rs of 746.

P 47 (pi. v1).

Second series: anonymous with Nasrid inscription

Struck probably before the defeat at Tarifa in a.h. 740 (a.d. 1340).

750. Madfnat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (2nd rs) - double dinar.

OF ~*J\ J\ <U| p-j RF <U

a^t-. <ul <a illj

<ul Vl <ll V u^LJlj

41llJ^-jO*^ OllVl_JlfiVj

os as rs of 746.

rs as os of 746.

P 48 note: description incompiete, termed hybrid. BM V 210. Moyse p. 501.

751. Mad1nat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 750 except of: ^Jl j*-J\ <ul ^

Juska Jc <U|

jj-lj

Oil Vl <lt V

Oil Jy~J ~UXJ>

BM V 209.

752. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (2nd rs) - double dinar.

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of as of of 749. rf as rf of 750.

os as rs of 746.

rs as os of 746.

P 48c. Moyse p. 500.

753. Fas (b rf) - double dinar. Plate V

As 752 except rs, as os of 749.

P 48a. BM V 205-207 (pi. v: 205) (3 sp.): os wrongly reported.

754. Mad1nat (in 1st rs) Fas (2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 752 except rs:

Corpus of Coins: Mar1n1d Gold 207

(mint) ooc ^

V-*1j Jur <u1 U

P 48b (pi. v1). BM V 208.

755. Fas (b rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 749. rf <11 ju!I

<ul Vl Jlc V

os as rs of 746.

rs as os of 749.

P 46 (pi. v).

756. Fas (b of) - dinar.

OF J\ <UI RF Oil Jai\L\

<U1 Vl <)l V 01I Vl V

J^JJIJ J>l

oil 0\J>\ <ul jjli)l p-'

OS -

(JO^ <lll j

RS

P 50b: jwLJl for in 1st os (error). B 1358, 1359 (coins illustrated under no. 1358 and

1359 in pi. xx1v are 682) (2 sp.). This coin may be 756a misread.

756a. Fas (b of) - dinar.

As 756 but with .oil shifted from 3rd to end of 2nd OS.

0 2126: misread, rs illegible. B 1343, 1344 (pi. xxm: both) (2 sp.): description inaccurate,

reconstructed from piate.

757. (no mint) - dinar.

As 756.

P 50a (pi. v1): _^Ul for j-aJl in 1st os (error). BM X p. 29, no. 223d (pi. xxm). B 1363:

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description inaccurate.

758. (no mint) - half dinar with diameter of dinar.

of as of of 756. RF <ul ialil

ul Vl Jlc V

OS J*** ilJju. <ul ^* |*^-JI D*"-"" oil

<UI Jymj J~*A <UI Vl <) V

rs as os of 756.

P 51: ^Ul for in 1st rs (error). BM X p. 30, no. 223c

208

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Third series: anonymous with Ziyanid inscription

ill rj I*

Struck presumably after the conquest of Tilimsan in a.h. 737 (a.d. 1337).

759.

Hadrat Bijayah (b of) - double dinar struck in a.h. 748 or 749.

of <fll julyl RF <u

rs as os of 749.

F.Hafsites 63: * before mint. B 1340 (pi. xxm): description incompiete, mint given as

Mansuriyah (error), apparently this mint, piate largely illegible.

760. Madinat Tilimsan (b of) - double dinar struck between a.h. 737 and 749. Plate V

As 759.

HSA 13180: .. before mint.

761. Tunis (b of) - double dinar struck in a.h. 748 or 749.

As 759.

L :Calvert 52.

762. Hadrat Tunis (6 rf) - double dinar struck in a.h. 748 or 749.

As 759.

F.Hafsites 64, 65 (2 sp.): j before mint.

763. Jaza'ir (b rf) - double dinar struck between a.h. 748 and 750.

As 759.

B 1345.

764. Sijilmasah (b of) - double dinar.

B 1350, 1351 (2 sp.) (pi. xxm: 1351, obverse only, reproduced twice; coin illustrated under

no. 1350 is hybrid, not described): description inaccurate.

765. Sijilmasah (b of and in 4th rs) - double dinar.

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As 759 except 3rd and 4th rs:

(mint). y> -r>^J^j*J

P 49d. BN II 1021: <u ^Vlj instead of <ul fyllj in 5th line of rf (error ?).

766. Sijilmasah (in 4th rs) - double dinar.

As 765 but with <u for ul in 5th line of rf.

P 49c (pi. v1). BM V 214. KM II 867.

767. Mad1nat Fas (b of) - double dinar.

ANS. P 49b. BM V 211-213 (3 sp.): 5th line of of misread. BN II1025,1026 (2 sp.): <u _^V| j

for 41il jjiJlj in 5th line of rf (error ?). Sotheby 395.

As 759.

As 759.

Corpus of Coins: MarIn1d Gold

209

768. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 759.

P 49a. BM V 213a: 5th line of of misread. B 1362: 4th line of rf misread.

abu-'Indn Fdris ibn-'Ali

a.h. 749-759 a.d. 1348-1358

(opposed 749-752 by 'AH).

First series: Mar1nid style

769. Bijayah (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar struck after a.h. 753.

of as of of 749. rf (mint)

Oil JU y,\

os as rs of 746.

rs as os of 749.

P 77f: rf incorrectly divided. B 1287, 1288 (pi. xx1) (2 sp.): description incompiete, re-

constructed from piate.

770. Madinat (in 1st line of rf) Tilimsan (in 2nd line of rf) - double dinar struck after

conquest in a.h. 753.

of as of of 751. rf iioe. v>

y\ (mint)

os as rs of 746 and os of 769.

rs as os of 749 and rs of 769.

P 77d and note. BM V 187. Spink (1901) 68388: m only. S:White 2192. B 1294 (pi. xxi):

description inaccurate.

771. Sijilmasah (in 1st and 2nd lines of rf, divided i- / UU-.) - double dinar.

As 770, without Mad1nat in 1st line of rf.

P 77c and note. BN II1003. B 1290 (pi. xx1; coin illustrated under no. 1290 in pi. xx is 776):

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description inaccurate.

772. Mad1nat (in 1st line of rf) Sijilmasah (in 2nd line of rf) - double dinar.

As 769 except rf: o ot y

Cf (mint)

ul ox ^.1

t>jlU)l v_,j

P77b: rf incorrectly divided. BM V186. BNII 1oo4: without *l\jin 2nd line of of (error?)

Demaeght v. VII, p. 134 (fig.).

14

210

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

773. Madinat (in 1st line of rf) Sijilmasah (in 2nd line of rf) - double dinar.

As 772 except os, identical with RS.

B 1291 (pi. xx1): description incorrect.

774. Madinat (in 1st line of rf) Fas (in 2nd line of Rf) - double dinar.

As 770.

P 77a and note. BN II 1007, 1008 (2 sp.). Spink (1902) 79561.

775. Madinat (in 1st line of rf) Fas (in 2nd line of rf) - double dinar. Plate V

As 770 except of, as of of 749 and 769.

P 77a (pi. vn1). BM V 183-185 (pi. 1v: 184) (3 sp.). Soret:F 136 (pi. n): ^Ul for ouUl

in 5th line of rf (engraving error), ascription by Fraehn. Demaeght v. VII, p. 133 (fig.).

Rivero:M 144 (pi. m). B 1289 (pi. xx1, under left no. 1289; coin illustrated under right

no. 1289 is 783): description inaccurate.

776. Mad1nat (in 1st line of rf) Marrakush (in 2nd line of Rf) - double dinar.

As 775.

P 77e: Madinat omitted (error ?). B 1292 (pi. xx, under no. 1290; coin illustrated under

no. 1292 in pi. xx1 is 785): description incomplete, reconstructed from piate.

777. Marrakush (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 769 except rf: (mint) , ^ja

<Jll JLC jA f

i>ljll j*\ ^jli

JO*

Demaeght v. VII, p. 135 (fig.).

Second series: Hafsid style

778. Madinat (in 1st rs) Bijayah (2nd rs) - double dinar struck after a.h. 753. Plate V

OF <Jll H\ <)1 V RF jS"jdl <UI -LP

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<ul J_j-> JUjc ^.jli <lll U

os as rs of 746 and os of 769.

rs as os of 746.

P 79d. BM V 193 (pi. iv): jS^JLlj for in 3rd line of of (disproved by piate).

This misreading is common to all published descriptions of all coins in this series.

779. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (2nd RS) - double dinar.

As 778.

P 79c. BM V 191. BN II 1005, 1006 (2 sp.). Thorburn: mint uncertain.

780. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (2nd rs) - dinar.

of Vl 4)1V RF o->

ul <]yi

os as rs of 746 and os of 769.

rs as os of 746 and rs of 778.

P80.

Corpus of Coins: Mar1n1d Gold

211

781. Mad1nat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (2nd rs) - dinar.

As 780 except os:

jX; L.J al j*ai

P 80 note. BM X p. 24, no. 193k (pi. xxn), 193I (2 sp.).

782. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (2nd rs) - double dinar.

of as of of 778.

rf as rf of 778.

os as os of 759.

rs as rs of 754.

BM V 190. BN II1009. Dombay p. 790: ^jli omitted (error ?), slightly misread, division

into lines and segments not indicated.

783. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 782 except os, as os of 749 and rs of 769.

B 1286 (pi. xx1, under right no. 1289): description incompiete, reconstructed from piate.

784. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 778.

P 79a. BM V 189.

785. Madinat (in 1st rs) Marrakush (2nd rs) - double dinar.

P 79b (pi. 1x). BM V 192. S.Gotha 994. B (pi. xx1, under no. 1292): not described, recon-

structed from piate.

786. Mad1nat (in 1st rs) Marrakush (2nd rs) - dinar.

Apparently as 780.

B 1293 (pi. xx1): description inaccurate, segments largely illegible in piate.

(no mint) - half dinar?

of as of of 780. rf k V^l

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No segments.

Dombay p. 791: division into lines not indicated; must be tentatively rejected because of

improbable reverse inscription.

As 778.

abu-Ziyan Muhammad ibn-Fdris

pretender

a.h. 759-759

a.D. 1358-1358

No coins reported.

14*

212 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

abil-'Abd-Allah Muhammad II ibn-Faris

a.H. 759-760 a.D. 1358-1359

787. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 2nd rs) - double dinar. Attribution tentative.

of U^** ^ J rf <ul juc _^.| ^

U <ul iS'l. <ul Jc jT^il

Jcj kVy _^ juijl cillll

jTyJA ill JU Oil JL ^il

os <al i> ^j)| c^J^<ul ri

[|Ju]_j <l| JU3b< t.U-

rs I*-j (mint) iiac. _>

o Jur <ul

P 88: for ^l in 4th line of rf (error), ascribed to Muhammad IV. BM X p. 19, no. I71t

(pi. xxn): a.l for ^l in 4th line of rf (error), 5th line of of partly illegible, ascribed to al-

Rashid ibn-al-Sa'Id.

abu-Salim Ibrahim ibn-'Ali

a.H. 760-762 a.D. 1359-1361

788. Madinat (in 1st rs) ? (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar. Plate V

OF --J\ J\ <ul p-i RF J>f j.\ (mint)

V <ul ijr*. [t>_]*^Jl <ul

Vj y*) cJS'y OuLil jv* l

J1 j&J <ul **l

OS J~Xa l'-u- <ul

- M" - l>-> <]

B 1295 (pi. xx1): description incompiete, reconstructed from piate, 3rd and 4th os and 2nd

and 3rd lines of rf largely illegible, mint given as Madinat Fas (error), wrongly ascribed.

abu-'Umar Tashfin ibn-'Ali

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a.H. 762-763 a.d. 1361-1361

No coins reported.

abu-Muhammad 'Abd-al-Halim ibn-'Umar

a.h. 763-764 a.d. 1361-1362

(opposed 763-764 by Muhammad III).

No coins reported.

Corpus of Coins: Mar1n1d Gold

213

abu-Ziyan Muhammad III ibn-Ya'qub

a.H. 763-767 a.D. 1361-1366

(opposed 763-764 by 'Abd-al-Halim and 764-765 by 'Abd-al-Mu'min).

789. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sala (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

OF jil." L.j dLS rf ul x& y\

dUc ly^ui ^m3 <ul JJ^ll

OS -U Jc <U| J\ {jTJ\ ~J

rs as rs of 787.

P 87 (pi. 1x): for lin 2nd line of of (disproved by piate), ascribed to Muhammad

IV. BM X p. 17, no. 169p (pi. xxn).

790. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

of <iLi ja -X U ul rf as rf of 789.

ljt**" "J

OS -Usm <ul ^Jl <ul *-4

dl) ^iiJ L-. US dl L*i tl

rs as rs of 787 and 789.

B 1307, 1308 (pi. xxn: both) (2 sp.): piate partly illegible, ascribed to Muhammad IV.

791. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 790, but with 1^l for \*~j in 2nd rs.

B 1309 (pi. xxn): plate largely illegible, ascribed to Muhammad IV.

792. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas ? (in 2nd rs) - dinar. Attribution tentative.

of Vl aJl V RF ul Jls. j.\

-Uaw <ul <ul Jc J^jJl

Segments illegible except for mint in rs preceded by j j*.

B 1310 (pi. xxn: piate largely illegible, ascribed to Muhammad IV.

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abu-Malik 'Abd-al-Mu'min ibn-'Umar

am1r at Sijilmasah

a.H. 764-765 a.D. 1362-1363

(opposed 764-765 by Muhammad III).

793. Madinat Sijilmasah (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar. Plate V

of as of of 749. rf (mint) oac ^j

jy\ <li\ JUC j\ C

L l i>>l_,l|

214

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

os as rs of 746.

RS legible but unintelligible.

P 81: ^1 for y \ in 5th line of rf (error). BM X p. 27, no. 193ee (pi. xxn).

abu-Fdris 'Abd-al-'Aziz I ibn-'Ali

a.H. 768-774 a.D. 1366-1372

794. Madinat Tilimsan (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar struck after conquest in a.h. 7;

of as of of 749. RF (mint) iiuc. ._,

j*\ <UI JLC y\ f

VjJl JU cftJuJil

tfJlil J\ 1&JI i>J

os as rs of 746.

rs as os of 749.

P 82b. BM V 168. B 1304 (pi. xx1).

795. Mad1nat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 794.

P 82a. BM V 167 (pi. 1v, r only): for <ll in 2nd os (engraving error). S:White 2190: 4)

for <!l in 2nd os. B 1304 bis.

796. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 794, but with a) shifted from 4th to end of 3rd line of rf.

BN II 993. Spink (1902) 79557.

abii-Ziydn Muhammad IV ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz I

a.H. 774-776 a.D. 1372-1374

797. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 794 except rf: (mint) toe

s*\ <uI O-C j*\

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j^uj .Oil

P 86. BM V 170. BN II 998. Metropolitan 103204.

798. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 797, but with V shifted from 3rd to end of 2nd os.

BM V 171 (pi. 1v).

799. Madinat (in 1st line of rf) Fas (in 2nd line of rf) - dinar.

OF <U-ul-l RF OJC.Uji

Vl <JI V j,\ (mint)

-Was* Oil o^m JuC

Corpus of Coins: Mar1n1d Gold 215

os as rs of 746.

RS illlxc^Vl L.J

- r&>\ - j-jJl

P 89. BM X p. 18, no. 171f (pi. xxn).

abiVl-'Abbds Ahmad tbn-Ibrahim

a.H. 775-786, 789-796 a.D. 1373-1384. 1387-1393

(opposed 776-784 by 'Abd-al-Rahman).

First series: without am1r al-muslimfn

800. Madinat (in 1st line of rf) Azammur (in 2nd line of rf, spelt al-Zamwar) - dinar.

OF <u Jul-l RF 4i Jie

VlaIlV ^ (mint)

Oil <ll| JUC

<ul J>-j <til -^J ar l

OS Jb-lj <)l I^Jlj

f^)l * Vl 4)l ^

RS L* ^ ^aJl Ly

P 99. BM X p. 21, no. 181f.

801. Madinat (in 1st line of rf) Fas (in 2nd line of rf) - dinar.

OF <i -ui-l RF <iJU: wlJ*

Vl <)l V, y\ 1* (mint)

a.*, <ul juH <ul a-c

os as os of 800.

RS Oll Xc ^ Vl j^\\*)

- ,Xil - j->Jl

P 100: OF as oF of 800 (error ?). BM X p. 21, no. 181g.

802. Marrakush (in 1st rs) - double dinar.

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OF f~J\ jrJ\ <ul f-* RF <u dill

ju** Jc <ul

jj-lj "Oil Vl <l| V

<ul V| <ll V ul J>-> -u*.

<Ul J^-j <u <lf _^V|

os as os of 800.

rs <ul jA f (mint) v>

P96.

2l6

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

803. Madinat (in 2nd rs) ?(3rd rs) - half dinar.

of Vl <ll V RF

v cf

Jjr\ <il1

OS ll {j jA,

rlJ1

RS

<ul (mint)

P 103. BM X p. 23, no. 181p: mint illegible.

804. (no mint) - half dinar.

Both sides as obverse of 803, presumably by an error in striking.

BM X p. 23, no. 181s, 181t (2 sp.).

805. (no mint ?) - half dinar.

of as OF of 803. RF [ ? ] url

os as os of 803.

rs illegible.

BM X p. 23, no. 181q.

Second series: without amir al-muslimin, with Nasrid inscription

806. Sijilmasah (in 1st and 2nd rs, divided i- / U*-) - double dinar.

j^i:T,nll

OF

RF

*u <JuJl J

os as os of 800.

RS (mint, continued) (mint) j ^

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HSA 13176.

807. Marrakush (in 1st rs) - double dinar.

As 802 except rf: <u dill

.Ul all) J

Corpus of Coins: Mar1nid Gold

217

808. Marrakush (4th rs) - double dinar.

of as of of 802. RF as rf of 807 except 1st line: <u

os ^Ulj j>M} >Vlj JjVI y

r*c

RS j.fl:T ll l"V_y. y*1

(mint) jlH <uli

B 1316: description uncertain, division into lines and segments not indicated.

809. (no mint) - double dinar.

As 806 except rs:

ml -LC

Moysep. 503.

Third series: with am1r al-muslimin

A double dinar is ascribed to this ruler with date 788, and is said to be of the type of BM V 68

(a Murabit dinar dated 539) by the following: S:Judice III 6950; Spink 33305. As the re-

ference is wrong and the date extremely unlikely, this coin must be tentatively rejected.

810. Madinat Azammur (in 1st line of rf, spelt Azamwar) - double dinar.

of as of of 802. rf (mint) i^oc. ja

"Oil JuC y>\

t>Ju!l jy\ jjt\

0_JJL\J\ Ulll a\

os V Jb-lj *i\ foj

RS j*Mj > Vlj JjVl j*

P 94c: segments incorrectly divided, Madinat omitted (error). BM V 178. B 1314 (pi. xxn):

description incompiete, piate partly illegible.

811. Madinat (in 2nd rs) Azammur (3rd rs) - double dinar.

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of as of of 802. rf <ul w /I j

tOil Oi I

os as os of 800.

rs as rs of 803.

P 95 note. BM V 172 (pi. 1v): <ul for <u in 3rd line of of (engraving error).

812. Madinat (in 1st rs) Azammur (2nd rs, spelt al-Zammur) - double dinar.

As 811 except rs:

(mint) t jut,

, JL" <ul j

BM V 173.

218

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

813. Madinat (in 1st rs) Azammur (2nd Rs, spelt al-Zamwar) - double dinar.

As 812, but with V shifted from 3rd to end of 2nd os.

BM V 177.

814. Madinat (in 1st rs) Azammur (2nd Rs, spelt al-Zamwar) - double dinar.

As 812.

P 95 note (pi. x). BM V 174 (pi. Iv, r only), 175 (2 sp.). BN II 999.

815. Madinat (in 1st rs) Azammur (2nd rs, spelt Azamwar) - double dinar.

As 811 except rs:

(mint) iiac j^o

816. Madinat (in 1st rs), Azammur (2nd RS, spelt Azamwar) - double dinar.

As 815 except 5th line of rf: JL; <jil

P 95 note. BM V 176.

817. Madinat (in 2nd rs) Azammur (3rd Rs, spelt Azammu) - dinar.

os as os of 800.

rs as rs of 803.

P 101: ) omitted from 2nd line of of (error ?). BM X p. 20, no. 181d: l*j* for U-in

4th rs (engraving error). S:White 2191 (pi. 1): description incompiete, piate obscure.

Sotheby 393: m only. Thorburn: engraving errors.

818. Madinat (in 1st rs) Tatwan (2nd rs) - double dinar.

Presumably as 812.

B 1315: description incompiete, spelling of mint not given.

819. Madinat Sabtah (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 802. rf as rf of 810 except 5th line: j*>) <u|

os as os of 808.

rs as os of 800.

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B 1312: description of of uncertain, division into lines and segments not indicated.

820. Madinat Sabtah (in rs) - dinar.

OF <ul Vl ill V RF juc j>\ ^6

P95.

of as of of 801.

KF

Jjr\ <u|

Qui Jil sa\

j^i) Oll

os as os of 803.

rs illegible except mint.

B 1313 (pi. xxn): piate partly illegible.

Corpus of Coins: Marin1d Gold

219

821. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 819 except rs:

^ - crJ\ yv1

BN II1000: rs as os of 800 (error ?). Rivero:^4 p. 13, no. 1 (pi. v): os obscure in piate.

822. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 821, but with of ^Ulj shifted from 2nd to start of 3rd os.

HSA 13179. P 93 (pi. 1x): segments incorrectly divided (corrected from piate by Fasmer I

p. 215).

823. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 810 except 2nd line of of: o^u Jc <ul

BM V 179 (pi. 1v, r only). BM X p. 20, no. 176a: description inadequate, corrected by John

Walker. S.Gotha 993.

824. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 823, but without j at start rf as rf of 810.

of 3rd line,

os as os of 800.

rs as os of 808.

Demaeght v. VII, p. 238.

825. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 802. rf (mint) I^js. o

<Ul o-c y\

J Ui1

os as os of 800.

rs as os of 808.

HSA 13177. P 94a: rf as rf of 810 (error). BM V 180. BN II 1001. B 1311 (pi. xxn):

coin.

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description incompiete, reconstructed from partly illegible piate. Thorburn: apparently this

826. Madinat Fas ? (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

As 825 except os, as os of 810.

Metropolitan 103203: mint uncertain.

827. Madinat Fas ? (in 1st rs) - double dinar.

of as of of 806. rf <ul ju> y\ jc

ail j*&A\

Oulill j<a\

.oil

OS It)lj JjVl y>

r> & ./,

RS <)l j (mint) &oe. y

j^J1 o*-J\ * ^ <" V

BN II 992 (pi. xn): mint uncertain, os incorrectly divided, rf misread.

220

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

828. Fas (in 2nd rs) - dinar.

OF ji>-j ui -ui-l rf <ul juc j\ ^

<ut Vl )l V <il ^ull

Ol| Jjust* OuLll ^l

os as os of 800.

rs (mint) j

<S|

P 98. BM X p. 22, no. 181k: * omitted from 2nd rs (engraving error).

829. Marrakush (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 823. rf as rf of 810, without Madinat in 1st line,

os as os of 808.

rs as os of 800.

P 94b: of as of of 802 (error ?). BM V 181: termed barbarous.

Fourth series: with am1r al-muslimm and Nasrid inscription

830. Madinat (in 2nd rs) Marrakush (3rd RS) - dinar.

OF Vl a)l V RF iul xj> j*\ tf.

.X^-a Oil j^t\\\\

<ul J JJt\ <il

<ul Vl V OUJl jml

os as os of 800.

rs as rs of 803.

P 102. BM X p. 22, no. 181i.

abu-Zayd 'Abd-al-Rahmdn ibn-'Ali

sayyid at Marrakush

a.h. 776-784 a.d. 1374-1382

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(opposed 776-784 by Ahmad).

831. Marrakush (in 4th rs) - double dinar. Plate V

OF rf Jfy Jj <ul

ul <Ul a;Icl tj.l

jt\ ^Jli <U| Ol <S tj^i)

OS Jc <ul ^Jl tf-J\ <a\ ~i

(mint) jLJI< ul ol <ul Jl

P 90 (pi. 1x): tfc, for cc. in 5th line of rf (misprint).

Corpus of Coins: Marin1d Gold

221

832. Marrakush (4th rs) - dinar.

of <ut< Vl RF juJl

?' <ul ^c

OS jtij ml y j*.

RS illegible except for mint.

P 91: all but 4th os illegible. BN II 1002 (pi. xn): 3rd os not described, rs misread, mint

uncertain. B 1317, 1318 (pi. xxn: both) (2 sp.): rs misread, mint uncertain.

abu-Faris Musd ibn-Fdris

a.H. 786-788 a.d. 1384-1386

833. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar. Plate VI

of as of of 802. RF (mint) iiuc, o^

Oil jl j\

os as os of 800.

rs as os of 808.

P 105. BM V 182 (pi. 1v): ^.y misread as J*-l (?). B 1322 (coin illustrated under no.

1322 in pi. xxn is 646).

834. Madinat (in 2nd rs) Fas (3rd rs) - dinar.

OF Vl <ll V RF xo yljo

<U jui-l nil J5"

os as os of 800 and 833.

RS <L-LC V

<ul 1^l (mint)

B 1324 (pi. xxn): f or OvLll 2nd line of rf (disproved by piate), oF and rs uncertain.

abu-Ziydn Muhammad V ibn-Ahmad

a.H. 788-788 a.D. 1386-1386

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835. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

of not described. rf (mint) oacu^

Ol| -Utf y\ ^

Owlll JUmh

axilJ\ Ui.l a

os not described.

rs as os of 808.

B 1325: division into lines and segments not indicated. Seaby G993: mint and ruler only.

222

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

abu-Ziydn Muhammad VI ibn-Muhammad

a.H. 788-789 a.D. 1386-1387

No coins reported.

abil-Fdris 'Abd-al-'AzTz II ibn-Ahmad

a.H. 796-799 a.D. 1393-1396

First series: Marinid style

836. Madinat Fas (in 1st line of rf) - double dinar.

of as of of 802. rf (mint) iioc ja

<1ll J-C y\

oil ,,'l.tl

0)_l y jJI j-e

^^'j JLr <ul

os as os of 808.

rs as os of 800.

P 83: ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I.

837. Madinat (in 1st rs) Marrakush (2nd rs) - double dinar.

of as of of 823. rf hi dill

<u H1 J

<ul Vl <)l Vj

os as os of 808 and 836.

RS (mint) oor v_ija

B 1296 (coin illustrated under no. 1296 in pi. xx1 is 845): ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I,

division into lines and segments not indicated, -uJI for kVy. in 3rd rs (error ?).

838. Madinat (in 1st rs) Marrakush (in 2nd rs) - double dinar. Plate VI

of as of of 823 and 837. rf <u dill

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<u jui-l

tii SjJlj

<u jCjlj

os as os of 800 and rs of 836.

rs (mint) toe oja

P 84: ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I. BM V 166 (pi. 1v): ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I. B 1297

(pi. xx1): description inaccurate ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I.

Corpus of Coins: MarIn1d Gold 223

839. Madinat (in 1st line of rf) Marrakush (2nd line of rf) - double dinar.

of probably as of of 802 and 836. rf y

(mint)

(JCa_)ll jv>\

os as os of 800 and rs of 836.

rs as os of 808 and 836.

B 1305: ascribed to 'Abd-al-'AzIz I, of uncertain, division into lines and segments not

indicated.

Second series: Hafsid style

840. Madinat (in 1st rs) Azammiir (in 2nd Rs, spelt al-Zammur) - double dinar.

OF <U aX\ RF <ul juc

Ml iy JljJl JUS

OS liJU~ Jc <U| J*, (^-Jl U*"Jl |*H

rs l^-._^>. (mint) <iac ._>^i

y>l cc. JL"

BM X p. 33, no. 226b (pi. xxm): j omitted from 2nd and 3rd lines of of (disproved by piate).

841. Madinat (in 1st rs) Azammiir (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 840 except 3rd and 4th os:

I. L.r |L-j j <I| j*pla

P 106b: for in 4th os (misprint ?).

842. Madinat (in 1st rs) Azammiir (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 841, but without ) on 2nd and 3rd lines of of.

B 1301 (pi. xx1, under no. 1300): segments partly illegible, ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I.

843. Madinat Sijilmasah (in rs) - dinar.

of <u| Vl <ll V rf as rf of 840.

<U| Jy~J 0*SC,>

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<U ui-lj

Segments illegible except mint.

B 1301 bis: division into lines and segments not indicated, ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I.

844. Sijilmasah (b of) - half dinar.

of - Vl i\ V rf as rf of 840.

<ttl (J J JUsm

No segments, as field inscriptions fill coin.

B 1303 (pi. xx1): description inaccurate, reconstructed from partly illegible piate, ascribed

to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I.

224 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

845. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 2nd rs) - double dinar. Plate VI

As 841.

P 106a (pi. x): for in 4th os (misprint ?, obscure in piate). B 1300 (pi. xxi,

under no. 1296; coin illustrated under no. 1300 is 842): os uncertain, ascribed to 'Abd-al-

'Aziz I.

846. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (2nd rs) - double dinar.

OF as of of 840, but without j at start rf as rf of 840.

of 2nd line.

OS ju Jc .oil J*, j* J\ ul

rs (mint) ii. oc ^

y\ tf. cc **ll l*-^

BN II 994: ascribed to 'Abd-al-'AzIz I.

847. Mad1nat (in 1st rs) [Fas] (2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 846, but without j on 3rd line of of.

BM V 226: segments largely illegible, including mint.

848. Mad1nat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 2nd rs) - dinar.

of VI 4)I V rf as rf of 840.

-u%* oil

.till Jj-j

OS Jc ul j*j\ .oil ^

RS U-j*- (mint) oot. ^

yl sfi <u:. <ul

P107. BN II995,996 (2 sp.): ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I, -u** added to 2nd rs (misprint ?).

849. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 2nd RS) - dinar.

As 848 except 3rd and 4th os:

BM V 225.

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850. Madinat (in 1st rs) Marrakush (2nd rs) - dinar.

of as of of 848. rf j>\ f

os y VI j^ci\ Uj

pXU j.jJI

RS (mint) iioc ja

JL <u\

P 85: ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I. B 1297 bis: description uncertain, ascribed to 'Abd-al-

'Aziz I.

Corpus of Coins: Marinid Gold

225

851. Madinat (in 1st rs) Marrakush (2nd rs) - dinar.

As 850 except os, as RS of 800.

B 1302 (pi. xx1): ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I.

852. (mint ?) - dinar. Plate VI

Apparently as 850.

BN II 997 (pi. xn): ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I, segments largely illegible. Weyl:G 1230:

description incomplete.

853. (mint ?) - half dinar. Plate VI

of as of of 848. RF j_jJI juc

<ul *JuJ

Segments illegible.

BM V 169 (pi. 1v): ascribed to 'Abd-al-'Aziz I, traces of mint b rf.

(mint ?) - half dinar.

of as of of 848. RF O-c

oil

os as os of 848.

rs illegible.

B 1306: division into lines not indicated. Inscription is so improbable that this coin must be

tentatively rejected.

854. (no mint) - dinar.

of as of of 848. rf j._j)I jus

<UI .Jul

os xc ^ [VI] Uj]

^1 J,jJI <ul

RS <ol[?] [?]^l

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<Jll Jil

KM II 864: segments partly illegible.

abu-'Amir 'Abd-AUah ibn-Ahmad

a.H. 799-8oo a.D. 1396-1398

Hafsid style

855. Madinat (in 1st rs) Azammur (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

of as of of 842. RF <uI jue

OS Jc *u\ j*J\ tiiI pi

LlJ |Juj <)I -Use* INJU-

RS as rs of 840.

P 11Oc.

15

226

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

856. Madinat (in 1st rs) Azammiir (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 855, but with l~ of shifted from 2nd to start of 3rd rs, and JLr from 3rd to

start of 4th rs.

BM X p. 25, no. 193V: segments partly illegible.

857. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 855.

P nob.

858. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 2nd rs) - double dinar. Plate VI

As 855 except of, as of of 840.

BM X p. 25, no. 193t (pi. xxn): as 855 (disproved by piate). B 1283 (pi. xx): segments

obscure, mint illegible in piate, wrongly ascribed.

859. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 855.

P 110a (pi. x).

abu-SaHd 'Uthmdn III ibn-Ahmad

a.h. 8oo-823 a D- 1398-1420

Hafsid style

860. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sabtah (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

of as of of 842. rf Ji\ *

<il t|

os as os of 855.

rs as rs of 840.

HSA 9173: segments partly illegible. P 109: os incorrectly divided. BM X p. 26, no. 193cC

(pi. xxn): rs partly illegible.

861. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

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of as of of 840. rf oL^ <a\ xo

<ul a>J

OS L'aju. <al ^Jl jrJ\ <u| ^1

rs as rs of 840 and 860.

P 108b (pi. x). B 1272 (pi. xx): description uncertain, piate largely illegible, ascribed to

'Uthman I.

862. Madinat (in 1st rs) Sijilmasah (in 2nd rs) - double dinar: modified Kuf1 script.

As 861.

B 1271 (pi. xx): description uncertain, piate largely illegible, ascribed to 'Uthman I, o and r

illustrated belong to different specimens.

863. Madinat (in 1st RS) Sijilmasah (2nd rs) - double dinar.

of as of of 842 and 860. rf as rf of 861.

os as os of 861.

Corpus of Coins: Mar1n1d Gold

227

rs as rs of 846.

BM X p. 26, no. 193aa, 193DD: termed barbarous (2 sp.).

864. Mad1nat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 861.

P 108a. B 1284 (pi. xx): description inaccurate and uncertain, piate partly illegible, wrongly

ascribed.

865. Madinat (in 1st rs) Fas (in 2nd rs) - double dinar. Plate VI

As 861 except os:

BN II 984 (pi. xn), 985 (2 sp.): ascribed to 'Uthman I.

866. Madinat (in 1st rs) Marrakush (in 2nd rs) - double dinar.

As 861.

P 108c.

867. (no mint) - half dinar.

of as of of 848. rf oL*>

Oil aJkl

os and rs (identical):

_ <ir -

Soret:B 1n: ascribed to 'Uthman II.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad VII ibn-'Abd-Allah

a.h. 823-830 a.d. 1420-1427

(opposed 823-830 by 'Abd-al-Haqq II).

No coins reported.

abu-Muhammad 'Abd-al-Haqq II ibn-'Uthmdn II

a.H. 823-869 a.D. 1420-1465

(opposed 823-830 by Muhammad VII).

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No gold reported.

ir,*

228 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Nasrid Gold

struck in North Africa

by the Banii-Nasr

of Granada (Gharnatah)

in Naskhi script.

The Nasrids controlled Sabtah from a.h. 705 to 709 and from 786 to 789.

abii-'Abd-Allah Muhammad I ibn-Yusuf

a.h. 629-671 a.d. 1232-1273

This ruler struck no coins in Africa. The only coin struck by him which falls within

the scope of this survey is one bearing the name of his Hafsid suzerain before he declared

his independence in a.h. 647, and it is therefore listed with Hafsid coins: 556.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad III ibn-Muhammad II

a.H. 701-708 a.d. 1302-1309

No African gold reported.

abuH-Juyush Nar ibn-Muhammad II

A.H. 708-713 a.D. 1309-1314

No African gold reported.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad V ibn-Yusuf I

a.h. 755^760, 763-793 a.D. 1354-1359. 1362-1391

Struck between a.h. 786 and 789.

868. Madinat (in 2nd os) Sabtah (3rd os) - double dinar. Plate VI

of a4)l !i RF <al jue jJi\

lJjjwl lJUSt* till

os cji,

<u\ (mint)

rs ulVl JfcVj <ulVljliV,

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<ul JtVj ^lVlJtV,

P.Granadina p. 8 (pi. i).

Corpus of Coins: Wattas1d Gold

Wattasid Gold

struck in North Africa

by the Zanatah Berber rulers of Morocco,

the Banu-Wattas

in Naskhi script.

abii-Zakariya' Yahyd I ibn-Ziydn

regent for 'Abd-al-Haqq II (Marinid)

a.H. 823-852 a.d. 1420-1448

No coins reported.

abuH-Hasan 'Ali I ibn-Yusuf

regent for 'Abd-al-Haqq II (Marinid)

a.H. 852-863 a.d. 1448-1458

No coins reported.

abu-Zakariya' Yahyd II ibn-Yahyd I

regent for 'Abd-al-Haqq II (Marinid)

a.H. 863-863 a.D. 1458-1459

No coins reported.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad I ibn-Yahyd I

a.H. 869-91o a.D. 1465-1504

869. Madinat (in 1st rs) Azammur (2nd rs) - dinar. Attribution tentative.

OF illegible. rf oil -lc

os illegible.

rs (mint) <,_.ac jU,

_y\ <UI U-^

B 1387 (pi. xxv: r only): piate largely illegible.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad II ibn-Muhammad I

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a.H. 910-932 a.d. 1504-1525

Fas (position on coin not indicated) - (denomination not indicated).

Not described.

Spink 33306: m only. This unsupported ascription cannot be considered probable.

230 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

870. (mint ?) - dinar. Attribution tentative. Plate VI

OF u JuL\ RF

Margins illegible.

BM X p. 28, no. 193ft (pi. xx1n): <ul for <u in 1st line of of (misprint).

abuH-Hasan 'Ali II ibn-Muhammad I

a.h. 932-932, 961~961 aD- 1525-1526, 1554-1554

No gold reported.

abitH-'Abbas Ahmad ibn-Muhammad II

a.h. 932-952, 956-957 a.d. 1526-1545, 1549-1550

Madinat Azammur (position on coin not indicated) - (denomination not indicated).

Not described.

Spink 33307: m only. This unsupported ascription cannot be considered probable.

abii-'Abd-Allah Muhammad III ibn-Ahmad

a.h. 952-956 a.d. 1545-1549

No coins reported.

Coins struck by the Sharifian rivals and successors of the Wattasids, and those struck

by Spanish and Portuguese rulers, are excluded from this corpus.

Ottoman Gold

struck in North Africa before the Ottoman conquest

in the name of the Turkish sultans,

the Banu-Uthman

of Istanbul (al-Qustant1nah).

Ottoman coins in general fall outside the scope of this corpus. The only exceptions to

this rule are two gold coins struck in the name of the Ottoman sultan by the later Ziyanid

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rulers, which are therefore listed under the latter dynasty: 670, 671.

Corpus of Coins: Hybr1d Gold

231

Hybrid Gold

in which an obverse and a reverse not intended for use together are accidentally or fraudul-

ently combined.

Muwahhid style

H1. Obverse of 750; reverse of 500.

V 2068: ascribed to Ya'qub. P recognized as hybrid.

H2. Obverse of 750; reverse of 502.

MA 671: ascribed to Ya'qub.

H3. Obverse like 506, but with iiiil for UiI in 3rd os; reverse of 522. Plate VI

V 2074: Ull for aiill in 3rd os (error), ascribed to Muhammad. P recognized as hybrid.

BM V 104 (pi. n). BN II 730, 731 (2 sp.). KM II 697 (pi. 1v). D.Lorichs 4722. L:Muwahhids

p. 161, no. 2 (pi. v1): 3rd rs misread, corrected from piate. Cimino p. 220 (fig. 30, top).

H4. Obverse like 506, but with ocUil for Ull in 3rd os; reverse of 522.

BM V 105: termed barbarous. L:Muwahhids p. 160, no. 1.

H5. Obverse like 508; reverse like 522.

MA 679: rs illegible, os legible through y_.

Hafsid style

H6. Obverse of 589; reverse of 564 but in Naskhi script.

BN II 945. Lavoix:H p. 264: description incompiete.

H7. Obverse like 546; reverse as 590 with mint Qusantinah.

F:Hafsites 22 (pi. n): os illegible. Farrugia states by letter that this is not a hybrid.

H8. Obverse like 546; reverse of 640.

BN II 973: segments largely illegible, y\ for ^1 in 3rd line of rf (error ?).

Marinid style

H9. As 674 except of, which is identical with rf.

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P 34 note. BM V 223. Weyl:G 1213.

H1o. of as of of 751. rf as rf of 806 except 1st line: <u d!lI.

os and rs (identical) as RS of 750 but with 1^1 for in 3rd segment.

B 1370 (pi. xxin, under no. 1349): partly illegible.

H11. of as of of 751. rf as rf of 759. Plate VI

os as os of 746 with mint Sijilmasah.

rs as rs of 765.

B (pi. xx1n, under no. 1350): not described.

H12. Obverse of 768; reverse of 771.

P 78. BM V 188: 5th line of rf misread.

H13. Obverse like 828; reverse of 800.

P 99 note: termed hybrid. BM X p. 20, no. 181e (pi. xxn). Thorburn.

H14. Obverse of 799; reverse like 828.

BM X p. 21, no. 181h.

BN II 1017 (pi. xm) and 1121 are contemporary imitations or counterfeits. Similar

specimens are found in the HSA collection: 10621, 13206. Plate VI

232

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Gold Medal

The only gold medal known appertaining to these dynasties was struck by the

Muwahhid khalifah

abu-Hafs 'Umar ibn-Ishdq

a H. 646-665 a.d. 1248-1266

M1. (no mint) - twenty-one dinar weight (49.4 grams); 65 millimeters in diameter,

1 millimeter thick. Plate II

OF ^~J\ tf-J\ <ul ^ RF Vi\ -Ul ^Ji^ll

jj-l fUl luil

<ul Vl <ll V Oj.J"Vl a**- cnUjll

OS uj^ll ^.l .jaY <ul ^jll fl*Vl Siiil

<jCiii.l Lj-U- J1 |*-*l/.l ^l _/Ua)l jv>l \ liJU- jyj

RS y^U. yl ^UVl Uiil

B 1158 (piate on cover, title page, and half-title page for chapter vm).

SILVER AND ELECTRUM

'Abbasid S1lver

struck in North Africa after a.h. 439 (a.d. 1047)

in the name of the Sunnite khalifahs,

the Banu'l-'Abbas

of Baghdad.

As the 'Abbasids exercised no direct control over North Africa during this period, all

silver bearing their name was actually struck by Hudid rulers, and is therefore listed under

the latter dynasty.

Fat1m1d S1lver

struck in North Africa after a.h 439 (a.d. 1047)

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in the name of the Sh1'it e imams,

the Banu-Fatimah

of Cairo (al-Qahirah).

None reported.

Corpus of Coins: Hammud1d S1lver 233

Z1rid S1lver

struck in North Africa after a.h. 439 (a.d. 1047)

by the Sanhajah Berber rulers of Tunisia,

the Banu-Ziri

in Kufi script.

abii-Tamim al-Mu'izz ibn-Badis

a.H. 406-454 a.D. IoI6-I062

Sunnite series:

Struck anonymously by al-Mu'izz between a.h. 441 and 449 after his repudiation of

Fatimid suzerainty.

871. (mint ?) - (date ?) - half dirhem.

of (as of of 3) rf (as rf of 3)

Margins illegible.

F.Fatimites 172 (pi. 1v): of illegible in piate.

No silver is reported for other Zirid rulers or rebels.

Hammad1d Silver

struck in North Africa after a.h. 439 (a.d. 1047)

by the Sanhajah Berber rulers of eastern Algeria,

the Banu-Hammad.

None reported.

Hammud1d S1lver

struck in North Africa after a.h. 439 (a.d. 1047)

in the name of

the Banii-Hammud

of Malaga (Malaqah)

or of their Barghawatah Berber governors

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in Kufi script.

These rulers and their virtually independent governors controlled Sabtah and the

surrounding territory until the Murabit conquest in a.H. 476.

234

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

litis II ibn-Yahyd I

a.h. 434-446 a.d. 1043-1055

(opposed 438-444 by Muhammad I,

444-445 by Idris III,

and 445-446 by al-Qasim II).

With heir

Muhammad ibn-Idns II

a.H. 439-446 a.D. Io47-I055

872. Sabtah - (4)39 - dirhem.

OF Vl i\ V RF

.J dkj. V ul jul

om (date) (mint) j li* o*\ ->

rm Jc ,_^kJ jll oc'J <al Jj-j

P:/?eyes 94a: JJl for JUl in 3rd line of rf (error), base silver.

873. Madinat Sabtah - (4)40 ? - dirhem.

As 872.

V 834 (AV): date and mint uncertain. P.Reyes 94b: date incompiete, base silver.

874. Madinat Sabtah - (44)1 - dirhem. Plate VII

As 872.

V 835 (Cabre). C:Estudio p. 462, no. 1 (pi. n). P.Reyes 94c (pi. 1v): base silver.

874a. Madinat Sabtah - 441 - dirhem.

As 872 but without -u** in 1st and 5th lines of rf.

S:Judice II 3081.

875. Madinat Sabtah - (44)2 - dirhem.

As 872 except rm, which ends at jil, and 1st line of rf: J).

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V 836 (FC): date uncertain. Guillen p. 421 (pi. H, no. 16): mint illegible in piate, copper

(error for base silver ?). P.Reyes 95a: JJl for JUl in 3rd line of rf, base silver.

876. Sabtah - (44)3 - dirhem.

As 875.

P.Reyes 95b: base silver.

877. Madinat Sabtah - (44)4 - dirhem.

As 875.

V 837 (AH). C:Estudio p. 462, no. 2 (pi. n). P.Reyes 95c: base silver.

878. Madinat Sabtah - (44)6 ? - dirhem.

As 875.

V 838 (PG): date uncertain, rejected by Rivero:M p. 104.

Corpus of Coins: Hammud1d S1lver

235

879. Madinat Sabtah - (44)x - dirhem.

As 875.

V 839 (PG, AV). P.Reyes 95d: base silver.

No silver with North African mint is reported for other late Hammudid rulers.

Saqaut ibn-Muhammad

governor at Sabtah

a.h. 453-471 a.d. 1061-1078

With heir

al-'Izz ibn-Saqaut

a.h. 453-471 a.D. 1061-1078

880. Madinat Sabtah - (45)5 ? - dirhem.

of RF

Vl <l| V fUVl

Si\ 41ll Juti

om as om of 872.

rm as rm of 872, but ending with jkJ.

V 874 (AV). Rivero:M p. 104 says this coin does not exist.

881. Madinat Sabtah - (45)6 ? - dirhem.

As 880.

V 875 (AV): date uncertain. Rivero:M p. 104 says this coin does not exist.

882. Madinat Sabtah - (4)62 ? - dirhem.

As 880.

V 876 (AV): date uncertain. Rivero:M p. 104 says this coin does not exist. See also copper:

1157.

883. Madinat Sabtah - (4)64 - dirhem. Plate VII

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As 880.

HSA 14217: date uncertain, base silver. V 877 (FC, AV 3 sp.). P.Reyes 126a (pi. v): base

silver. See also copper: 1158.

884. Madinat Sabtah - (4)65 - dirhem.

As 880.

V 878 (PG 2 sp., AV 2 sp.). P.Reyes 126b: base silver. See also copper: 1159.

885. Madinat Sabtah - (4)66 - dirhem.

As 880.

V 879 (FC ?, AV 3 sp.). P:Reyes 126c: base silver.

Madinat Sabtah - (4)66 - dirhem.

As 880, but with 5th line of rf: <ul Jy*d\, 6th line: y\.

BM IX p. 145, no. I55g: base silver. Probably a poor specimen of 885 misread.

236

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

886. Madinat Sabtah - (4)67 - dirhem.

As 880.

V 880 (PG 2 sp., FC, AV 6 sp.). F.Reyes 126d: base silver. See also copper: 1160.

al-'Izz ibn-Saqaut

governor at Sabtah

a.H. 471-476

a.d. 1078-1083

a.D. 1078-1083

With heir

Saqaut ibn-al-'Izz

a.h. 471-476

887. (no mint) - (no date) - dirhem. Plate VII

OF (in octagon)

om and rm (identical) as rm of 880.

HSA 14218: partly illegible, base silver. V 881 (FC). V.Reyes 127: 1st line of rf partly

illegible, base silver.

rf (in octagon) <)jJl _,U

fUV1"

Oil O-

Murabit Silver and Electrum

struck in North Africa and Spain

by the Lamtunah Berber rulers of

the Murabitun sect

in Kuf1 or Naskh1 script.

Abu-Bakr ibn-'Umar

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a.H. 448-480 a.d. 1056-1087

888. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat. Plate VII

OF ^ Vl <)l V M RF ^.Vl

<1l1

No margins.

V 1443 (PG 2 sp., AV). BN II 513 (pi. n): piate shows traces of margin. MA 486. Rivero:M 98

(pi. n). B 819 (pi. xm): piate shows traces of margin.

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t Silver 237

889. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of ul Vl *i [I V] rf as rf of 888.

41]

No margins.

V 1444: 3rd line of rf largely illegible. MA 487: 3rd line of rf largely illegible. V :Indicaci6n

p. 518 calls this a half qirat struck with the die of a qirat and notes a 4-line of, though

descriptions indicate a 3-line of.

890. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of blank. rf as rf of 888.

No margins.

V 1445 (PG).

Yusuj ibn-Tdshfin

a.H. 480-5oo a.D. 1087-1106

891. Fas (divided u* j li) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 888. rf (mint)

cniL^lr (Jr.

(mint, continued)

No margins.

V 1534. MA 491. D .Garcia 6081. B 855 (pi. xm): mint misread.

892. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 888 and 891. rf jJi\

No margins.

D:Garrta 6082. B 853, 854 (2 sp.).

893. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of oil VI 4)1 V RF as RF of 892.

Oil Jjj -Use*

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No margins.

ANS. V 1538 (AV 3 sp.). Dombay p. 786: division into lines not indicated.

894. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat. Plate VII

of as of of 888 and 891. rf Vl

No margins.

ANS. HSA 13733. V 1535 (PG 14 sp., FC, AV 8 sp.). BN II 546. MA 490 (4 sp.). KM II

572-581 (10 sp.). Cond p. 295: ^L-Vl for in 1st line of rf (error). C:Tratado p. 196, no. 2

(pi. xx): a- b rf. S Judice II3090. 0 2076, 2077 (pi. v1) (2 sp.).

238

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

895. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 889. rf as rf of 894.

No margins.

V 1536 (PG 9 sp., AV). BN II 545. KM II 566-570 (pi. 1n: 566) (5 sp.). Soret:B 109.

896. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 893. rf as rf of 894.

No margins.

V 1537 (AV). KM II 571. Rivero:M 102 (pi. n). Rivero: (pi. 1n, no. 2).

897. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

As 896, but with an illegible word b of, another a rf.

Thorburn.

898. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of blank. RF

No margins.

V 1539 (PG 2 sp.).

899. (no mint) - (no date) - quarter qirat.

OF blank. RF

No margins.

V 1540 (PG).

Spanish mint.

900. Sanh1kah - (no date ?) - qirat.

OF Oviit &\ RF <ul ^

OM (^ojl <L-jl <ul Syi oil Vl *i V

rm (?) iL. (mint) j jJ\ i* <ul

V 1531 (AV): no date, <i- uncertain.

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901. Sanlfikah - (no date) - half qirat.

of as of of 900. RF <-*-f. -rw'^l

om as om of 900.

rm (mint) .. j**jjJI lo* <ul ^

V 1532 (AV).

With heir

'Ali ibn-Yusuf

a.H. 496-5oo a.D. 11o3-1106

902. Mad[inat] ? - (no date) - qirat.

OF Vl<)lV rf

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t S1lver

239

om jil tf*J i^J^i L._>l J^-j

rm as RM of 901.

V 1542: mint uncertain. MA 492: mint uncertain.

902a. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF lil Vl <)l V RF a. -mVl

No margins.

Dombay p. 781: division into lines not indicated.

903. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of ul Vl -Jl V RF as RF of 894.

Ol| JJUst

No margins.

V 1541 (PG 2 sp., AV). C.Tratado p. 197, no. 3 (pi. xx).

Spanish mint.

904. Qurtubah - (no date) - qirat. Plate VII

OF , Vl <ll V ., RF jvVl

(m1nt)

.Vl

No margins.

V 1533 (AV). Rivero:M 103 (pi. n). Rivero: (pi. 1n, no. 3).

a.h. 5oo-537

905. Sabtah - (no date) - qirat.

OF . Vl Jl V

L____Jl

<ul

No margins.

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V 1684 (PG 2 sp., FC, AV). BN II 618. MA 544. D.Garcia 6104: 3-line of (error).

906. Miknasah - (no date) - qirat. Plate VII

of as of of 905. rf J*

Semicircle b rf: (mint). No other margins.

ANS. V 1707. MA 552: semicircle not indicated, mint misspelled. D .Garda 6105: 3-line of,

jji for jjk) in 3rd line of rf (errors). B 889 (pi. x1v, under no. 989): of partly illegible in

piate; 891 (pi. x1v): rf largely illegible in piate (2 sp. ?).

'Ali ibn-Yusnj

a.D. II06-I143

RF OuLil jml

(mint)

240

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

907. Miknasah - (no date) - half qirat.

OF Vl i\ V RF M

(?) 4'fa. >

No om.

rm (mint) j |^jjJl jjb ^ j*> nil

V 1673 (AV): 3rd line of of read a, (?).

908. (no mint ?) - (no date ?) - dirhem.

OF V Jl V RF <U| Jj-j Just*

Margins, if any, illegible.

V 1835: fragment. MA 535: fragment. P:Reyes 444d: base silver, fragments.

909. (no mint ?) - (no date ?) - dirhem.

OF nil Vl a1\ V RF cnJuil

Margins, if any, illegible.

V 1844 (AV).

910. (no mint ?) - (no date ?) - dirhem.

of as of of 909. RF _*.|

a. ^

Margins, if any, illegible.

V 1842 (AV 2 sp.). See also copper: 1168.

911. (mint ?) - (no date) - qirat.

of Vl 4)l V . rf as rf of 910.

[ju* <ul]

No margins.

MA 587: of largely illegible; illegible word (mint ?) b rf.

912. (no mint) - 506 - qirat.

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of as of of 909. RF as rf of 909.

No om.

rm (date) ii- |*j-Jl u* r< J

V 1674 (AV): ^-^Vl (?) for ^>Jl in rm (error).

913. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 888. rf J* ^.Vl

No margins.

V 1697 (AV).

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t S1lver

914. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF <ul Vl <1\ V RF

<ul >_

No margins.

V 1689 (AV).

915. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 914. RF

No margins.

V 1686. MA 529 (1 compiete specimen, 1 fragment).

916. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 914. rf Je jr-Vl

No margins.

V 1688 (AV).

917. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 914. RF Je.

No margins.

V 1687 (PG, AV). MA 530.

918. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of <ul RF J*

Vl Jl V owUl jjA

No m argins.

V 1695. MA 543: u- 6 Rf.

919. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of <ul RF as rf of 909.

<il Jl V

No margins.

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B 887 (pi. x1v): description inaccurate.

920. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of A Vl <ll V RF as rf of 909.

No margins.

Muller p. 59.

10

242 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

921. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 909. RF as rf of 909.

No margins.

V 1694 (AV 2 sp.). D.Garrfa 6113: base silver. 0 2093: description inadequate.

922. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 914. rf ^

No margins.

V 1696 (FC, AV 2 sp.). MA 540 (2 sp.): not noted by Vives. Soret :D 90. 0 2097: description

incompiete. Pederscn 229 (pi. xcvn).

923. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of Vl 4 V rf as rf of 922.

No margins.

V 1699 (AV). MA 539 (3 sp.).

924. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as OF of 914. RF .oil 1^-i

No margins.

V 1700 (PG). L:Khedivial p. 329.

No margins.

V 1704 (AV). MA 546 (2 sp.).

925. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 905. rf <ul o,l

926. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat. Plate VII

OF RF oil

Semicircle a of ul >l <)) I V

No other margins.

ANS: rto left and J to right of Je. in rf. V 1703 (PG, FC, AV 3 sp.). MA 545: semicircle

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not indicated.

Corpus of Coins: Mixrab1t S1lver

243

927. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 923. rf a Jj n

No margins.

V 1701 (PG 10 sp., FC, AV 5 sp.). BM V 49 (pi. i). BN II 621, 622 (2 sp.). MA 548 (7 sp.).

KM II 630, 631 (2 sp.). Conde p. 291: misread. D.Garcia 6106-6108 (5 sp.): description in-

accurate. C:Tratado p. 199, no. 6 (pi. xx). 0 2099: ul above (misprint); impression

furnished by Galster shows J to left and I to right of ^ in rf. B 893 (pi. xiv): description

inaccurate. Pedersen 230, 231 (pi. xcvn) (2 sp.): J to left and I to right of in rf. Figanier

183 (2 sp.). Thorburn: J to left and I to right of ^ in rf.

928. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 905! rf OuLil

(Jr. ^

No margins.

ANS: Sb rf. UM: illegible letter b rf. V 1708 (PG, AV 3 sp.). MA 551 (2 sp.). Conde p. 280

(pi. 1n, no. "): misread, S b rf. Miinter 306: identified by Galster. 0 2095, 2096: ^(read

as i) b rf (2 sp.): description inaccurate. B 886 bis: i_f 6 rf. Thorburn: S^b rf.

929. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 914. rf as rf of 928.

No margins.

B 888 (pi. xrv): b rf, description inaccurate; 892 ? (pi. x1v): description inaccurate,

of illegible in piate (2 sp. ?).

930. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 920. rf

No margins.

V 1709 (AV).

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931. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of Vl *)\ V rf as rf of 928.

Semicircle a of (?) <uI >i,l

Semicircle b of (?) *u\ .ue -u*<

No other margins.

BM X p. 6, no. 47a: description not clear.

10*

244 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

932. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF -Usk RF

<a\ Vl <ll V jp-l

Semicircle a, RF OwLll

No other margins.

V 1702. MA 547 (4 sp.): jl omitted from rf (misprint ?), semicircle not indicated.

933. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF as OF of 918. RF Jc

No margins.

V 1698 (PG 2 sp.). BN II 6ro: iUL. uncertain.

934. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of blank. rf

No margins.

V1690 (PG, AV4sp.).

935. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of ornament. rf <ul

4,l

No marg1ns. tf

V 1705 (Campaner). Not listed in V :Indicacidn.

936. (no mint) - (no date) - quarter qirat.

of blank. rf as rf of 934.

No margins.

V 1691 (FC, AV): rf not described. V Jndicacidn p. 518 terms this a quarter qirat struck

with the die of a half qirat.

937. (no mint) - (no date) - eighth qirat.

of blank. rf Jc

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No margins.

V 1693 (PG, AV). Not listed in Y Jndicacidn.

938. (no mint) - (no date) - eighth qirat.

of ^ rf as rf of 934.

No margins.

V 1692 (PG, AV 5 sp.). MA 531: ^for _in of.

ELECTRUM

939. (no mint) - (no date) - denomination unknown.

of Vl Jl V rf as rf of 909.

No margins.

Corpus of Coins: MttrIb1t S1lver

245

V 1845 (AV 2 sp.). MA 538. D.Garcia 6112. P.Reyes 449. 0 2091: l/a g0l d and 2/3 copper

instead of electrum (according to letter from G. Galster). See also copper: 1169.

Spanish mints.

940. Ishbiliyah - (no date) - qirat.

of ml RF as rf of 907.

isr"-

(mint)

OM <ul J^-ij ju oil Vl <)I V

No RM.

V 1678. MA 549. Rivero: (pi. m, no. 8, not no. 10, as given).

941. Ishbiliyah - (no date) - qirat.

OF as OF of 918. RF oil

<_>ul11

">

Semicircle b OF <)l Jcj ml Cj\^> v

Semicircle a rf

Semicircle b rf (mint)

No other margins.

V 1675 (PG): 4)lj for 4)l Jcj 6 of (error ?). BM V 48. C:Tratado p. 199, no. 7 (pi. xx).

942. Ishbiliyah - (no date) - qirat.

of , Vl <)I V RF as rf of 941.

<uI oI jL

Semicircle b of *l-u

Semicircle a rf uui-j

Semicircle b RF (mint)

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No other margins.

V 1676 (AV 2 sp.).

943. Ishbiliyah - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 942. RFasRFof941.

Inverted semicircle b OF <uI mc j^*

Semicircle a rf OuLj

Semicircle b rf (mint)

No other margins.

V1677 (AV): .-u> for oil o-c 6of (error ?). BMV47 (pi. 1). C:Decadencia p. 379, no. 5 (pi. 1):

-uc for ml o-c b of (disproved by piate). Rivero: (pi. 1n, no. 6).

944. Ishbiliyah - (no date) - half qirat.

of blank. RF

t>Jll

(mint)

246 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

No margins.

V 1679 (AV). Not listed in V -.Indicacidn.

945. Ishbiliyah - (no date) - half qirat.

OF blank. rf Jc

No margins.

V 1680. MA 533; j before mint.

(mint)

946. Ishbiliyah - (no date) - quarter qirat.

of blank. RF (mint)

Jc

No marg1ns.

V 168r. MA 534.

Ighranatah - 519-520 and no date - dirhems.

See 951-953.

947. Balansiyah - 503 - dirhem.

of as of of 908. rf as rf of 908.

rm (date) <~ (mint) * ^jall -U ^> ja <ul

V 1832 (PG). P:Reyes 444a: base silver.

948. Saraqustah - 504 - dirhem.

As 947.

V 1833 (AV). P:Reyes 444b (pi. xvi): base silver.

949. Saraqustah - 509 - dirhem.

of as of of 909. rf as rf of 909.

om as om of 947.

rm as rm of 947.

V 1837 (AV): rm partly illegible. P.Reyes 446a: base silver. See also copper: 1162.

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950. Sharish - (no date ?) - qirat?

Not described.

C.Cecas p. 375: m only.

951. Ighranatah - 519 - dirhem.

of as of of 923. rf as rf of 907.

om as om of 947 through au"-

rm as rm of 947.

ANS: J b rf. V 1839 (PG 2 sp., FC, AV). P.Reyes 450a: base silver.

952. Ighranatah - 520 - dirhem.

As 951 except rm, on which replaces

V 1840 (AV). D.Garcia 6086. Sotheby 382: d, m only. P:Reyes 450b (pi. xv1): J b rf,

silver. Rivero: (pi. m, no. 9, not no. 8 as given): piate partly illegible. Thorburn: J

b rf, base silver. See also copper: 1164.

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t S1lver

247

953. Ighranatah - (no date) - dirhem. Plate VII

of V| <ll V rf as rf of 928.

<ul

OM (with flat top) c^y_ <ul< Vl Jtjj U, J\ J\ <ul

rm (with flat top) (mint) j ^^J\ ^yf J\ <ul *-J

ANS: p a rf. HSA 14147. S:Jud{ce II 3098 (pi. n).

954. Madinat Gharnatah - (no date) - dirhem.

As 949 except rm: (mint) .. ^>dl li* ."l

D .Garcia 6109: ^and ornament b of.

955. Madinat Gharnatah - (no date) - dirhem.

of as of of 914. rf as rf of 909.

om ^oit djlj L--l djlj dry dUc k.j

rm as rm of 954.

P :Reyes 448: base silver.

956. Madinat Gharnatah - (no date) - dirhem.

As 955 except of, as of of 909.

V 1843 (PG 6 sp., FC 2 sp., AV 2 sp.). D.Garcia 6110: m only. P.Reyes 446c: base silver.

0 2092: om illegible. See also copper: 1165.

957. Madinat Gharnatah - (no date) - dirhem.

of as of of 909. rf as rf of 910.

om as om of 955.

rm as rm of 954.

V 1841 (AV 2 sp.). D.Garcia 6111: description inadequate. P.Reyes 447: base silver. Ri-

vero:M no (pi. 1n): base silver, margins partly illegible. See also copper: 1166.

958. Qurtubah - 502 - qirat: Kufi and Naskhi script.

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of: Naskhi ^-J\ J\ <*\ ^ rf: Kufi OuL-ll

<ul Vl )l V J*

<a\ J-usw (mint)

No OM.

rm: Kuf1 (date) o_^> <ul ~t.

V 1667 (PG, AV). C.Decadencia p. 376, no. 3 (pi. 1). Rivero: (pi. m, no. 7, not no. 9, as

given): piate largely illegible.

959. Qurtubah - 505 - qirat.

of as of of 923. RF Je

(mint)

No OM.

rm (date) j vO- J\ a\ ^

V 1669 (AV). Longperier:D p. 430: d, m only.

960. Qurtubah - 505 - qirat.

As 959 but without j in rm.

V 1670 (AV).

248

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

961. Qurtubah - 505 - qirat.

As 959 except rm, in which Je replaces <

V 1668 (AV). C:Decadencia p. 377, no. 4 (pi. 1).

962. Qurtubah - 506 - qirat.

As 961.

V 1671 (AV).

963. Qurtubah - 507 - qirat.

As 959, 960, or 961.

V 1672: rm uncertain. MA 532: rm uncertain.

964. Qurtubah - (no date) - qirat.

As 921, with mint b oF.

V 1682 (Delgado).

965. Qurtubah - (no date) - qirat. Plate VII

of Vl <)l V RF as rf of 928, with mint b RF.

Oil

Up right side of of -u**

Across top of OF -uc

Down left side of of

In cartouche a rf (Naskhi script)

No other margins.

V 1706: j^j for in 3rd line of of (error ?), one-line cartouche (error). MA 550 (2 sp.).

C:Decadencia p. 380, no. 6 (pi. 1). Zambaur I 66 (pi. 1). Rivero:M 106 (pi. n): jj for in

3rd line of of (disproved by piate). Rivero: (pi. ni, no. 5).

966. [Q]unkah - 506 - dirhem.

As 947.

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V 1834 (AV): rm uncertain. P.Reyes 444c: base silver.

967. Malaqah - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 918. rf Vifl

*-*-y. J. Jc

(mint)

No margins.

V 1683 (AV).

968. Madinat Mursiyah - 502 - dirhem (anonymous). Plate VII

of as of of 939. RF

oM OO-U-I Cf J J* f5*-^1 & C*j

rm (date) <- (mint) . . ^j-dl -* ^ J* |*-!

V 1830 (FC, AV). P.Reyes 443a (pi. xv1): base silver.

969. Madinat Mursiyah - 503 - dirhem (anonymous).

As 968.

V 1831 (PG, AV). P:Reyes 443b: base silver.

Corpus of Coins: Mttrabit S1lver

249

rf as RF of 918.

970. Madinat Mursiyah - 508 - dirhem.

of as of of 914.

om as om of 947.

rm as rm of 947.

V 1836 (PG, FC, AV 2 sp.). See also copper: 1167.

971. Madinat Mursiyah - 508 - dirhem.

As 970 except om, which starts with and ends with ^ (sic, pointed out by

Fasmer II p. 224).

P .Reyes 445 (pi. xv1): base silver. Rivero: p. 14 fig. b.

972. Madinat Mursiyah - 511 - dirhem.

As 949 except rm, on which replaces iu..

V 1838 (PG). .Reyes 446b: as 949 (error ?), base silver.

a.H. 522-533

973. Sabtah - (no date) - qirat

OF

With heir

Sir ibn-'Ali

RF

(mint)

No margins.

V 1778 (PG 4 sp., AV 3 sp.). MA 573 (2 sp.): oc for

974. Tanjah - (no date) - qirat.

of Vl <) V RF

J_yj -Use* <lll

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<Jll

(mint)

No margins.

V 1765 (Domeck).

975. (no mint ?) - (no date ?) - dirhem.

of <uI V1 4)I V RF

Margins, if any, illegible.

V 1848 (AV). Cerda 389: description inadequate.

976. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF

tul

RF

a.D. 1128-1139

in 3rd line of rf (misprint ?).

oil

No margins.

J"

cnJLil

.A-

250 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

ANS (3 sp.). HSA 15905, 27807, 27808 (3 sp.). V 1768 (PG 13 sp., FC, AV 5 sp.). BM V 53.

BN II 624-627 (4 sp.). MA 568 (15 sp.). KM II 633, 634 (2 sp.). D.Garcia 6093-6095

(5 sp.): without j on 4th line of rf (error ?).C:Tratadop. 201,110.9 (pi. xx). S:Castro 413.

Pedersen 232. Nasir 39 (pi. i).

977. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF .oil Vl 4)l V RF jy\

No margins.

V 1767 (AV). 0 2100: description uncertain, identified from impression furnished by Galster.

978. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 977. rf oil Jj

a Jc

No margins.

V 1772. D.Garcia 6091. Script not indicated, may be Naskh1.

979. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat: Naskhi script.

of a Vl .01V . rf Jj iI

<ul Jy)

/- .^Vl

No margins.

V 1771 (PG, AV): script not indicated. BN II 623: for <jruL-lI in 2nd line of rf

(error).

980. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF . Vl<)l V RF oil

^ ^.Vl m1

No margins.

V 1773 (AV). Script not indicated, may be Naskhi.

981. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

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of as of of 977. rf j^I

(JruL-ll

No margins.

D.Garcia 6092. Weyl:G 1192 (3 sp.). B 941 (pi. x1v), 942 (pi. x1v), 944 ?, 945 ? (4 sp. ?):

description incompiete, piates partly illegible.

982. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 979. rf as rf of 981.

No margins.

ANS. HSA 13734~13736, 13908-13914 (10 sp.). V 1775 (PG 14 sp., FC 6 sp., AV 3 sp.).

BM V 52. BN II 628-630 (3 sp.); 632: differs in ornamentation. MA 572 (4 sp.). KM II 635.

Corpus of Coins: MitrIb1t S1lver

251

S:fudice II 3099 (3 sp.). S:Ciscar 32. S:Castro 413. Pedersen 233 (pi. xcvn); 235: differs in

ornamentation. Lisbon. Thorburn.

983. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat. Plate VII

of as of of 979. rf OjJ-11

No margins.

ANS. HSA 13915: I b rf; 13916 (2 sp.). V 1774 (PG 15 sp., FC 2 sp., AV 4 sp.). BM V 50

(pi. 1), 51 (2 sp.). BN II 631: Sb rf. MA 571 (6 sp.). KM II 636-638 (3 sp.). Dombay p. 783:

^ju- for in last line of of (error), division into lines not indicated. D.Garcia 6088a,

6089 (3 sp.): without j in 2nd line of rf (error). C:Tratado p. 201, no. 10 (pi. xx): jTb rf.

Weyl:G 1193. Lopes 17. S:Judice II3099. S:Castro 413. 0 2094, 2098 (2 sp.). Pedersen 234.

Nasir 41 (pi. 1). Lisbon. Thorburn.

984. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of ml Vl 4)1 V rf as rf of 983.

No margins.

V 1776 (AV).

985. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF oil VI <)l V RF ^.1

Oil Jy-J -U*. (jrul ll

No margins.

Soret:D 89: ^a rf. B 946: description inaccurate, ^a rf.

986. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

As 985 except 1st line of of: . Vl )1 V ^

Thorburn: ^ a rf.

987. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 975. rf uuL.ll

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No margins.

V 1777 (AV).

988. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of ornament. RF Jc

No margins.

252

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

V 1685: JL (?) for in rf, corrected by Vives; 1770 (PG 4 sp., FC 2 sp., AV 5 sp.).

BN II 620: JL (?) for in rf (error). MA 569, 570 (6 sp.). KM II 632 (pi. m). Conde

(pi. 1n, no. 14): may be this coin, piate obscure.

989. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of blank. rf <11I ~j

No margins.

HSA 13919, 13922, 13923 (3 sp. ?): all doubtful. V 1766 (AV).

990. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

OF blank. rf Je

No margins.

V 1769 (AV).

ELEcTRUM

991. (no mint) - (no date) - denomination unknown.

OF Ml <)I M RF Jc CnJjl jy\

>!r"

No margins.

V 1849 (AV 2 sp.). MA 574: rf partly illegible. P.Reyes 453.

992. (no mint) - (no date) - denomination unknown.

of as of of 991. RF

No margins.

V 1850 (AV 2 sp.). D.Garcia 6097. P.Rcyes 454.

Spanish mint.

993. Mad1nat Mursiyah - 525 - dirhem. Plate VII

of <ul Ml 4)l M rf as rf of 975.

.US*.

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<JUI

om as om of 947.

rm as rm of 947.

V 1846 (PG, AV): 2nd line of of inaccurately reported, date uncertain. P .Reyes 451 (pi. xvi):

base silver.

994. Mursiyah - 526 - dirhem.

As 993 except of, as of of 975.

V 1847 (PG, AV). P.Reyes 452 (fig.): base silver.

Corpus of Coins: MurIbit S1lver

253

With heir

Tdshfin ibn-'Ali

a.h. 533-537 a D. 1139~1143

995. Sabtah - (no date) - half qirat.

of blank. RF

Qui.. Il yj>\

(mint)

No margins.

V 1811 (AV 2 sp.).

996. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF as OF of 975. RF uuLil jl

No margins.

V 1812 (AV 2 sp.).

997. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of , "i\ 4)1 M rf as rf of 979.

No margins.

V 1820 (PG 3 sp., AV 3 sp.). BM V 59. BN II 633. MA 583. Nasir 38 (pi. 1).

998. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF as of of 997. RF aJjtl ^1

No margins.

HSA 14154. V 1825 (AV). S:Judice II 3100.

999. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 997. rf as rf of 983.

No margins.

HSA 13737: S b rf. V 1824 (PG 6 sp., FC 2 sp., AV 5 sp.). BM V 56, 57 (2 sp.): Sb rf.

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MA 582: not noted by Vives. KM II 642, 643 (2 sp.): J b rf. Castiglioni 239 (pi. x): 3-line of

(disproved by piate), cf b rf. S:Castro 415. B 963-965 (pi. x1v: 963, 965), 968, 969 (5sp.):

Sb rf. Nasir 40 (pi. 1).

1000. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of oil Ml 4)1 M rf as rf of 983.

No margins.

V 1823 (PG ?). MA 581 (2 sp.). Conde p. 290: presumably this coin misread. Miinter 307:

identified by Galster. D.Garcia 6099-6101 (3 sp.): description uncertain. Zambaur:W 85.

0 2102: description uncertain, identified from impression furnished by Galster.

254

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

1001. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat: Naskh1 script. Plate VII

of as of of 1000. rf as rf of 981.

No margins.

HSA 13917, 13918 (2 sp.). V 1822 (PG 9 sp., FC 2 sp., AV 3 sp.). BM V 60-62 (pi. 1: 60)

(3 sp.). BN II 635. MA 580 (3 sp.). KM II 644 (pi. 1n): Ml piaced above !l in 1st line of

of. Conde p. 289: presumably this coin misread. D :Garcia 6098: without j in 3rd line of rf

(error). Lisbon.

1002. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of <ul rf as RF of 981.

Ml JIM

No margins.

BN II 634. MA 584. KM II 645. Figanier 184.

1003. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

As 1002, but without j in 3rd line of rf.

HSA 13740. V 1826 (PG 7 sp., FC 4 sp., AV 3 sp.). BM V 58. S:Judice II3101. S:Castro 415.

B 966: description incompiete.

1004. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat. Plate VII

of . Ml Jl M .. rf as RF of 985.

4_____JI

<UI Jy-J JU

t ^Ml

No margins.

ANS (4 sp.):^arf. HSA 13738: rf. V 1827 (PG 9 sp., FC 3 sp., AV 3 sp.). BM V 54,

55 (2 sp.): ^a rf. BM X p. 6, no. 55d: rf. BN II 636, 637 (2 sp.): rf. MA 585

(4 sp.): rf. KM II 639-641 (3 sp.): rf. D:Garcia 6103: description incompiete,

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a rf. C:Tratado p. 202, no. 12 (pi. xx): rf. Weyl:G 1191 (2 sp.): rF. Lopes 18.

S:Judice II 3101. S:Castro 415. Thorburn: rf.

1005. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of a M1 <11 M n rf OjJJil

No margins.

V 1828 (AV 2 sp.).

1006. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 975. rf as rf of 1005.

No margins.

V 1829 (AV).

Corpus of Coins: Murab1t S1lver 255

1007. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 975. RF OuL-ll ^.l

No margins.

Welzl 12237.

1008. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 973. RF

J)

No margins.

V 1816 (PG, AV).

1009. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of ornament. RF

No margins.

V 1815 (PG 3 sp., FC 3 sp., AV 3 sp.). S:Castro 414.

1010. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

OF blank. RF s*\

No margins.

V 1813 (PG, AV 2 sp.).

1011. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of as of of 976. RF j*t>m <ul

No margins.

V 1821 (AV): top line of rf misread, corrected p. 552. V:Indicacidn p. 518 calls this a half

qirat struck with the die of a qirat.

1012. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of ornament. RF >

No margins.

V 1817 (PG, AV 3 sp.). Script not indicated, may be Naskhi.

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1013. (no mint) - (no date) - quarter qirat.

of blank. RF ic

No margins.

256 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

HSA 13921. V 1814 (PG, FC). Rivero:M 107 (pi. n): ornament on of. Rivero : (pi. 1n,

no. 16): ornament on of.

1014. (no mint) - (no date) - quarter qirat: Naskhi script.

of as of of 975. RF as rf of 1012.

No margins.

HSA 13920, 13924 (2 sp.). V 1818 (PG 2 sp., FC 2 sp., AV 4 sp.): script not indicated.

MA 586: script not indicated.

1015. (no mint) - (no date) - quarter qirat: Naskhi script.

of as of of 975. rf ^Ml

t J)

No margins.

BMV 63-65 (pi. 1:63) (3 sp.).

1016. (no mint) - (no date) - sixteenth qirat.

OF blank. RF as RF of 1015.

No margins.

V 1819 (AV 3 sp.). Script not indicated, may be Naskhi.

Spanish mints.

1016a. Ishbiliyah - (no date) - qirat?

Not described.

Cerda 400.

1016b. Ishbiliyah - (no date) - half qirat?

Not described, except that of has no legend.

Cerda 401.

1017. Jayyan - 536 - dirhem. Plate VII

of *i\ <)l ^ rf as rf of 983.

4au>

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(in tiny letters)

OM uylllr Jj p*-J\ J\ u1 jH

rm (date) Je (mint) - ^jjl i* y>, J\ <ul ^

ANS: o-not visible. V 1810 (AV). Cerda398: description incompiete. Rivero:M 109bis

(fig. on p. x1). Rivero :E p. 14, fig. a.

Tdshfin ibn-'Ali

a.h. 537-540 a D. "43-1145

(no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

No margins.

Corpus of Coins: Murablt S1lver

257

B 979: division into lines not indicated. This is the only Murabir, silver reported to have

been struck in the name of the 'Abbasid khalifah; it must be considered very dubious.

1018. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF tul Ml <M M RF OuL-ll jy\

<ul

No margins.

V 1872 (Codera).

1019. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF , Ml )1 M ,, RF UwLil j*\

1 Jc a. O***

<Ul

No margins.

V 1871 (AV). MA 594. B 978: description incompiete.

1020. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat

of as OF of 1019. RF OuL-ll

ctJl jji}

No margins. v

V 1887 (AV): termed dirhem. B 980 (pi. xv).

1021. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of <ul Ml 4II M RF as RF of 1020.

<llt Jy J -U3t

No margins.

V 1881 (PG 2 sp.).

1022. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat: Naskhi script. Plate VII

of as of of 1021. RF jy\

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XT Jc a

No marg1ns.

HSA 13739,15911,15912 (3 sp.). V1882 (PG 2 sp., FC 2 sp., AV 4 sp.): script not indicated.

BM V 73 (pi. 1), 74 (2 sp.). MA 596: script not indicated, for jji in 3rd line of rf

(error ?). S:Judice II 3102. Thorburn.

1023. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF <ul RF

<UI Ml aJI M ^

<juUi<lr

No margins.

V 1883 (AV). Script not indicated, may be Naskhi.

17

258 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

1024. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

OF ornament. RF

No margins.

V 1878 (PG, AV 6 sp.): termed eighth qirat (error). MA 599. KM II 655. As a half qirat,

this coin does not fit into the table in V :Indicaci6n p. 519.

1025. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of ornament. RF xa\

Oulll

No margins.

V 1877 (PG, AV 3 sp.). MA 597 (2 sp.). Rivero:M 113 (pi. m). B 977 (pi. xv). Rivero:E

(pi. in, no. 17).

1026. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of ornament. rf oU~ll ^1

No margins.

V 1873 (PG, AV): a ^ for ^ a. in 3rd line of rf (misprint ?). MA 595 (4 sp.).

1027. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

OF Jj <ul RF cQi&l"

No margins.

ANS. Does not fit into the table in V':Indicaci6n p. 519.

1028. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

Variant of 1025.

S :Castro 416: described as an unpublished variant of V 1877.

1029. (no mint) - (no date) - quarter qirat.

of as of of 1021. rf as rf of 1026.

No margins.

V 1874 (PG, AV 6 sp.). BM V 75.

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1030. (no mint) - (no date) - quarter qirat.

of and rf (identical) as rf of 1026.

No margins.

V 1875: termed hybrid in V :Indicaci6n p. 519; it was apparently struck in error, and was

recorded by Codera.

1031. (no mint) - (no date) - eighth qirat.

of blank. RF

No margins.

V 1879 (AV).

Corpus of Coins: MurIbit S1lver

259

1032. (no mint) - (no date) - eighth qirat.

of rf l"

No margins.

HSA 15910, 15913-15915 (4 sp.). V 1880 (PG 6 sp., FC 4 sp., AV 5 sp.). BM V 76 (pi. 1),

77 (2 sp.). BN II 648-650 (3 sp.). MA 598 (25 sp., of which Vives noted 5). C:Tratadop. 203,

no 2 (pi. xx1). Rivero:M 114 (pi. 1n).

1033. (no mint) - (no date) - sixteenth qirat.

OF blank. RF as RF of 1018.

No margins.

V 1876 (AV).

With heir

Ibrahim ibn-Tdshfin

a.H. 538-540 a.d. 1144-1145

1034. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF <u\ Ml <)l M rf as RF of 1020.

No margins.

BN II 651: f c a rf. B 988 (pj. xv): no letters a rf.

1035. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

As 1034 except 1st line of of: a Ml 4)l M |r

ANS: ^ c a rf. HSA 15909,15917,15918,15920 (4 sp.): ^ c a rf. V 1885 (PG 6 sp., FC 4 sp.,

AV 4 sp.). BM V 71 (pi. 1), 72 (2 sp.): ^ c a rf. MA 600 (5 sp.): pj> j\ for ^1 j.\ in 4th line

of of (misprint ?). Soret:/?3. C:Tratadoj>. 204, no. 3 (pi. xx1) :^c a rf. S:Castro 416. B 991:

rf; 992: f c a rf (pi. xv: both) (2 sp.). Figanier 187 (pi.): ^ j \ for ^1 in 4th line of

of (disproved by piate).

1036. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat. Plate VII

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As 1035 but with j \ for ^1 x\ in 4th line of of, and without j in 2nd line of rf.

HSA 15916,15919 (2 sp.). KM II 653 (pi. in). D.Garcia 6114. Rivero:M 112 (pi. 1n). B 989,

990, 990 bis, 990 ter (pi. xv: all) (4 sp.).

1037. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of j\ rf as rf of 1024.

No margins.

V 1886 (AV). KM II 654. Longprier:D p. 431: description incompiete.

Spanish mint.

1038. Qurtubah (divided <J / J) - (no date) - quarter qirat, struck presumably by

Hamdin ibn-Muhammad.

OF (mint, continued) RF as RF of 1025.

W^

(mint)

260

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

No margins.

V 1884 (AV 2 sp.). V Jndicacidn p. 518 gives jr.l for l^.l in 2nd line of of.

Ishdq ibn-'Ali

a.H 540-541

a.D. 1145-1147

1039. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 1019.

KF

No margins.

V 1895 (PG 5 sp., FC 2 sp., AV 3 sp.). H6st: and N 12 (pi. xxxm). B 1000 (pi. xv):

Sb rf.

1040. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

As 1039, but without j in 2nd line of rf.

HSA 15921, 15922 (2 sp.): no letter b rf. BN II 657, 658 (2 sp.). MA 602. KM II 659, 660

(2 sp.). Conde- p. 291: this is the coin described, not that illustrated. T>.Garcia 6116, 6117

(2 sp.): 3-line of (error). Rivero:M 116 (pi. 1n): no letter b rf. B 999 (pi. xv), 1001 (2 sp.).

Thorburn.

1041. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat. Plate VII

of Ml <)l M. rf OUJl

No margins.

HSA 13741, 15923 (2 sp.). V 1896 (PG 3 sp., FC, AV 2 sp.): ) at start of 3rd line of rf

(error ?). BM V 78 (pi. i), 79 (2 sp.). BN II656. MA 603 (4 sp.): with j (error ?). KM II 662.

Cond p. 291 (pi. 1n, no. 10): apparently this coin misread; differently misread on p. 279.

Marsden 348 (pi. xx): apparently this coin misread, attributed to Hammudids (corrected

by Codera: Errores p. 16, and by Fraehn.O p. 25). D.Garcia 6118 (2 sp.): description

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uncertain. C.Tratado p. 204, no. 4 (pi. xx1). S:Judice II 3103a.

1042. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 1019. rf as rf of 1041, with j at start of 3rd line.

No margins.

V 1897 (AV).

1043. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of as of of 1018.

RF

No margins.

V 1901. D.Garcia 6119, 6120 (2 sp.).

Corpus of Coins: MurIbit S1lver

261

1044. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

As 1043, but with j at end of 2nd line of rf.

0 2104: description uncertain, impression furnished by Galster appears identical with 1045.

1045. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF oil RF as RF of 1043.

ml

No margins.

V 1900 (Cumano). KM II 661. S:Castro 417. B 1002 (pi. xv).

1046. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

OF i{ ^1 <)l ^ M RF

Qulu.il

Je

No margins.

Soret:1 91. Soret:B "o.

1047. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

OF Jc a\ RF

No margins

V 1902 (PG): termed qirat, corrected on p. 552. KM II 664. Conde p. 291 misread.

1048. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

OF a\ RF yyl

No margins

KM II 663 (pi. 1n). Does not fit into the table in V:Indicaci6n p. 519.

1049. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

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of ornament. rf as rf of 1048.

No margins.

V 1898 (AV). MA 604. KM II 665 (pi. m). Rivero: (pi. 1n, no. 18).

1050. (no mint) - (no date) - quarter qirat.

of ornament. rf as rf of 1048.

No margins.

V 1899 (AV). C:Decadencia p. 385, no. 9 (pi. i). Rivero: (pi. nl, no. 19).

1051. (no mint) - (no date) - eighth qirat.

OF jy>\ RF JU-.I

No margins.

B 1003 (pi. xv): same specimen shown twice in piate, illegible.

262

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Spanish mint.

1052. Qurtubah - (no date) - qirat: Naskhi script; struck presumably by Hamd1n ibn-

Muhammad or by Ibn-Ghaniyah. Plate VII

411n

OF ., Ml All M RF s*\

(mint) ^ *JI ^

No margins.

ANS. HSA14155. V1894(PG2sp.,AV4sp.): j at start of 3rd line of rf (error ?). BM V 80.

BN II 655. MA 601 (2 sp.): with j (error ?). Longperier:/) p. 431 (several sp.): m only.

C:Tratado.p. 205, no. 5 (pi. xx1). Sotheby 382: m only; with date 541 (error ?). S:JudiccII

3103. Rivero:M 117 (pi. 1n): with j (disproved by piate). B 997, 998 (pi. xv: both) (2 sp):

with j (disproved by piate).

Malaqah - (no date) - qirat?

Sawaszkiewicz p. 204 apparently refers to silver of this mint and ruler, but too vaguely to

be accepted.

Murabit. partisans after a.H. 541 (a.d. 1147)

Many coins in Murabit styles were struck after the downfall of the main dynasty at

the death of Ishaq; most of these were struck in Spain by local rulers and are therefore

excluded from this corpus, but can be found in section 6a of Vives; mintless coins struck in

Spain in the name of the "Bani-Tashfin" follow.

1053. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of ^JUjLIj1 rf r->1 ^

No margins.

V 1980 (AV). MA 611. Script not indicated; probably KOf1 obverse and Naskhi reverse.

1054. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

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of: Kufi script ul rf as rf of 1053: Naskhi script.

No margins.

V 1981 (AV): script not indicated. C:Decadencia p. 391, no. 15 (pi. n): SS b of.

1055. (no mint) - (no date) - qirat.

of and rf (identical) as rf of 1053: presumably Naskhi script.

No margins.

V 1982 (Cumano): apparently an error in striking.

1056. (no mint) - (no date) - half qirat.

of: Naskhi script rf: Kuf1 script ^

No margins.

Corpus of Coins: Muwahh1d S1lver 263

V 1983: script not indicated. MA 612. C:Monedas p. 381. C.Decadencia p. 391, no. 16

(pi. n): JTJ b rf.

Muwahhid S1lver

struck in North Africa and Spain

by the Kumiyah Berber rulers of

the Muwahhidun sect

in Naskhi or Kufi script.

Silver struck by Muwahhid partisans in North Africa and Spain before the downfall

of the Murabits in a.h. 541 (a.d. 1147).

Struck in North Africa

in the name of the Mahdi

Muhammad ibn-Tumart

about a.h. 540 (a.d. 1145).

1057. Sabtah - qirat: Kufi script?

OF

Ml

RF

(mint)

V 2017 (AV).

1058. Sabtah - qirat: Kufi script?

of as of of 1057.

V 2018 (AV).

1059. (no mint) - qirat: Kufi script?

4 t 1 Il

fU*il

V 2014 (AV). Lisbon.

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1060. (no mint) - qirat: Kufi script.

OF -cut

nil

RF

RF

RF

<al

LJ_j_ j -use*

Dl

L.Ul ^l

V 2016 (AV). C.Tratado p. 225, no. 6 (pi. xxn).

264

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

1061. (no mint) - half qirat: Kufi script?

of . )1 *i RF as rf of 1059.

V 2015 (AV): 4th line of of uncertain. May be an unusually debased specimen of 446a

misread. Lisbon has a partly illegible variant.

Struck in Spain

in the name of

abu-Muhammad 'Abd-al-Mu'min ibn-'Ali

about a.h. 540 (a.d. 1145).

1062. (no mint) - qirat. Plate VII

OF Lj <BI RF

bui JuScAJ

b.L.1

HSA 14168. V 2043 (PG 4 sp., AV, 1 other). MA 659 (2 sp.): without j in 3rd line of OF

(corrected by Vives). Rivero: (pi. in, no. 10).

1062a. (no mint) - dirhem.

As 1062; legends in square, segments ornamented.

V 2045 (AV).

1063. (no mint) - qirat.

As 1062, but with U^-j for bJ in 2nd line of of; } omitted from 2nd and 3rd lines of of.

BN II 721-723 (3 sp.). Conde p. 289.

1064. (no mint) - half qirat.

of ornament. rf ^^ll jlc

V 2044. MA 658.

tibii-Muhammad 'Abd-al-Mu'min ibn-'Ali

a.h. 524-558 a.d. 1130-1163

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1065. Fas (b rf) - square half-dirhem struck after a.h. 540.

OF <u Jui-I RF juj jusm y\

Weyl:F6493.

1066. (no mint) - round dirhem. Plate VII

As 1065; legends in square, segments ornamented.

V 2046 (AH 2 sp., AV 2 sp.). P 26 (pi. in): ascribed (p. 32) to Idris I. BM V 88a (pi. 11).

BM X, p. 10, no. 88b, 88c ? (cut square) (2 sp. ?). BN II 718, 719 (2 sp.). MA 665 (4 sp.,

of which Vives noted 2): termed half dirhem (error). KM II 689. Weyl.G 1221. S:Castro

Corpus of Coins: Muwahh1d S1lver

265

420. Bel p. 18. Rivero:M 131 (pi. m). 0 2110. B 1046-1049 (pi. xv1: 1046) (4sp.). Rivero:

(pi. 1v, no. 8). Thorburn.

1067. (no mint) - square dirhem.

As 1065.

B 1050 (pi. xv1).

1068. (no mint) - square half dirhem. Plate VII

As 1065.

ANS. HSA 13906, 14164 (2 sp.). V 2113 (AH 2 sp., PG 10 sp., FC, AV 12 sp.). P 25a.

BN II 720. MA 666 (90 sp., of which Vives noted 16). KM II 690: gold instead of silver

(misprint). Adler:C 89 (pi. vi). Moura 2 (fig.). D.Garcia 6129. Cerda 423: description

incompiete. Leite 23. S:Judice II 3126. S:Castro 420. Bel p. 14 (fig. 2, 3). 0 2111, 2112

(2 sp.). B 1051-1054 (pi. xv1: 1051) (4 sp.). Figanier 169 (2 sp.). Lisbon. Thorburn.

1069. (no mint) - square quarter dirhem.

As 1065.

MA 667 (not noted by Vives).

Spanish mints.

1070. Ishbiliyah (b rf) - square half dirhem struck after a.h. 541

As 1065.

V 2116. P 25d. MA 669.

1071. Jayyan (b rf) - square half dirhem struck after a.h. 541.

As 1065.

V 2114 (PG). P 2sb. C:Tratado p. 220, no. 2 (pi. xxn).

1072. Gharnatah (b rf) - square half dirhem struck after a.h. 549.

As 1065.

P 25f (pi. in).

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Suhal ? - square half dirhem.

As 1065.

Zambaur II 269: mint uncertain, above instead of beneath rf. This mint is unidentified,

and because of its position is probably merely an ornament on a specimen of 1068.

1073. Malaqah (b rf) - square half dirhem struck after a.h. 548.

As 1065.

V 2115. P 25c. MA 668.

1074. Mursiyah (b rf) - square half dirhem (posthumous) struck after a.h. 567.

As 1065.

V 2117 (AV 3 sp.). P 25e. Cerda 422: m only. S:Judice II3127.

abii-Yusuf Ya'qub ibn-Yiisuf I

a.H. 580-595 a.d. 1184-1199

(no mint) - denomination not specified.

Nor described.

Sawaszkiewicz p. 205, no. 25 (2 sp.). This unsupported ascription must be considered

dubious.

266

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

With heir

abil-'Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn-Ya'qub

a.H. 587-595 a.D.1191-1199

1075. (no mint) - square half dirhem. Attribution doubtfu1. Plate VII

of ^ Uj RF 4JI Jj

V 2127. P 28 (pi. 1n). MA 708.

abu-Musd 'Imrdn ibn-Ya'qub

rebel amir at Sabtah

a.H. 629-630 a.D. 1232-1232

1076. (no mint) - square dirhem. Plate VII

of <ul ^1 <lI M rf <ul

P 27 (pi. 1n): 3rd line of of given as tiil "i\ iy M (disproved by piate). MA 707. Fasmer I 3.

1077. (no mint) - square dirhem.

As 1076 except 3rd line of of: oil ^1 ij 1

V 2121 (AV). May be 1076 misread.

abu-Muhammad 'Abd-al-Wahid II ibn-Idris I

a.H. 630-640 a.D. 1232-1242

Struck before restoration of al-Mahdi's name

a.h. 630-631 a.d. 1232-1234

1078. Ribat (in 4th os and 2nd rs) al-Fath (in 1st os and 3rd rs) - (date ?) - qirat.

OF Jj*M RF Lj <11I

oil bUl jaIJ\

os [ ?] (mint, continued)

(mint) j ^ J

rs (mint) . .

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[ ? ] fW (mint, continued)

KM II 698a: segments worn, no date ?, os as rs (error ?).

1079. Sijilmasah (in 4th and 1st os and 2nd and 3rd rs; divided <-U/j*-) - (date ?) -qirat.

As 1078.

L:Johnston p. 169 (2 sp.): m only, date obscure. Thorburn: date uncertain, read as 0.

Corpus of Coins: Muwahh1d S1lver

267

1080. Hadrat (in 4th os and 2nd rs) Fas (in 1st os and 3rd rs) - (date ?)-qirat. Plate VII

As 1078.

KM II 698b, 698c (2 sp.): os as rs (error ?). Fraehn:i? p. 624, no. 3: largely illegible, mint

uncertain, (s)LL- in rs (error ?). Soret :D 92: (ju^tl for -ui J\ in 3rd line of rf (error ?), seg-

ments largely illegible. Weyl:F 6496: not described, mint given as Fas; probably this

coin. L:Bodleian 319: wrongly recorded, apparently this coin, segments largely illegible,

rs as os ?. Thorburn.

1081. Hadrat (in 4th os and 2nd rs) Fas (in 1st OS and 3rd rs) - (date ?) - qirat.

As 1078 except 3rd line of rf: juiJ\

Adler:C9o (pi. vi): segments largely illegible, SLL. in 2nd rs (error ?), may be another

specimen of 1080.

1082. Marrakush (in 4th and 1st os and 2nd and 3rd rs; division not specified) - (date ?)

- qirat.

As 1078.

Geitlin p. 234: segments uncertain, may be a poor specimen of 1083.

1083. Hadrat (in 4th os and 2nd rs) Marrakush (in 1st os and 3rd rs) - (date ?) - qirat.

As 1078.

Markov:E p. 921, no. 2a: not described, mint given as Marrakush; corrected by Fasmer I1,

with description.

1084. (mint ?) - (date ?) - qirat.

of as of of 1078. rf <ul L j

Segments illegible.

L:Calvert 50, 51 (2 sp.).

(mint Fas ?) - (date ?) - qirat. see Plate VII

As 1084 except 1st line of rf: <ul.

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L:Bodleian 319, 320 ? (2 sp. ?). Apparently a misreading of poor additional specimens of

1080, according to photographs furnished by J. G. Milne.

Anonymous silver

struck presumably by all Muwahhid rulers except 'Abd-al-Mu'min and by several

early Hafsid rulers.

1085. Bijayah (b of) - square dirhem. Plate VII

oF <lll Ml 4)l M RF <ul

tiilMlsyM U.I

ANS. HSA 13886. V 2100 (AH, PG 5 sp., FC 2 sp., AV 3 sp.). P 24ba. BM V 121 (pi. m).

BN II 739. MA 689 (29 sp., of which Vives noted 12). KM II 701-703 (pi. 1v: 701), 723?

(4 sp. ?). L:Muwahhids p. 165. Zambaur:W 86. S:Judice II 3120. Bel p. 25 (fig. 9, 10).

0 2145. B 1056, 1056 bis (pi. xvn: both) (2 sp.).

268

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

1086. Tilimsan (b OF and b rf) - square dirhem struck before a.h. 640.

As 1085.

V 2102 (FC). P 240c. MA 696.

1087. Tilimsan (b of) - square dirhem struck before a.h. 640.

Plate VII

As 1085.

HSA13882,13887, (2 sp.). V 2101 (AH 3 sp., PG4sp., FC, AV 9 sp.). P 240b. BM V122-124

(pi. n1: 123) (3 sp.). BN II 740, 741 (2 sp.). MA 697 (35 sp., of which Vives noted 10):

mint misspelled. KM II 704. L:Muwahh.ids p. 165 (pi. v1) (2 sp.). L:Khedivial p. 329.

S:Judice II 3121 (2 sp.). Boneschi 32 (pi.). Bel p. 22 (fig. 6, 7, 8). B 1055 (pi. xvn).

As 1085,

ANS. V2103 (AV2sp.). P24bd. BN II742, 743 (2 sp.). MA 694. KM II724: mint uncertain.

Adler:M p. 169 (fig. on p. 98): description inaccurate. Castiglioni 241. Krehl p. 36, no. 1.

L:Muwahhids p. 165. Markov:E p. 93, no. 4, p. 921, no. 4a (2 sp.). Rivero:M 140 (pi. 1n,

under no. 141). Bel p. 25 (fig. n, 12). F.Hafsites 75, 76 (pi. v: both) (2 sp.). 0 2141, 2142

(2 sp.). B 1257-1259 (pi. xix: all) (3 sp.).

1088a. Tunis (b rf) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

ANS (2 sp.). KM II 705.

1089. Tin Mallal ? (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

Bel p. 25 (3 sp.) (fig. 9, 10): mint uncertain, given as Tin Mallal.

1090. Jarbah (b rf) - square dirhem. Plate VII

As 1085.

B 1263 (pi. x1x).

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1091. al-Jaza'ir (b of) - square dirhem. Plate VII

As 1085.

ANS.

1092. Ribat al-Fath (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

HSA 13857: mint uncertain. V 2104 (PG, AV): Ltj for Jl>j (error). P 24be: Ja>j for l>\j

(error). MA 695 (5 sp.): J*j for (error). Bel p. 28 (fig. 13). Cottevieille p. 214

(pi. vn1). B 1063 (pi. xvn).

1093. Sabtah (b of) - square dirhem.

ANS (2 sp.). HSA 13884: mint uncertain. V 2105 (AH 4 sp., PG 4 sp., FC, AV 11 sp.).

P 24bf. BM V 129 (pi. in). BN II 744, 745 (2 sp.). MA 690 (74 sp., of which Vives noted 12).

KM II 7o8-71o( 3 sp.). D.Garcia 6150. Cerda 430: m only. L:Muwahhids p. 165. S:White

2188 (2sp.). S:Beyram2g2b (2sp.). S :Castro423: mint uncertain. Belp. 23 (fig. 9,10). 02152.

1094. Sijilmasah (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

V 2106 (AH 2 sp., AV4sp.). P 24bg. MA 693 (8 sp., of which Vives noted 2). Bel p. 25 (fig. 11).

1088. Tunis (b of) - square dirhem.

Plate VII

As 1085.

Corpus of Coins: Muwahh1d Silver

269

1095. Fas (b of and b rf) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

ANS. V 2108 (AV). P 24M. S:Judice II 3123.

1096. Fas (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

ANS (4 sp. ?): mint uncertain on 1 sp. HSA (15 sp. ?): mint uncertain on 1 sp. UM. V 2107

(AH 9 sp., PG 9 sp., FC 3 sp., AV 20 sp.), 2111: mint misread as (?). P 24bh. BM V

130-133 (pi. in: 130) (4 sp.). BM X p. 10, no. 133a, 133b (2 sp.). BN II 746-748 (3 sp.).

MA 691 (116sp., of which Vives noted 20), 698: mint misread as u-l (?) (9 sp.), 699: mint

misread as u-jl (?). KM II 711-718 (8sp.). Tychsen, O. p. 123. Schiepati 72. Castiglioni

240. Welzl 12240. D.Garda 6145-6148 (12 sp.). Fraehn:N p. 88, no. 2a. T>:Lorichs 4850

(2 sp.): m only. Cerda 427: m only. L:Muwahhids p. 165. Weyl:F 6491 (4 sp.). Markov:

p. 93, no. 5. S:White 2188. S:Judice II3122 (6 sp.). S:Beyram 292c. S:Castro 423. Bel p. 19

(fig. 4, 5, 6). 0 2144, 2146, 2149, 2150 (4 sp.). B 1057 (pi. xvh). Lisbon. See also copper:

1170.

1097. Fas (b of) - square dirhem. Plate VII

of as of of 1085, with mint, rf as of of 1085, without mint.

HSA 13812. Presumably an error in striking.

Mahad ? (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

V 2112. MA 700. This mint is unidentified, and is probably either misread or poorly engraved.

1098. Marrakush (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

ANS: mint uncertain. HSA 13817 ?, 14160 (2 sp. ?). V 2109 (AH 2 sp., AV 3 sp.). P 24bj.

BM V 134 (pi. 1n). MA 692 (4 sp.). Welzl 12239. S:Judice II3124. 0 2148: mint uncertain.

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B 1058 (pi. xvn): mint illegible in piate.

1099. Miknasah (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

V 2110 (AV). P 24bk. D.Garcia 6149. Rivero:M 141 (pl. 1ll, o only, under no. 140). Bel p. 25

(fig. 11, 12).

1100. (Nul) Lamtah ? (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

S:Judice II 3125 (pi. n, R only): mint uncertain.

1100a. (no mint) - square double dirhem.

As 1085.

KM II 727.

1101. (no mint) - square dirhem. Plate VIII

As 1085.

ANS (20 sp.). HSA (101 sp., of which 1 no. 10632 is gilded). UM. V 2088 (AH 63 sp.,

PG 42 sp., FC 23 sp., AV 15 sp.). P 24a. BM V 141-157,147a (pi. in: 141,144,145) (18 sp.).

BN II 758-766 (9 sp.). MA 680 (4689 sp., of which Vives noted 60). KM II 728-773 (46 sp.).

And additional specimens too numerous and scattered to list. Many of these coins are con-

temporary European imitations (millares) with intentionally distorted engraving of the

270 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

words ul, -uaw, and (ja^ll. A few specimens (termed Hafsid by Farrugia) have horizontal

rules between lines of the inscriptions. See also copper: 1171.

1102. (no mint) - square dirhem. Plate VIII

As 1085, counterstamped on of \ (for _J>).

F.Dragut 13 (pi. n): clipped so that much of legend is missing; probably Hafsid counter-

stamped by Turks.

1103. (no mint) - square dirhem: Kufi script. Plate VIII

As 1085.

ANS (3 sp.). HSA (11 sp.). BM V 136-139 (pi. 1n: 136) (4 sp.). BN II 757. KM II 774-776

(3 sp.). Conde p. 283 (pi. v, no. 2). L:Bodleian 321. Lagumina p. 103, no. 4. Zambaur: W 87.

S:Judice II 3113 (2 sp.). Vollers 14 (pi. 1). S:Castro 423. Bel p. 40 (fig. 20, 22). B 1060

(pi. xvn). Script is not specified by, among others, V(ives), P(rieto), or MA, so some coins

listed as 1101 may belong here.

1103a. (no mint) - square dirhem: Naskh1 and Kufi script.

As 1085; of in Kufi script, rf in Naskhi script.

Bel p. 41 (fig. 20, 22).

(no mint) - square dirhem. Plate VIII

As 1085, with <u jJ| b OF.

B 1266, 1267 (2 sp.) (pi. x1x): 4th line of of doubtful, illegible in piate. This is probably a

coin with mint b of, misread.

1104. (no mint) - square dirhem. Plate VIII

of <ul Ml <ll M rf as rf of 1085.

Bel p. 11 (fig. 1).

1105. (no mint) - square half dirhem.

of as of of 1065. rf as rf of 1085.

Bel p. 17 (fig. 2).

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Spanish mints.

1106. Ishb1liyah (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

HSA 13805 ?, 14161 ? (2 sp. ?): mint uncertain. V 2089 (PG 2 sp., FC, AV 6 sp.). P 24cb.

BM X p. 10, no. 120k. BN II 749. MA 681 (35 sp., of which Vives noted 11). KM II 700a.

Dombay p. 782. D .Garrta 6143-6144 (3 sp.). Cerda 429: m only. S Judice II3116. Bel p. 32.

B 1071 (pi. xvu).

1107. Balansiyah (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

HSA 14157 ?, 14158 ? (2 sp. ?): mint uncertain. V 2090 (PG, AV 2 sp.). P 24cc (pi. 1n).

BN II 750. MA 682 (2 sp.). S:Judice II 3117 (2 sp.). B 1064 (pi. xvn).

Bayyasah (location on coin not specified) - square dirhem.

This mint is listed by Vazquez Queipo III: 536 note, but has not been identified on surviving

coins and must be considered dubious.

Corpus of Coins: Muwahh1d S1lver 271

1108. Jayyan (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

V 2091 (AV). P 24cd. BN II 751, 752 (2 sp.). MA 683 (2 sp., not 3 as in Vives). B 1065

(pi. xvn).

1109. Daniyah (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

V 2099 (Vila). P 240a. BM V 127 (pi. m), 128 (2 sp.).

1110. Sharish (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

V 2098 (AV 3 sp.). P 240k. MA 688 (7 sp.). Rivero:M 139 (pi. 1n).

1111. Gharnatah {b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

HSA 13852: mint uncertain. V 2097 (AH, PG 3 sp., FC, AV 3 sp.). P 24cj. MA 687 (7 sp.,

of which Vives noted 3). B 1070 (pi. xvn).

1112. Qurtubah (b OF) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

ANS. HSA 14162, 14163 (2 sp.). V 2092 (PG 3 sp., AV 3 sp.). P 24cC MA 684 (12 sp., of

which Vives noted 7). C:Tratado p. 219, no. 7 (pi. xxn). S:Judice II3118 (2 sp.). Bel p. 29

(fig. 14, 15). B 1069 (pi. xvn): mint illegible in piate.

1113. Malaqah (b of) - square dirhem.

As 1085.

V 2095 (AH 2 sp., PG 3 sp., FC 2 sp., AV 5 sp.). P 24ch. MA 685 (20 sp., of which Vives

noted 4). Guillen p. 426 (fig.). Calvo p. 192 (pi. x1, no. 8). Bel p. 29 (fig. 14).

1114. Manurqah (b Of) - square dirhem struck after a.h. 599.

As 1085.

V 2094 (PG, FC, AV). P 24cg. Campaner:iV and M 7 (pi. 1). Rivero:M 138 (pi. in, o only):

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mint illegible in piate.

1115. Mursiyah (b of) - square dirhem struck after a.h. 567.

As 1085.

HSA 13858, 13885 (2 sp.). V 2096 (PG 4 sp., FC, AV 7 sp.). P 24ci. BM V 135 (pi. m).

BN II 753, 754 (2 sp.). MA 686 (25 sp., of which Vives noted 12). KM II 720-722: * omitted

from mint in 722 (3 sp.). Tychsen, O. p. 123 (pi. n, no. 27). Dombay p. 782. Cerda 428:

m only. S:Judice II 3119 (3 sp.). Bel p. 29 (fig. 14, 15). 0 2151: mint uncertain. B 1068

(pi. xvn): mint illegible in piate. Lisbon.

1116. Mayiirqah (b of) - square dirhem struck after a.h. 599.

As 1085.

V 2093 (PG2 sp., FC, AV). P 24cf. D.Lorichs 4849: m only. Campaner:N and M 6 (pi. 1).

Bel p. 29 (fig. 14). B 1066 (pi. xvn): mint illegible in piate. Lisbon.

B 1072-1076 (pi. xvn: 1072-1074) are silver amulets with religious inscriptions, not coins.

Plate VIII

272 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Hud1d S1lver

struck in North Africa

by the Barm-Hud

of Murcia (Mursiyah)

(or by their contemporaries)

in Naskhi script.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad I ibn-Yusuf

a.h. 625-635 a.d. 1228-1238

Anonymous silver (Muwahhid style) probably struck in a.H. 630, when this ruler

controlled Sabtah for three months, in the name of the 'Abbasid khalifah, who was not

individually identified:

al-Mustansir-bi-Allah, abu-Ja'jar al-Mansiir ibn-Muhammad

a.H. 623-640 a.D. I226-I242

1117. Sabtah (b of) - square dirhem. Plate VIII

OF <ul Ml <ll M RF L j <ul

01 <lf^Ml L.L.l ^-Ul

P 65b (pi. vn, under no. 64b). Bel p. 52 (fig. 28).

1118. (no mint) - square dirhem.

As 1117.

P 65a. Bel p. 50 (fig. 27).

1119. (no mint) - square dirhem. Plate VIII

OF <ul Ml <ll M RF as RF of 1117.

<al Ml ;yM

HSA 13808: j* (?) b of. P 64 (pi. vn, under no. 66). MA 702 (4 sp.). B 1062 (pi. xvn,

r only), 1365 bis (2 sp.).

1120. (no mint) - square dirhem. Plate VIII

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As 1119 except 2nd line of of: <u\ J,-j -uan.

V 2129 (AH 2 sp., AV). P 66 (pi. vn, under no. 65): vestiges of a mint in piate noted by

Fasmer I p. 215.

Anonymous silver (Hudid style) struck at Sabtah in a.h. 635 by the independent amir

abii'l-'Abbas Ahmad al-Yanashti, in the name of the 'Abbasid khalifah

al-Mustanir-bi-Allah, abii-Ja'far al-Mansiir ibn-Muhammad

a.H. 623-640 a.D. 1226-1242

1121. Sabtah - 635 (divided 6/35) - dirhem.

Plate VIII

Corpus of Coins: Hafs1d S1lver

273

of iiiil rf (mint) j ^>ja

j l <ul (date)

(date, continued)

No margins.

Soret:.F 171: jJ for -.l in 3rd line of of (error), date divided ^./J >fe (error ?), attributed

to 'Imran. Soret :K p. 556 (fig. 7): j>.l for in 3rd line of of (error), date divided ^-/i >b

(error ?), correctly attributed. B 427 (pi. 1x): attributed to Hudids. The reference in C:

Tratado p. 228 to Sabtah as a Hudid mint may refer to this coin, to 1117, or to an un-

reported coin.

Hafs1d S1lver

struck in North Africa

by the Masmudah Berber rulers of Tunisia and eastern Algeria,

the Banu-Hafs

in Naskhi or ornamented Kufi script.

Anonymous silver struck presumably by several Hafsid rulers between a.h. 650 and

711 (a.d. 1253 and 1311), to which should be added many specimens of Muwahhid-style

dirhems 1085-1088a, 1090, 1091, 1101-1105, struck over a somewhat longer period and

indistinguishable from their Muwahhid prototypes.

1122. Tunis (b rf) - square dirhem: ornamented Kufi script.

As 1085.

BM V 125 (pi. 1n), 126 (2 sp.). KM II 706, 707 (2 sp.): apparently this script. Weyl:F 6492:

probably this script. L:Muwahhids p. 165 (pi. v1). 0 2143. F.Hafsites 74 (pi. v). Script is

not specified by Vives, Prieto, or MA, so some coins listed as 1088 probably belong here.

1123. (no mint) - square dirhem: ornamented Kufi script. Plate VIII

As 1085.

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ANS (2 sp.). HSA13775,13776 (2 sp.). BM V140 (pi. 1n). BNII755, 756 (2 sp.). S:Judicc II

3114 (2 sp.). Bel p. 42 (fig. 24). 0 2139, 2140 (2 sp.). B 1059 (pi- xvn), 1209 (2 sp.). Script

is not specified by Vives, Prieto, or MA, so some coins listed as 1101 probably belong here.

abiiH-'Abbds Ahmad III ibn-Muhammad VI

a.H. 948-977 a.D. 1542-1569

1124. Tunis - (9)52 (in figures: ov) - square dirhem.

F.Somdp. 55 (5sp.).

(date)

(mint)

18

274

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

1125. Tunis - (9)54 (in figures: ot) - square dirhem.

As 1124.

F.Somd p. 55 (n sp.).

1126. Tunis - (9)55 (in figures: a) - square dirhem.

As 1124.

F.Somd p. 56 (8 sp.).

1127. Tunis - (9)56 (in figures: ai) - square double dirhem. Plate VIII

OF <ul Ml i\ M RF jO^l <"l "V je J*l 0s

_/>t| <ulj_^j UM^. <ul Jc

Ml SjS M u 4S" jeaHoUjJl

<ul ilii. <al (date) tu

(mint) j <->ji* aj*i

F:Somd p. 56 (pi.): rF emendations confirmed by letter.

1128. Tunis - (9)58 (in figures: a) - square dirhem.

As 1124.

FSomd p. 56 (n sp.).

1129. Tunis - (date ?, in figures) - square dirhem. Plate VIII

As 1124.

ANS. FSomd p. 56 (pi.) 23 sp.).

1130. Tunis - 961 (in figures: w\) - square dirhem.

OF [<a\ Ml -dl M] RF 0UL. juH

ml J>-j ut dr-^"l i/J

4Jul (date) *jc

(mint)

Monchicourt p. 306: illustrated in vol. V, fig. 14; of clipped.

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1131. Tunis ? - 962 (in figures: vw) - square half dirhem?

Not described, illegible on plate.

Monchicourt in vol. V, fig. 14 (r only).

1132. Tunis - 964 (in figures: presumably vu) - square dirhem.

As 1130.

Monchicourt p. 306.

Z1yan1d S1lver

struck in North Africa

by the Zanatah Berber rulers of western Algeria,

the Banii-Ziyan

in Naskhi script.

None reliably reported. Silver with Ziyanid inscriptions was probably struck by

Marinid rulers, and is therefore listed under that dynasty: 1147. Leo Africanus asserts that

Corpus of Coins: Mar1n1d S1lver 275

the later Ziyanids struck both silver and copper, and by analogy with the later Hafsids

this is probably correct, but such coins have not yet been recognized, if indeed any survive.

Mar1nid S1lver

struck in North Africa

by the Zanatah Berber rulers of Morocco,

the Banu-Marin

in Naskhi script.

abu-Yahyd Abu-Bakr ibn-'Abd-al-Haqq I

a.H. 642-656 a.d. 1244-1258

Anonymous silver struck presumably by this ruler and his successor, chiefly before the

conquest of Marrakush in a.h. 668 (a.d. 1269).

1133. (no mint) - square half dirhem.

OF MI<)IM RF |fSTk*

oil

if

<UI oil ^.i

V2211 (AV).

1134. (no mint) - square quarter dirhem.

OF as OF of 1133. RF oil

^f if

P 60: jJi for jj> in 1st line of rf (error ?).

abu-Yusuf Ya'qiib ibn-'Abd-al-Haqq I

a.H. 656-685 a.D. 1258-1286

Anonymous silver struck presumably by this ruler. See also anonymous silver listed

under Abu-Bakr 1133, 1134 but struck presumably by both rulers, chiefly before a.H. 668.

(no mint) - square dirhem.

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OF ~*J\ J\ oil RF ml Ml <)l M

<)lj JUsm Ja <Ul oil Jjj -Ust..

ml H\ <)I M U*U j ml

ml dy) -Use* J\ ytj

[ ? ] dill a)j jLl mj

0 2131: Ml for <)l in 3rd line of of (this and other misspellings visible on impression

furnished by Galster). Because of its errors and dupiicated inscriptions this coin must be

considered doubtful.

18*

276

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

1135. (no mint) - square half dirhem.

OF <u .d-l

Plate VIII

udUl

V 2128. P 59 (pi. vn). MA 704.

RF

abu-Ya'qiib Yiisuf ibn-Ya'qiib

a.H. 685-706

Anonymous silver struck presumably by this ruler.

1136. Sabtah - square quarter dirhem.

of <15" RF

a.D. 1286-1307

<fll

*Jb.J ill

(mint)

B 1365 ter.

1137. (no mint) - square half dirhem.

of as of of 1135. RF

Plate VIII

V 2118 (PG, AV 2 sp.). P 58 (pi. vn). BM V 157a (pi. m). BN II 767. MA 703 (3 sp.).

Bel p. 17 (fig. 2). B 1265 (pi. x1x): description incompiete.

1138. (no mint) - square quarter dirhem.

As 1136.

P 61. B p. 180. Mateu III 44 (pi. xvm, no. 12): of misread, corrected from piate.

1139. (no mint) - square quarter dirhem.

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of as of of 1135. RF ^1 Lj

V 2213 (AV). Mateu III 44 (pi. xvm, no. 16-18) (4 sp.).

1140. (no mint) - square eighth dirhem.

As 1139

V 2214 (AV 2 sp.).

abuH-Hasan 'Ali ibn-'Uthmdn II

a.h. 731-752

a.d. 1331-1351

First series: anonymous

1141. Sabtah - square half dirhem.

OF .oil Ml i)l M

RF

(mint)

0 2154. B p. 180 (7 sp.).

Corpus of Coins: MarLn1d S1lver

277

1142. Sijilmasah - square dirhem.

Plate VIII

As 1141.

HSA 13813.

1143. Sijilmasah - square half dirhem.

As 1141.

P 5sb (pi. v1). Bel p. 44 (fig. 25, 26). B p. 180 (8 sp.).

1144. Fas - square half dirhem.

As 1141.

ANS: mint uncertain. KM II719,726 ?(2sp. ?). 02155: mint uncertain. B p. 180 (100 sp.)

1145. (no mint) - square dirhem.

As 1141.

B 1364, 1365 (pi. xx1v) (337 sp. ?).

1146. (no mint) - square half dirhem.

As 1141.

V 2130 (PG 2 sp., AV 2 sp.). P 55a. KM II 777, 778, 779 ? (3 sp. ?). H6st: and N 14

(pi. xxxm). Adler:C 91. Tychsen, O. p. 124. Tychsen, T. p. 93. Moura 3 (fig.). S:Castro 425

(4 sp.). 0 2153.

See silver ascribed to Nasrids 1153 and succeeding rejected coins , which may

have been struck by this ruler.

Second series: anonymous with Nasrid inscription

Third series: anonymous with Ziyanid inscription

Struck after the conquest of Tilimsan in a.h. 737 (a.d. 1337).

1147. Tilimsan - square dirhem struck before a.h. 749.

As 1141 except 3rd line of of: oil ^,J\ U.

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P 56 (pi. v1). 0 2156: of largely illegible.

Plate VTII

abii-Sdlim Ibrahim ibn-'Ali

a.h. 760-762

Anonymous silver struck presumably by this ruler.

1148. (no mint) - square half dirhem.

of as of of 1135. RF

a.d. 1359-1361

Plate VIII

P 57 (pi. vn).

278 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

abiCl-Abbas Ahmad ibn-Ibrahim

a.H. 775-786, 789-796 a.D. 1373-1384. 1387-1393

1149. (no mint) - square half dirhem. Attribution tentative. Plate VIII

OF as OF of 1135. RF <Ul Jl6

V 2126 (AV): Cfl~ J>\ for t>ul-ll in 3rd line of rf (termed error by Prieto and Fasmer). P 104

(pi. x). S:Beyram 294. This coin differs from 1156 only in style.

abu-Zayd 'Abd-al-Rahman ibn-'Ali

sayyid at Marrakush

a.h. 776-784 a.d. 1374-1382

1150. (no mint) - square dirhem. Plate VIII

OF as OF of 1141. RF jf>Jl

P 92 (pi. 1x).

(no mint) - square dirhem.

As 1150 except 2nd line of of: <u\ Jj~j

V 2124 (PG). Probably a poor specimen of 1150 misread.

abu-Muhammad 'Abd-al-Haqq II ibn-'Uthman III

a.H. 823-869 a.D. 1420-1465

1151. (no mint) - square dirhem.

of as of of 1135. RF a-e

B p. 178: division into lines not indicated. The coins illustrated in Brethes pi. xxn under

no. 1319 and 1320, ascribed to 'Abd-al-Rahman for mints Fas and Miknasah, appear to be

almost illegible varieties of this coin in two quite different styles, with 1320 left the obverse

of which 1319 left is the reverse, and 1320 right the obverse of which 1319 right is the reverse.

1152. (no mint) - square dirhem. Attribution tentative.

OF i>j Lu ti| bj RF jil Jut j.\

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B p. 172: division into lines not indicated; ascribed to 'Abd-al-Haqq I.

Corpus of Coins: Nasrid S1lver

279

Nasrid Silver

struck in North Africa

by the Bami-Nasr

of Granada (Gharnatah).

The Nasrids controlled Sabtah from a.h. 705 to 709 and from 786 to 789. The ano-

nymous silver struck there, identical except for mint with much of their Spanish silver,

may belong to either or both of these periods, and hence to any or all of the following three

rulers.

abii-'Abd-Allah Muhammad III ibn-Muhammad II

a.h. 701-708 a.d. 1302-1309

abiPl-Juyiish Nar ibn-Muhammad II

a.H. 708-713 a.D. 1309-1314

* abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad V ibn-Yusuf I

a.H. 755-760, 763-793 a.D.1354-1359, 1362-1391

1153. Sabtah - square quarter dirhem. Plate VIII

of as of of 1133. RF Jk Mj

oil Ml

(mint)

V 2199 (PG 3 sp., AV 6 sp.). BN II 822 (pi. v1). Figanier 166 (2 sp.). Mateu III 44 (pi. xvm,

no. 8, 9) (16 sp.). Thorburn: j not legible in 1st line of rf.

Fas - square half dirhem.

As 1153 with at end of 2nd line of rf.

P 59 ter (p. 113). Naijrids never controlled Fas, so this coin must either be erroneously

reported or be a Marinid issue, struck perhaps by 'Ali, who struck gold with Naijrid legends.

Fas - square half dirhem.

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of as of of 1141. rf as rf of preceding rejected coin.

P 59 bis (p. 113). The same note appiies to this coin.

Wattasid S1lver

struck in North Africa

by the Zanatah Berber rulers of Morocco,

the Banu-Wattas

in Naskhi script.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad II ibn-Muhammad I

a.H. 910-932 a.d. 1504-1525

280 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

1154. (no mint) - square dirhem. Plate VIII

OF 4U Jui-l RF <ul a-c

B 1388 (pi. xxv).

abuH-Hasan 'Ali II ibn-Muhammad I

a.h. 932-932, 961-961 a.d. 1525-1526, 1554-1554

1155. (no mint) - square dirhem struck presumably in a.h. 932. Plate VIII

of jO*l RF <al.4c

B 1392, 1393 (pi. xxv: both) (2 sp.).

dbuH-'Abbas Ahmad ibn-Muhammad II

a.h. 932-952, 956-957 a.D- 1526-1545, 1549-1550

1156. (no mint) - square dirhem. Plate VIII

of as of of 1154. RF <ul Jl*

Host 15 (pi. xxx1n). B 1389-1391 (pi. xxv: all) (3 sp.): 1391 is clipped.

Ottoman S1lver

struck in North Africa before the Ottoman conquest

in the name of the Turkish sultans,

the Banu-'Uthman

of Istanbul (al-Qustantanah).

None reported which would come within the scope of this corpus, though the \

counterstamped on coin 1102 may be Ottoman.

COPPER

'Abbas1d Copper

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None reported which would come within the scope of this corpus.

Corpus of Coins: Copper

281

FiTiMiD Copper

None reported which would come within the scope of this corpus.

ZIrid Copper

None reported.

Hammadid Copper

None reported.

Hammudid Copper

struck in North Africa after a.h. 439 (a.d. 1047)

in the name of

the Banu-Hammiid

of Malaga (Malaqah)

or of their Barghawatah Berber governors

in Kuf1 script.

Saqaut ibn-Muhammad

governor at Sabtah

a.h. 453-471 a.d. 1061-1078

With heir

al-'Izz ibn-Saqaut

a.h. 453-471 a.d. 1061-1078

1157. Madinat Sabtah - (4)62 - pseudo-dirhem.

As 882.

BN II 503 (pi. n): jUll for olll in 5th line of of (error). MA 356: date uncertain, slightly

misread. D.Garcia 6076: several slight errors.

1158. Mad1nat Sabtah - (4)64 - pseudo-dirhem.

As 883.

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BN II 504 (pi. n): jU.1 for cWl in of (error).

282 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

1159. Madinat Sabtah - (4)65 - pseudo-dirhem.

As 884.

BN II 505, 506 ? (2 sp. ?): jLll for oUil in of, without sA on rf.

1160. Madinat Sabtah - (4)67 - pseudo-dirhem.

As 886.

MA 357. D .Garcia 6077. Cerda 278 ? largely illegible.

MurIbit Copper

struck in North Africa and Spain

by the Lamtiinah Berber rulers of

the Murabitun sect

in Kuf1 script.

Abu-Bakr ibn-'Umar

a.H. 448-480 a.D. 1056-1087

1161. Sijilmasah - 470 ? - pseudo-dinar.

As 41.

V 1434: date uncertain. MA 485: date given as 460 ? (corrected by Vives).

'.All ibn-Yusuf

a.H. 5oo-537 a.D. II06-II43

1162. Saraqustah - [5o]9 - pseudo-dirhem.

As 949.

MA 541.

1163. Ighranatah - 509 - pseudo-dinar.

As 243.

V 1611 (AV).

1164. Ighranatah - 520 - pseudo-dirhem.

As 952.

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BN II 595, 596 (2 sp.): J (?) b rf. KM II 647: J (?) b rf, date illegible. Tychsen, 0. p. 120:

mint illegible, probably this coin. Cerda 376: d, m only.

1165. Madinat Gharnatah - (no date) - pseudo-dirhem.

As 956.

ANS: ij a of and rf, b of and rf. BM V 66: & a of and rf, b of and rf; 67 (2 sp.).

KM II 646 (pi. m): a of and rf, ^ 6 of and rf. MA 542 (2 sp.): om misread, corrected

by Vives. Tychsen, O. p. 120: mint given as al-Andalus (error), probably this coin.

1166. Madinat Gharnatah - (no date) - pseudo-dirhem.

As 957.

MA 537.

Corpus of Coins: Copper

283

1167. [Mad1nat Mursiyah] - [508] - pseudo-dirhem.

As 970.

MA 536: margins illegible, probably this coin.

1168. Madinat ? - 5xx - pseudo-dirhem.

As 910.

BN II 597.

1169. (no mint) - (no date) - denomination not specified. Plate VIII

As 939 (electrum).

HSA 547: fragment. Fraehn:F 12: not described. Fraehn:iV p. 279, no. 7.

Muwahhid Copper

struck in North Africa

by the Kumiyah Berber rulers of

the Muwahhidiin sect

in Naskhi script.

None of the gilded copper dinars, reported by al-Marrakushi as minted to ransom 'Abd-al-

Mu'min's son 'Isa from his Arab captors, has been reported in any modern collection; the

anecdote may be apocryphal.

Anonymous.

1170. Fas - square pseudo-dirhem.

As 1096.

KM II 780.

1171. (no mint) - square pseudo-dirhem.

As 1101.

Blau :0 247a.

Hudid Copper

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None reported.

284 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Hafs1d Copper

struck in North Africa

by the Masmiidah Berber rulers of Tunisia and eastern Algeria,

the Banu-Hafs

in Naskh1 script.

abu-'Abd-Allah Muhammad I ibn-Yahyd I

a.h. 647-675 a.d. 1249-1277

1172.

Copper struck by this ruler is mentioned, but not described, by Ibn-Khaldun (Kitab

al-'ibar, Bulaq edition, vol. VI, p. 288). Al-Zarkashi (Ta'rikh al-daulatayn ..., Tunis ed.,

p. 29) ascribes it to a.h. 660 (a.d. 1261). It has not been identified in any modern collection.

abuH-' Abbas Ahmad III ibn-Muhammad VI

a.H. 948-977 a.D. 1542-1569

1173. Tunis (b of) - fels. Plate VTII

OF _^l> RF ^Ul y\

F.Hafsites 61 (pi. v).

1174. Tunis - fels.

OF [_>c] RF l

(mint) j

F.Hafsites 62.

B 1270 (pi. x1x) is a copper ornament, not a coin. The 3 fels noted by Babelon (p. lxx1)

as very common have not been identified. Plate VIII

Z1yIn1d Copper

None reported, except by Leo Africanus (see under Ziyanid silver).

Mar1n1d Copper

struck in North Africa

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by the Zanatah Berber rulers of Morocco,

the Banii-Marin.

None reliably reported. The following dated felses, ascribed to this dynasty, are

apparently Sharifian coins misread:

Corpus of Coins: Copper

Weyl:F 6497: date given as 678, probably 978.

0 2122: date given as 780, probably 980.

B 1321: date given as 690, probably 990.

The same is probably true of the 3 specimens noted at Jena by Vollers p. 5.

Nasr1d Copper

None reported struck in North Africa.

WattIsid Copper

None reported.

Ottoman Copper

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None reported which would come within the scope of this corpus.

NUMISMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY

WITH KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS

All the sources of coins noted in the corpus are here listed in alphabetical order of the

abbreviations by which they are indicated. In addition to published books and articles, the list

includes the collections in America to which I have had access, letters from scholars abroad, and

a few selected coin-dealers' auction catalogues. Relevant numismatic literature from which no

coins are derived are separately listed in the numismatic reference bibliography.

The sequence of the arrangement of references in the corpus is as follows: first, coins which

I have personally examined, including the collections of the American Numismatic Society, The

Hispanic Society of America, the University (of Pennsylvania) Museum, and the Metropolitan

Museum of Art; second, previous partial compilations, including Vives (Monedas de las dinastias

arabigo-espanolas) and Prieto (La reforma numismatica de los Almohades); third, the four great

public collections in Europe, those of the British Museum (catalogued by Lane-Poole, abbreviated

to BM), of the Bibliotheque Nationale (catalogued by Lavoix, BN), of the Museo Arqueologico

National (catalogued by Rada, MA), and of the Konigliche Museen (catalogued by Niitzel, KM);

fourth, all other published material in chronological order, including dealers' catalogues; and

finally, unpublished specimens which I have not personally examined.

Following each entry will be found a summary by dynasty and metal of the coins derived from

it for this corpus; each dynasty is indicated by the first three letters of its name (except the

Hammadids, spelled out to avoid confusion with the Hammudids), each metal is represented by

its initial letter. The figure to the left of a slanting line or standing alone indicates different

identifiable issues; the figure to the right of a slanting line indicates additional specimens re-

corded, whether dupiicates, rejected coins, or inadequately described coins which cannot be

identified.

Adler :C Jakob G.C. Adler, Collectio nova numorum cuficorum seu arabicorum veterum, CXVI

continens numos plerosque ineditos e museis Borgiano et Adleriano, Copenhagen, 1792. (Mur g 3;

Muw s 3/2; Mar s 1)

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Adler :M Jacob G.C. Adler, Museum Cuficum Borgianum Velitris, Rome, 1782. (Muw s 1)

Anderson P.K. Anderson's unpublished collection. (Mar g 1)

ANS American Numismatic Society's unpublished collection. (Zir g 1; Mur g 7, s 15/7, c 1;

Muw g 6/1, s 12/32; Haf g 3, s 2/1; Mar g 2, s 1)

Ashmolean Ashmolean Museum's unpublished collection; a coin presented by A.C. Kay and

described in letter from J.G. Milne. (Haf g 1)

B J.D. Brethes, Contribution a l'histoire du Maroc par les recherches numismatiques, Casablanca,

1939. (A superb private collection, inaccurately described and illegibly illustrated in the most

exasperating numismatic treatise ever published; Zir g 1; Mur g 147/30, s 23/20; Muw g 41/149

and 1 medal, s 19/15 and 5 amulets; Hud s 2/1; Haf g 27/5, s 1/1; Ziy g 9/3; Mar g 78/29

and 1 hybrid, s 9/451; Wat g 1, s 3/3)

Babelon Emest Babelon, Untitled note in Bulletin Archeologique du Comiti des Travaux

Historiques et Scientifiques (1891): LXX-LXXI. (Haf c -/3)

Numismatic bibliography

287

Balog Dr. Paul Balog's unpublished collection, described in letters to G.C. Miles and myself.

(Zir g 1; Mur g 3; Muw g -/3)

Bartholomaei J.deBartholomaei, "Troisime lettre ... M. F. Soret sur des monnaies koufi-

ques indites", in Revue de la Numismatique Belge 3:VI (1862) :23-1o5. (Mur g 2; Muw g 1)

Bel Alfred Bel, "Contribution l'tude des dirhems de l'poque almohade ...", iaHesprisXVI

(1933) :1-68. (Muw s 21/2; Hud s 2; Haf s 1; Mar s 2)

Berchem Max van Berchem, "Titres califiens d'occident propos de quelques monnaies

mrinides et ziyanides", in Journal Asiatique 1o:IX(19o7) :245~335. (A masterly study of

titles from numismatic and epigraphic evidence, to which I have ventured to offer a few

corrections; Ziy g 2/1)

Bergmann E. von Bergmann, "Zur muhammedanischen Munzkunde", in Zeitschrift der

Deutschen Morgenlndischen Gesellschaft XXIII (1869): 240-257. (Zir g 1)

Beylie L. de Beylie, La Kalaa des Beni-Hammad ..., Paris, 1909. (Hammadid g -/1)

Bigonet E. Bigonet, "Dinar hafside indit", in Revue Africaine XLV (1901): 97-100. (Haf g 1)

Blancard Louis Blancard, "Besants d'or et d'argent de Tunis au XIIIe sicle", in Annuaire

de la Socit Franaise de Numismatique XIX(1895) :5-14- (Muw s 1; Haf g 1)

Blau:2V Otto Blau, "Nachlese orientalischer Mnzen", in Numismatische Zeitschrift VI/VII

(1874/5) :1-21; VIII(1876):45-76. (Zir g 1/2)

Blau:0 O(tto) Blau, Die orientalischen Mnzen des Museums der Kaiserlichen Historisch-

Archologischen Gesellschaft zu Odessa, Odessa, 1876. (Muw s 1, c 1)

BM IV Stanley Lane(-)Poole, Catalogue of oriental coins in the British Museum; vol. IV - The

coinage of Egypt, London, 1879. (Zir g 2)

BM V Stanley Lane(-)Poole, Catalogue of oriental coins in the British Museum; vol. V - The

coins of the Moors of Africa and Spain and the kings and imams of the Yemen, London, 1880.

(Mur g 47/3, s 18/11, c 1/1; Muw g 21/14 and 2 hybrids, s 10/26; Haf g 7/2, s 2/1; Ziy g 2;

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Mar g 47/12 and 2 hybrids, s 1)

BM IX Stanley Lane-Poole, Catalogue of oriental coins in the British Museum; vol. IX -

Additions to the oriental collection, 1876-1888; part I, London, 1889. (Ham s -/1)

BM X Stanley Lane-Poole, Catalogue of oriental coins in the British Museum; vol. X - Additions

to the oriental collection, 1876-1888; part II, London, 1890. (Several emendations of BM V

and BM X were kindly suppiied in a letter from the present curator, John Walker, who

reports that there have been no additions to the oriental collections since their compilation;

Mur g 17, s 2; Muw g 5/1, s 3/2; Haf g 3/1; Mar g 39/4 and 2 hybrids; Wat g 1)

BN II Henri Lavoix, Catalogue des monnaies musulmanes de la Bibliothque Nationale; vol. II -

Espagne et Afrique, Paris, 1891. (Several emendations were kindly suppiied by G.C. Miles;

Zir g 1 ; Ham c 3/1 ; Mur g 112/6, s 20/11, c 2/1 ; Muw g 16/4 and 2 hybrids, s 14/18; Haf g 39/10

and 2 hybrids, s 1/1; Ziy g 9; Mar g 36/11 and 2 imitations, s 1; Nas s 1)

BN III Henri Lavoix, Catalogue des monnaies musulmanes de la Bibliothque Nationale; vol. III

- gypte et Syrie, Paris, 1896. (Zir g 2)

Boneschi Paulo Boneschi, "Problemas de numismatica e metrologia magribinas", in Revista

degli Studi Orientali X(1925) :377-4o6. (Chiefly important as a reference work on metrology;

Muw s 2)

Brooke G.C. Brooke, "A brief survey of the coinage of Africa and Australasia", in J.G. Bar-

tholomew, A literary and historical atlas of Africa and Australasia (pp.65-92), London, (n.d.).

(Mur g 1)

Brosselard C. Brosselard, "Mmoire pigraphique et historique sur les tombeaux des mirs

Beni-Zeiyn in Journal Asiatique 7 :VII(1876) :5-197- (Chiefly important for epigraphy;

288

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Brosset M. Brosset, "Collection numismatique orintale de l'Ermitage Imperial, 1852-1879",

in Bulletin de l'A cadmie Impriale des Sciences de Saint Ptersbourg XXV(1879) :col. 391-409.

(Mur g 2/1; Mar g -/1)

C.Cecas F(rancisco) Codera (y Zaidin), "ecas arbigo-espaolas", in Revista de Archivos,

Bibliotecas, y Museos 1 :IV(1874) :195-197, 211-214, 227-230, 342-344. 358-360, 374~377-

(Mur g 1, s 1; Muw g 1)

^.Decadencia Francisco Codera (y Zaidin), Decadencia y desaparicidn de los Almorvides en

Espaa, Saragossa, 1899. (Mur g 4, s 7)

C.Donativo Francisco Codera (y Zaidin), "Donativo de monedas rabes ... por D. Francisco

Caballero Infante", in Boletin de la Real Academia de la Historia X(1887) .17-26. (Mur g 3)

C:Estudio Francisco Codera (y Zaidin), "Estudio crtico sobre la historia y monedas de los

Hammudies de Malaga y Algeciras", in Museo Espaol de Antigiiedades VIII(1877) :421-49.

(A valuable monograph; Ham s 2)

C:Familia Francisco Codera (y Zaidin), Familia real de los Beni Texufin, Saragossa, 1903.

Reprinted in his Estudios criticos ...; second series (pp. 75-165), Madrid, 1917. (Mur g 1)

C.Hammudies Francisco Codera (y Zaidin), "Hammudies de Malaga y Algeciras: noticias

tomadas de aben Hazam", in Boletin de la Real Academia de la Historia XII(1888): 479-489.

(Ham s -/1)

C.Lebrija Francisco Codera (y Zaidin), "Dos monedas rabes de oro halladas en Lebrija", in

Boletin de la Real Academia de la Historia LXII(1913) :564-565. (Muw g 2)

C:Monedas (Francisco Codera y Zaidin), "Monedas rabes adquiridas para el Museo Arqueolo-

gico National en Crdoba y Sevilla", in Annuario del Cuerpo Facultativo de Archiveros,

Bibliotecarios, y Anticuarios II(1882) :379-382. (Mur g 16, s 1/12)

C: Tratado Francisco Codera y Zaidin, Tratado de numismdtico ardbigo-espaola, Madrid, 1879.

(The first competent survey of the coinage of the Arabs in Spain, to which all succeeding

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scholars owe a real debt; Mur g 6, s 11; Muw g 3, s 3)

Caballero Francisco Caballero-Infante, Estudio sobre las monedas drabes de Denia, Denia, 1889.

(Mur g 11)

Calvo I(gnacio) Calvo and C(asto) M(aria) del Rivero, Catdlogo-guia de las colecciones de

monedas ... en el Museo Arqueoldgico Nacional, Madrid, 1925. (A tantalizing summary of the

numbers of coins of each dynasty, dispersed during the civil war; Mur g 2/369, s -/322,

c -/26; Muw g -/64, s 1/2116)

Campaner:M Alvaro Campaner (y Fuertes), Monedas propias de las islas baleares acuadas por

los dominadores islamitas, Palma de Mallorca, 1879. (Condensed version of next entry; Muw s 2)

Campaner :2V Alvaro Campaner y Fuertes, Numismdtica balear, Palma de Mallorca, 1879.

(Muw s 2)

Casanova P(aul) Casanova, Inventaire sommaire de la collection des monnaies musulmanes de

S. A. la Princesse Ismail, Paris, 1896. (Zir g 1; Muw s 1/7)

Castiglioni (Cario Ottavio Castiglioni), Monete cufiche de' I. R. Museo di Milano, Milan, 1819.

(Mur s 1; Muw g 1, s 3/1)

Cerd M. Cerd de Villarestan, Catdlogo de las monedas ardbigo-espaolas, Madrid, 1861.

(Ham c 1; Mur g 39, s 4/15, c 1; Muw g 6, s 7/3; Haf g -/1; Mar g -4)

Chalon R(en) Chalon, "Souvenir des croisades; quart de dinar trouv prs d'Ypres", in Revue

de la Numismatique Belge 4 :V(1867) :389-392. (Haf g 1)

Cimino Guido Cimino, "Storia e numismtica delT Africa del Nord", in Libya III(1927):

202-227. (Mur g -/3; Muw g 1/1 and 1 hybrid, s -/2; Haf g 1/3)

Codrington, H. :Ceylon H(umphrey) W(illiam) Codrington (edited by Joseph Pearson), Ceylon

coins and currency, Colombo, 1924. (Muw g 1)

Numismatic Bibliography

289

Codrington, H. :Colombo H(umphrey) W(illiam) Codrington, Catalogue of coins in the Colombo

Museum; part I - Muhammadan and European, Hertford, 1914. (Muw g 1)

Codrington, 0. O(liver) Codrington, Some rare and unedited Arabic and Persian coins, Hertford,

1889. (Haf g 1)

Colson Colson, "Notes sur les dinars trouvs, en 1851, dans l'ancienne chapelle du Monastre

Del-Camp", in Revue Numismatique 1:XVIII (1853) :240-243. (Mur g 28/37)

Cond Josef Antonio Cond, "Memoria sobre la moneda arbiga y en especial la acufiada en

Espana por los principes musulmanes", in Memorias de la Real Academia de la Historia

V(1817) :225-314. (A pioneer work in the field but of little present value; Mur g 4, s 9/1;

Muw g 3, s 2; Haf g 1; Mar g 1)

Cottevieille R. Cottevieille-Giraudet, "La collection Decourdemanche (monnaies musulmanes)

au Cabinet des Mdailles", in Revue Numismatique 4:XXXVII(1934) :199-219; 4:XXXVIII

(1935) :19-46, 197-229. (Muw s 1)

Cunha II J. Gerson da Cunha, Catalogue of the coins in the numismatic cabinet; part II, Bombay,

1889. (Mur g 1)

D.Garcia Antonio Delgado, "Monnaies arabes", in Joseph Gaillard, Description des monnaies

espagnoles ... du cabinet de D. Jos Garcia de la Torre (pp. 344-418), Madrid, 1852. (Ham

c 2/3; Mur g 4, s 23/21 ; Muw g 6/4, s 6/61 ; Hud g 1; Haf g 5/3; Mar g 4/18, s -/1)

D .Lorichs Antonio Delgado, Catalogue des monnaies ... de Mr. Gustave Daniel de Lorichs ....

Madrid, 1857. (Mur g 13/1, s -/20; Muw g 3 and 1 hybrid, s 3/12; Ziy g 1)

Demaeght Louis Demaeght, "Contribution au recueil des monnaies frappees sous les dynasties

musulmanes du nord de l'Afrique", in Bulletin Trimestriel de la Socit de Gographie et

d'Archologie d'Oran VII(1887) :63~75, 124-136, 235-239; VIII(1888) :241-246, 293-298;

IX(1889) :199-203; X(189o) :225-232. (Mur g 1; Muw g 1 ; Ziy g 5; Mar g 5)

Dieulafoy (Marcel) Dieulafoy, "(Monnaies d'or de l'poque almohade)", in Comptes Rendus des

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Sances; Institut de France; Acadmie des Inscriptions et Belleis-Letres (1905) :56-58. (Muw

g I/I39)

Dombay Franz von Dombay, "Abhandlung ber die marokkanischen Gold-, Silber- und

Kupfer-Mnzen in (Eichhorn's) Allgemeine Bibliothek der Biblischen Litteralur VIII

(1797/9)761-792. (Mur s 3; Muw s 2/1; Mar g 3/2)

Dorn:^4 (Bernhard) Dorn, Das Asiatische Museum der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissen-

schaften zu St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, 1846. (Mur g 2)

Dorn I (Bernhard) Dorn, Inventaire des monnaies des khalifes orientaux et de plusieurs autres

dynasties; part 1 - Classes I-IX, St. Petersburg, 1877. (Mur g 10/7; Muw s 1/8)

Dorn II (Bernhard) Dorn, Inventaire des monnaies des khalifes orientaux et de plusieurs autres

dynasties; part 2 - Classes X-XXV, St. Petersburg, 1881. (Haf g 1; Mar g 1)

Eichhorn J.G. Eichhorn, "Nachtrag zu Reiske's Briefen tiber das arabische Mnzwesen", in

Repertorium fur Biblischen und Morgenlndischen Literatur XVII(1785) :209-284; XVIII

(1786):1-78. (Mur g-/2)

F.Dragut J. Farrugia de Candia, "Monnaies frappees Tripoli et Gafsa par Dragut", in

Revue Tunisienne NS:VII(1936): 85-92. (Muw s 1)

F.Fatimites J. Farrugia de Candia, "Monnaies fatimites du muse du Bardo", in Revue

Tunisienne NS:VII(1936) :334-372; NS:VIII(1937):89-136. (Zir g 7/2, s 1)

F.Fatimites II J. Farrugia de Candia, "Monnaies ftimites du muse du Bardo: premier

suppiment", in Revue Tunisienne 3:I(1948): 103-130. (Zir g 6)

F.Hafsites J. Farrugia de Candia, "Monnaies haf sites du muse du Bardo", in Revue Tuni-

sienne NS:IX(1938):231-288. (An excellent monograph; emendations kindly furnished by

letter; Muw s 2/1; Haf g 44/18 and 1 hybrid, s I, c 2; Mar g 9/53)

19

290

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

F :Soma J. Farrugia de Candia, "Monnaies espagnoles et hafsites trouves a Soma", in Revue

Tunisienne NS:XI(1o4o) :55-58. (Haf s 6/53)

Farrugia Unpublished letters from J. Farrugia de Candia. (Zir g 6)

Fasmer I R(ichard) Vasmer, "Zwei neue Biicher iiber spanisch-arabische Numismatik; part I"

(review of Prieto: Reforma), in Zeitschrift fur Numismatik XXXVIII (1928) :206-222. (Muw s 2)

Figanier Joaquim Figanier, Moedas drabes: part I (711-1492); Museu Numismdtico Portugues,

Lisbon, 1949. (emendations kindly furnished by letter; Mur g 7, s 3/1; Muw g 2, s 2/28;

Nas s 1/1)

Fleischer H.L. Fleischer, "Vermischtes; no. 5", in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlndischen

Gesellschaft XV(1861) :387-388. (Mur g 1)

Fraehn:B Ch(ristian) M(artin) Fraehn, "Inedita aus der orientalischen Miinzsammlung des

H(err)n v(on) Bose in Leipzig", in Bulletin Scientifique IV(1838) :col. 246-250. (Mur g 3)

Fraehn:N Ch(ristian) M(artin) Fraehn, Nova supplementum ad recensionem numorum muham-

medanorum ..., St. Petersburg, 1855. (Mur g 6, c 1; Muw s 1; Mar g 1)

Fraehn:0 Chr(istian) M(artin) Fraehn, Opusculorum postumorum; vol. II, St. Petersburg, 1877.

(Mur g 2)

Fraehn:R Ch(ristian) M(artin) Fraehn, Recensio numorum muhammedanorum Academiae Imp.

Scient. Petropolitanae, St. Petersburg, 1826. (A great pioneering work in Islamic numismatics,

but with little of the western dynasties; Muw g 1, s 2)

Fraehn:F Ch(ristian) M(artin) Fraehn, "Verzeichniss der ... verehrten Miinzen", in Bulletin

Historico-Philologique III(1847) :246-252. (Mur c 1)

Friedlaender J. Friedlaender, "Die Erwerbungen des Miinzkabinets im Jahre 1881", in Zeit-

schrift fur Numismatik X(1883) :1-8. (Haf g -/2)

G L.J.G., "Monnaies arabes trouvees dans le Dauphine", in Revue Archologique II(1845) :182.

(Mur g 2)

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Geitlin Gabriel Geitlin, "Beskrifning ofver Kejserl. Alexanders-Universitets in Finland

Muhammedanska myntsammling", in Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae VII(1863):

161-343. (Muw s 1)

Gonzalez Angel Gonzalez-Palencia, Historia de la Espana musulmana (4th ed.), Barcelona,

1945. (Mur g 2/1, s -/1; Muw g 2, s 1)

Grotefend C.L. Grotefend, "Souvenirs numismatiques des croisades", (translated by J. Dirks

from original in Zeitschrift des Historischen Vereins fur Niedersachsen (1853) :414~417) in

Revue de la Numismatique Beige 3 :V(1861) :242-248. (Muw g 1)

Guillen Francisco Guillen Robles, "Numismatica malaguefia", in his Malaga Musulmana

(pp. 373-428), Malaga, 1880. (Ham s 1; Muw s 1)

Holu (Izzet Holu), Monnaies anciennes musulmanes, Constantinopie, 1901. (Muw g 1)

Host :E Georg Host, Efterretninger om Marokos og Fes ..., Copenhagen, 1779. (Mur g 2, s 1;

Muw s 1; Mar g 2, s 1; Wat s 1)

H6st:iV Georg Host, Nachrichten von Morokos und Fes, Copenhagen, 1781. (Translation of

preceding entry, with identical piates)

HSA Hispanic Society of America unpublished collection on deposit at American Numismatic

Society. (The finest collection in the western hemisphere of coins of Spain and associated

countries, including Arabic coins of Spain and North Africa; Ham s 2; Mur g 31/1, s 20/27,

c 1; Muwg 14/10, s 16/134; Hud s 1; Haf s 1/1; Ziy g 1; Mar g 7, s 1)

Ibn-Abi-Zar' I bn-Abi-Zar' (edited by Carolus Johannes Tornberg), Kitab al-anis al-mufrib biraud

al-qirfas ..., Upsala, 1843. (A basic historical source with incidental mention of coins; Muwg 1)

Ibn-Khaldun Ibn-Khaldun, Kitab al-Hbar, Bulaq, a.h. 1284 (a.d. 1867/8). (A basic historical

source with incidental mention of coins; Zir g 1; Hammadid g 1; Haf c 1)

Numismatic Bibliography

291

J .Gold J.M.C. Johnston, "Gold coins of the Muwahhids", in Numismatic Chronicle 4:II(1902):

77-80. (Muw g 19/277)

J :Mohammedan J.M.C. Johnston, "Mohammedan coins", in Numismatic Chronicle 3:XIX

(1899) :265-268. (Mur g 3)

KM II (Heinrich Nutzel), Katalog der orientalischen Miinzen; vol. II - Die Mtinzen der musli-

mischen Dynastieen Spaniens und des westlichen Nordafrika; Konigliche Museen zu Berlin,

Berlin, 1902. (One of the great European collections, now presumably dispersed; Zir g 2;

Mur g54/5, s 21/21, c 2; Muwg11/3 and 1 hybrid, s 15/64, c 1; Haf g7/1, s1/1; Marg5, s 2/3)

Krehl Ludolf Krehl, De numis muhammadanis in Numophylacio Regio Dresdensi, Leipzig, 1856.

(Muw s 2/4)

L: Bodleian Stanley Lane-Poole, Catalogue of the Mohammadan coins preserved in the Bodleian

Library at Oxford, Oxford, 1888. (These coins are now in the Ashmolean Museum, the curator

of which, Mr. J.G. Milne, kindly suppiied me with photographs; Muw s 2/1)

L.Calvert Stanley Lane-Poole, "Fasti Arabici; II - Mr. Calvert's collection", in Numismatic

Chronicle 3 :V(1885) :229-236. Reprinted in his Some private collections of Mohammadan

coins, and other essays in oriental numismatics (pp. 9-16), London, 1892. (Mur g 5; Muw s 1/1;

Mar g 1)

L.Inedited Stanley Lane(-)Poole, "Inedited Arabic coins - I", in Journal of the Royal Asiatic

Society NS:VII(1875) :243-261. Reprinted in his Essays in oriental numismatics; 2nd series

(pp. 1-19), London, 1877. (Muw g 1)

L:Johnston S(tanley) Lane-Poole, "Fasti Arabici; VII - Mr. J.M.C. Johnston's cabinet, etc.",

in Numismatic Chronicle 3:XII(1892):16o-173. Reprinted with L:Calvert (pp. 51-64).

(Muw s 1/1)

L:Khedivial Stanley Lane-Poole, Catalogue of the collection of Arabic coins preserved in the

Khedivial Library at Cairo, London, 1897. (Mur g 5, s 1; Muw g 6, s 2/10; Haf g 1; Ziy g 1;

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Mar g 2/2)

h.Muwahhids Stanley Lane(-)Poole, "On the coins of the Muwahhids in the British Museum",

in Numismatic Chronicle 2:XIII(1873) :147-170. (The first important monograph in this

field by the great British numismatist; Muw g 8/8 and 2 hybrids, s 6/19; Haf s 1)

L:Oriental Stanley Lane-Poole, "Oriental coins at Christ Church, Oxford", in Numismatic

Chronicle 3:VI(1886): 233-238. Reprinted with L:Calvert (pp. 29-34). (Mur g 3)

Lagumina Bartolomeo Lagumina, Catalogo delle monete arabe esistenti nella Biblioteca Communale

di Palermo, Palermo, 1892. (Mur g 1; Muw g 2, s 2; Haf g 3)

Lavoix:H Henri Lavoix, "Memoires sur les monnaies frappees par les Beni-Hafss", in Revue

Archologique 1 :IX(1852) :257-275. (The first important monograph in this field by the great

French numismatist; Haf g 10 and 1 hybrid; Mar g 1)

Leite J. Pereira Leite Netto, Catalogo das moedas arabes existentes no Museu Municipal

Portuense, Lisbon, 1882. (Mur g 1; Muw g 1/1, s 2/3)

Lisbon Museo EtnokSgico unpublished collection, described in a letter by Joaquim Figanier.

(Mur g 4/1, s 3; Muw g 1/1, s 6/2)

London "Old coins exhumed in London", in American Journal of Numismatics XIII(1879):

92-93. (Mur g 1/1)

Longperier:/! Adrien de Longperier, "Histoire de l'art monetaire chez les modernes ... par

les monuments", in Tresor de numismatique et de glyptique, Paris, 1846. (Mur g 1; Muw s 1;

Hafg2)

Longperier:D Adrien de Longperier, Documents numismatiques pour servir a l'histoire des

Arabes d'Espagne; programme, Paris, 1851. Reprinted in his Oeuvres (vol. I, pp. 417-434),

Paris, 1883. (Mur g 41/1, s 3/15)

19*

22

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Lopes David Lopes, "Algumas moedas arabes da Peninsula encontradas no Algarve", in O

Archeologo Portugus I(1895) :97-103. (Mur s 2)

MA Juan de Dios de la Rada y Delgado, Catdlogo de monedas arbigas espanolas que se conservan

en el Museo Arqueolgico National, Madrid, 1892. (Formerly one of the great European

collections, dispersed during the civil war; Ham c 2/3; Mur g 66/20, s 52/89, c 5/1; Muw

g 12/17 and 2 hybrids, s 27/5176; Hud s 1/3; Mar s 2/2)

Maguelonne J. Maguelonne, "Pices d'or de l'poque berbre trouves Bougie", in Recueil

des Notices et Mmoires de la Socit Archologique, Historique, et Gographique de Constantine

4:X(1907) :21-27- (Muw g 2)

Marais Georges Marais, "Un coin montaire almoravide du Muse Stphane Gsell", in Annales

de l'Institut d'tudes Orientales II(1936) :18o-188. (Important for minting technique; Mur g 1)

Marcel Jean-Joseph Marcel, Numismatique orientale: tableau gnral des monnaies ayant cours

en Algrie, Paris, 1844. (Muw s -/1)

Mareschal H.-R. Mareschal, "Dinar et quart de dinar du souverain de la famille des BeniZian,

Abou el-Abbs Ahmed ben Abi Hammou Mousa II, qui rgna Tlemcen, de 1431 1462",

in Bulletin Archologique (1925):307-311. (Ziy g 2/4)

Markov :E A(lexei) Markov, Inventarniy katalog musulmanskikh monet; Imperatorskago

Ermitazha, St. Petersburg, 1896. (This great Russian collection had relatively few western

coins; they are merely listed by mint and date; Mur g 40/4, s -/15; Muw g 3, s 4/4; Haf g

-/1; Mar g -/3)

Markov : T A(lexei) Markov, Topografiya kladov vostochnikh monet (sasanidskikh i kuficheskikh),

St. Petersburg, 1910. (Mur g 1)

Marsden William Marsden, Numismata orientalia illustrata; vol. I, London, 1823. (Mur g 7,

s 1; Muw s 1; Haf g 2)

Mateu F(elipe) Mateu y Llopis, Adquisiciones en 1931; Monetario que perteneci a Don Basilio

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Sebastin Castellanas; Museo Arqueolgico National, Madrid, 1931. (Mur g -/1)

Mateu I Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Hallazgos numismticos musulmanes", in al-Andalus

XII(1947) :481-484. (Mur g 1; Muw g 3)

Mateu II Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Hallazgos numismticos musulmanes", in al-Andalus

XIV(1949) :201-207- (Muw g 2)

Mateu III Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Hallazgos numismticos musulmanes", in al-Andalus

XV(195o) :218-226, 486-490. (Mar s 2/3; Nas s 1/15)

Mateu IV Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Hallazgos numismticos musulmanes", in al-Andalus

XVI (1951):205-21o.

Metropolitan Metropolitan Museum of Art unpublished collection. (Mar g 2)

Miles George C. Miles, Ftimid coins: Numismatic notes and monographs no. 121, New York,

1951. (Zir g 1)

Moeller J.H. Moeller, De numis orientalibus in Numophylacio Gothano asservatis; part I -

Numos chalifarum et dynastiarum cu/icos exhibens, Gotha, 1826. (Muw s 1)

Monchicourt Ch. Monchicourt, "Etudes kairouanaises, IV", in Revue Tunisienne NS :IV(1933):

285-319. (Haf s 3)

Moura Jos de Santo Antonio Moura, "Memoria de cinco medalhas Africanas", in Historia e

Memorias da Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa X(1827):9-15. (Muw s 2; Mar s 1)

Moyse Camille Moyse, "Contribution l'tude de la numismatique musulmane", in Revue

Numismatique 4:XVI(1912) :41o-418, 500-506. (Ziy g 4; Mar g 3)

Mller A(ugust) Mller, Katalog der Bibliothek der Deutschen Morgenlndischen Gesellschaft;

vol. II - Handschriften, Inschriften, Miinzen, Medaillen, Verschiedenes, Leipzig, 1881. (Coins

read by Adolf Erman; Mur s 1)

Numismatic Bibliography

293

Munter (Friedrich C. Munter), Museum Miinterianum; part III - Numos byzantinorum alio-

rumque ... continent, Copenhagen, 1839. (Mur s 2/1; Muw s -/11)

Nasir Nair al-Naqshaband1, "Nuqd andalusiyah min Ishbaniyah", in Sumer VII(1951):

Arabic 70-78. (Mur s 4; Muw s 1/2)

Nesselmann G(eorg) H(einrich) F(erdinand) Nesselmann, Die orientalischen Miinzen des

akademischen Miinzcabinets in Konigsberg, Leipzig, 1858. (Muw s 1)

0 J. 0strup, Catalogue des monnaies rabes et turques du Cabinet Royal des Mdailles du Muse

National de Copenhague, Copenhagen, 1938. (corrected from impressions kindly furnished by

GeorgGalster; Zirg2; Murg22, sn/4; Muwg4/1,s9/u; Haf g3,s2/1; Ziyg1 ;Marg3/5,54/1)

P A(ntonio) Prieto y Vives, "La reforma numismtica de los Almohades", in Misceldnea de

estudios y textos drabes (pp. 11-114), Madrid, 1915. (An excellent survey of part of this

coinage; Muw g 60, s 32; Hud g 2, s 4; Haf g 12; Mar g 107 and 3 hybrids, s 10; as S-/2)

T.Granadina Antonio Prieto (y Vives), Numismdtica granadina, Madrid, 1932. (as g 1)

P:Misceldnea Antonio Prieto y Vives, "Miscelnea numismtica", in al-Andalus III(1935):

127-133. (Zir g 1)

P:Reyes Antonio Prieto y Vives, Los reyes de taifas, Madrid, 1926. (Ham s 12; Mur s 19)

Pedersen J. Pedersen Myntkatalog, Bors, 1943. (Mur s 5/2)

Rivero :4 Casto M(ari)a del Rivero and Felipe Mateu y Llopis, Adquisiciones en 1932; Collec-

ciones de numismdtica y de gliptica; Museo Arqueoldgico Nacional, Madrid, 1933. (Muw g 1;

Ziy g 1; Mar g 1)

Rivero: Casto M(ari)a del Rivero, "El arte monetario en la Espaa musulmana", in Revista

de Archivos, Bibliotecas, y Museos LIV(1948) :51-72. (Mur g 2, s 13/1; Muw g 4/1, s 2/1)

Rivero:M Casto M(ari)a del Rivero, La moneda ardbigo-espaola, Madrid, 1933. (Mur g 10,

s 12; Muw g 6, s 5; Haf g 2; Ziy g 1; Mar g 1) \

Rodgers Cha(rle)s J(ames) Rodgers, Catalogue of the coins of the 1ndian Museum; part 4,

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Calcutta, 1896. (Mur g 1; Muw g 1)

Romero Toms Romero de Castilla, Inventario de las monedas coleccionadas en el Museo de la

Comisidn de Monumentos de (Badajoz), Badajoz, 1897. (Mur g -/1)

S:Beyram J(acques) Schulman, Collection de Mr. Moustapha Beyram Bey ..., Amsterdam,

1909. (All entries under Schulman are auction catalogues prepared with unusual competence;

Zir g 1; Mur g 3; Muw g 3, s 3/1; Mar s 1)

S:Castro J(acques) Schulman, "Collection Camilo G. de Castro", in Catalogue des riches

collections ... de Castro ... AureU ... Oosterman, Amsterdam, 1912. (Mur s 10; Muw g 2,

s6; Marg-/1, s 1/3)

S:Ciscar J(acques) Schulman, Collection Ciscar y Montolin ..., Amsterdam, 1910. (Mur g 1,

s 1; Muw g 3/2, s 1)

S:Comte J(acques) Schulman, Catalogue d'une superbe collection ... de feu Monsieur le Comte

de L., Amsterdam, 1929. (Muw g 1)

S:Dodgson J(acques) Schulman, "Collection Gnral Sir D. Scott Dodgson, K.C.B.", in

Catalogue illustr des collections ... Dodgson ... et ... gentleman ..., Amsterdam, 1908.

(Mur g 1)

S:Gotha J(acques) Schulman, "Collection de feu le prince Philippe de Saxe-Cobourg-Gotha",

in Catalogue des collections ... Bucknill, ... Henderson, ... Vogel, ... amateur ..., Philippe

..., Amsterdam, 1928. (Mur g 8; Muw g 6; Haf g 2; Mar g 4)

S.Grantley J(acques) Schulman, "Collections ... diverses", in Catalogue de la grande collection

... Grantley ..., Amsterdam, 1921. (Mur g 2; Muw g 1)

S .Judicell J(acques) Schulman, Collection Joaquim Jos Judicedos Santos;part 2, Amsterdam,

1906. (Ham s 1; Mur g 8, s 10/2; Muw g 4, s 14/99; Haf s 1/1)

2Q4

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

S:Judice III J(acques) Schulman, Collection Joaquim Jos Judice dos Santos; part 3, Amster-

dam, 1906. (Mar g -/2)

S:Karabaczek J(acques) Schulman, "Collection de ... von Karabaczek ...", in Catalogue illu-

str des collections ... Oliver ... von Karaback (sic) ... Bourdillon, Amsterdam, 1907. (Mur

g 1; Muwg 7/1; Hud g 1; Haf g 3; Mar g 3)

S :Michael I J(acques) Schulman, "Collection Ithiel J. Michael", in Catalogue des collections .. .

Bleazby, ... Straus(s) ..., et ... Michael ..., Amsterdam, 1913. (Mur g 2; Muw g 2)

S:Michael II J(acques) Schulman, Catalogue des collections numismatiques de M. Ithiel-

J. Michael ... Moos ... Porter, Amsterdam, 1914. (Mur g 4/2)

S:White J(acques) Schulman, Collection White King; 3rd part, Amsterdam, 1905. (Mur g 6;

Muw g 5, s 2/1; Haf g 1; Mar g 4)

Sacy (Antoine Isaac) Silvestre de Sacy, "Mmoire sur quelques monnaies arabes en or des

Almohades et des Mrinites", in Journal des Savants (1837) :530-545. (Muw g 5/2; Haf g 2)

Sallet Alfred von Sallet, Miinzen und Medaillen, Berlin, 1898. (Muw g 1)

Sawaszkiewicz L(opold) L(on) Sawaszkiewicz, Le gnie de l'orient, comment par ses monu-

ments montaires, Brussels, 1846. (Mur g 2/3, s -I4, c -/1; Muw g 1, s -/2)

Schiepati (Giuseppe Schiepati), Descrizione di alcune monete cufiche del museo di Stejano de

Mainoni, Milan, 1820. (Zir g 4; Muw s 1)

Seaby B.A. Seaby, Ltd., Coin and medal bulletin # 368 (1949). (Other coins catalogued by

this dealer are either dupiicates of listed issues or insufficiently described; Murg1;

Mar g 1)

Seco Luis Seco de Lucena, "Hallazgos de monedas arabes", in al-Andalus XIV(1949) :467-469.

(Muw g 2/3, s 1; Haf g 1)

Sentenach Narciso Sentenach, "El maravedi: su grandeza y decadencia", in Revista de Ar-

chivos, Bibliotecas, y Museos XII(1905):195-220. (Mur g 1)

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Soret:/? F(rdric) Soret, "Lettre M. le Colonel aux Gardes de Bartholomae ... ; part 2",

in Revue de la Numismatique Belge 3:II(1858) :217-2o, 476. (Mur s 2; Mar g 1)

Soret .D F(rdric) Soret, "Lettre M. le Conseiller d'tat de Dorn ... ; part 2", in Revue de la

Numismatique Belge 2 :VI(1856) :129-177. (Mur g 1, s 3; Muw s 1; Haf g 1)

Soret .F Frdric Soret, "Lettre S. E. Monsieur le Conseiller d'tat actuel de Fraehn ...",

in Mmoires de la Socit Impriale d'Archologie de St. Ptersbourg V(1851) :41-66, 179-214,

310-327. (Zir g 2 ; Mur g 4, s -/2; Muw g 1 ; Hud s 1 ; Haf g 2 ; Ziy g 1 ; Mar g 3)

Soret :K F(rdric) Soret, "Lettre Mr. le Dr. L. Krehl ... sur quelques monnaies orientales

... ", in Zeitschriff t der Deutschen Morgenlndischen Gesellschaft XIX(1865) :544-561. (Hud s 1)

Soret:/? Frdric Soret, "Trois lettres sur des monnaies cufiques ... du Muse de Genve;

I - Lettre M. Reinaud ... ", in Mmoires et Documents de la Socit d'Histoire et d'Archologie

de Genve I(1841) :54-63. (Mur s 1)

Soret:S F(rdric) Soret, "Lettre M. Sawelief in Revue de la Numismatique Belge

2:IV(1854):273-299, 377-416. (Mur g 2)

Sotheby Sotheby, Wilkinson, and Hodge, Catalogue of the collection of ... Mohammedan coins

... of the late J.M.C. Johnston ..., London, 1906. (Mur g 11, s 2/13; Muw g 18/10, s -/12;

Haf g -/2; Ziy g -/2; Mar g 3/8)

Spink Spink and Son, Ltd., "Catalogue of coins and medals for sale", in Monthly Numismatic

Circular, 1893-1950. (Mur g 12/10 ; Muw g 16/44, s 1 ; Haf g 1 ; Ziy g-/2; Mar g 4/12 ; Wat g-j2)

Thorburn Philip Thorburn's unpublished collection. (Mur g 4, s 10; Muw g 4, s 4; Ziy g 1;

Mar g 4 and 1 hybrid; Nas s 1)

Tornberg Cari Johan Tornberg, Numi cufici Regii Numophylacii Holmiensis, Upsala, 1848.

[(Mur g 2)

Numismatic Bibliography

295

Tychsen, O. Olaf Gerhard Tychsen, Introductio in rem numarium Muhammedanorum, Rostock,

1794. (Mur g 1, c 2; Muw s 2; Haf g 1; Mar g 1, s 1)

Tychsen, O.: Introductionis Olaf Gerhard Tychsen, Introduction's in rem numarium Muham-

medanorum additamentum I, Rostock, 1796. (Muw g 1)

Tychsen, T. Th(omas) Chr(istian) Tychsen, "De numis orientalibus in Bibliotheca Regia

Gottingensi...", in Commentationes ... Recentiores; Goettingensis Societas Regia Scientiarum,

Hist. Phil. Classis III(1814):89-120b. (Muw s 1/2; Mar s 1)

UM University (of Pennsylvania) Museum; unpublished collection on loan to American

Numismatic Society, formed by Yaqub Artin Bey, presented by Robert C.H. Brock. (Mur

g 1, s 1; Muw g 1, s 2/1)

V Antonio Vives y Escudero, Monedas de las dinastias ardbigo-espanolas, Madrid, 1893. (The

first corpus of Spanish Arabic coins; includes many Hammudid, Murabit, and Muwahhid

issues but few of the later African dynasties; does not include weights or mintmarks and has

many minor errors, but remains indispensable for modern scholars, as many of the collec-

tions accessible to Vives have been dispersed; Ham s 14/18; Mur g 325/271, s 142/337, c 2;

Muw g 42/38 and 2 hybrids, s 38/323; Hud s 1/2; Mar s 7/7; Nas s 1/8)

Vollers K(arl) Vollers, "Das orientalische Munzkabinett der Universitat Jena im Jahre 1906",

expanded from Blatter filr Miinzfreunde XLI(19o6) :3529-3537. (A tantalizing check-list of

a fine collection, for a compiete description of which I have inquired in vain; Zir g-/2;

Mur g -/12, s -/18, c -/1; Muw g 1/20, s 1/24, c -/1; Haf g -/8; Ziy g -/2; Mar g -J7, s -/1)

Welzl Leopold Welzl von Wellenheim, Verzeichniss der Miinz- und Medaillen-Sammlung; vol. II,

part 2, Vienna, 1845. (Zir g 2/1; Mur g 2, s 1; Muw g 1, s 3/1)

Weyl:i" Adolph Weyl, Verzeichniss von Miinzen ... der Jules Fonrobert'schen Sammlung,

Berlin, 1878. (Muw g 2/4, s 4/13; Haf g 2/1, s 1)

Weyl:G Adolph Weyl, Verzeichniss der reichhaltigen Sammlung ... desFiirstenG(agarin), Berlin,

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1885. (Mur g 26/1, s3/5; Muwg7/4, s 2/4; Hudg 1; Haf g 2; Mar g3 and 1 hybrid)

Yale Yale University's unpublished collection. (Mur g 1)

Zambaur I E(duard) von Zambaur, "Contributions a la numismatique orientale", in Numis-

matische Zeitschrift XXXVI (1904) :43-122. (Mur s 1)

Zambaur II E(duard) von Zambaur, "Contributions a la numismatique orientale; part 2", in

Numismatische Zeitschrift XXXVII(1905): 113-198. (Mur g 2; Muw s -/1)

Zambaur: WEduard von Zambaur, Kollektion Ernst Prinz zu Windisch-Gratz; vol. VII, part 1 -

Orientalische Miinzen, Vienna, 1906. (Mur s 1; Muw s 3/7)

al-Zarkashi al-Zarkashi, Ta'rikh al-daulatayn al-Muwahhidlyah wd'l-Haffiyah, Tunis, a.h. 1289

(a.d. 1872/3). (A basic historical source with incidental mention of coins; Haf c 1)

Ziya Ahmed Ziya, Catalogue of Islamic coins, Constantinopie, 1910. (Mur g 2; Haf g 1/1)

*****

In addition to the sources of coins reported in the numismatic bibliography, the following

works are useful for reference; they are listed alphabetically by author. No attempt has been

made to include every outlying reference consulted during the preparation of this study.

Barthelemy, J.B.A.A., Nouveau manuel complet de numismatique du moyen age et moderne, Paris,

(1852). (Mur g on pp. 367-369)

296

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Batifaud, J., "Ouvrages de numismatique arabe", in Revue Critique NS:X(188o):41~48. (Review

of 4 works by Codera y Zaidin)

van Berchem, Max, "Notes d'archologie arabe: monuments et inscriptions fatimites", in Journal

Asiatique 8:XVIII(1891): 46-86. (Comments on ornamented Kf script on pp. 70-75)

Blancard, Louis, Essai sur les monnaies de Charles 1er, Comte de Provence, Paris, 1868. (Discussion

of exchange values)

Blancard, Louis, Le millars, Marseilles, 1876. (Classic discussion of European imitations of

Muwahhid square silver)

Blancard, Louis, in Revue Belge de Numismatique LIII(1897) :21<)-230. (Review of Sauvaire)

Brunschvig, R(obert), "Esquisse d'histoire montaire almohado-hafijide", in Mlanges William

Marais (pp. 63-94), Paris, 1950. (Excellent modern monograph stressing metrology)

Codera (y Zaidin), Francisco, "Colleccin de monedas rabes-espafiolas ...", in Revisfa Critica de

Historia y Litteratura Espanolas ... I(1899) :13_14. (Useful for provenance)

Codera y Zaidin, Francisco, Errores de varios numismdticos extranjeros al tratar de las monedas

ardbigo-espanolas, e impugnacion, Madrid, 1874. (Shrewd criticisms of his predecessors by a

sharp-eyed expert)

Codera (y Zaidin), Francisco, "Numismtica y metrologia musulmanas", in Boletin de la Real

Academia de la Historia XVI(189o) :361-366. (Review of Sauvaire)

Codera y Zaidin, Francisco, Titulos y nombres propios en las monedas ardbigo-espanolas, Madrid,

1878. (Pioneer study of titles)

Codrington, O(liver), A manual of Musulman numismatics, London, 1904. (Excellent general

reference work, to be used with caution)

Decourdemanche, J(ean) A(dolphe), "Etude mtrologique et numismatique sur les misqals et les

dirhems arabes", in Revue Numismatique 4:XII(1908) :208-251. (Metrology)

Decourdemanche, J(ean) A(dolphe), Trait pratique des poids et mesures des peuples anciens et des

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Arabes, Paris, 1909. (Metrology)

Drouin, E(dm), "Almohades et Hafsides", in Revue Numismatique 4^I(1902) :132-135.

Ethem, Halil, Essai d'une bibliographie pour la numismatique musulmane, Ankara, 1933. (Biblio-

graphy, less useful than Mayer)

Fasmer II R(ichard) Vasmer, "Zwei neue Bcher iiber spanisch-arabischeNumismatik; part II",

in Zeitschrift fiir Numismatik XXXVIII(1928): 223-234. (Review of Prieto:.Reyes)

Fiorelle, Giuseppe, "Delie monete arabe dette moumini", in Annali di Numismatice I(1853) :47-48.

(Notes on Muwahhid silver)

Fraehn, Ch(ristian) M(artin), "Du caractre d'criture arabe nomm carmatique; dissertation ou l'on

prouve qu'il n'a jamais exist un caractere ainsi nomm", in Journal Asiatique 2:I(1828) : 379-

391. (Classic refutation of the Qarmati fallacy, inexpiicably ignored by many later orientalists)

de Gayangos (y Arce), Pascual, "The Morabeti and other coins of Mohammedan Spain", in The

chronicle of James I, King of Aragon (pp. 694-695), London, 1883.

Gonzlez-Palencia, Angel, Loz mozarabes de Toledo en los siglos XII y XIII; vol. I, Madrid, 1926.

(Exchange)

Guilhiermoz, P., "Note sur les poids du moyen-ge", in Bibliothque de l'cole des Chartes

LXVII(19o6) .161-233. (Metrology)

Gnzburg, D.G., "Bezimenniy almokhadsky dirgem", in Zapiski Vostochnago Otdeleniya

VII(1892):319. (Notes on Muwahhid silver)

Hofmeier, Karl Wilhelm, "Die Verleihung des Titels "Frst der Muslimen" an Jsuf ibnTsfn",

in Wiener Zeitschrift der Kunde des Morgenlandes XXII(19o8) :184-199. (Murabit titles)

Lane-Poole, S(tanley), "The Arabian historians on Mohammadan numismatics", in Numismatic

Chronicle 3:IV(1884):66-96. (Translations of relevant passages)

Numismatic Bibliography

297

de Lastanosa y Baraiz de Vera, Vincencio Juan, Museo de las medallas desconoidas espanolas,

Huesca, 1645. (Early and difficult)

Leggett, Eugene, Notes on the mint-towns and coins of the Mohamedans, London, 1885. (Stimulating

but inaccurate)

de Longperier, Adrien, in Journal des Savants 3 :XLI(1876) :428-442. Reprinted in his Oeuvres

(vol. I, pp. 475-491), Paris, 1883. (Review of Blancard :Millars)

Massignon, Louis, Le Maroc dans les premires annes du XVIe sicle, Algiers, 1906. (Exchange

and metrology)

Mateu y Llopis, Felipe, "Hallazgos monetarios", in Ampurias IV(1942) :215-224; V(1943):

221-238; VI(1944):215-237; VII/VIII(1945/6) :233-276; IX/X (1947/8) :55-95. (Spanish

finds)

Mauss, C, Loi de la numismatique musulmane, Paris, 1898. (Legal)

Mayer, L(eo) A.., Annual bibliography of Islamic art and archaeology, India excepted; vol. I - 1935,

vol. II - 1936, vol. Ill -1937, Jerusalem, 1937-1939. (Includes additions to next entry)

Mayer, L(eo) A., Bibliography of Moslem numismatics, India excepted (Oriental Translation Fund,

vol. XXXV), London, 1939. (Indispensable foundation for all work in this field, soon to be

issued in a revised edition, of which the author generously allowed me to use the proofs)

de la Rada y Delgado, Juan de Dios, Bibliografia numismdtica espanola, Madrid, 1886. (Not

entirely superseded by Mayer)

Reiske, Johann Jacob, "Briefe iiber das arabische Miinzwesen", in Repertorium filr Biblische und

Morgenlndische Literalur IX(1781) :199-268; X(1782) :165-240; XI(1783) :1-44. (Early and

difficult)

von Rosen, "Primychanie", in Zapiski Vostochnago Otdeleniya VII(1892) :319~321. (Comments on

Gunzburg)

de Sacy, A(ntoine) I(saac) Silvestre, "De quelques monnoies arabes et des monnoies de Tunis

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d'Alger, et de Maroc ...", in Magasin Encyclopdique 3:III(1797):55-69. (An early mono-

graph)

de Sacy, (Antoine Isaac) Silvestre, in Journal des Savan(t)s (1823) :131-141, 259-270, 387-399.

(Review of Schiepati and Castiglioni)

de St. Elie, Anastase-Marie, An-nuqud al-'arabiyeh wa HIm an-nummiyt, Cairo, 1939. (Biblio-

graphy)

Sauvaire, H(enri), "Matriaux pour servir l'histoire de la numismatique et de la mtrologie

musulmanes; part 1 - Monnaies", in Journal Asiatique 7:XIV(1879) :455-533; 7:XV(188o):

228-277, 421-478; 7:XVIII(1881):499-516; 7:XIX(1882) :23-77, 97-163, 281-327. (The

fundamental work on numismatic metrology and exchange)

Soret, F(rdric), lments de la numismatique musulmane, Basle, 1868. (General reference work

largely superseded by Codrington)

Vasmer, see Fasmer.

Vazquez Queipo, V., Essai sur les systmes mtriques et montaires des anciens peuples depuis les

premiers temps historiques jusqu' la fin du khalifat d'orient; vol. II, Paris, 1859. (Metrology)

Vives (y Escudero), Antonio, "Indicacin del valor en las monedas arbigo-espanolas", in Homendje

D. Francisco Codera (pp. 513-522), Saragossa, 1904. (Useful monograph on design con-

ventions)

HISTORICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

This bibliography is a list of all non-numismatic sources of the historical information,

and specifically of the personal names and relationships, the place-names, and the dates

used in preparing the text and corpus. It is divided into four portions: the medieval Arabic

historians (that is, historians of any nationality writing in the Arabic language), from whom

the vast majority of the information has been obtained; the modern compilations of

medieval Arabic inscriptions on buildings, tombstones, textiles, and other surviving

physical objects; the modern compilations of medieval Arabic and European letters,

treaties, and other documents; and the most important of the innumerable modern

historians and commentators.

Within each of these four divisions the works are arranged alphabetically by author

or compiler, and to each work is prefixed an index number by which it is designated in the

lists of rulers inserted at the start of each chapter on the coinage of individual dynasties.

A. ARABIC

These works are alphabetized under the name by which the author is usually known,

disregarding such prefixes as al-, Abu-, and Ibn-. Editions which I have not personally

consulted are included for the sake of utility, but are enclosed within parentheses. Those

which I have used have naturally varied greatly in importance, from Ibn-Khaldun and

other basic historians through YaqQt and other geographers down to travellers and eastern

chroniclers who may have confirmed a single date or the spelling of a place-name. Ab-

breviations used in this division of the index include: ed(ited by), ex(cerpts), translated

by), and w(ith) n(otes), as well as the usual p(age), v(olume), etc. Within an author heading

different works, and different editions and translations of the same work, are listed chrono-

logically.

A1. Ibn-al-Abbar Kitab al-hullah al-siyara': (a) ex. ed. w.n. R. Dozy, Notices sur quelques

manuscrits arabes (pp. 29-260), Leyden, 1847-1851; (b) ex. ed. w.n. M.J. Miiller, Beitrage

zur Geschichte der westlichen Araber (pp. Arabic 161-360), Munich, 1866-1878;(c) ex.

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ed. & tr. E. Lvi-Provencal, Documents inedits d'histoire almohade (pp. 227-230, Arabic

146-148), Paris, 1928.

A2. Ibn-al-Abbar Kitab al-takmilah li-kitab al-?ilah:(a) 2 v. ed. w.n. F. Codera y Zaidin as

Complementum libri Assilah, Madrid, 1887-1889;^) ex. ed. w.n. M. Alarcn and C.A.

Gonzalez Palencia, "Apendice a la edicin Codera de la Tecmila", in Misceldnea de

estudios y textos arabes (pp. 149-690), Madrid, 1915 ;(c) ex. ed. & tr. w.n. A. Bel and M. ben

Cheneb in Revue Africaine (1918) :3o6-335;(d) v. 3 ed. w.n. A. Bel and M. ben Cheneb as

Takmila-t-ewila, Algiers, 1920.

Historical Bibliography

299

A2a. 'Abd-al-Bsit Al-raud al-basim fi hawadith al-'umr wa'l-tarjim: ex. ed. &tr. w.n.

R. Brunschvig in Deux rcits de voyage indits en Afrique du Nord au XVe sicle

(pp- 3-136), Paris, 1936.

A3. al-'Abdari Al-rihlah al-Maghribiyah: ex. tr. w. n. (A.) Cherbonneau in Journal Asiatique

5: IV (1854) : 144-176.

A4. Ibn-'Abdun Risalah :(a) ed. w.n. E. Lvi-Provenal in Journal Asiatique CCXXIV(1934):

177-299;(b) tr. w.n. E. Lvi-Provenal as Seville musulmane au dbut du Xlle sicle,

Paris, 1947.

A5. Ibn-al-Ahmar Raudat al-nisrn fi daulat Bani Marn:(a) v. 2 tr. w.n. R. Dozy as "Histoire

des benou-Ziyan de Tlemcen", in Journal Asiatique 4:III(1844) :378~416;(b) v. 1 ed. & tr.

w.n. G. Bouali and G. Marais as "Histoire des Ben Mern, rois de Fs", in Bulletin de

Correspondance Africaine LV(1917) :i-xxi, 1-157;(c) ex. ed. &tr. w.n. E. Lvi-Provenal

in Journal Asiatique CCIII(1923) :219-255.

A6. Ibn-al-Athir Kitab al-kmil fi'l-ta'rikh:(a) ed. w.n. C.J. Tornberg as Chronicon ...

(14 v.), Leyden, 1851-1876;^) ex. tr. w.n. E. Fagnan as "Annales du Maghreb et de

l'Espagne", in Revue Africaine XL & XLI, and Algiers, 1898-1901.

A7. Ibn-al-'Attar Ta'rikh balad Qusanrinah: tr. w.n. A. Dournon in Revue Africaine

LVII(1913):265-305.

A8. al-'Ayni Ta'rikh al-badr (abridgment of his 'Iqd al-jumn fi ta'rikh ahl al-zamn):

ex. tr. E. Fagnan, Extraits indits relatifs au Maghreb (pp. 262-270), Algiers, 1924.

A9. al-Badisi Al-maqsad al-sharif wa'l-manza' al-la^if fi dhikr sulah' al-Rif: tr. w.n. G.S.

Colin in Archives Marocaines XXVII(1926) :1-254.

Ao. Ibn-Badrn Sharh qasidat Ibn 'Abdun: ed. w.n. R. Dozy as Commentaire historique sur

le -pome d'ibn-Abdoun, Leyden, 1846.

Au. al-Bakri Kitab al-masalik wa'l-mamalik:(a) ex. tr. w.n. (E.M.) Quatremre as "Descrip-

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tion de l'Afrique", in Notices et Extraits XII(1)(1831):437-664;(b) (ex. ed. MacG. de

Slane, Algiers, 1857) ;(c) ex. tr. w.n. (MacG.) de Slane as "Description de l'Afrique

septentrionale", in Journal Asiatique 5 :XII(1858) :412-492,497-534; 5 :XIII(1859) :58-8o,

97-194, 310-416, 469-519; 5:XIV(1859):117-152;(d) (rev. ed. MacG. de Slane, Algiers,

191o);(e) (rev. tr. (MacG.) de Slane, Algiers, 1913).

A12. al-Bkuwi Talkhis al-athr wa-'aja'ib al-malik al-qahhr: ex. tr. w.n. de Guignes in

Notices et Extraits II(1789) :386-545.

A13. Ibn-Bashkuwal Kitab al-?ilah fi ta'rikh a'immat al-Andalus:(a) ed. w.n. F. Codera (y

Zaidin) as Assila (2 v.), Madrid, 1882-1883; (b) ex. ed. w.n. F. Codera (y Zaidin) in Ibn-

al-Faradi's Historia vivorum doctorum Andalusiae (v. II, pp. ix-xiii, ArabiC 75-120),

Madrid, 1891-1892.

A.14 Ibn-Batttah Tuhfat al-nuzzr fi ghara'ibal-am?r wa-'aja'ib al-asfar: (a) ex. tr. w.n. S.

Lee, London, 1829 ;(b) ed. & tr. w.n. C. Defrmery and B.R. Sanguinetti as Voyages (5 v.),

Paris, 1853-1859 (later'reprinted) ;ex. tr. w.n. H.A.R. Gibb, London, 1929 (reprinted 1939).

A15. al-Baydhaq Ta'rikh al-Muwahhidin: ed. & tr. w.n. E. Lvi-Provenal as "L'histoire des

Almohades", in Documents indits d'histoire almohade (pp. i-xii, 75-225, 232-246, ArabiC

50-133), Paris, 1928.

A16. al-abbi Kitab bughyat al-mutalammis fi ta'rikh rijal ahl al-Andalus: ed. w.n. F. Codera

y Zaidin and J. Ribera as Desiderium quaerentis historiam virorum populi Andalusiae,

Madrid, 1885.

A17. al-Dimashqi Kitab nukhbat al-dahr fi 'aja'ib al-barr wa'l-bahr:(a) ed. w.n. A.F. Mehren

as Cosmographie ..., St. Petersburg, 1865-1866 (reprinted with index Leipzig, 1923);^)

(tr. A.F. Mehren, Copenhagen, 1874).

300 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

A18. Ibn-Abi-Dinar Al-mu'nis fi akhbar Ifriqiyah wa-Tunis:(a) tr. w.n. E. Pellissier and (G.)

Remusat as Histoire de l'Afrique, Paris, 1845 ;(b) ed. at Tunis, 1869/70.

A19. Ibn-al-Faq1h Kitab al-buldan: ed. w.n. M.J. de Goeje as Kitdb al-bolddn, Leyden, 1885.

A20. Abu'l-Fida' Mukhtasar ta'rikh al-bashar:(a) 2nd half ed. & tr. w.n. J.J. Reiske as A nnales

muslemici arabice et latine (5 v.), Copenhagen, 1789-1794;^) (ed. at Constantinopie

1869/70).

A21. Abu'l-Fida' Taqwim al-buldan:(a) ed. w.n. (J.) Reinaud and MacG. de Slane as Geogra-

phic, Paris, 1840 ;(b) 1st half tr. w.n. (J.) Reinaud, Paris, 1848; (c) (2nd half tr. S.Guyard,

Paris, 1883).

A22. Ibn-Ghalbun Al-tadhkirah fi man malaka Tarabulus ...: tr. w.n. E. Rossi as La cronaca

araba Tripolitana, Bologna, 1936.

A23. al-Ghubrini 'Unwan al-dirayah fi man 'urifah min 'ulama' al-mi'ah al-sabi'ah fi Bijayah:

(a) ex. tr. w.n. A. Cherbonneau in Journal Asiatique 5 :VII(1856) :475-496;(b) (ed. M. ben

Cheneb, Algiers, 1911).

A24. Ibn-Hammad Akhbar muluk Bani 'Ubayd wa-siratihim: ed. & tr. w.n. (N.) Vonder-

heyden as Histoire des rois 'obaidides, Algiers, 1927.

A25. Ibn-Hauqal Kitab al-masalik wa'l-mamalik:(a) ex. tr. w.n. MacG. de Slane in Journal

Asiatique 3:XIII(1842) :153-196, 209-258;^) ed. w.n. M.J. de Goeje as Viae et regna,

Leyden, 1872-1873 ;(c) ed. w.n. J.H. Kramers as Liber imaginis terrae, Leyden, 1938-1939.

A26. al-Himyari Kitab al-raud al-mi'tar fi khabar al-aqtar: ed. & tr. w.n. E. Levi-Provencal as

La peninsule iberique au moyen-age, Leyden, 1937-1938.

A27. Ibn-al-'Idhari Kitab al-bayan al-mughrib ... :(a) 2 v. ed. w.n. R. Dozy as Histoire de

l'Afriqueetdel'Espagne,Leyden, 1848-1851;^) 2v.tr. w.n. E.Fagnan, Algiers, 1901-1904;

(c) v. 3 ed. E. Levi-Provencal, Paris, 1930.

A28. al-Idrisi Nuzhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq al-afSq:(a) ex. tr. w.n. J.M. Hartmann as Africa,

Gottingen, 1796 (2nd ed.);(b) ex. ed. & tr. w.n. J.A. Conde as Descripcion de Espana,

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Madrid, 1799;(c) (tr. P.A. Jaubert (2 v.), Paris, 1836-1840) ;(d) ex. ed.&tr. w.n. R. Dozy

and M.J. de Goeje as Description de l'Afrique et de l'Espagne, Leyden, 1864-1866;(e) (ex.

tr. A. Blasquez, Madrid, 1901).

A29. al-Ifrani Nuzhat al-hadi bi-akhbar muhlk al-qarn al-hadi:(a) ed. O. Houdas, Paris,

1888;(b) tr. w.n. O. Houdas, Paris, 1889.

A30. al-Istakhri Kitab masalik al-mamalik:(a) tr. w.n. (from Persian) W. Ousely as The

oriental geography of ebn Haukal, London, 1800 ;(b) (ed. Moller as Liber climatum, Gotha,

1839) ;(c) tr. w.n. A.D. Mordtmann as Das Buch der Lander, Hamburg, 1845 ;(d) ed. w.n.

M.J. de Goeje as Viaeregnorum, Leyden, 1870 ;(e) (rev. ed. w.n. M.J. de Goeje, Leyden, 1927).

A31. Ibn-Iyas Nashaq al-azhar fi 'aja'ib al-aqtar: ex. ed. w.n. L. Langles as "Cosmographie",

in Notices et Extraits VIII(1)(1810) :1-131.

A32. al-Jannabi Al-bahr al-zakhkhar wa'l-'aylam al-tayyar: ex. tr. w.n. E. Fagnan in Extraits

indits relatifs au Maghreb (pp. 285-359), Algiers, 1924.

A33. al-Jazna'i Zahrat al-as: ed. & tr. w.n. A. Bel in Bulletin de Correspondance Africaine

LIX(1923) :3-198, Arabic 1-86.

A34. Ibn-Jubayr Rihlah:(a) (ed. W. Wright, Leyden, 1852);(b) tr. w.n. C. Schiaparelli as

Viaggio ..., Rome, 19o6;(c) ed. w.n. M.J. de Goeje, Leyden, 1907.

A35. Ibn-Khaldun Kitab al-'ibar: (a) ex. tr. w.n. P. de Gayangos in al-Maqqari's The history

of the Mohammedan dynasties in Spain ... (v. II, pp. xlix-lxxx), London, 1843; (b) ex. ed.

& tr. w.n. C.J. Tornberg as "Narratio de expeditionibus Francorum ...", in Acta ...

Upsaliensis XII(1844) :1-154; (c) ex. tr. w.n. M(ac)G. de Slane as "Autobiographic", in

Journal Asiatique 4:III(1844):5-60, 187-210, 291-308, 325-353;(d) v. 6, 7 ed. w.n.

Historical Bibliography

301

(MacG.) de Slane as Histoire des Berberes (2 v.), Algiers, 1847-1851;(e) v. 6, 7 tr. w.n.

(MacG.) de Slane as Histoire des Berberes (4 v.), Algiers, 1852-1856 (3 v. reprinted Paris,

1925-1934 as "revised") ;(f) v. 1 ed. (E.M.) Quatremere as "Les prolegomenes", in Notices

et Extraits XVI(1), XVII(1), XVIII(1), Paris 18581(g) v. 1 tr. w.n. (MacG.) de Slane as

"Les prolegomenes", in Notices et Extraits XIX(1) (1862), XX(1) (1865), XXI(1) (1868) ;(h)

ed. at Bulaq, 1867/8 ;(i) ex. tr. w.n. (M.) Gaudefroy-Demombynes as "Histoire des

benou'l-Ahmar", in Journal Asiatique 9:XII(1898) :309-340, 407-462.

A36. Ibn-Khallikan Kitab wafayat al-a'yan wa-anba' abna' al-zaman:(a) ed. w.n. F. Wiisten-

feld as Vitae illustrium virorum ... (2 v.), Gottingen, 1835-1843;^) v. 1 ed. MacG. de

Slane, Paris, 1838-1842;^) tr. w.n. MacG. de Slane as Biographical dictionary (4 v.),

Paris, 1843-1845;(d) ed. at Cairo, 1881/2.

A37. Ibn-Khaqan Qala'id al-'iqyan wa-mahasin al-a'yan:(a) (ed. Sulayman al Hara'iri as

Le collier d'or, Paris, 186o);(b) (tr. E. Bourgade, Paris, 1865) ;(c) ed. at Bulaq, 1866/7.

A38. Ibn-al-Khatib Al-hulal al-marqumah ... :(a) ex. ed. & tr. M. Casiri, Bibliotheca arabico-

hispana escurialensis (v. II, pp. 246-319), Madrid, 1770;(b) (ed. at Tunis, 1898) ;(c) ed. at

Tunis, 1915/6.

A39. Ibn-al-Khatib Al-lumhah al-badriyah fi'l-daulah al-Nasriyah:(a) ex. ed. & tr. M. Casiri,

Bibliotheca arabico-hispana escurialensis (v. II, pp. 177-246), Madrid, 1770;(b) ed. Muhibb

al-din al-Khatib, Cairo, 1928/9.

A40. Ibn-al-Khatib Al-ihatah bi-ta'rikh Gharnatah:(a) ex. tr. w.n. M. Casiri, Bibliotheca

arabico-hispana escurialensis (v. II, pp. 71-121), Madrid, 1770;(b) ed. at Cairo, 1901/2.

A41. Ibn-al-Khatib A'mal al-a'lam:(a) ex. ed. w.n. H.H. 'Abd-al-Wahhab in Centenario delIa

nascita di Michele Amari (v. II, pp. 427-482), Palermo, 1910;(b) (ed. w.n. E. Levi-

Provencal, Rabat, 1934).

A42. Ibn-al-Khatib Mi'yar al-ikhtiyar:(a) (ed. & tr. F.X. Simonet as Descripcion del Reino de

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Granada ..., Madrid, 1861) ;(b) ex. ed. w.n. M.J. Muller, Beitrge zur Geschichte der west-

lichen Araber (pp. Arabic 45-100), Munich, 1866 (text reprinted Fez, 1907/8);^) rev. tr.

w.n. F.X. Simonet, Granada, 1872.

A43. Ibn-al-Khatib Mufakharat Malaqah wa-Sala:(a) ed. w.n. M.J. Muller, Beitrage zur Ge-

schichte der westlichen Araber (pp. Arabic 1-13), Munich, 1866 (text reprinted Fez,

1907/8) ;(b) tr. w.n. E. Garcia Gomez in al-Andalus II(1934) :185-196.

A44. Ibn-Khayr Fihrist ma rawahu 'an shuyukhihi ...: ed. w.n. F. Codera (y Zaidin) and

J. Ribera (y) Tarrag as Index librorum ... (2 v.), Saragossa, 1894-1895.

A45. Ibn-Khurdadhbih Kitab al-masalik wa'l-mamalik^a) ed. & tr. w.n. C. Barbier de Meynard

in Journal Asiatique 6 :V(1865) :5-127, 227-296, 446-532 ;(b) ed. & tr. w.n. M.J. de Goeje,

Leyden, 1889.

A46. Leo Africanus (Arabic original lost, name unknown) :(a) tr. w.n. C. Schefer as Description

de l'Afrique ... (3 v.), Paris, 1896-1898;^) tr. w.n. J. Pory as The history and description

of Africa (3 v.), London, 1896.

A47. al-Maqdisi Ahsan al-taqasim fi ma'rifat al-aqalim:(a) ed. w.n. M.J. de Goeje as Descriptio

imperii Moslemici, Leyden, 1877 ;(b) ex. tr. w.n. G.S.A. Ranking and R.F. Azoo, Calcutta,

1897-1910;(c) (rev. ed. w.n. M.J. de Goeje, Leyden, 1906).

A48. al-Maqqari Nafh al-tib min ghusn al-Andalus ... :(a) tr. w.n. P. de Gayangos as The

history of the Mohammedan dynasties in Spain ... (2 v.), London, 1840-1843;^) ex. ed.

w.n. G. Dugat, Analectes sur l'histoire et la littrature des Arabes d'Espagne (v. ii, pp. Arabic

395-835), Leyden, 1858-1861;(c) ed. at Cairo, 1884/5.

A49. al-Maqrizi Al-suluk li-ma'rifat duwal al-muluk: tr. w.n. (E.M.) Quatremere as Histoire

des Sultans Mamlouks (4 v. in 2), Paris, 1837-1844.

302 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

A50. al-Maqrizi Shudhur (or Nubdhat) al-'uqud fi umur al-nuqud:(a) ed. & tr. w.n. O.G.

Tychsen as Historia monetae Arabicae ..., Rostock, 1797;(b) ex. tr. w.n. A.I.S. de Sacy as

"Traits des monnoies musulmanes", in Magasin Encyclopdique 3:I(1797): 38-89.

A51. al-Marrakushi Kitab al-mu'jib fi talkhis akhbar al-Maghrib:(a) (ed. R. Dozy as The

history of the Almohades, Leyden, 1847) ;(b) rev. ed. w.n. R. Dozy, Leyden, 1881;(c) tr.

w.n. E. Fagnan as Histoire des Almohades, Algiers, 1893.

A52. Ibn-Maryam Al-bustan fi dhikr al-auliya' wa'l-'ulama' bi-Tilimsan:(a) (ed. M. ben

Cheneb, Algiers, 1908) ;(b) tr. w.n. F. Provenzali, Algiers, 1910.

A53. Ibn-Marzuq Kitab al-musnad al-sahih al-hasan ...: ed. & tr. w.n. E. Levi-Provencal

as "Un nouveau texte d'histoire merinide", in Hesperis V(1925) :1-82.

A54. al-Mas'udi Muriij al-dhahab wa-ma'adin al-jawahir:(a) ex. tr. w.n. de Guignes in Notices

et Extraits I(1787) :1-b7;(b) ex. tr. w.n. A. Sprenger as Historical encyclopaedia, London,

1841 ;(c) ed. & tr. w.n. C. Barbier de Meynard and (v. 1-3) P. de Courteille as Les prairies

d'or (9 v.), Paris 1861-1877.

A55. al-Mas'udi Kitab al-tanbih wa'l-ishraf :(a) ed. w.n. M.J. de Goeje, Leyden, 1893-1894;^)

(tr. Carra de Vaux, Paris, 1896).

A56. al-Mazini Tuhfat al-albab wa-nukhbat al-a'jab: ed. w.n. G. Ferrand in Journal Asiatique

CCVII(1925):1-148, 193-304.

A57. al-Miknasi Al-raud al-hatun fi akhbar Miknasat al-Zaytun: tr. w.n. O. Houdas as "Mono-

graphic de Mequinez", in Journal Asiatique 8:V(1885):101-147.

A58. al-Munajjim Kitab akam al-marjan fi dhikr al-mada'in al-mashhurah fi kull makan:

ed. & tr. w.n. A. Codazzi as "II compendio geografico arabo", in Rendiconti ... dei

Lincei ... 6^(1929) :373-4&3.

A59. Mflsa II Wasitat al-suhik fi siyasat al-muluk:(a) (ed. M. Kabadu and M. Baslur

al-Tuwati, Tunis, 1862) ;(b) tr. w.n. M. Gaspar (y Remiro) as El collar de perlas, Sara-

gossa, 1899.

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A60. al-Nuwayri Nihayat al-arab fi funun al-adab :(a) ex. tr. MacG. de Slane in Ibn-Khaldun's

Histoire des Berberes (v. I, p. 313), Algiers, 1852 ;(b) ex. ed. & tr. w.n. M. Gaspar y Remiro

as Historia de los Musulmanes de Espana y Africa, Granada, 1917-1919;^) ed. A. Zaki

(14 of 24 v. pub. by 1943), Cairo, 1923.

A61. al-Qalqashandi Subh al-a'sha fi ijina'at al-insha':(a) ex. tr. w.n. H. Sauvaire in Memoires

de l'Acadmie de Marseille (1886/7) 79-111 ;(b) e<i. M.A. Ibrahim (14 v.), Cairo, 1913-1920.

A62. Ibn-al-Qasim Ikhtiijar al-akhbar 'amma kanah bi-thaghr Sabtah ...: ed. w.n. E. Levi-

Proven5al as "Une description de Ceuta musulmane au XVe siecle", in Hesperis XII(1931):

145-176.

A63. Ibn-al-Qattan Nazm al-juman: ed. & tr. w.n. E. Levi-Provencal in Melanges Rene Basset

(v. II, pp. 335-393), Paris, 1925.

A64. Qudamah Kitab al-kharaj ...: ex. ed. & tr. w.n. M.J. de Goeje, Leyden, 1889.

A65. Ibn-al-Qunfudh Al-farisiyah fi mabadi al-daulah al-Hafijiyah: ex. ed. & tr. w.n. A. Cher-

bonneau in Journal Asiatique 4:XII(1848)^37-258; 4:XIII(1849):185-211; 4:XVII

(1851):51-84; 4:XX(1852):208-244.

A66. Ibn-al-Qunffldh Kitab al-wafayat: ed. H. Husain in Journal of the Asiatic Society of

Bengal 2:VIII(1912) :1-38.

A67. Ibn-Rustah Kitab al-a'laq al-nafisah: v. 7 ed. w.n. M.J. de Goeje, Leyden, 1891-1892.

A68. Ibn-Sa'id Kitab al-mughrib fi hula al-Maghrib: v. 4. ed. & tr. K.L. Tallqvist, Leyden,

1898-1899.

A69. al-Sakhawi Al-tibr al-masbuk fi dhayl al-suliik: ex. tr. w.n. E. Fagnan, Extraits indits

relatifs au Maghreb (pp. 271-284), Algiers, 1924.

Historical Bibliography

303

A70. Ibn-al-Sammk Al-hulal al-maushiyah fi'l-akhbar al-Marrkushiyah: (a) (ed. at Tunis,

1909-1911);(b) ed. w.n. I.S. Allouche, Rabat, 1936.

A71. Ibn-Shkir Fawt al-wafayt: ed. at Blq 1866/7 (reprinted 1881).

A72. al-Shantarini Kitab al-dhakhirah fi mahsin ahl al-jazirah: ex. ed. at Cairo, 1939.

A73. Shihab-al-Din Kitab 'uqd al-jumn fi mukhtasar akhbar al-zamn: ex. ed. w.n. (A.I.)

S. de Sacy in Notices et Extraits II(1789) :124-163.

A74. Ibn-Taghribirdi Al-nujm al-zhirah fi mulk Misr wa'l-jhirah: tr. w.n. E. Fagnan in

Recueil de Notices et Mmoires de la Socit Archologique, Historique, et Gographique de

Constantine XL(1906):269~382.

A75. al-Tanasi Nazm al-durr wa'l-'iqyn fi bayn sharaf Bani Zayn: ex. tr. w.n. J. J.L. Bargs

as Histoire des Beni Zeiyan, Paris, 1852.

A76. al-TauzariKitab al-iktifa'fi akhbar al-khulafa': ex. tr. w.n. P. de Gayangosin al-Maqqari's

The history of the Mohammedan dynasties in Spain ... (v. II, pp. xxii-xlviii), London,

1843.

A77. al-Tijni Rihlah: ex. tr. w.n. A. Rousseau in Journal Asiatique 4:XX(1852):57-2o8;

5:I(1853) :1o1-168, 354-425.

A78. Ibn-Tmart Tauhid al-bari ... : ed. w.n. J.D. Luciani, Algiers, 1903.

A79. al-Turtshi Sirj al-mulk:(a) (ed. at Cairo, 1872/3); (b) ed. at Cairo, 1888/9;(0) tr. w.n.

M. Alarcn as Ldmpara de los principes (2 v.), Madrid, 1930-1931.

A80. al-'Umari Masalik al-ab?r fi mamalik al-amsr:(a) ex. ed. w.n. A. Zaki, Cairo, 1924;^)

ex. tr. w.n. (M.) Gaudefroy-Demombynes as L'Afrique moins l'gypte, Paris, 1927;(c) ex.

ed. w.n. (M.) Gaudefroy-Demombynes as " Quelques passages relatifs au Maroc", in Mmo-

rial Henri Basset (v. i, pp. 269-280), Paris, 1928.

A81. Yahy Ibn-Khaldun Bughyat al-rwad fi dhikr al-mulk min Bani 'Abd al-Wad: ed. &tr.

w.n. A. Bel as Histoire des Beni 'Abd el-Wd (2 v.), Algiers, 1904-1913.

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A82. al-Ya'qbi Kitab al-buldn:(a) (ex. ed. w.n. M.J. de Goeje as Descriptio al Magribi,

Leyden, 186o);(b) ex. ed. w.n. A.W.T. Juynboll, Leyden, 186o-1861;(c) ed. w.n. M.J. de

Goeje, Leyden, 1891-1892;^) (tr. w.n. G. Wiet as Les pays, Cairo, 1937).

A83. Yqt Mu'jam al-buldn: ed. w.n. F. Wstenfeld as Geographisches Wrterbuch (6 v.),

Leipzig, 1866-1873.

A84. Ibn-Abi-Zar' Kitab al-anis al-mu^rib bi-raud al-qirtas fi akhbar mulk al-Maghrib wa-

ta'rikh madinat Fs:(a) (tr. F. von Dombay (2 v.), Zagreb, 1794-1795);^) (tr. J. Moura,

Lisbon, 1828) ;(c) ex. ed. & tr. C.J. Tornberg as "Primordia dominationis Murabitorum

...", in Nova Acta ... Upsaliensis XI(1839) :297-407;(d) ed. & tr. w.n. C.J. Tornberg as

Annales regum Mauritaniae, Upsala, 1843-1846;(e) tr. w.n. A. Beaumier as Roudh el-

kartas, Paris, 186o;(f) (ed. Muhammad ibn-al-Husayn al-Ftimi, Fez, 1888).

A85. al-Zarkashi Ta'rikh al-daulatayn al-Muwahhidiyah wa'l-Hafsiyah:(a) ex. ed. & tr.

A. Rousseau in Journal Asiatique 4:XIII (1849): 269-315 ;(b) ed. at Tunis, 1872/3;(c) tr.

w.n. E. Fagnan as Chronique des Almohades et des Hafides, Constantine, 1895.

A86. al-Zuhri Kitab al-jaghrafiyah:(a) ex. ed. & tr. w.n. O. Houdas and R. Basset as "Descrip-

tion du Sous el Aqs'a", in Bulletin de Correspondance Africaine II(1884) :192-198;(b) ex-

tr. w.n. R. Basset, Documents gographiques sur l'Afrique septentrionale (pp. 14-30), Paris,

1898;(c) ex. ed. & tr. w.n. R. Basset in Homenaje D(on) Francisco Codera (pp. 619-647),

Saragossa, 1904.

A87. ? Ta'rikh ... mulk al-tawa'if :(a) ex. ed. w.n. E. Lvi-Provenal in Ibn-al-'Idhr's

Kitb al-bayn al-mughrib ... (v. Ill) (pp. ArabiC 287-316,327-368), Paris, 1930; (b) ex. tr.

E. Lvi-Provenal in Histoire des musulmans d'Espagne (v. III, pp. 215-235), Leyden,

1932.

304

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

A88. ? Kitab al-istibsr fi 'aja'ib al-amsr:(a) ex. ed. w.n. A. von Kremer in Sitzungsberichte

der Philosophisch-Historischen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften (in

Wien) VIII(1852) :389-428;(b) tr. w.n. E. Fagnan in Recueil de Notices et Mmoires de la

Socit Archologique de Constantine XXXIII(1899).

A89. ? Kitab al-ansab fi ma'rifat al-a?hab: ex. ed. & tr. w.n. E. Lvi-Provenal, Documents

indits d'histoire almohade (pp. i-ix, 25-74, ArabiC 18-49), Paris, 1828.

A90. ? Kitab mafkhir al-Barbar: ex. ed. w.n. E. Lvi-Provenal as Fragments historiques sur

les berbres au moyen-age, Rabat, 1934.

A91. ? ?: ed. &tr. w.n. E. Lvi-Provenal as "Notes d'histoire almohade", in Hespris

X(193o) :49-90.

A92. ? Al-dhakhirah al-saniyah fi'l-ta'rikh al-daulah al-Marniyah: ed. w.n. M. ben Cheneb as

Chronique anonyme des Mrinides, Algiers, 1920-1921.

B. INSCRIPTIONS

In this section are included the modem compilations of non-numismatic and non-

documentary medieval Arabic inscriptions; the large majority occur on tombstones or

buildings, but some are also found on textiles and other artifacts. The works are alpha-

betized under the name of the compiler.

B1. Amador de los Rios, Rodrigo, "Noticia", in Boletin de la Real Academia de la Historia

XIV(1889):563-565.

B2. Basset, Henri, and Lvi-Provencal, E., "Chella, une ncropole mrinide", in Hespris

II(1922) :1-92, 255-316, 385-425.

B3. Basset, Ren, Ndromah et les Traras, Paris, 1901.

B4. Bel, Alfred, "Inscriptions arabes de Fs", in Journal Asiatique n:IX(1917):303-329;

u:X(1917):81-170, 215-267; n:XII(1918):189-276, 337-399; n:XIII(1919) :5-96;

11 :XIV(1919) :467-479.

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B5. van Berchem, Max, "L'pigraphie musulmane en Algrie: tude sur le corpus", in Revue

Africaine XLIX(1905) :16o-191, and Algiers, 1905.

B6. van Berchem, Max, "Titres califiens d'occident propos de quelques monnaies mrinides et

ziyanides", in Journal Asiatique 1o:IX(1907):245-335, and Paris, 1907.

B7. Brosselard, Ch(arles), "Inscriptions arabes de Tlemcen", in Revue Africaine III(1858) :81-94,

161-172, 241-248, 321-340, 401-419; IV(1859/60) :1-17, 81-93, 161-174, 241-258,

321-331.

B8. Brosselard, C(harles), "Mmoire pigraphique et historique sur les tombeaux des mirs Beni-

Zeiyn ...", in Journal Asiatique 7:VII(1876): 5-197, and Paris, 1876.

B9. Codera (y Zaidin), Francisco, and Saavedra, Eduardo, "Inscriptiones rabes de Xela", in

Boletin de la Real Academia de la Historia XII(1888) :503-507.

B1o. Colin, Gabriel, Corpus des inscriptions arabes et turques de l'Algrie: Dpartement d'Alger,

Paris, 1901.

Bu. Combe, Etienne, Sauvaget, J., and Wiet, G(aston), Rpertoire chronologique d'pigraphie

arabe (13 v. pub. by 1951), Cairo, 1931.

B12. Hlouis, E., "Une inscription arabe du XlVe sicle ...", in Journal Asiatique 9^(1895):

174-181.

B.13. Houdas, O., and Basset, Ren, "Epigraphie Tunisienne", in Bulletin de Correspondance

Africaine I(1882) :161-200.

Historical Bibliography

305

B14. Lafuente y Alcantara, Emilio, Inscripciones arabes de Granada, Madrid, 1859.

B15. Lvi-Provenal, E., Inscriptions arabes d'Espagne (2 v.), Leyden, 1931.

B16. (Marais, William, Corpus des inscriptions arabes et turques de l'Algrie: Dpartement d'Oran,

Paris, 190x. Not available).

B17. Marais, William, Muse de Tlemcen, Paris, 1906.

B18. Marais, William, "Six inscriptions arabes de Tlemcen", in Bulletin Archologique (1902):

538-551.

B19. Mercier, Ernest, "Une inscription arabe de Gafa", in Recueil des Notices et Mmoires de la

Socit Archologique, Historique, et Gographique de Constantine 3:I(1882) :191-194.

B20. Mercier, Gustave, Corpus des inscriptions arabes et turques de l'Algrie: Dpartement de

Constantine, Paris, 1902.

B21. Michaux-Bellaire, Ed(ouard), "A propos d'une inscription mrinide al-Qasr al-Kabir", in

Hespris VII(1927) :393~399.

B22. Michaux-Bellaire, E(douard), and Salmon, G., "El-Qar el-Kebir", in Archives Marocaines

II(2)(1904):1-228.

B23. Ricard, Prosper, "Sur un type de reliure des temps almohades", in Ars Islamica I(1934) : 74-79.

B24. Rieu, Charles, Supplement to the catalogue of the Arabic manuscripts in the British Museum,

London,1894.

C. DOCUMENTS

In this section are included the published medieval and modern collections of docu-

ments dating from the late medieval period ; they include chiefly treaties between the North

African Moslems and the Christians of Spain, France, and Italy, and letters from the Mos-

lem rulers to both Moslem and Christian contemporaries. The works are alphabetized under

the name of the compiler.

C1. Alarcn y Santn, Maximiliano, and Garcia de Linares, Ramn, Les documentos arabes

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diplomdticos del Archivo de la Corona de Aragn, Madrid, 1940.

C2. Amari, Michele, / diplomi arabi del Reale Archivio Fiorentino, Florence, 1863 (1867 appendix

not available).

C3. Amari, Michele, "Nuovi ricordi arabici su la storia di Genova", in Atti delia Societ Ligure di

Storia Patria V(1867) :549-635.

C4. Brunschvig, Robert, "Note sur un trait conclu entre Tunis et l'empereur Frdric II", in

Revue Tunisienne NS:III(1932) :153-16o.

C5. de las Cagigas, Isidro, "Un trait de paix entre le roi Pierre IV d'Aragon et le sultan de Tunis

Abu Ishk II (1360)", in Hespris XIX(1934) :65-77.

C6. de Castries, Henri, et al., Les sources indites de l'histoire du Maroc (series 1, part 5, v. III),

Paris, 1921-1946.

C7. Champollion Figeac in Documents historiques indits tirs des collections manuscrites de la

Bibliothque Royale ... (v. II), Paris, 1843 (ArabiC edited and translated by Reinaud).

C8. Gaspar y Remiro, M(ariano), "Correspondencia dipiomtica entre Granda y Fez, siglo XIV",

from Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos de Grandda y su Reino, and Granada, 1916.

C9. Gaudefroy-Demombynes, (M.), "Une lettre de Saladin au Calife Almohade", in Mlanges

Ren Basset (v. II, pp. 279-304), Paris, 1925.

C10. Lvi-Provenal, E., "Lettres d'Ibn-Tmart et de 'Abd al-Mu'min", Documents indits

d'histoire almohade (pp. i-vii, 1-24, I-IV, ArabiC 134-145), Paris, 1928.

C1l. Lvi-Provenal, E., "Un recueil de lettres officielles almohades", in Hespris XXVIII (1941):

1-80.

20

3o6

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

C12. de Mas-Latrie, (J.M.J.) L(ouis), Traits de paix et de commerce et documents divers concernant

les relations de l'Afrique septentrionale au moyen ge, Paris, 1866 (1872 suppiement not

available).

C13. (de la Primaudaie, Elie, Documents indits sur l'histoire de l'occupation espagnole en Afrique,

1506-1574, Algiers, 1875. Not available).

C14. al-Qalqashand: A61b.

C15. de Sacy, (A.I. Silvestre), "Mmoire sur le trait fait entre le roi de Tunis et Philippe-le-Hardi,

en 1270 ...", in Mmoires de l'Acadmie des Inscriptions ... IX(1831):448-477.

C16. de Sacy, (A.I. Silvestre), "Mmoire sur une correspondance de l'Empereur de Maroc Yakoub,

fils d'Abd-alhakk, avec Philippe-le-Hardi...", in Mmoires de l'Acadmie des Inscriptions

... IX(1831):478-5o6.

C17. de Sacy, (A.I.) Silvestre, "Pices dipiomatiques tires des archives de la rpublique de

Gnes", in Notices et Extraits XI(1)(1827): 1-96.

C18. Tafel, G.L.F., and Thomas, G.M., "Urkunden zur lteren handels-und staatsgeschichte der

republik Venedig ...", inFontes Rerum Austriacarum (v. XII-XIV), Vienna,185o-1857.

C19. Tisserant, Eugne, and Wiet, Gaston, "Une lettre de l'Almohade Murtad' au pape Inno-

cent IV", in Hesperis VI(1926) :27-53.

D. MODERN

Unlike the three previous sections of the historical reference bibliography, this section

is highly selective rather than relatively comprehensive. Only the outstandingly useful

reference works and monographs prepared by mode1n historians are listed here, alpha-

betically by author.

D1. Bargs, J.J.L., Complment de l'histoire des Beni-Zeiyn, rois de Tlemcen, Paris, 1887.

D2. Bel, Alfred, Les Benou Ghnya ..., Paris, 1903.

D3. Brockelmann, Cari, Geschichte der arabischen litteratur (2 v., 1898-1902, rev. 1943-1949,

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and 3 supp. v., 1937-1942), Weimar and Leyden, 1898-1949.

D4. Brunschvig, Robert, La Berbrie orientale sous les Hafsides ... (2 v.), Paris, 1940-1947,

D5. Cour, A(uguste), "Les derniers mrinides", in Bulltin de la Socit de Gographie d'Alger ...

X(not IX)(1905):103-119.

D6. Cour, Aug(uste), La dynastie marocaine des Beni Watts, Constantine, 1920.

D7. Cour, Auguste, L'tablissement des dynasties des chrifs au Maroc ..., Paris, 1904.

D8. Hazard, Harry W., et al., Atlas of Islamic history, Princeton, 1951.

D9. Houtsma, M.T., et al., The encyclopaedia of Islam (4 v. and supp.), Leyden, 1913-1938.

D10. Lvi-Provenal, E., "Rflexions sur l'empire almoravide au dbut du XIIe sicle", in

Cinquantenaire de la Facult des Lettres d'Alger (pp. 307-320), Algiers, 1932.

D11. Marais, Georges, Les Arabes en Berbrie du XIe au XIVe sicle, Constantine, 1913.

D12. Marais, Georges, La Berbrie musulmane et l'orient au moyen ge, Paris, 1946.

D13. Massignon, Louis, Le Maroc dans les premires annes du XVIe sicle, Algiers, 1895.

D14. Mercier, Ernest, Histoire de l'Afrique septentrionale (3 v.), Paris, 1888-1891.

D15. al-Salw, "Les almohades (tr. by Ismal Hamet)", in Archives Marocaines XXXII(1927).

D16. al-Salw, "Les almoravides (tr. by G.S. Colin)", in Archives Marocaines XXXI(1925):

111-238.

D17. al-Salw, "Les mrinides (tr. by Ismal Hamet)", in Archives Marocaines XXXIII(1934).

D18. de (for von) Zambaur, d(uard), Manuel de gnalogie et de chronologie pour l'histoire de

l'Islam, Hanover, 1927.

INDEX OF SOURCES OF COINS

The categories of coins are listed in the same order as in the corpus; within each

category the sources are listed alphabetically by abbreviation, followed by the numbers

of the coins derived from each source and by a notation in parentheses of the number of

additional specimens recorded, whether duplicates, rejected coins, or inadequately de-

scribed coins which cannot be indentified.

'ABBASID GOLD: see zIr1d, ijammAd1d, murab1t, and hudid.

FATIMID GOLD: see zIr1d.

ZIRID GOLD:

ANS: 20.

B(rethes): 7.

Balog: 21.

Bergmann: 16.

Blau: N(achlese): 17 (+2).

BM IV: 19, 22.

BN II: 14.

BN III: 1, 18.

Casanova: 13.

F(arrugia): Fatimites: 1-4, 6-8 (+2).

F(arrugia): Fatimites II: 2, 7-10, 23.

Farrugia:3, 4, n, 12, 15, 24.

Ibn-Khaldun: 24a.

KM IL3, 6.

Miles: 20.

0(strup): 10, 12a.

P(rieto): Misceldnea: 24a.

S(chulman): Beyram: 24a.

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Schiepati: 3, 5, 7, 8.

Soret: F(raehn): 3, 6.

VoUers (+2).

Welzl: 3, 5 (+1).

HAMMADID GOLD:

(de) Beylie (+1).

Ibn-Khaldun: 25.

BLAMMUDID GOLD: none reported.

20*

308

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

MURABIT GOLD:

Adler: C(ollectio): 43, 282, 377.

ANS:43,76, 215, 220, 268, 374, 397.

B(rethes): 28, 29, 31, 33, 34, 38, 40, 45-53, 57. 59. 60, 62, 64, 65, 70, 71, 74, 75, 77, 78,

80, 81, 83, 86, 87, 91, 121, 123-125, 161, 164, 168, 173, 178, 188, 191, 193, 195, 199, 205, 210,

211, 216, 218, 219, 224, 232, 234, 241, 244, 256, 258, 271-273, 284, 286, 288, 292-295, 297, 299,

303. 307-309. 3". 312, 314-335, 337-342, 351-354. 357, 358, 364. 365. 370, 372, 375, 377. 378,

380, 382,383, 385,389, 390,392,393,401,404,405, 410,411,413,414,418,422,424,425,427-429,

433-436, 444 (+30).

Balog: 47, 158, 402.

Bartholomaei: 58, 224.

BM V: 33, 49, 54, 58, 61, 63, 96, 113, 153, 163, 167, 170, 184, 215, 216, 218-220, 245, 246,

256, 263, 268, 273, 275, 287, 289, 291, 338, 339, 342, 344, 349, 350, 357, 363, 367, 374, 378, 384,

386, 396, 400a, 425, 431, 432, 446 (+3).

BM X: 66, 78, 79, 95, 127, 132, 152, 166, 182, 272, 283, 320, 377, 394, 399, 403, 407.

BN II: 26, 32, 36, 39, 40, 47, 54, 55, 59-62, 64-69, 74, 78, 79, 87, 89, 91, 97, 103, 1", 118,

121, 127, 128, 133, 135, 144, 146, 148, 153, 156, 159, 163, 186, 203, 213, 214, 2l6, 218-220,224-227,

230, 232, 239, 243, 245, 246, 248, 255, 256, 260, 268, 270, 281, 283-286, 289-291, 297, 302-304,

309, 3Ha, 316, 318, 319, 322, 327, 338, 351, 354, 356, 358, 360, 363, 366, 371, 377-379. 38l, 392,

396, 400, 401, 408, 410, 412, 414, 417-419, 426, 432, 438, 439, 442 (+6).

Brooke: 95.

Brosset: 215, 216 (+1).

C(odera): Cecas: 106.

C(odera): Decadencia: 26, 59, 378, 432.

C(odera): Donativo: 272, 319, 356.

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C(odera): Familia: 443.

C(odera): Monedas: 158, 209, 216, 244, 251, 254, 255, 277, 291, 314, 315, 332, 337, 352,360,

369.

C(odera): Tratado: 114, 135, 256, 348, 402a, 430.

Caballero: 126, 134-136, 138, 140, 230, 232, 235-237.

Calvo: 58, 213 (+369).

Cerda: 39, 48, 73, 77-80, 82, 212, 213, 215, 216, 218-221, 224, 228, 243, 248, 254, 260, 283,

284, 286, 289-291, 296, 339, 342, 343, 346, 351, 355, 356, 377, 397, 401.

Cimino (+3).

Colson: 69, 78, 92, 98, 110, 115, 130, 132, 152, 168, 171, 224,225, 227-230, 232, 241-243,

261, 263, 264, 267, 268, 270, 271 (+37).

Cond: 220, 235, 273, 361.

Cunha II: 65.

D(elgado): Garcia: 200, 226, 228, 278.

D(elgado): Lorichs: 77, 91, 133, 213, 224, 248, 259, 285, 289, 322, 352, 362, 430a (+1).

Demaeght: 66.

Dorn: A(siatische): 213, 286.

Dorn I: 214-216, 218, 247, 249, 283, 285, 286, 290 (+7).

Eichhorn (+2).

Figanier: 160, 212, 213, 216, 243, 391, 410.

Fleischer: 222.

Fraehn: B(ose): 284, 398, 432.

Fraehn: N{ova): 214, 215, 283, 285, 286, 290.

Index of Sources

309

Fraehn: 0(pusculorum): 153, 246.

G: 194, 246.

Gonzalez: 120, 257 (+1).

Host: E(fterretninger) and N(achrichten): 67, 414.

HSA: 42, 44, 66, 79, 159,164, 214, 216-219, 221. 247. 283. 284, 287, 296, 301, 324, 329, 334,

339. 359. 369. 377. 378, 401, 401a, 439- 440, 446 (+1)-

J(ohnston): Mohammedan: 42, 65, 388.

KM II: 35,107, 127,163, 207, 213, 215, 216, 218, 220, 225, 243, 246-248, 253-255, 257, 263,

265, 283-286, 304, 310, 323, 325, 338, 340, 348, 350-352, 354. 356-359. 361, 376. 378. 395, 398,

400a, 402a, 414, 418, 419, 432, 437-439 (+5).

L(ane-Poole): Calvert: 40, 50, 64, 72, 251.

L(ane-Poole): Khedivial: 84, 218, 253, 291, 349.

L(ane-Poole): Oriental: 213, 235, 283.

Lagumina: 160.

Leite: 345.

Lisbon: 157, 284, 328, 388 (+1).

London: 283 (+1).

Longperier: A (rt): 289.

LongpeYier: Documents): 103,105,118,128,133, 134,144,147, 148, 210, 213, 215, 220, 225,

228, 230, 232, 233, 235, 239, 242, 244, 246, 260, 263, 268, 269, 275, 284, 285, 289, 290,349-351,355.

361, 400, 402, 418, 432 (+1).

MA: 73, 129, 158, 192, 197, 200, 209, 212-216, 218-222, 226, 229, 245, 246, 248, 250-252,

254-257, 268, 269, 271, 277, 278, 283, 284, 286, 289, 291, 295, 314, 315, 317, 322, 324, 332, 337,

347. 350-352, 355-357. 360, 364. 368, 369. 377. 392- 406, 409, 410, 415. 42<>, 432 (+2<>).

Marcais: 202.

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Markov: E(rmitazha): 49, 60, 61, 65-68, 75, 77, 79, 86, 88, 104, 133, 148, 162, 206, 215, 216,

218, 230, 240, 246, 248, 255, 283, 285, 287, 291, 295-297, 318, 349, 358, 362, 377, 381, 402, 432

(+4).

Markov: T(opografiya): 214.

Marsden: 54, 96, 153, 170, 246, 275, 349.

Mateu (+1).

Mateu I: 378.

0(strup): 27, 35-37, 66, 67, 75, 169, 216, 230, 232, 253, 259, 267, 268, 271, 284, 318, 323,

338a, 347, 414.

Rivero: E(spana): 103, 257.

Rivero: M(oneda): 27, 61, 73, 118, 230, 239, 324, 388, 432, 437.

Rodgers: 432.

Romero (+1).

S(chulman): Beyram: 28, 32, 402.

S(chulman): Ciscar: 129.

S(chulman): Dodgson: 351.

S(chulman): Gotha: 42, 89, 129, 175, 209, 272, 362, 410.

S(chulman): Granttey: 42, 43.

S(chulman): Judice II: 42, 216, 219, 283, 287, 309, 324, 334.

S(chulman): Karabaczek: 351.

S(chulman): Michael I: 164, 439.

S(chulman): Michael II: 39, 41-43 (+2).

S(chulman): White: 42, 66, 79, 91, 284, 301.

3Io

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Sawaszkiewicz: 432, 440 (+3).

Seaby:199.

Sentenach: 222.

Soret: D(orn): 274.

Soret: F(raehn): 30, 59, 66, 290.

Soret: S(awalief): 321, 391.

Sotheby: 39, 42, 44, 65, 74, 224, 267, 313, 355, 388, 397.

Spink: 39, 40, 44, 74, 191, 192, 215, 219, 284, 287, 358, 360 ( + 10).

Thorburn: 161, 213, 282, 338b.

Tornberg: 214, 290.

Tychsen, O.: 213.

UM: 287.

V(ives): 26, 27, 32, 33, 35, 36, 38-40, 42-49, 54-56, 58-71, 73-81, 84, 85, 87-90, 93-97.

100-104, 108-114, 116-122, 126-137, 139-141. 143-163. 165-167, 170-174, 176, 177, 179-187,

189, 190, 192, 196-198, 200, 201, 203-205, 208, 209, 212-232, 234-246, 248-257, 260, 262-264,

266-273, 275-281, 283-287, 289-291, 295-300, 302-311, 312, 314-327. 332, 334-340, 342-344.

347. 349-358, 360-369, 371. 373, 374, 377-382, 384, 386-389, 392, 394, 395-397, 399. 400, 401,

402, 406-410, 412, 414-421, 423, 425, 430, 431, 432, 437-442, 445, 446 (+271).

Vollers ( + 12).

Welzl: 37, 284.

Weyl: G(agarin): 60, 67, 68, 75, 88, 133, 142, 148, 206, 215, 218, 233, 240, 246, 248, 255,

283-285, 287, 295, 297, 318, 351, 358, 377 ( + 1).

Yale: 99.

Zambaur II: 80, 154.

Ziya: 86, 432.

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MUWAHHID GOLD:

ANS: 447, 453, 466, 495, 501, 522 (+1).

B(rethes): 448, 451, 454, 456, 457, 463, 464, 466, 467, 470, 472-474. 476, 478, 481, 485, 488,

489, 491, 496, 501, 502, 505, 506, 511, 514, 515, 517-519. 524. 525. 527-529. 533. 534. 536, 538,

539, M1 (+149).

Balog (+3).

Bartholomaei: 449.

BM V: 451, 453, 466, 467, 491, 495, 500-502, 509, 511, 517, 522, 524, 525, 528, 531-533,

537. 538 (+14; 2 hybrids).

BM X: 456, 469, 526, 534, 535 (+1).

BN II: 455,458,465-467, 470,481,491,497,501,506,507,517,525,533,536 (+4; 2 hybrids).

C(odera): Qecas: 471.

C(odera): Lebrija: 453, 495.

C(odera): Tratado: 470, 495, 533.

Calvo (+64).

Castiglioni: 495.

Cerda: 465, 466, 470, 478, 495, 496.

Cimino: 565 (+1; 1 hybrid).

Codrington, H.: Ceylon: 495.

Codrington, H.: Colombo: 491.

Cond<5: 466, 491, 533.

D(elgado): Garcia: 466, 495, 525, 533, 536, 539 (+4).

Index of Sources

311

D(elgado): Lorichs: 495, 497, 533 (1 hybrid).

Demaeght: 498.

Dieulafoy: 501 (+139).

Figanier: 513, 533.

Fraehn: R(ecensio): 495.

Gonzalez: 506, 527.

Grotefend: 501.

Holu: 501.

HSA: 446a, 458, 460, 466, 470, 477-479. 494. 495. 497. 51. 506. 535 (+10).

Ibn-Abi-Zar': 499.

J(ohnston): Gold: 450, 457, 466, 473, 477~479, 482-492, 501 (+277).

KM II: 459. 465, 466, 485. 491. 495. 502, 506, 508, 533, 536 (+3; 1 hybrid).

L(ane-Poole): Inedited: 451.

L(ane-Poole): Khedivial: 456, 491, 495, 501, 509, 525.

L(ane-Poole): Muwahhids: 466, 495, 501, 502, 509, 525, 533, 537 (+8; 2 hybrids).

Lagumina: 495, 501.

Leite: 479 (+1).

Lisbon: 466 (+1).

MA: 448, 458, 459, 466, 495, 519, 525, 528, 533, 535, 536, 539 (+17; 2 hybrids).

Maguelonne: 466, 480.

Markov: E(rmitazha): 455, 495, 533.

Mateu I: 504, 525, 533.

Mateu II: 485, 495.

0(strup): 466, 491, 519, 533 (+ 1).

P(rieto): 448, 451, 453-456. 458-461, 464-467. 469, 470. 473. 475. 477. 478, 481. 485. 488,

539.

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491, 494-497. 5oo, 501, 503. 504, 506-509, 5"-513. 515-517. 519-521, 523-528, 530-536, 538,

Rivero: A(dquisiciones): 506.

Rivero: E(spana): 466, 481, 496, 501 ( + 1).

Rivero: M(oneda): 469, 478, 495, 501, 528, 539.

Rodgers: 509.

S(chulman): Beyram: 467, 495, 501.

S(chulman): Castro: 466, 495.

S(chulman): Ciscar: 456, 465, 495 (+2).

S(chulman): Comte: 456.

S(chulman): Gotha: 452, 455, 466, 491, 533, 536.

S(chulman): Grantley: 467.

S(chulman: Judice II: 446a, 458, 470, 479.

S(chulman): Karabaczek: 453, 466, 467, 469, 491, 495, 533 (+1).

S(chulman): Michael I: 455, 473.

S(chulman): White: 451, 493, 497, 502, 510.

Sacy: 480, 491, 495, 501, 533 (+2).

Sallet: 508.

Sawaszkiewicz: 512.

Seco: 524, 533 (+3).

Soret: F(raehn): 533.

Sotheby: 450, 458, 466, 473, 477, 478, 481, 483-487. 491. 492. 501, 506, 533, 538 (+10).

Spink: 466, 473, 477, 478, 481, 482, 484, 486-491. 495. 497. 5o1 (+44).

312 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Thorburn: 459, 495, 534, 538.

Tychsen, O.: Introductions: 533.

UM: 496.

V(ives): 448, 451, 453, 455, 456, 458-460, 464-470, 473. 475. 478, 481. 49*. 495-497. 5<>o,

501, 503, 506, 507, 5", 517. 519. 525. 527. 528, 531-534. 536-539 (+38; 2 hybrids).

Vollers: 462 (+20).

Welzl: 466.

Weyl: F(onrobert): 495, 501 (+4).

Weyl: G(agarin): 451, 453, 466, 495, 501, 503, 517 (+4).

HDID GOLD:

D(elgado): Garcia: 541.

P(rieto): 540, 541.

S(chulman): Karabaczek: 540.

Weyl: G(agarin): 540.

HAFSID GOLD:

ANS: 551, 559, 643.

Ashmolean: 598.

B(rethes): 542, 543, 546, 547, 550-553. 556, 558, 562, 564. 566-572, 575. 585a, 586, 598, 599.

624, 631, 639 (+5).

Bigonet: 601.

Blancard: 626.

BM V: 546, 551, 560, 567, 606, 614, 615 (+2).

BM X: 564, 572, 590 (+1).

BN II: 544, 545, 550-552, 557, 559- 563. 564, 569, 572, 576. 580, 582, 584, 586, 588, 591, 594,

596, 603,604,607-609,613,618, 623,626,629,630,632,634,637, 640-644 (+10; 2 hybrids).

Cerda (+1).

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Chalon: 551.

Cimino: 617 (+3).

Codrington, O.: 589.

Conde: 565.

D(elgado): Garcia: 548, 560, 564, 566, 572 (+3).

Dorn II: 552.

F(arrugia): Hafsites: 551, 552, 559-562, 564, 572-574, 577. 577*. 578. 583. 585, 5863-588,

591-593, 595, 597, 598, 600, 602, 604-606, 610-612, 616, 617, 619-622, 624, 628-630, 635, 636

(+18; 1 hybrid).

Friedlander (+2).

KM II: 543, 551, 552, 569, 586, 637, 638 (+1).

L(ane-Poole): Khedivial: 559.

Lagumina: 569, 579, 581.

Lavoix: H(afss): 551, 559, 572, 576, 584, 603, 609, 613, 626, 644 (1 hybrid).

LongpeYier: A(rt): 572, 626.

Markov: E(rmitazha) ( + 1).

Marsden: 615, 625.

0(strup): 551, 560, 588.

P(rieto): 543, 545-548, 550-556.

Rivero: M(oneda): 548, 565.

Index of Sources 313

S(chulman): Gotha: 551, 572.

S(chulman): Karabaczek: 551, 559, 562.

S(chulman): White: 551.

Sacy: 632, 633.

Seco: 555.

Soret: D(orn): 627.

Soret: F(raehn): 549, 561.

Sotheby (+2).

Spink: 552.

Tychsen, O.: 569.

Vollers (+8).

Weyl: F(onrobert): 552, 638 (+1).

Weyl: G(agarin): 551, 559.

Ziya: 551 (+1).

ZIYANID GOLD:

B(rethes): 645, 646, 648, 649, 652, 655, 661, 663, 666 (+3).

Berchem: 646, 650 (+1).

BM V: 648, 650.

BN II: 646-648, 654, 658, 667, 669-671.

Brosselard: 664.

D(elgado): Lorichs: 659.

Demaeght: 646, 650, 651, 657, 662.

HSA: 660.

L(ane-Poole): Khedivial: 670.

Mareschal: 665, 668 (+4).

Moyse: 653, 656, 661, 672.

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0(strup): 648.

Rivero: A(dquisiciones): 663.

Rivero: M(oneda): 663.

Soret: F(raehn): 648.

Sotheby (+2).

Spink (+2).

Thorburn: 648.

Vollers (+2).

MARlNID GOLD:

Anderson: 724.

ANS: 682, 767.

B(rethes): 675, 678-680, 682, 686, 688-691, 693-695, 697, 698, 703-708, 713, 715, 721, 727,

733. 734. 737. 739. 741-743. 745. 75&, 756a, 757, 759, 763, 764, 768-771, 773, 775, 776, 783, 785,

786, 788, 790-792, 794, 795, 808, 810, 818-820, 825, 832-835, 837-839, 842-845, 850, 851, 858,

861, 862, 864 (+29; 1 hybrid).

BM V: 678, 682, 684, 689, 690, 692, 695, 715, 716, 718, 719, 721, 722, 725, 750, 751, 753, 754,

766-768, 770, 772, 775, 778, 779, 782, 784, 785, 794, 795, 797, 798, 810-814, 816, 823, 825, 829,

833. 838. 847, 849, 853 (+12; 2 hybrids).

BM X: 681, 696, 697, 699, 703, 726, 729, 732, 735, 736, 738-740, 742, 744, 746-748, 757, 758,

781, 787, 789, 793, 799-801, 803-805, 817, 823, 828, 830, 840, 856, 858, 860, 863 (+4; 2 hybrids).

314

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

BN II: 678, 682, 687, 690, 693, 700-702, 704, 706, 709, 715, 720, 723, 728, 736, 739, 743,

765, 767, 771, 772, 774, 779, 782, 796, 797, 814, 821, 825, 827, 832, 846, 848, 852, 865 (+11;

2 imitations).

Brosset (+1).

Cerda (+4).

Cond: 706.

D(elgado): Garcia: 675, 690, 716, 717 (+18).

Demaeght: 743, 772, 775, 777, 824.

Dombay: 739, 742, 782 (+2).

Dorn II: 703.

F(arrugia): Ha/sites: 673, 690, 695, 706, 710-712, 759, 762 (+53).

Fraehn: N(ova): 690.

Host: E(fterretninger) and N(achrichten): 674, 682.

HSA: 706, 736, 760, 806, 822, 825, 860.

KM II:683, 715, 716, 766, 854.

L(ane-Poole): Calvert: 761.

L(ane-Poole): Khedivial: 695, 700 (+2).

Lavoix: H(afss): 682.

Markov: E(rmitazha) (+3).

Metropolitan: 797, 826.

Moyse: 750, 752, 809.

0(strup): 690, 706, 756a (+5).

P(rieto): 675-678, 681, 682, 685, 687, 689-691, 692, 693, 695, 697, 700-702, 706, 709, 714,

715, 716, 717, 719, 722, 725-732, 736, 738, 739, 743, 744, 746-750, 752-756. 757. 758, 765-772,

774-776, 778-781, 784, 785, 787, 789, 793-795. 797. 799-803. 807, 810, 811, 814-817, 822, 825,

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828-833, 836. 838, 841, 845, 848, 850, 855, 857, 859-861, 864, 866 (3 hybrids).

Rivero: A(dquisiciones): 821.

Rivero: M(oneda): 775.

S(chulman): Castro (+1).

S(chulman): Gotha: 690, 706, 785, 823.

S(chulman): Judice III (+2).

S(chulman): Karabaczek: 678, 690, 715a.

S(chulman): White: 732, 770, 795, 817.

Seaby: 835.

Soret: B(artholomae): 867.

Soret: F(raehn): 678, 682, 775.

Sotheby: 690, 767, 817 (+8).

Spink: 736, 770, 774, 796 (+12).

Thorburn: 682, 779, 817, 825 (1 hybrid).

Tychsen, O.: 691a.

Vollers (+7).

Weyl: G(agarin): 678, 716, 852 (1 hybrid).

NASRID GOLD:

P(rieto): Granadina: 868.

WATTASID GOLD:

B(rethes): 869.

Index of Sources 315

BM X: 870.

Spink (+2).

OTTOMAN GOLD: see ziyAnid.

'ABBASID SILVER: see hud1d.

FATIMID SILVER: none reported.

ZIRID SILVER:

F(arrugia): Fatimites: 871.

HAMMADID SILVER: none reported.

HAMMUDID SILVER:

BM IX (+1).

C(odera): Estudio: 874, 877.

C(odera): Hammudies (+1).

Guilten: 875.

HSA: 883, 887.

P(rieto): Reyes: 872-874, 875-877, 879, 883-887.

S(chulman): Judice II: 874a.

V(ives): 873, 874, 875, 877-887 (+18).

MURABIT SILVER AND ELECTRUM:

ANS: 893, 894, 906, 926, 928, 951, 953. 976, 982, 983. 1004, 1017, 1027, 1035, 1052 (+7).

B(rethes): 888, 891, 892, 906, 919, 927-929, 981, 985, 999,1003,1019,1020,1025,1034-1036,

1039, 104<>, 1045, 1051, 1052 (+20).

BM V: 927, 941, 943, 976, 982, 983, 997, 999,1001, 1003,1004,1015,1022, 1029,1032,1035,

1041, 1052 (+11).

BM X: 931, 1004.

BN II: 888, 894, 895, 905, 927, 933, 976, 979, 982, 983, 988, 997, 1001, 1002, 1004, 1032,

1034, 104o, 1041, 1052 (+11).

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C(odera): Cecas: 950.

C(odera): Decadencia: 943, 958, 961, 965, 1050, 1054, 1056.

C(odera): Monedas: 1056 (+12).

C(odera): Tratado: 894, 903, 927, 941, 976, 983, 1004, 1032, 1035, 1041, 1052.

Calvo (+322).

Castiglioni: 999.

Cerda: 975, 1016a, 1016b, 1017 (+15).

Conde: 894, 927, 928, 988, 1000, 1001, 1040, 1041, 1047

D(elgado): Garcia: 891, 892, 905, 906, 921, 927, 939, 952, 954, 956, 957, 976, 978, 981, 983,

992, 1000, 1001, 1004, 1036, 1040, 1041, 1043 (+21).

D(elgado): Lorichs (+20).

Dombay: 893, 902a, 983.

Figanier: 927, 1002, 1035 (+1).

Gonzalez (+1).

Host: E(Jterretninger) and N(achrichten): 1039.

HSA: 894, 953, 976, 982, 983, 989, 998, 999, 1001, 1003, 1004, 1013, 1014, 1022, 1032, 1035,

1036, 1040, 1041, 1052 (+27).

316

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

KM II: 894-896, 927, 976, 982,983, 988,999, 1oo1, 1002, 1004, 1024, 1036, 1037, 1040. 1041,

1045, 1047-1049 (+21).

L(ane-Poole): Khedivial: 924.

Lisbon: 982, 983, 1001.

Longperier: D(ocuments): 959, 1037, 1052 (+J5).

Lopes: 983, 1004.

MA: 888, 889, 891, 894, 902, 905, 906, 908, 911, 915, 917, 918, 922, 923, 925-928, 932,

938-940, 945, 946, 963, 965, 973, 976, 982, 983, 988, 991, 997, 999-1001, 1002, 1004, 1014, 1019,

1022, 1024-1026, 1032, 1035, 1040, 1041, 1049, 1052, 1053, 105 (+89).

Markov: E(rmitazha) (+15).

Marsden: 1041.

Miiller: 920.

Munter: 928, 1000 (+1).

Nasir: 976, 983, 997, 999.

0(strup): 894, 921, 922, 927, 928, 939, 956, 977, 983, 1000, 1044 (+4).

P(rieto): Reyes: 908, 939, 947-949, 951, 952, 955-957, 966, 968, 969, 971, 972, 991-994.

Pedersen: 922, 927, 976, 982, 983 (+2).

Rivero: E(spana): 896, 904, 940, 943, 952, 958, 965, 971, 1013,1017,1025,1049,1050 (+1).

Rivero: M(oneda): 888, 896, 904, 957, 965, 1013, 1017, 1025, 1032, 1036, 1040, 1052.

S(chulman): Castro: 976, 982, 983, 999, 1003, 1004, 1009, 1028, 1035, 1045.

S(chulman): Ciscar: 982.

S(chulman): Judice II: 894, 953, 982, 983, 998, 1003, 1004, 1022, 1041, 1052 (+2).

Sawaszkiewicz (+4).

Soret: B(artholomae): 895, 1046.

Soret: D(orn): 922, 985, 1046.

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Soret: F(raehn) (+2).

Soret: R(einaud): 1035.

Sotheby: 952, 1052 (+13).

Thorburn: 897, 927, 928, 952, 982, 983, 986, 1004, 1022, 1040.

UM: 928.

V(ives): 888-891, 893-896, 898-902, 903-910, 912-918, 921-928, 930, 932-949, 951, 952,

956-970, 972-980, 982-984, 987-1001, 1003-1006, 1008-1014, 1016, 1017-1026, 1029-1033, 1035,

1037-1039, 1041-1043, 1045, 1047, 1049. 1050, 1052-1056 (+337).

Vollers (+18).

Welzl: 1007.

Weyl: G(agarin): 981, 983, 1004 (+5).

Zambaur I: 965.

Zambaur: W(indisch): 1000.

MUWAHHID SILVER:

Adler: C(ollectio): 1068, 1081, 1101 (+2).

Adler: M(useum): 1088.

ANS: 1068, 1085, 1088, 1088a, 1091, 1093, 1095, 1096, 1098, no1, 1103, 1112 (+32).

B(rethes): 1066-1068, 1085,1087,1088,1090,1092,1096,1098,1101,1103,1106-1108, 111l,

1112, 1115, 1116, (+15; 5 amulets).

Bel: 1066,1068,1085,1087, 1088,1089,1092-1094,1096,1099, "o1, 1103-1106,1112,1113,

1115, 1116 (+2).

Blancard: 1101.

Index of Sources

317

Blau: 0(dessa): 1101.

BM V: 1066, 1085, 1087, 1093, 1096, 1098, 1101, 1103, 1109, 1115 (+26).

BM X: 1066, 1096, 1106 (+2).

BN II: 1063, 1066, 1068, 1085, 1087, 1088, 1093, 1096, 1101, 1103, 1106-1108, 1115 (+18).

Boneschi: 1087, 1101.

C(odera): Tratado: 1060, 1071, 1112.

Calvo: 1113 (+2116).

Campaner: M(onedas): 1114, 1116.

Campaner: N(umismdtica): 1114, 1116.

Casanova: 1101 (+7).

Castiglioni: 1088, 1096, 1101 (+1).

Cerda: 1068, 1074, 1093, 1096, 1101, 1106, 1115 (+3).

Cimino (+2).

Conde:1063, 1103.

Cottevieille: 1092.

D(elgado): Garcia: 1068, 1093, 1096, 1099, 1101, 1106 (+61).

D(elgado): Lorichs: 1096, 1101, 1116, (+12).

Dombay: 1106, 1115 (+1).

Dorn I: 1101 (+8).

F(arrugia): Dragut: 1102.

F(arrugia): Hafsites: 1088, 1101 (+1).

Fasmer I: 1076, 1083.

Figanier: 1068, 11o1 (+28).

Fraehn: N(ova): 1096.

Fraehn: R(ecensio): 1080, 1101. .

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Geitlin: 1082.

Gonzalez: 1101.

Guillen: 1113.

Host: E(fterretninger) and N(achrichten): 1101.

HSA: 1062, 1068, 1085, 1087, 1092, 1093, 1096-1098, 1101, 1103, 1106, 1107, m1, 1112,

1115 (+134).

KM II: 1066, 1068, 1078, 1080, 1085, 1087, 1088, 1088a, 1093, 1096, "ooa, 1101, 1103,

1106, 1115 (+64).

Krehl: 1088, 1101 (+4).

L(ane-Poole): Bodleian: 1080, 1103 (+1).

L(ane-Poole): Calvert: 1084 (+1).

L(ane-Poole): Johnston: 1079 (+1).

L(ane-Poole): Khedivial: 1087, 1101 (+10).

L(ane-Poole): Muwahhids: 1085, 1087, 1088, 1093, 1096, 1101 (+19).

Lagumina: 1101, 1103.

Leite: 1068, 1101 (+3).

Lisbon: 1059, 1061, 1068, 1096, 1115, 1116 (+2).

Longperier: A(rt): 1101.

MA: 1062,1064,1066,1068-1070,1073,1075,1076,1085-1088,1092-1094,1096,1098, 11o1,

1106-1108, 1"o-1113, 1115 (+5176).

Marcel (+1).

Markov: E(rmitazha): 1083, 1088, 1096, 1101 (+4).

Marsden: 1101.

3I8

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Moeller: 1101.

Moura: 1068, 1101.

Miinter (+11).

Nasir: 1101 (+2).

Nesselmann: 1101.

0(strup): 1066, 1068, 1085, 1088, 1093, 1096, 1098, 1101, 1115 (+11).

P(rieto): 1066, 1068, 1070-1076, 1085-1088, 1092-1096, 1098, 1099, 1101, 1106-1116.

Pedersen: 1io1 (+1).

Rivero: E(spana): 1062, 1066 (+1).

Rivero: M(oneda): 1066, 1088, 1099, 1110, 1114.

S(chulman): Beyram: 1093, 1096, 1101 (+1).

S(chulman): Castro: 1066, 1068, 1093, 1096, 1101, 1103.

S(chulman): Ciscar: 11o1.

S(chulman): Judice II: 1068, 1074, 1085, 1087, 1095, 1096, 1098, 1100, 1101, 1103, 1106,

1107, 1112, 1115 (+99).

S(chulman): White: 1093, 1096 (+1).

Sawaszkiewicz (+2).

Schiepati: 1096.

Seco: 11o1.

Soret: D(orn): 1080.

Sotheby (+12).

Spink: 1101.

Thorburn: 1066, 1068, 1079, 1080.

Tychsen, O.: 1096, 1115.

Tychsen, T.: 1101 (+2).

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UM: 1096, 1101 (+1).

V(ives): 1057-1062a, 1064, 1066, 1068, 1070, 1071, 1073-1075, 1077,1085-1088,1092-1096,

1098, 1099, 11o1, 1106-1116 (+323).

Vollers: 1103 (+24).

Welzl: 1096, 1098, 1101 (+1).

Weyl: F(onrobert): 1065, 1080, 1096, 1101 (+13).

Weyl: G(agarin): 1066, 1101 (+4).

Zambaur II ( + 1).

Zambaur: W(indisch): 1085, 1101, 1103 (+7).

HUDID SILVER:

B(rethes): 1119, 1121 (+1).

Bel: 117, 118.

HSA: 1119.

MA: 1119 (+3).

P(rieto): 1117-1120.

Soret: F(raehn): 1121.

Soret: K(reht): 1121.

V(ives): 1120 (+2).

JIAFSID SILVER:

ANS: 1123, 1129 (+1).

B(rethes): 1123 (+1).

Bel: 1123.

Index of Sources

BM V: 1122, 1123 (+1).

BN II: 1123 (+1).

F(arrugia): Hafsites: 1122.

F(arrugia): Somd: 1124-1129 (+53).

HSA: 1123 (+1).

KM II: 1122 (+1).

L(ane-Poole): Muwahhids: 1122.

Monchicourt: 1130-1132.

0(strup): H22, 1123 (+1).

S(chulman): JudiceH: 1123 (+1).

Weyl: F(onrobert): 1122.

ZIYANID SILVER: none reported.

MARINID SILVER:

Adler: C(ollectio): 1146.

ANS: 1144.

B(rethes): 1136-1138, 1141, 1143-1145, 1151, 1152 (+450).

Bel: 1137, 1143.

BM V: 1137.

BN II: 1137.

D(elgado): Garcia (+1).

Host: E(Uerretninger) and N(achrichten): 1146.

HSA: 1142.

KM II: 1144, 1146 (+3).

MA: 1135, 1137 (+2).

Mateu III: 1138, 1139 (+3).

Moura: 1146.

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0(stnip): 1141, 1144, 1146, 1147 (+1).

P(rieto): 1134, 1135, 1137, 1138, 1143, 1146-1150.

S(chulman): Beyram: 1149.

S(chulman): Castro: 1146 (+3).

Tychsen, O.: 1146.

Tychsen, T.: 1146.

V(ives): 1133, 1135, 1137. "39. "40. "46. "49 (+7).

Vollers (+1).

NASRID SILVER:

BN II: 1153.

Figanier: 1153 (+1).

Mateu III: 1153 (+15).

P(rieto) (+2).

Thorburn: 1153.

V(ives): 1153 (+8).

WATTASID SILVER:

B(rethes): 1154-1156 (+3).

Host: E(fterretninger) and N(achrichten): 1156.

OTTOMAN SILVER: none reported.

320 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

'ABBASID COPPER: none reported.

FATIMID COPPER: none reported.

ZIRID COPPER: none reported.

HAMMADID COPPER: none reported.

HAMMTJDID COPPER:

BN II: 1157-1159 (+1).

Cerda: 1160.

D(elgado): Garcia: 1157, 1160 (+3).

MA: 1157, 1160 (+3).

MURABIT COPPER:

ANS: 1165.

BM V: 1165 (+1).

BN II: 1164, 1168 (+1).

Calvo (+26).

Cerda: 1164.

Fraehn: N(ova): 1169.

Fraehn: V(erzeichniss): 1169.

HSA: 1169.

KM II: 1164, 1165.

MA: 1161, 1162, 1165-1167 (+1).

Sawaszkiewicz (+1).

Tychsen, O.: 1164, 1165.

V(ives): 1161, 1163.

Vollers (+1).

MUWAHHID COPPER:

Blau: 0(dessa): 1171.

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KM II: 1170.

Vollers (+1).

HUDID COPPER: none reported.

HAFSID COPPER:

Babelon (+3).

F(armgia): Hafsites: 1173, 1174.

Ibn-Khaldun: 1172.

al-Zarkashi: 1172.

ZIYANID COPPER: none reported.

MARINID COPPER: none reliably reported.

NASRID COPPER: none reported.

WATTASID COPPER: none reported.

OTTOMAN COPPER: none reported.

INDEX OF SCRIPTS

Kufi script: 1-90, 92-446a, 871-957, 959-964, 966-977, 981-1000, 1002-1011, 1013, 1017-1021,

1024-1051, 1060, 1103, 1157-1169.

Kufi and Naskhi script: 91, 958, 965,1053, 1054,1056,1103a.

Kufi or Naskhi script: 978, 980, 1012, 1016, 1023, 1057-1059, 1061.

Modified Kuf1 script: 637, 638, 862.

Naskhi script: 447-561,567-570,574,577,578,579,581-606,608-636,639-678,681-685,687-690,

691a, 692, 695-697, 699-703, 705-861, 863-870, H1-H14, M1, 979, 1001, 1014, 1015, 1022,

1052, 1055, 1062-1102, 1104-1121, 1124-1156, 1170-1174.

Ornamented Kufi script: 562-566, 571-573, 575, 576, 577a, 580, 607, 679, 680, 686, 691, 693,

694, 698, 704, 1122, 1123.

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21

INDEX OF DENOMINATIONS

Gold

TWENTY-ONE DINAR WEIGHT MEDAL

Muwahhid M1

DOUBLE DINAR

Muwahhid 500-502, 504-508, 511-525. 528, 530-533. 537. 538.

Hudid 540, 541.

Hafeid 542, 543, 545, 547-550, 553. 555-557, 562, 564, 567, 569-572, 574-582, 584-589. 592,

594, 595, 597-599, 601-614, 616-619, 626-629, 631-633, 637-642, 644.

Ziyanid 645-650, 652-656, 659-663, 665, 670, 671.

Marinid 674, 675, 678, 679, 682-686, 689-693, 713, 715-733, 735~741. 749-755, 759~779,

782-785, 787-791, 793-798, 802, 806-816, 818, 819, 821-827, 829, 831, 833,

835-842, 845-847, 855-866.

Na9rid 868.

hybrid H1-6, H9-12.

DINAR

Zirid 1-5, 7-13, 15-24a.

Hammadid 25.

Murabit 26-51, 53-90, 92-209, 211-446.

Muwahhid 447~466, 469-495. 497-499, 509, 510, 526, 527, 529, 534, 535.

Hafijid 546, 551, 554, 558, 559, 563, 565, 566, 568, 573, 583, 590, 593, 615, 620-623, 630,

634, 635.

Ziyanid 651, 657, 658, 664, 666, 667.

Marinid 673, 676, 677, 680, 681, 687, 694-699, 714, 734, 742-744, 746-748, 756-757, 780, 781,

786, 792, 799-801, 817, 820, 828, 830, 832, 834, 843, 848-852, 854.

Wattasid 869,870.

hybrid H7, H8, H13, H14.

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HALF DINAR

Murabit 52, 210.

Muwahhid 467, 468, 496, 503, 536, 539.

Haf9id 544, 552, 560, 591, 600, 624, 625, 636, 643.

Ziyanid 668, 669, 672.

Marinid 688, 700-705, 745, 758, 803-805, 844, 853, 867.

Index of Denominations

323

QUARTER DINAR

Zirid 6.

Murabit 91.

Muwahhid 446a.

Hafsid 561.

Marinid 706-710.

Zirid 14.

Hafgid 596.

Marinid 711,712.

EIGHTH DINAR

Murabit 939. 991. 992.

EJectrum

Silver

DIRHEM

Hammudid 872-887.

Murabit 908-910, 947-949, 951-957. 9^6, 968-972, 975, 993, 994, 1017.

Muwahhid 1062a, 1066.

Hudid 1121.

HALF DIRHEM

Zirid 871.

QIRAT

Murabit 888, 891-897, 900, 902-906, 911-933.94-943. 950, 958-965, 967. 973. 974. 976~987.

996-1008, 1016a, 1018-1023, 1034-1036, 1039-1046, 1052-1055.

Muwahhid 1057-1060, 1062, 1063, 1078-1084.

HALF QIRAT

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Murabit 889,890,898,901,907,934,935,944,945,988-990,995,1009-1012,1016b, 1024-1028,

1037, 1047-1049, 1056.

Muwahhid 1061, 1064.

QUARTER QIRAT

Murabit 899, 936, 946, 1013-1015, 1029, 1030, 1038, 1050.

EIGHTH QIRAT

Murabit 937, 938, 1031, 1032, 1051.

SIXTEENTH QIRAT

Murabit 1016, 1033.

21*

324

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Muwahhid

Hafi.rid

Muwahhid

Hudid

Hafijid

Marinid

Wattasid

Muwahhid

Hafijid

Marinid

Muwahhid

Marinid

Naijrid

SQUARE DOUBLE DIRHEM

"ooa.

1127.

SQUARE DIRHEM

1067, 1076, 1077, 1085-1104, 1106-1116.

1117-1120.

1122-1126, 1128-1130, 1132.

1142, 1145, 1147, 1150-1152.

1154-1156.

SQUARE HALF DIRHEM

1065, 1068, 1070-1075, 1105.

1131.

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"33. 1135, 1137. "41, "43. "44. 1146, 1148, H49.

SQUARE QUARTER DIRHEM

1069.

1134, 1136, 1138, 1139.

1153.

Marinid 1140.

Murabit 1161, 1163.

Murabit 1169.

Hammudid 1157-1160.

Murabit 1162, 1164-1168.

Muwahhid 1170, 1171.

Hafijid 1172-1174.

SQUARE EIGHTH DIRHEM

Copper

PSEUDO-DINAR

PSEUDO-ELECTRUM

PSEUDO-DIRHEM

SQUARE PSEUDO-DIRHEM

EELS

INDEX OF WEIGHTS AND DIAMETERS

The early (pre-Muwahhid) gold is listed first, followed by the later gold, the electrum, the

silver, and the copper. Weights are expressed in grams, diameters in millimeters (sides for square

coins).

Issues Specimens Specimens Maximum Average Maximum Minimum

y y Recorded Recorded Weighed Weight Weight Diameter Diameter

Early Gold

DINAR

Zirid

24

36

10 4.35

4.11

24

22

Hammadid

Murabit

425

561

605 4.30

27

23

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4.05

HALF DINAR

Murabit

1 2.10

2.10

16

15

QUARTER DINAR

Zirid

2 1.02

.92

13

13

Murabit

3 110

1.08

15

14

EIGHTH DINAR

Zirid

1 .52

52

11

11

Late Gold

TWENTY-ONE DINAR WEIGHT MEDAL

Muwahhid

49.4

49.4

65

326

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Dynasty

Issues Specimens

Recorded Recorded

Specimens Maximum Average

Weighed Weight Weight

Maximum Minimum

Diameter Diameter

Ziyanid

2.50

2.32 .

25

22

Marinid

43

68

52

2.50

2.26

25

21

Wattasid

2.30

2.10

24

22

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HALF DINAR

Muwahhid

47

21

1.40

115

16

14

Hafijid

29

24

1.30

115

16

15

Ziyanid

1.05

1.O1

20

14

Marinid

15

QUARTER DINAR

21

1.30

113

19

15

Muwahhid

Index of Weights and Diameters

327

Dynasty

Murabit

Muwahhid

Hafijid

Muwahhid

Hudid

Hafijid

Marinid

Wattasid

Muwahhid

Hafijid

Marinid

Muwahhid

Marinid

Naijrid

Marinid

Murabit

Murabit

Hammudid

Murabit

Muwahhid

Hafijid

Issues Specimens Specimens Maximum Average Maximum Minimum

Recorded Recorded Weighed Weight Weight Diameter Diameter

SIXTEENTH QIRAT

40-

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SQUARE DOUBLE DIRHEM

1 1 3.04

304

14

14

1 1 3.48

348

29

25

SQUARE DIRHEM

36

5862+ 204 1.60

1.41

19

13

16 1 1.50

1.50

15

15

82 75 1.75

1.67

16

14

345 4 1.51

1.43

15

15

7 2 1.50

1.50

17

13

SQUARE HALF DIRHEM

INDEX OF MINTS

Mints are listed by continents, with those in Africa preceding those in Spain. In the interests

of uniformity strict Arabic alphabetical order is followed, so that all names preceded by al- are

grouped together. Dates are all a.h. Diacritical marks are omitted from dynastic names. Abbre-

viations used are g (gold), e (electrum), s (silver), c (copper).

Mint Date Dynasty Ruler Coins

Azammur (631-640) Muwahhid 10 g: 514

(710-731) Marinid 10 g: 726

(731-752) 11 746-748

(775-796) 20 800, 810-817, H13

(796-799) 24 840-842

(799-800) 25 855, 856

(869-910) Wattasid 1 g: 869

Aghmat 486 Murabit 2 g: 58

487 59

488 60

489 61

490 62, 63

491 64

492 65

493 66

494 67

495 68

496 69

497 70

498 71

498 2+3 121

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499 122

500 3 152

501 153

502 154

503 155

504 156

505 157

506 158

507 159

508 160

509 161

Index of Mints

329

Mint

Aghmat

al-Jaza'ir

(see also Jaza'ir)

al-HSmmah

al-Qayrawan

al-Mahdiyah

(see also Mahdiyah)

Date

510

511

512

513

514

515

523

527

528

529

530

531

532?

533

533

535

537

538

539

540

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536

590 (error)

Dynasty

Ruler

3+3A

3+4

4+5

(796-837) Hafsid

19

al-Nasiriyah

441

442

443

444

445

446

448

446

447

449

451

453

454

455

456

457

459

543

Zirid

Zirid

Coins

162

163

164

165

166

330 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Mint

Date

Dynasty

Ruler

Coins

Bijyah

(547-551)

Muwahhid

g: 447, 448

(see also al-Nasiriyah)

(551-558)

1+1A

473. 474

(558-563)

481, 482

(558-640)

2-10

s: 1085

(640-647)

Hafsid

g: 547

Mint

Date

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Dynasty

Ruler

Coins

(647-650)

557. 558

(650-675)

562, 563

(683-684)

571

(684-700)

6A

574. 575

(710-718)

10

581

(718-747)

584-586a

(748-749)

Marinid

11

g: 759

(749)

Hafsid

15

g: 597

(753-759)

Marinid

12

g: 769, 778

(761-767)

Hafsid

15B

g: 603

(796-837)

19

610

(839-856)

20A

627

Biskirah

(796-837)

Index of Mints

Mint

Date

Tilimsan

(796-802)

(802-804)

(804-813)

(813-814)

(814-833)

(827-834)

(834-866)

(839-893)

(866-873)

(934-942)

(947-949)

(957-964)

Tanas

(839-893)

Tuzar

(839-893)

Tunis

(554-558)

(558-563)

(558-627)

(642-668)

(650-711)

(681-683)

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(683-694)

(694-709)

(748-749)

(749-751)

(796-837)

(948-977)

952

954

955

956

958

95*

961

962

964

Tin Mallal

(558-668)

Jarbah

(558-627)

Jaza'ir

(640-647)

(see also al-Jaza'ir)

(718-737)

(748-750)

(839-893)

Dynasty

Ruler

Coins

12

653

13

654?

14

655-657

15

658

17

659-662

18

663, 664

19

665-668

Hafsid

332

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Mint Date Dynasty Ruler Coins

Ribat al-Fath (551-558) Muwahhid 1+1A g: 475

(558-668) 2-13 s: 1092

(630-631) 10 1078

Sabtah 439 Hammudid 6+9 s: 872

440? 873

441 874,874a

442 875

443 876

444 877

446? 878

44x 879

455? 9A+9B 880

456? 881

462 882?; c: 1157

464 s: 883; c: 1158

465 s: 884; c: 1159

466 s: 885

467 886; c: 1160

484 Murabit 2 g: 73

(500-522) 3 s: 905

(522-533) 3+3A 973

(533-537) 3+4 995

(540) Muwahhid 1 s: 1057, 1058

543 Murabit 6A g: 443

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(541-551) Muwahhid 1 g: 451-453

(558-668) 2-13 s: 1093

(563-580) 2 g: 493

(630) Hudid 1 s: 1117

635 1A 1121

(635-640) Muwahhid 10 g: 515

(640) 11 518

(642-668) Marinid 4,6 g: 674-677

(643-647) Hafsid 1 g: 553

(647-665) Muwahhid 12 g: 522-527

(685-706) Marinid 7 g: 715, 715a, 716; s: 1136

(705-789) Nasrid 3-8 s: 1153

(710-731) Marinid 10 g: 727

(731-752) 11 s: 1141

(775-796) 20 g: 819,820

(786-789) Nasrid 8 g: 868

(800-823) Marinid 26 g: 860

Sijilmasah 450

451

Murabit 1 g: 26

27

452

28

Index of Mints

Mint Date Dynasty Ruler Coins

Sijilmasah 454? 29,30

455 31

456 32

457 33

458 34

45* 1A 53

461 1 35

462 36

462 1B 54

463 1 37

465 1B 55

466 56

467 1 38

467? 1B 57

468 1 39

469 40

470 41; c: 1161

471 g:42

472 43

473 44

474 45

475 46

476 47

477 48

478 49

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479 50

480 51

480 2 74

481 75

482 76

483 77

484 78

485 79

486 80

487 81

488 82

490 83

491 84

493 85

494 86

495 87

496 88

497 89

498 90

(480-498) 91

499 3 172

334

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Mint Date Dynasty Ruler Coins

Sijilmasah 500 173

502 174

504 175

505 176

508 177

511 178

513 179

518 180

520 181

521 182

523 3+3A 300

524 301

525 302

526 303

527 304

528 305

529? 306

530 307

531 308

532 309

533 310

533 3+4 369

534 370

535 371

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536 372

538? 4+5 424

544 (error) 4 407

(558-563) Muwahhid 2 g: 485

(558-668) 2-13 s: 1094

(630-631) 10 1079

(640-641) Hafsid 1 g: 554

(642-668) Marinid 4,6 g: 678-681

(646-665) Muwahhid 12 g: 528, 529

(685-706) Marinid 7 g: 717, 718

(710-731) 10 728-734

(731-752) 11 H"; s: 1142, 1143

(731-740) g: 750-752, H1o

(737-752) 764-766

(749-759) 12 771-773.779-781. H12

(764-765) 17A 793

(775-796) 20 806

(796-799) 24 843, 844

(799-800) 25 857

(800-S23) 26 861-863

SafSqus 449 Zirid 4 g: 12

461 4A 24

Index of Mints

Mint

Sala

Sabrah

Tarabulus

Tan j ah

Fas

Date

508

(540-551)

(763-767)

439

440

(749)

(751-770)

(796-637)

(839-893)

(522-533)

484

494

497

(480-498)

501?

508

509

5"

512

520

521

522

524

525

526

527

528

529

53o

531

532

533

533

534

535

536

537

537

538

539

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515?

(540-551)

(551-558)

(558-563)

Dynasty Ruler

Coins

Murabit

Muwahhid

Marinid

Zirid

Hafsid

Murabit

Murabit

17

15

16

19

21

g: 183

g: 454. 455

336

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Mint Date Dynasty Ruler Coins

Fas (558-668) 2-13 s: 1095-1097; c: 1170

(58o-595) 3 g: 5oo

(595-610) 4 504,505

(610-620) 5 507

(630-631) 10 s: 1080, 1081

(642-668) Marinid 4,6 g: 682-688

(685-706) 7 719-721

(710-731) 10 735-743

(731-752) 11 s: 1144

(731-740) g: 753-756a

(737-752) g: 767

(749-759) 12 774.775.782-784

(763-767) 17 790-792

(768-774) 18 795, 796

(774-776) 19 797-799

(775-796) 20 801, 821-828, H14

(786-788) 21 833, 834

(788) 22 835

(796-799) 24 836, 845-849

(799-800) 25 858,859

(800-823) 26 864, 865

Qabis 551 Zirid 8A g: 24a

Qusantinah (710-718) Hafsid 10 g: 582, H7

(749-755) 15A 601

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(796-837) 19 618

(839-893) 21 631

Qafijah (735~747) Hafsid 10 g: 587

(751-770) 16 605

(796-^37) 19 619,620

Marrakush 401 (error) Murabit 2 g: 97

490 95

491 96. 97

499 2+3 123

500 3 194

51o 195

516 196

518 197

519 198

520 199

521 200

522 3+3A 321

523 322

524 323

Index of Mints

Mint

Marrakush

Miknasah

Mahdiyah

(see also al-Mahdiyah)

Nul

(see also Nul Lamtah)

Date

Dynasty

Ruler

Coins

525

324

527

325

528

326

529

327

530

328

531

329

533

330

533

380

534

381

535

382

536

383

537

384

537

411

538

412

539

4+5

427

540

428

540

434

541

435

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3+4

(541-551)

Muwahhid

g: 463

(551-558)

1+1A

478, 479

(558-563)

487-489

(558-668)

2-13

s: 1098

(563-580)

g:494

(621-624)

338

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Mint Date Dynasty Ruler Coins

Nul Lamtah 513 Murabit 3 g: 205

(see also Nul) 515 206

516 207

518 208

522 209

522 3+3A 331

523 332

524 333

525 334

527 335

528 336

530 337

531 338

532 338a

533 338b

533 3+4 385,386

534 387.388

535 389

536 390

537 391.392

537 4 413

538 414

539 415

539 4+5 429

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540 4 416

540 6 436

542 6D 444

(558-563) Muwahhid 2 g:490?

(558-668) 2-13 s: 1100?

? 44x Zirid 4 g: 14; s: 871

(448-480) Murabit 1 g: 52

(496-500) 2+3 s: 902

(500-522) 3 908-911; c: 1168

(522-533) 3+3 A 975

(627-634) Hafsid 1 g: 542

(630-631) Muwahhid 10 s: 1084

(631-640) g: 516

(646-665) 12 530

(647-675) Hafsid 2 c: 1172

(709-711) 8 g: 580

(745) Marinid 10 g: 745

(760-762) 14 788

(775-796) 20 803

(796-799) 24 852, 853

(910-932) Wattasid 2 g: 870

no mint (448-480) Murabit 1 s: 888-890

Index of Mints 339

Date

Dynasty

Ruler

Coins

(471-476)

Hammudid

9B+9C

s: 887

(480-498)

Murabit

s: 892-899

(496-500)

2+3

902a, 903

506

912

(500-522)

g: 210; e: 939; s: 913-938

c: 1169

(522-533)

3+3 A

e: 991, 992; s: 976-99

(533-537)

3+4

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s: 996-1016

(537-540)

1018-1033

(539-540)

4+5

1034-1037

(540-541)

1039-1051

(540)

Muwahhid

g: 446a; s: 1059-1064

(540-551)

466-468

(540-558)

s: 1066-1069

(541-543)

Murabit

6B

s: 1053-1056

(551-558)

Muwahhid

1+1A

g:48o

(558-563)

491

(558-668)

2-13

s: nooa-1105; c: 1171

(563-580)

g: 495, 496

(58o-595)

501-503

(587-595)

3+4

s: 1075

(595-610)

340

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Mint Date Dynasty Ruler Coins

no mint (711-717) 11 592, 593

(717-723) 12 594

(718-747) 10 588-591

(731-752) Marinid 11 749; s: 1145, 1146

(731-740) g: 757, 758

(737-752) 768

(747-748) Hafsid 13 595.596

(749-751) 15 600

(749-753) 15B 602

(751-770) 16 606,607

(755-758) 17 608

(760-762) Marinid 14 s: 1148

(761-796) Hafsid 17 g: 609

(775-796) Marinid 20 g: 804, 805 ?, 809; s: 1149

(776-784) 20 A s: 1150

(796-799) 24 g: 854

(796-837) Hafsid 19 g: 622-625

(800-823) Marinid 26 g: 867

(823-869) 28 s: 1151, 1152

(837-839) Hafsid 20 g: 626

(839-893) 21 632-636

(899-932) 25 641-643

(910-932) Wattasid 2 s: 1154

(932) 3 "55

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(932-957) 4 1156

(932-941) Hafsid 26 g: 644

SPANISH MINTS

Ishbiliyah 489 Murabit 2 g: 99

491 100

493 101

496 102

497 103

498 2+3 125

499 126

510 3 211

515 212

516 213,214

517 215

518 216,217

519 218

520 219

521 220

522 221

(500-522) s: 940-946

522 3+3A g: 339

Index of Mints

341

Mint

IshbHiyah

Ighranatah

(see also Gharnatah)

al-Jazirah

al-Qantarah

al-Mariyah

Date

Dynasty Ruler

Coins

523

340

524

341

525

342

526

343

535

3+4

393

536

394

537

395

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(533-537)

s: 1016a, 1016b

538

g: 417

539

4+5

430, 430a

540

431

541

437

(541-558)

Muwahhid 1

g: 469, 470; s: 1070

(558-563)

g: 492

(558-624)

2-7

s: 1106

(563-58o)

g: 497, 498

(641-646)

Hafsid 1

g: 555

504

Murabit 3

g: 241

508

242

509

243; c: 1163

515

g: 244. 245

516

246, 247

517

248, 249

518

250

342

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Mint Date Dynasty Ruler Coins

al-Mariyah 506 3 273

507 274?

508 275

509 276

510 277

5" 278

512 279

513 280

514 281

515 282, 283

516 284

517 285

518 286

519 287

520 288, 289

521 290

522 291

522 3+3A 347,348

523 349

524 350

525 351

526 352

527 353

528 354

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529 355.356

530 357

531 358

532 359.360

533 361

533 3+4 396

534 397-399

535 400, 400a

536 401,401a

537 402, 402a, 403

538 4 418,419

539 420,421

539 4+5 432

Balansiyah 494 Murabit 2 g:72?

496 104

497 105

497 2+3 127

498 128, 129

499 130, 131

500 132

500 3 222

501 223

Index of Mints

343

Mint

Date

Dynasty

Ruler

Coins

Balansiyah

503

s: 947

504

g: 224

505

225

508

226

509

227

512

228, 229

(558-624)

Muwahhid

2-7

s: 1107

Bayyasah

497

Murabit

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g?:106

Jayyan

536

Murabit

3+4

s: 1017

(541-558)

Muwahhid

g: 471; s: 1071

(558-624)

2-7

s: 1108

Daniyah

495

Murabit

g: 107

497

2+3

133

498

134. 135

499

136-139

500

140

500

234. 235

5o1

236

504

237

(558-624)

Muwahhid

2-7

s: 1109

Saraqustah

504

Murabit

344

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Mint

Qurtubah

Date

498

(496-500)

502

503

505

506

507

(500-522)

(539-540)

540

541

(540-541)

542

(542-558)

(558-624)

Dynasty

Ruler

Muwahhid

4+5

6B

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2-7

Mayurqah

502

503

504

505

506

508

509

5"

512

525

526

(567)

(567-624)

(599-624)

Coins

145

s: 904

958

g: 257

s: 959-961

962

963

964. 965

1038

g: 441

442

s: 1052

g: 446

g: 472

s: 1112

Qantarat al-Sayf

496

Murabit

g: "5?

Qunkah

506

Murabit

s: 966

Laushah

INDEX OF DATES

All dates are a.h. Diacritical marks are omitted from names of mints and dynasties.

Date

Mint

Dynasty

Ruler

Coins

401

Marrakush

Murabit

97

(error)

439

Sabtah

Hammudid

6+9

872

Sabrah

Zirid

440

Sabtah

Hammudid

6+9

873?

Zirid

441

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Sabrah

al-Qayrawan

Zirid

Sabtah

Hammudid

6+9

874, 874a

442

al-Qayrawan

Zirid

4, 5

Sabtah

Hammudid

6+9

875

443

al-Qayrawan

Zirid

Sabtah

Hammudid

64-9

876

444

al-Qayrawan

Zirid

Sabtah

Hammudid

6+9

877

445

al-Qayrawan

Zirid

346 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Date

Mint

Dynasty

Ruler

Coins

457

al-Mahdiyah

Zirid

22

Sijilmasah

Murabit

33

458

Sijilmasah

Murabit

34

459

al-Mahdiyah

Zirid

23

Sijilmasah

Murabit

53?

461

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1A

Sijilmasah

Murabit

35

Safaqus

Zirid

4A

24

462

Sabtah

Hammudid

9A+9B

882?, 1157?

Sijilmasah

Murabit

36

Sijilmasah

1B

54

463

Sijilmasah

Murabit

37

464

Sabtah

Hammudid

9A+9B

883, 1158

465

Sabtah

Hammudid

9A+9B

884, 1159

Sijilmasah

Murabit

1B

55

466

Index of Dates

Date Mint Dynasty Ruler Coins

Sijilmasah 82

489 Ishbiliyah Murabit 2 99

Aghmat 61

Shatibah 109

490 Aghmat Murabit 2 62,63

Sijilmasah 83

Qurtubah 112

Marrakush 95

491 Ishbiliyah Murabit 2 100

Aghmat 64

Sijilmasah 84

Sanlukah 108

Marrakush 96, 97

492 Aghmat Murabit 2 65

al-Mariyah 117

Qurtubah 113

493 Ishbiliyah Murabit 2 101

Aghmat 66

Sijilmasah 85

Gharnatah no

494 Aghmat Murabit 2 67

al-Mariyah 118

Balansiyah? 72

Tilimsan? 72

Sijilmasah 86

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Fas 93

Malaqah 116

Nul 98

495 Aghmat Murabit 2 68

al-Mariyah 119, 120

Daniyah 107

Sijilmasah 87

496 Ishbiliyah Murabit 2 102

Aghmat 69

al-Qantarah? 115

Balansiyah 104

Sijilmasah 88

Qurtubah 114

Qantarat al-Sayf? 115

497 Ishbiliyah Murabit 2 103

Aghmat 70

al-Mariyah 2+3 148, 149

Balansiyah 2 105

Balansiyah 2+3 127

Bayyasah 2 106

Daniyah 2+3 133

348

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Date Mint Dynasty Ruler Coins

Sijilmasah 2 89

Shatibah 2 +3 141

Fas 2 94

Qurtubah 2 +3 144

Nul 124

498 Ishbiliyah Murabit 2+3 125

Aghmat 2 71

Aghmat 2+3 121

al-Mariyah 150

Balansiyah 128, 129

Daniyah 134, 135

Sijilmasah 2 90

Shatibah 2 +3 142

Qurtubah 145

499 Ishbiliyah Murabit 2+3 126

Aghmat 122

al-Mariyah 151

Balansiyah 130, 131

Daniyah 136-139

Sijilmasah 3 172

Shatibah 2 +3 143

Marrakush 123

500 Aghmat Murabit 3 152

Balansiyah 2 +3 132

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Balansiyah 3 222

Daniyah 2+3 140

Daniyah 3 234,235

Sijilmasah 173

Shatibah 238

Malaqah 2+3 146, 147

Malaqah 3 259

Marrakush 194

501 Aghmat Murabit 3 153

Balansiyah 223

Daniyah 236

Gharnatah 239

Fas 184?

Malaqah 260

Mursiyah 263

Nul 201

502 Aghmat Murabit 3 154

Sijilmasah 174

Gharnatah 240

Qurtubah 958

Malaqah 261

Mursiyah 264, 265, 968

Index of Dates 349

Date Mint Dynasty Ruler Coins

503 Aghmat Murabit 3 155

Balansiyah 947

Qurtubah 257

Mursiyah 266, 969

504 Ighranatah Murabit 3 241

Aghmat 156

Balansiyah 224

Daniyah 237

Sijilmasah 175

Saraqustah 948

Mursiyah 267

505 Aghmat Murabit 3 157

Balansiyah 225

Tilimsan 169

Sijilmasah 176

Qurtubah 959-961

Mursiyah 268

506 Aghmat Murabit 3 158

al-Mariyah 273

Qurtubah 962

Qunkah 966

Malaqah 262

Mursiyah 269

no mint 912

507 Aghmat Murabit 3 159

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al-Jazirah 230,231

al-Mariyah? 274

Qurtubah 963

508 Ighranatah Murabit 3 242

Aghmat 160

al-Jazirah 232

al-Mariyah 275

Balansiyah 226

Sijilmasah 177

Sala 183

Fas 185, 186

Mursiyah 270,970,971,1167?

509 Ighranatah Murabit 3 243, 1163

Aghmat 161

al-Jazirah 233

al-Mariyah 276

Balansiyah 227

Saraqustah 949, 1162

Fas 187

Mursiyah 271

Nul 202

350

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Date

51o

5"

512

513

514

515

516

517

518

519

Mint

Ishbiliyah

Aghmat

al-Mariyah

Marrakush

Nul

Aghmat

al-Mariyah

Tilimsan

Sijilmasah

Fas

Laushah?

Mursiyah

Nul

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Aghmat

al-Mariyah

Balansiyah

Fas

Mursiyah

Aghmat

al-Mariyah

Bani-Tawada

Sijilmasah

Nul Lamtah

Aghmat

al-Mariyah

Ishbiliyah

Ighranatah

Aghmat

al-Mariyah

Fas

Nul Lamtah

Ishbiliyah

Ighranatah

al-Mariyah

Marrakush

Nul Lamtah

Ishbiliyah

Ighranatah

al-Mariyah

Ishbiliyah

Ighranatah

al-Mariyah

Sijilmasah

Marrakush

Nul Lamtah

Ishbiliyah

Dynasty

Murabit

Ruler

Murabit

Murabit

Murabit

Murabit

Murabit

Index of Dates

Date Mint Dynasty Ruler Coins

Ighranatah 251, 252, 951

al-Mariyah 287

Marrakush 198

520 Ishbiliyah Murabit 3 219

Ighranatah 253, 254, 952, 1164

al-Mariyah 288, 289

Sijilmasah 181

Fas . 191

Marrakush 199

521 Ishbiliyah Murabit 3 220

Ighranatah 255

al-Mariyah 290

Sijilmasah 182

Fas 192

Marrakush 200

522 Ishbiliyah Murabit 3 221

Ishbiliyah 3+3A 339

Ighranatah 3 256

al-Mariyah 291

al-Mariyah 3+3A 347. 348

Fas 3 193

Marrakush 3+3A 321

Nul Lamtah 3 209

Nul Lamtah 3+3A 331

523 Ishbiliyah Murabit 3+3A 340

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Ighranatah 344

Aghmat 292

al-Mariyah 349

Sijilmasah 300

Marrakush 322

Nul Lamtah 332

524 Ishbiliyah Murabit 3+3A 341

Ighranatah? 345

al-Mariyah 350

Sijilmasah 301

Fas 311,311a

Marrakush 323

Nul Lamtah 333

525 Ishbiliyah Murabit 3+3A 342

al-Mariyah 351

Sijilmasah 302

Fas 312

Marrakush 324

Mursiyah 993

Nul Lamtah 334

526 Ishbiliyah Murabit 3+3A 343

352

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Date Mint Dynasty Ruler Coins

al-Mariyah 352

Sijilmasah 303

Fas 313

Mursiyah 994

527 Ighranatah Murabit 3+3 A 346

Aghmat 293

al-Mariyah 353

Sijilmasah 304

Fas 314

Marrakush 325

Nul Lamtah 335

528 Aghmat Murabit 3+3 A 294

al-Mariyah 354

Sijilmasah 305

Fas 315

Marrakush 326

Nul Lamtah 336

529 Aghmat Murabit 3+3 A 295

al-Mariyah 355, 356

Sijilmasah 306?

Fas 316

Marrakush 327

530 Aghmat Murabit 3+3A 296

al-Mariyah 357

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Sijilmasah 307

Fas 317

Marrakush 328

Nul Lamtah 337

531 Aghmat Murabit 3+3A 297

al-Mariyah 358

Sijilmasah 308

Fas 318

Marrakush 329

Nul Lamtah 338

532 Aghmat Murabit 3+3 A 298?

al-Mariyah 359, 360

Sijilmasah 309

Fas 319

Nul Lamtah 338a

533 Aghmat Murabit 3+3 A 299

Aghmat 3+4 362, 363

al-Mariyah 3+3A 361

al-Mariyah 3+4 396

Sijilmasah 3+3 A 310

Sijilmasah 3+4 369

Fas 3+3 A 320

Index of Dates

353

Date

534

535

536

537

538

539

Mint

Dynasty

Ruler

Coins

Fas

3+4

373

Marrakush

3+3A

329

Marrakush

3+4

380

Nul Lamtah

3+3A

338b

Nul Lamtah

3+4

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385. 386

al-Mariyah

Murabit

3+4

397-399

Tilimsan

366

Sijilmasah

370

Fas

374. 375

Marrakush

381

Nul Lamtah

387. 388

Ishbiliyah

Murabit

3+4

393

Aghmat

364

al-Mariyah

400, 400a

Tilimsan

367

Sijilmasah

371

Fas

376. 377

Marrakush

382

Nul Lamtah

389

Ishbiliyah

Murabit

3+4

394

Aghmat

365

al-Mariyah

401, 401a

Tilimsan

368

354 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Date Mint Dynasty Ruler Coins

al-Mariyah

4+5

432

Fas

425, 426

Marrakush

427

Nul Lamtah

415

Nul Lamtah

4+5

429

540

Ishbiliyah

Murabit

4+5

431

Ighranatah

438. 439

Aghmat

433

Tilimsan

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406

Qurtubah

441

Marrakush

4+5

428

Marrakush

434

Nul Lamtah

416

Nul Lamtah

436

541

Ishbiliyah

Murabit

437

Ighranatah

440

Qurtubah

442

Marrakush

435

542

Qurtubah

Murabit

6B

446

Nul Lamtah

6D

444

543

al-Nasiriyah

Hammadid

25

Sabtah

Murabit

6A

INDEX OF TITLES

Titles are listed in strict Arabic alphabetical order. The rulers listed are those to whom the

given title refers, not necessarily those who struck the coins. Diacritical marks are omitted from

dynastic names.

Title

al-imam

al-umara'

al-umara' al-rashidin

al-amir

Dynasty

Ruler

Coins

'Abbasid

26

26-37. 53-56

26, 27

38, 52, 57

27

39-51, 58, 73-80, 92, 1", 1161

27, 28

59. 81

28

60-72, 82-90, 93-110, 112-163, 169-178,

183-188,194,195, 201-204, 211, 222-227,

230-243, 257-271, 273-278, 1163

28, 29

164, 189, 210, 228, 229, 272, 279

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29

165-168, 179-182, 190-193, 196-200, 205-

209, 212-221, 244-256, 280-294, 300-305,

3"-315, 321-326, 331-336, 339-354

29, 30

295, 306, 316, 327. 355. 356

30, 31

296, 307. 317. 328, 337, 357

31

24a, 25, 297-299, 308-310, 318-320, 329,

330, 338, 338a, 358-446

36

540, 1121

Fatimid

1, 2, 15-23

Hammudid

872-879

880-887, 1157-1160

Muwahhid

522-525, 528, 530-533. 537, 538, H3, H4,

H5, M1

M1

12

M1

446a, 1059-1061

Muwahhid

1-3

1075

Muwahhid

1-3

1076, 1077

Hafsid

562-568, 571-576, 580-594, 601, 602, 608,

626,628,629,631-634,637,638,641,642,

H6, H7

Zirid

356

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Title Dynasty Ruler

al-amir Murabjt 1

1B

3A

Muwahhid

9A

Hafsid

6A

12

Nasrid

al-amir al-ajall

Muwahhid

1A

Hafsid

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10

al-amir al-tahir

Muwahhid

al-amirayn

Muwahhid

I, 2

al-hajib

Hammudid

9B

9C

al-khulafa'

Muwahhid

1-3

1-4

al-khulafa' al-rashidin

'Abbasid

Muwahhid

I, 2

1-3

1-4

Ziyanid

Marinid

al-khalifah

'Abbasid

36

37

Muwahhid

al-khalifatayn

Muwahhid

I. 2

Coins

26-52, 888-890, 1161

54-57

58-151, 891-898, 900-904, 914

121-145, 148-151, 172-180, 234, 238,

902-904, 913-917, 934. 936, 938, 959-963.

967, 989, 1009, 1012, 1015, 1016

Index of Titles

357

Title

Dynasty

Ruler

Coins

al-khalifatayn al-rashidayn

Muwahhid

1-3

H4

al-sul^an

Hafsid

21

637. 638

26

644

27

1124-1129

al-sayyid

Marinid

20A

831, 832

al-malik

Hafsid

21

637. 638

Marinid

787

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13

imam al-ummah

'Abbasid

37

541

Muwahhid

447-466, 469-495, 497, 498, 500-502,

504-509. 5". 512, 514-535, 537. 538, 546,

551. 554. 558, 559. 594. H3, H4, H5, M1

imamuna

'Abbasid

36

1117-1120

Muwahhid

446a, 1058-1063, 1085-1096, 1098-1116,

1122, 1123, 1170, 1171

10

1078-1083

umara' al-mu'minin

Muwahhid

1-3

507. 508, 5"

520, 521

amir al-muslimin

Murabit

913

152-171, 181-233, 235-237, 239-403,

905-912, 918-933, 939-944. 947-949.

951-958, 964-966, 970-987, 990-1008,

1010, 1011,1017, 1162-1169

404-432, 1018-1023, 1025-1030, 1033-1036,

1038

433-442, 1039-1046, 1048-1052

6A

443

Ziyanid

358

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Title

am1r al-muslimm

amir al-mu'minin

Dynasty Rider

20

21

22

26

28

Wattasid 2

'Abbasid 26

26, 27

27

27, 28

28

28, 29

29

29. 30

30, 31

31

36

37

Fatimid 8

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Hammudid 6

Muwahhid 1

10

11

12

13

Hafsid 2

Coins

810-830, H14, 1149

833. 834

835

861-866

1151, 1152

870, 1154

"55

1156

26-37. 53-56

38, 52, 57

39-51, 58, 73-80, 92, 1n, 1161

59. 81

60-72, 82-90, 93-110, 112-163, 169-178,

183-188,194,195, 201-204, 211, 222-227,

230-243, 257-271, 273-278, 1163

164, 189, 210, 228, 229, 272, 279

165-168, 179-182, 190-193, 196-200,

205-209, 212-221, 244-256, 280-294,

300-305, 311-315, 321-326, 331-336,

339-354

295. 306, 316, 327, 355, 356

296, 307. 317. 328, 337. 357

24a, 25, 297-299, 308-310, 318-320, 329,

330, 338, 338a, 358-446

540, 541, 1121

541

1, 2, 15-23

872-879

Index of Titles

359

Title

Dynasty

Ruler

Coins

amir al-mu'minin

571-573

577-579

580

10

584-591, 595, 597-60o, 602-607, 609. H7

11

592, 593

13

595. 596

15

597-600

15B

603

16

604-607

17

608-614, 616-619

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19

610-623, 625, 627

20

626

21

628-640, H8

25

641-643

26

644

Ziyanid

648, 649

Marinid

12

769-786, H12

24

839. 853

26

867

Ottoman

10

670, 671

amiray al-mu'minin

Muwahhid

1, 2

5"

khalifat Allah

Muwahhid

467, 468, 496, 503, 536, 539, 542-545.

547-550, 552, 553. 555-557. 560, 562-593.

595-638, 640, 641, 644, H6, 1127

sultan

Hafsid

27

1130, 1132

sayyid

Muwahhid

537

sayyidina

Muwahhid

INDEX OF PROPER NAMES AND EPITHETS

Names and epithets are listed in strict Arabic alphabetical order, including the prefixes al-,

abu-, and ibn-.

Name

Ibrahim

abu-Ishaq

abu'l-Baqa'

abu'l-Hasan

abu'l-Rab1'

abu'l-'Abbas

abu'l-'Ula

Abu-Bakr

abu-Tamim

abii-Ja'far

abii-Hafs

abu-Zakarfya'

abii-Zayd

abu-Salim

abu-Sa'id

abu-'Abd-Allah

abti-'Amr

abu-Faris

abu-Malik

abu-Muhammad

abu-Musa

abu-Yahya

abu-Ya'qiib

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abu-Yusuf

Ahmad

Idris

arham umara' al-muslimin

Ishaq

al-As'ad

al-Hasan

al-Rashid

al-Rashid-bi-Allah

Coins

54-57, 422-432, 569, 604-607, 1034-1038

569, 604-607

580

518-521, 627

670, 671

570. 597-600. 608, 609, 665-668, 827, 1173, 1174

5". 513-519. 537-539

26-52, 581-591, 888-890, H7, 1161

16, 18, 19, 22, 23

1121

522-536, 571-573. 595. 596, M1

512, 545-556, 567. 568, 574-576

601

788

726-745

25, 473-48o, 504-508, 5". 512, 557-566, 577-579.

594, 602, 626, 641-644, 663, 664, 669, 671, 787,

H3, H4, H6, 1075

628-640, H8

610-625, 833

793

447-498, 500-509, 5"-539. 542, 543. 545. 546, 554.

654, 672, H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, M1, 1065-1074

1076, 1077

581-592, H7

481-498, 500-509, 5"-539. 554. H1, H2, H3, H4,

H5, M1

500-508, 511-521, H1, H2

608, 609, 665-668, 800-803, 805-830, H13, H14,

1124-1132, 1149, 1156, 1173, 1174

511, 872-879

445, 446, 1053-1056

433-442, 1039-1052

Index of Proper Names and Epithets

361

Name

al-Sa'id

al-'Ali-bi- Allah

al-'Abbasi

al-'Izz

al-Ghar1b

al- Ghani-bi- Allah

al-Fadl

al- Qa'im-bi-amr-Allah

al- Qa'im-bi-haqq-Allah

al-Qa'im-li-Allah-bi-a'la'-din-al-haqq

al-Ma'mun

al-Mutawakkil- 'ala-Allah

al-Mutawakkil-'ala-Allah-wahdihi

al-Mutawakkil-'ala-rabb-al-'alam1n

al-Mujahid

al-Mu j ah id-f 1-sabil- Allah

al-Murtada

al-Murtada-li-amr-Allah

al-Murtada-li-amrihi

al-Musta'in-bi- Allah

al-Mustanijir

al-Mustanijir-bi-Allah

al-Mu zaffar-bi-Allah

al-Ma'an

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al-Mu'ta^im-bi- Allah

al-Mu'tadid-bi-Allah

al-Mu 'tamid

al-Muqt afi-li-amr-Allah

al-Muntakhab-li-ihya'-din-Allah

al-Munt aijir-bi-A llah

al-Man^ur

al-Manijur-bi-fadl-Allah

al-Mahdi

al-Mahdi-alladh1-yashriku'l-nabi

al-Mu'min-bi-Allah

Coins

787, 789-792, 797-799. 869

872-879

25. 377-379, 382-384, 393-395, 404-406, 408-412,

417, 422, 424-435, 437-443, 540, 541, 1117-1120

880-887, 1157-1160

499

653, 868

570, 597-60o

447-466, 469-495, 497, 498, 500-502, 504-509,

5H-535, 537. 538, 540, 546, 551, 554, 558, 559,

592, 593, H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, M1

570

713, 714

511, 513-521

581-590, 597-599, 608-613, 616-619, 627, 629, 631,

636-638, 641, 647, 658-664, 670, 671, 778, 779,

782-785, 787, 789-792, 833, 834, H7, 1127, 1150

630

646, 650, 652-656, 769-777, H12, 1155

5", 594

513-519, 569, 610-623, 625, 629, 631, 637, 638

524, 525, 528, 530, 533

522, 523, 531, 532

M1

788

603, 805

1, 2,15-23,562-566,571-573,577-579,602,604-607,

626, 729, 730, 801, 802, 807-819, 821-830, 836,

840-849, 854-860, H6, H14, 1121

601

880-886, 1157-1160

362

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Name

al-Mu'ayyad

al-Mu'ayyad-bi- Allah

al-Mu 'ayyad-bi-f adl- Allah

al-Mu 'ayyad-bi-naijr- Allah

al-Naeir-li-din-AUah

al-Wathiq

al-Wathiq-bi-Allah

ibn-abi-Ibrahim

ibn-abi'l-'Abbas

ibn-abi'l-'Ula

ibn-Abi-Bakr

ibn-ab1-Hafi

ibn-abi-Zakariya'

ibn-abi-'Abd- Allah

ibn-abi-'Ali

ibn-abi-Faris

ibn-abi-Muhammad

ibn-abi-Yahya

ibn-Ahmad

ibn-Isma'il

ibn-al-imam

ibn-al-umara'

ibn-al-umara' al-rashidin

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ibn-al-amir

ibn-al-amir al-ajall

ibn-al-amir al-tahir

ibn-al-amirayn

ibn-al-Hasan

ibn-al-khulafa'

ibn-al-khulafa' al-rashidin

ibn-al-khalifah

ibn-al-khalifah (sic) al-rashidin

ibn-al-khalifatayn

ibn-al-khaMatayn al-rashidayn

ibn-al-'Aziz-bi- Allah

ibn-al-Ma'miin

ibn-al-Manijur

ibn-umara '-al-mu 'minin

ibn-amir-al-mushmin

ibn-amir- al-mu 'minin

Coins

583, 594

1076, 1077

567, 568

571-573. 581, 582, 584-589, 597-599. 602, 608-623,

625, 626, 637, 638

58o, 595

539

537. 538, 567, 568, 629, 655-657

522-536, M1

610-614, 616-619

513-517. 520, 521

54-57. 443. 595. 597. 598, 603-607, 609

537. 538. 545-561, 569

557-561. 569. 603

537. 538, 609, 644

793

627

545-561, 569

595. 597. 598, 604-607

610-614, 616-619

868

M1

1075

562-568, 571-576, 580-594, 601, 602, 608, 609, 626,

628, 629, 631-634, 637, 638, 641, 642, H6, H7,

Index of Proper Names and Epithets

363

Name

Corns

ibn-amiray-al-mu'minin

ibn-Tashfin

ibn-Rashid

ibn-sayyid

ibn-sayyidina

ibn-sayyidayna

ibn- 'Abd-al- Haqq

ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz

ibn-'Ali

ibn-'Umar

ibn-Kaukab

ibn-Muhammad

ibn-Na?r

ibn-Yahya

ibn-Yusuf

Bani-Tashfin

Baha'-al-Daulah

Tashfin

Hasan

Khalid

Zakariya'

Sa'd

Saqaut

Sir

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Sulayman

Diya'-al-Daulah

'Abd-al-Haqq

'Abd-al-Rahman

'Abd-al-'Aziz

'Abd-Allah

'Abd-al-Mu'min

5"

58-145, 148-151, 408-410, 891-897, 900, 901, 902a,

24a [903

537

538, M1

M1

713. 714

627

404-443, 447-498, 500-509, 5"-539. 542, 543. 545.

546, 554, 831, 832, H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, M1,

1019-1023,1026,1029-1031,1034-1036,1039-1048,

1052, 1062-1074, 1150

26-52, 793, 888-890, 1161

907

609, 644

868

569, 602

127-129, 133, 134, 141, 142, 152-313. 321-330,

332-338b, 340-372, 375. 378, 380-392, 396-405.

408-412, 417-422, 427-429. 433-435. 437-443.

868,905,908-912,914-925,928-931,939,947-949,

953-957,964-967,970-973,975,977.978.980-984,

993, 994, 998-1003, 1007, 1017, 1162, 1163,

1165-1169

445, 446, 1053-1056

880-886, 1157-1160

362-432, 995-1038

672

580

592, 593

904, 1017

880-887, 1157-1160

670, 671

292-361, 973-994

887

364

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Name Coins

'Abd-al-Wahid 513-519. 659-662

'Uthman 628-640, 726-745, 860-867, H8

'Ali 53,121-403,627,902-967,970-1017,1155,1162-1169

'Umar 571, 572, 595

'Imran 1076, 1077

Faris 769-786, H12

Malik 933

Muhammad 473~48o, 504-508, 511, 512, 557-562, 564. 566,

577-579. 594. 603, 626, 641-644, 653, 655-657,

669, 671, 787, 789-792, 797-799, 835, 868-870,

H3, H4, H6, 872-879, 1154

Mazdara' 499

Ma'add 16, 18-23

Ma hdi-al-Din 1057

Miisa 646,650,651,833,834

Maulana 808, 809, 837, 838, 850-852, 1124-1129

Naijir-al-Din 406, 432, 713, 906, 928-931, 953, 965, 981-987,

998-1006,1017,1020-1023,1034-1036,1039-1046,

1052

Yashir 218-221, 339-343

Yahya 25, 443, 512, 545-556, 567. 568

Ya'qub 500-508, 511, 512, 713, 714, H1, H2

Yusuf 58-126, 130-132, 135-140, 143-151, 481-498.

500-509, 511, 512, 522-539, 554, H1, H2, H3, H4,

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H5, 891-904

? 897

INDEX OF CONVENTIONAL INSCRIPTIONS

Coins Phrase

648, 649 (^ulD JLr *u\ Ulal

1148 j^x" <ul uy-.l

868 ^aij <ul t'Ul

831 <^-c jj> j <ul

665 i-ivalcl

642, 648, 649,691,713,715-725,750-755. 758, 802, 806, 809, 827, 837, H1, tii <Aj"yiVl (j)

H2, H10, 1076, 1085-1119, 1122, 1123, 1137, 1141-1147, 1150, 1170,

1171

867, 1136, 1138 <u <15"^.Vl

592, 688, 700, 701, 778, 779, 782-785 ul Jc jT^)l (j)

706, 707, 756-758 <ul JiiLLl

446a, 106l jil

603, 609, 639, 640, 666, 673, 676, 677, 679-681, 684-687, 691-697, 734, <u J-l (j)

742-744, 746, 749, 755, 759-768, 799-802, 807, 808, 817, 820, 834,

838, 840-843, 845-847, 855-866, H", H14

447-472, 542, 543, 545, 648, 649, 698, 870, 1065-1074, 1105, 1135. Ojl(l)Jl *u J-\ (j)

1137, 1139, 1140, 1148, 1149, 1151, 1154, 1156

500-502,504-508,511,512,520-525,528,530-533.537.538,650,652, 726- oj <u J-l (j)

733. 735-739. 741. 747-749.751-755, 7(>9-777, 793-798. 802, 807, 808,

810-816, 818, 819, 821-826, 828, 829, 833, 836-839, H3-H5, H10,

H11, H13

541.547-550,553. 555-557. 562,564.567, 568,570-572. 574-58o, 584-589, * 2>s>lj J/l (j)

594, 595. 597-599. 601. 602. 604-614, 616-619, 625-629, 631-634,

637. 638, 640, 641, 644, 645, 674, 675, 678, 682, 683, 689, 690, 714,

756. 756a, 757, 759-768, H6, H9, HH

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1057 u1 Jj-o * *r4

541 . 547-550, 553. 555-557, 562-568, 570-580, 583-590, 595, 597-599,601- <u pi\ (j)

642, 644, 645, 666, 673-687, 689-697, 704, 749-755, 759-768, 806, 808,

809, 838, H6, H9, H11

600, 701, 749, 755, 807, 808, 838 Oi JjJl (j)

679,680,686,688,691a-694,700,704,714-725,750-754,759-768,806,809, u iJiJl (j)

H10, H11

1141-1147 b.L.1 ol Ji\

513 ul OlJi\

645,674,675,678,682-685,689,690,756-768, H12 <a1 01 jij1

366 Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Coins Phrase

446a, 1058-1063,1078-1083,1085-1096,1098-1120,1122,1123,1141-1147, bj <ul

1170,1171

699 <ic jTy & ^} "oil

1134 <jc aTy ^

979,997,1027 <ul

831 ^ ^ j**) -cu jry ^ Jlj ut

1on <ul

603, 1121 i-j^l

593. 673, 676, 677, 679-681, 686, 687, 691-696, 714, 749, 802, 807, 837, u dftil (.,)

838, H1o

715-725 <a dlll

541 . 547-550, 553. 555-557. 574-576. 592, 645, 674, 675, 678, 682, 683, u Hl ())

689, 690, 749-754. 759-768, 806-809, 837, 838, 840-842, 845-847,

855-866, H9-H11

541-543. 545. 547-550. 553. 555-557. 569. 574-576, 581, 582, 594. 645. <al J-Jjll

674, 675, 678, 682-685, 689, 690, 759-768, H12

378. 552, 560, 591, 704, 707-709, 712 <ul c^-l

726, 727, 732, 733, 738-742, 744. 834 <al V-*l

655, H1o JL' <ul 1^l

791 aa<x JL" <ul L>l

831 JUl yj^al <ul ol

653 Li*i)| ljiJ (J.^i)l blj 0LVlj JjJl; jXm Oil Jl

789-791 Lsi. Ul^ dCa^j dClc l_jti; jJs L> cSl;j ^ l il tiXJ jiiJ 1*3 b*"i L'l

l <ill cT^oi j

925, 926, 935 Oil 4,l

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657 JCl j j\ <ul 4.J

651, 654, 655, 672, 778-786, 800, 803, 832, 853, 861-867, H13 Oil .-u l

594, 639, 640, 816, H8 J(l)-r <ul

836 a_/*s) j JL* <ul a> l

646, 647, 653, 656, 659-663, 665, 666, 670, 671, 726-733, 735-740, 744, .j~\) <ul m\

788-791, 794-798, 811-815, 818-822, 827, 854, 1152

541 <al

1173 411l

12

107, 366-368, 382, 409, 410, 427-429, 432, 439, 442, H8, 924,974,989,1023 <ul p-i

447-467, 469-495. 497. 498,500-502, 504-509.511-535.537.538,540- cf)\ xal

551.553-559. 562-590, 594- 595, 597-599- 601-614,616-619, 626-629,

631-634, 637, 638,640,645-650,652,655-665, 669-687, 689-696,698,

702, 703, 713-733, 735-739. 741, 749-777, 782, 787-791. 793-798,

802, 806-816, 818, 819, 821-827, 829, 831, 833, 836-842, 845-849,

855-866, H1-H6, H9-H12, M1, 953, 958, 1017

Index of Conventional Inscriptions

367

Coins Phrase

960 j* ^J\ yJ\ *>!\

12a, 393-395 i v> p^J1 CfJ^ <ul

959, 961-963 ^ v> r^J1 o'-J1 r>.

953, 1017 i ^jjl v> |r^.Jl .oiI p->.

15, 17, 25, 147, 152, 169, 184, 194, 199, 201, . . j Jl v> p^-J1 (*-1.

222-228, 235-237, 239, 240, 257, 259-261, 263-273, 289, 376, 377,

379, 382-384, 404-406, 408, 409, 411, 412, 417, 421, 427-432,

437. 439. 441-443

378 j jb Jl i* ^<u\) J\ {fJ\ Oi\ j*->

24a - jb Jl i* j"""'.

252-256, 344, 346 j jb Jl 0* j>\ <ul

3-9, 11, 14, 659 .. o> <ul ^-1

958 jPjJl <ul

872-886, 900-902, 907,947-949,951,952,954-957, 966, 968-972, 993, . . jpjJI (1)0* ^> <ul ^

994, 1157-1160, 1162, 1164-1167

1, 2, 12, 13, 16, 18-24, 26-51, 53-90, 92-146, 148-151, 153-168, . . J)) Jl (l)o* uI

170-183, 185-193, 195-198, 200, 202-209, 211-221, 229-234, 238,

241-251, 258, 262, 274-288, 290-343, 345, 347-375, 380, 381, 385-

392, 396-403, 407, 410, 413-416, 418-420, 422-426, 433-436, 438,

440, 444-446, 1161, 1163

691 jSi J. jS'jc y,j ^ eTjLr

m1 ""

704, 710, 711 <ul Jc ii5y

56l JL-j <uli J2u

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663, 665, 668, 670, 671, 803, 811, 817, 828, 830, 868, 869, H14 <u1 i*-,^

731, 734, 743, 846-849, 863 <c <ul L-_^

662, 746-748, 750-752, 778-781, 784-786, 812-814, 818, 850-852, H" J(l)-" <ul l*-^

729, 730, 840-842, 845, 855-862, 864-866 <cc JLr <ul L~_^-

787, 789, 790 ^yj<s JL" <ul L-j*.

646, 647, 650-653, 656-658, 660, 661, 754, 782, 783, 815, 816 Lulj J(l)v <ul L-_^

132, 706, 708, 788, 900, 940 <ul

1075 <ul

688, 700 j5^!I <ul ijy-*

488

715a, 759, 762, 1080, 1081, 1083 1 ^

18-23

446a j b J1

1152 cn^LJI ^ji oilj jil b._y by bj

1084 <uI

955-957,1165,1166 jJ1j ijjCi1 j idTy dJCic L j

741 <ul

368

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Coins Phrase

1-24, 25-51, 53-90, 92-111, 113-128, 130-133, 135, 140-147, 152-167, <i-

169, 172-183, 185, 194, 201-209, 211-213, 215-220, 222-227, 230,

234-244, 246, 248, 250, 251, 257, 258,263, 264, 266-269,273-280, 282,

290, 292-310, 327, 331-338b, 340-343. 347. 349-351. 353-355. 359.

362-365, 369-372, 375, 383, 385-392. 397. 398. 402, 402a, 414-416,

419, 421-423, 430, 430a, 432, 436, 442, 444, 446, 872-886, 900, 912,

947-949, 951, 959, 960, 963, 966, 968-972, 993, 994, 1124-1129,

1157-1163

376, 377. 439 al <i-*-

931, 942, 943 <iC ul 01

941 *i\ Jcj ic <ul ol^U

545. 547. 553. 556, 557. 562-574, 577-58o, 583-590, 595, 597-599.602-613, l-u- Jc <ul

616-619,626-628,631-634, 640,645,655,663,670,671,674,675,678,

679, 682-684, 686, 689, 690, 691a-693, 758-768, 782, H6, H9, H12

680, 694 <)lj -Usw I'JU- Jc <JlI Jrf

614 -Uan Lu- <li\

575. 576, 849. 865 LLi jJl-j 4))1j .u*< I;ju- Je <ul J*

840 LLi L.j <-st*j <)lj jum I'ju- <ul iJ^,

581, 582, 846-848 LLi j^x* Lu- Jc uI ^

656, 673, 788, 855-864, 866 LLi |Ju-j *i\ Jcj .u** kju-. Jc oil

787 jju-j <U**>J <)l -Use* 1,JU- ^ <UI

601, 841, 842, 845 LLi jju-j <,(1).*^ <)l Jcj JU* Lu Jc <Jll

M1 j 4)l Jcj ju I'Vl'oj- <ul ^

522, 542, 543, 546, 555, 629, 637, 638, 647, 658, 660, 698, 702, 713-716, ju*. Jc <ul

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720-724,741,750, 751, 770, 771,774, 789-791, 806, 809, 823,824, 827,

829, 831, 837, 838, H1, H2, H10, H"

467, 468 OUjJI |*,"l- ^ <lll

511, 513-519, 523-525. 528, 530-533. 537. 538, 540, 646, 648-650, 652, 4)lj -u*. Jc till

717-719, 725-733, 735-739, 749. 752-755. 769. 772, 773. 775-777.

793-798, 802, 807, 808, 810-816, 818, 819, 821, 825, 826, 833, 836, 839

447-466, 469-472 l>.j*U*)l C*~bi\ )lJ -Uafc. Jc <ul J-

659, 703 " Jc> Jc Oil J-

541. 551, 558, 559. 657. 661, 676, 677, 681, 685, 687, 695, 696 LLi 4)l Jcj ju*. Jc <ul

691 LLi |JUj a-Loj 4)l Jcj -Use* Jc

344, 346, 423. 444 <^ J-

382-384, 404, 405, 411, 412, 422, 427-429, 433-435, 439, 440 pL-j <ul

393-395. 417. 430, 431. 437. 442 LLi <J* <ul J"

1124-1126, 1128, 1129 y

10, 603, 646-653, 655-658, 660-666, 668, 669, 672, 726-744, 746-748, 750-

752, 754. 765. 766. 769-803, 806, 807, 810-830, 833-842, 845-852,

855-866, 869, H10-H14, 1078-1083, 1121, 1174

1127 j v>

Index of Conventional Inscriptions

369

Coins Phrase

912 jjl o*

670, 671, 868 i ^>

24a, 112, 134, 136-139, 148-151, 168, 170, 171, 184, 186-193, 195-200, flc

214, 221, 228, 229, 231-233, 245, 247, 249, 252-256, 259-261, 265,

270-272, 281, 283-289, 291, 311-326,328-330,339,344-346, 348, 352,

356-358, 360, 361, 366-368, 373, 374. 376-382, 384. 393-396, 399-

401a, 403-413, 417. 418, 420, 424-429. 431, 433-435. 437-441, 443.

445, 952, 958, 961, 962, 1017, 1078-1083, 1121, 1164

1124-1130, 1132, 1173, 1174 j^, JC

1127 Sjc

l8-23 jil S*- l>i-J,, J-^1 J6 (1)

1, 2, 15-17 oil Jj

561, 699, 712, 788, 953 ciTy

832 ^j1^J1jai/Uc

603, 639, 640, 646, 647, 650, 652-667, 670, 671, 726-744, 769-777, 787- y\

803, 806-808, 810-830, 833-842, 845-852, 855-866, 869, H8, H12-

H14, 1124-1129, 1152

10 oLi _^

262 c- ^

13, 23 0L~i ^

16 ^ Jl >i j

22 OL*i ^

787 Oy*.j J* J jOt1* <ul J^J > U <ul ^iT L. Vl La^j ^ j

1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 17-23, 24a-498, 500-509, 5"-54o, 544. 546, 55*, 552, 554, *n\ Ml )l M (j)

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558-568, 570-573, 577-58o, 583-592, 595, 597-6oo, 602-614, 616-

619, 626-629, 631-634, 637, 638, 641, 646-652, 666, 668, 669, 672,

673. 676, 677, 679, 681, 686-688,691-693,695-698, 700-703,713-739,

741-758, 769-786, 792-830, 833, 834, 836-839, 843, 844, 848-854,

867, H1-H8, H10, H", H13, H14, M1, 888, 889, 891-897, 900, 901,

902a-907, 909-933, 940-946, 949, 951-964, 967. 970-987. 993. 994.

996-1008,1011, 1014,1015,1017-1023, 1029,1034-1036, 1039-1046,

1052-1054, 1057-1061, 1076, 1077, 1085-1120, 1122, 1123, 1130,

1132-1134,1141-1147, 1150, 1153,1161-1168,1170,1171

3-7, 10-14, 16, 24, 596, 871-887, 902, 908, 939, 947, 948, 965, 966, 968, Jo-j .oil Ml 4)l M

969, 991, 992,1157-1160,1169

788 Ml .01 M

473-495, 497. 498, 500-502, 540, 542, 543, 545, 547-550, 553, 555-557. r^J1 cfj\ y Ml 4)I M

569, 574, 615, 620-623, 625, 645-647, 650, 652, 674, 675, 678-680,

682-684, 686, 689, 690, 691a-694, 697, 713-729, 732, 733, 735,

736, 738-741, 746-755, 759-772, 774-78o, 782, 784-786, 788, 793-

802, 806, 807, 809-819, 821-830, 833, 834, 836, 838, 839, H1, H2,

H9, H12-H14

21

370

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Coins Phrase

603, 639, 1078-1084 <ai Ml Jj Mj M (j)

3-7, 10-14, 16, 24, 871-887, 902, 908, 947, 948, 965, 966, 1157-1160 *i M

648, 649, 750-758, 806-809, 830, 837, 868, H1o, 1153 oil Ml Jlc M (j)

648, 649, 679, 680, 684-686, 691a-694, 697, 715-725, 746-748, 820, 840- <l Ml M (j)

842, 845-847, 855-866, 1077, 1085-1103, 1106-1116, 1119, 1120,

1122, 1123, 1136-1138, 1141-1146, 1150, 1170, 1171

18-23 ju-JUMIo^>J

646, 647, 759-768< H12, 1147 ul _> Vjl l

651 <11I Li L

1-498, 500-509, 511-593, 595, 597-600. 602-613, 616-619, 626-629, 631- <ul J^-j -u*

634, 641,645-652, 666, 668, 669,672-679,681-693,695-698, 700-703,

713-739. 741-786, 792-830, 833, 834, 836-839, 843, 844, 848-854,

867, H1-H8, H10-H14, M1, 871, 888, 889, 891-897, 902a~93o, 932,

933. 941. 947-949. 951-964. 966, 967. 970, 972-987. 993. 994. 996-

1008, 1011, 1014, 1015, 1017-1023, 1029, 1034-1036, 1039-1046,

1052-1054, 1057-1061, 1076, 1077, 1084, 1104, 1117, 1118, 1120,

1130, 1132-1134, 1153, 1161-1168

1, 2, 12, 15-24, 872-887, off ^a^1 Jc *.rfkJ ji-1 aJj &*}\ <"1 J^-j

900-902, 947-949, 951, 952, 954, 966, 970-972, 993. 994. "57-

1160, 1162, 1164, 1167

940 <111 J_j-.j Jjfc*.

446a, 1059-1O61, 1O63, 1O78-1083, 1085-1O96, 1O98-112O, 1122, 1123, U^-j

1141-1147, 1170, 1171

968, 969 o-gj

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931, 943 ^>->S *u\ f

942, 965 *^j-JJ

12, 92, 93, 95, 96, 100, 101, 111-113, 1l6, 120, 140, 146, 171, 184-193, 229, K,Jl*

234, 238, 275, 276, 288, 311-320, 366-368, 373, 374, 378, 379, 406,

408-410,424-426,445,446,448, 461-463,470,472,474,477, 479,482,

483,486,489,498, 525, 527, 542,603,646-653, 655-657, 659-663, 665,

666, 668-672, 675-677, 683, 716, 726-744, 746-748, 750-752,

754, 760, 767, 770, 772-776, 778-801, 803, 810-827, 830, 833-843,

845-851, 855-866, 868, 869, H1o, H11, H13, H14, 873-875, 877-886,

902. 954-957. 968-972, 993, 1157-1160, 1165-1168

3-11, 14 j f}L.UI y.

665, 667 |*.-< j* Jl -ui <Ul -qji (j)

980 <ul

781 <UI ^ >

688, 700-703, 705, 803-805, 820, 832 ^tj ij <ul ^

1130, 1132 <Jll Ur^-ai

669, 787, 792, 805, 850-852, 932, 965 <uI

499 .rij j+>

756-768, H12 oil >>la)l pi

Index of Conventional Inscriptions 371

Coins Phrase

645, 674, 675, 678, 682-684, 689, 690, 713, 715- fie j >j ^Ulj jM>) >Mlj JjMl y

727. 730,731 . 733. 736, 737, 739-74L 749, 753.755.759-777,783,794-

798, 808, 81o, 819, 821-827, 829, 833, 835-837, 839, H9, Hn, H12

25 0yilai M f*j CaJT\a ^jJi Jf"Jy fl till Jl <i Ojf / l/lj

542, 543, 831 till Jl ^l

592 till iLi-Mlj

648, 649 Jc <i jClllj

679, 686, 6913-693, 714 <a Jj-tfJlj

756. 756a, 757 i>l^ Jl li o* iS-y.

592 <ul j*

473-495, 497, 498, 500-502, 540, 542, 543, 545, 547-550, 553, 555-557. "*4> " f&b

569, 574, 615, 620-623, 625, 645-647, 650, 652, 674, 675, 678-680,

682-684, 686, 690, 691a-694, 697, 713-729. 732, 733, 735, 736, 738-

741, 746-755, 759-772, 774-780, 782, 784-786, 788, 793-802, 806,

807, 809-819, 821-830,833,834,836, 838, 839, H1, H2, H9, H12-H14.

710-712, 832 uc.jL\ jiij

254-256 p. j oh

662 JUst* I.U- ^ <U| ^a)

655, 656 fi aJl tf"i>jMl-/ (n^l~HJ oliUl l>^, ^ ly,l aJl <ul aej

5 0.J-Ull ^jLcl)};. (jij^l Ol JjH JU ^ jjjl ^ luT

927, 978 till

609, 1139, 1140 till .UJS ^ Ml ^^ai)l \*j

673,676,677,681,685,687,695-697,715-725.734- 742-744. f^-l J-J-) l > .r^l U-

756-758, 799-8o1, 850-852, 854, H13

500-502, 542, 543, 552, 651, 666, 668, 701-703, 781, 1075, 1133 till jrf ja (^TUj

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698 L-C Uc olT"<ul ol <ul Ol Ml Ojli." L.j

500-502, 542, 543, 699, 831, 832, 953 till Ml ^y U,

542, 543 nil Ml 4)l Uj

1058, 1062, 1062 a

3-14, 24, 87I O J-i J L J f>UMl j;C JaJ

24a, 26-51, 53-90, 92-209, 211-446, uo-lil ^ J>Ml ^ yj o JJi Ji Lj f5L.Ml A j*)

698, 969, 1161, 1163

658,831 w14 lr>* <l j-f. ul js

664, 831,1124-1126,1128,1129 j\ fi\ <il ol <~- yp <ul jc jj-y.

654, 659-663 ljai ^ jC) till Jm. ui .^l )l till Ol <^ > <ul Jc jS^i

788 "piJl ^l >J

868 0>*1." <ul lyrlj l_,j l^/.Uj lj,*-l lyl a.Jl V.l!;

657 ^ yi\ Jjlj Jj-Jl lj-jUlj till ljj.l ly,l ajl lj>j C

3, 4, 6-1I, 12a, 13, 14 till Jl Ub> lU*(l)_i cTLL-jl U ^l 1^l I

941-943 till <jyi->

25 till Jj2

648, 649 aJl fjl

21*

INDEX OF MINT-MARKS

Coins Mint-mark

927 I

466 j.

124?, 438?, 439?

938, 985. 986, 1004 jr

275.417.442, 938, 985 c

129, 222

221, 339, 342, 927, 1164? J

19, 22 j

260 j

144, 226, 227, 283, 284, 466, 894, 929 u-

"3 J>

983, 1102 (counterstamped) im

394. 395, 430, 432, 458, 953. 954. 1034, 1035, 1165

438,439

58-61,63-69,71,72,78,79,84,103,121,125,126,134,152-154.156,158-161, 163, S

164,166, 167, 170, 178, 184, 186, 195,199, 202, 203, 205, 207, 209, 210, 230, 232,

244, 274, 288, 293-297, 299, 311, 311a, 312, 316, 318-329, 331, 332, 334, 337, 338,

338a, 345. 363-367, 370, 374-384, 386, 388, 389, 391, 392, 394, 404, 405. 408,

410-414, 422, 424-427. 431. 433-437. 440. 444. 926, 928, 983. 999. 1039

466,926,951,952,999,1164? J

251 J

257 1

123? >

952? J

348,350 -J

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212-217, 245-249, 446, 1054, 1<>56 )

253-256. 344 ^

263,265, 271-273,282-287, 289-291,348-354. 356-361, 396-4O1a, 402a, 403,417-419, f

432, 466, 1034, 1035

245-249 U

259

265, 287, 289-291, 348-352, 354, 356, 357

11 j

"65 ^

168, 173, 393?

Index of Mint-Marks

373

Coins Mint-mark

Murabit gold which may have unrecorded mint-mark beneath rf:

70. 75.77. 81-83, 85,86, 88, 90, 92-94,98-102,104-106,108-110,112,115-117,119,122,130-132,

136-143, 145, 147, 149-151, 155, 157, 162, 165, 169, 171-174, 176, 177, 179-181, 183, 185,

187-194, 196-198, 200, 201, 204, 206, 208, 211, 223, 228, 229, 231, 233, 236-238, 240-242,

250, 252, 261, 262, 264, 266, 269, 276-280, 292, 298, 300, 305-308, 313-315, 317, 330, 333.

335. 336, 346. 347. 355. 362, 368, 372, 373. 385. 387. 390. 402, 406, 407, 409, 415, 416, 420,

421, 423, 428, 429, 430a, 441, 443, 445

Murabit gold recorded both with and without mint-mark beneath rf:

61, 79

Murabit gold without mint-mark beneath rf:

26-57, 62, 73, 74, 76, 80, 87, 89, 91, 95-97, 107, 1", 114, 118, 120, 127-129, 133, 135, 146, 148,

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175,182, 222, 224, 225, 234, 235, 239. 243. 258, 267, 268, 270, 281, 301-304, 309, 310, 369, 371

KEY TO THE PLATES

Coin

Specimen

BN III 337 (pi. 1v)

F :Fatimites 169 (pi. 1v)

19

BM IV 166 (pi. n)

20

ANS; Miles 383 (pi. 1v)

24a

S:Beyram 293 (pi. n)

26

BN II 507 (pi. n)

28

S:Beyram 288 (pi. n)

53

B 821 (pi. xin)

55

BN II 515 (pi. n)

66

HSA 13173

91

BN II 532 (pi. 1n)

127

KM II 564 (pi. 1n)

ANS

256

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220

BM V 32 (pi. 1)

377

HSA 13134

439

BN II 652 (pi. 1v)

446

HSA 14169

446a

HSA 14156

447

ANS

477

HSA 7898

507

BN II 733 (pi. v1)

5"

BM V 106 (pi. n)

513

Figanier 158 (pi.)

516

P 15c (pi. n)

519

P 16 (pi. n)

530

P 19e (pi. 1n)

M1

B 1158 (pl. on title page)

540

P 63 (pi. vn)

541

P 62 (pi. vn)

546

P 30 (pi. Iv)

556

P 31e (pi. 1v, under no. 31c)

569

BN II 947 (pi. x)

570

B 1252 (pi. x1x)

572

Key to the Plates

375

Plate Coin Specimen

603 BN II 968 (pi. x1)

609 BN II 963 (pi. x)

637 KM II 861 (pi. v)

643 ANS

644 BN II 983 (pi. x1)

IV 646 B 1323 (pi. xxn, under no. 1322)

648 BM V 195 (pi. v)

650 BM V 194 (pi. v)

655 B 1327 (pi. xxn)

660 HSA 10622

663 Rivero:M 145 (pi. m)

667 BN II 1013 (pi. xn)

671 BN II 986 (pi. xn)

678 BM V 215 (pi. v)

679 B 1356 (pi. xx1v)

695 P 38a (pi. v)

700 P 40 (pi- v)

706 HSA 13174

V 714 P 67 (pi. vm)

725 BM V 200 (pi. v)

736 HSA 10623

747* BM X p. 31, no. 2241 (pi. xxin, under no. 224e)

753 BM V 205 (pi. v)

760 HSA 13180

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775 BM V 184 (pi. 1v)

778 BM V 193 (pi. 1v)

788 B 1295 (pi. xxi)

793 BM X p. 27, no. 193ee (pi. xxn)

806 HSA 13176

831 P 90 (pi. 1x)

VI 833 BM V182 (pi. 1v)

838 BM V 166 (pi. 1v)

845 P 106a (pi. x)

852 BN II 997 (pi. xn)

853 BM V 169 (pi. 1v)

858 BM X p. 25, no. 1931 (pl. xxn)

865 BN II 984 (pi. xn)

868 P .Granadina p. 8 (pi. 1)

870 BM X p. 28, no. 19311 (pi. xx1n)

H3 KM II 697 (pi. iv)

H11 B (pl. xx1n, under no. 1350)

* Mistakenly numbered 746 on plate.

Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Plate

Coin

Specimen

H14 note

H14 note

VII 874

883

887

888

894

904

906

926

953

965

968

983

993

1001

1004

1017

1022

1036

1041

1052

1062

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1066

1068

1075

1076

1080

1085

1087 obverse

1088 millares

1090 reverse

1091 obverse

1097

VIII 1101 gilded

1101 rules

1101 millares

1102 obverse

1103

1103a note obverse

1104

1116 note

HSA 13206

HSA 10621

P: Reyes 94c (pi. 1v)

HSA 14217

HSA 14218

BN II 513 (pi. n)

ANS

Rivero:M 103 (pi. n)

ANS

ANS

HSA 14147

Rivero:M 106 (pi. n)

P:Reyes 443a (pi. xv1)

HSA 13916

P:Reyes 451 (pi. xv1)

HSA 13917

ANS

ANS

HSA 15911

HSA 15919

HSA 15923

ANS

HSA 14168

P 26 (pi. 1n)

Key to the Plates

377

Coin

Specimen

1117

P 65b (pi. vn, under no. 64b)

1119

HSA 13808

1120

P 66 (pi. vn, under no. 65)

1121

B 427 (pi. 1x)

1123

BM V 140 (pi. 1n)

1127

F.Somd p. 56 (pi.)

1129

F.Somd p. 56 (pi.)

"35

P 59 (pi. vn)

"37

BM V 157a (pi. 1n)

1142

HSA 13813

1147

P 56 (Pl. V1)

1148

1149

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P 57 (pi. vn)

P 104 (pi. x)

1150

P 92 (pi. Ix)

"53

BN II 822 (pi. v1)

"54

B 1388 (pi. xxv)

"55

B 1392 (pi. xxv)

1156

B 1389 (pi. xxv)

1169

HSA 547

"73

F .HaJsites 61 (pi. v)

1174 note

B 1270 (pi. x1x)

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PLATES

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ZIRID Gold: l-24a; MURABIT Gold: 26-446

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MUWAHHID Gold Coins: 446a-530, and Medal: Ml

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IlI

HUDID Gold: 540-541; HAFSID Gold: 546-644

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IV

ZIYANID Gold: 646-671; Early MARlNID Gold: 678-706

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MARINID Gold: 714-831

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VI

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VII

1088 1090 1091 1097

millares reverse obverse

HAMMUDID Silver: 874-887; MURABIT Silver: 888-1052; MUWAHHID Silver: 1062-1097

VIII

MUWAHHID Silver: 1101-1104, Amulet: 1116 note; HUDID Silver: 1117-1121

HAFSID Silver: 1123-1129; MARINID Silver: 1135-1150; NASRID Silver: 1153

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WATTASID Silver: 1154-1156; MURABIT Copper: 1169; HAFSID Copper: 1173, Amulet: 1174 note.

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THE COINAGE OF CAULONIA

THE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY

NEW YORK

1958

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aLL RIGHTS RESERVED

BY

THE aMERICaN NUMISMaTIC SOCIETY

NEW YORK

PRINTED IN GERMANY AT J. J. AUGUSTIN, GLUcKSTADT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction I

The Type 3

Incuse Coinage 7

Double Relief Coinage 10

Enlargements 10

Fractions 17

Bronze Issues J8

Plated Coins 19

Catalogue 20

Incuse Staters 20

Double Relief Staters 32

Fractions 53

Bronze Coins 57

Plated Coins 57

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The South Italian Hoard 59

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INTRODUCTION

This study of the coinage of Caulonia was started many years ago in the reasonable

expectation that it might provide information that would parallel or clarify the procedure

at the mints of its neighbors and add valuable data to the history of these Greek cities in

South Italy. The destruction of Caulonia in 389/388 b.C. with the consequent stoppage

of its coinage affords a fixed date of considerable significance and some convenience.

The scantiness of the literary sources for Caulonia makes the evidence which the coins

provide of increased importance.

In the beginning there was no intention of attempting to find a definitive explanation

of the enigmatic type. The years which have intervened have shown this to be a wise

decision, and although in the discussion I cite many who have attempted an explanation

"darkened counsel with wisdom" I leave the solution of this sphinx-like question to some

daring student of the future someone who will perhaps bring an unbiased approach

to the elucidation of what the creators of this symbolism had in mind.

To make acknowledgement for the courtesies received during the preparation of this

study would involve citing again the names of the many cabinets and collectors listed in

the catalogue which follows. Casts, photographs and information have been furnished with

prodigal generosity by the Curators of all the great national collections and my thanks to

them are both heartfelt and entirely inadequate. Many individual collectors have been no

less kindsome of them are no longer with us to receive this expression of gratitude. An

initial advantage lay in that Mr. Newell's gathering of the coins of this mint was unusually

comprehensive. The debt to my colleagues is great. To Professor Alfred R. Bellinger and

to the late Mrs. Agnes Baldwin Brett I am under great obligation for helpful advice. To

Miss Margaret Thompson and to Mr. Sawyer McA. Mosser and the members of his editorial

staff I owe a debt for cooperation and encouragement that beggars words. To Mr. Ray-

mond W. Johnson is due the credit for the photographic results, often wrung from material

that was unpromising. Last but not least, to the American Numismatic Society and the

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unmatched facilities of its museum, I am glad to make acknowledgement for the oppor-

tunity and for the means for completing this work.

The objective, first of all, is to establish a sequence in the coinage, which started with

the incuse format (customary in this region) and later, after a period whose length has been

estimated largely by conjecture, changed to the double-relief form (customary elsewhere in

the Greek world). Little if any effort to place the double-relief staters in order had been

made previously; for example, the engraved reproductions of Carelli and Garrucci are

deplorably inaccurate and inadequate.

As most students of the coinage of South Italy know, it was the practice of many

of these mints to continue using the survivor of a pair of dies with the newly cut die

which replaced the outworn one. Because the upper die had to withstand greater stress, it

usually broke before the lower one whose longer life was due to the bolstering or buttressing

The Coinage of Caulonia

it received from the anvil in which it was set. Although there is little data other than the

coins to tell us anything regarding the material from which the dies were made, we do find

that the anvil die would often outlast three punch dies and sometimes more. Once this has

been recognized it is possible to build up groups of connected dies groups which often

reach considerable extent. By employing other criteria, such as the evidence provided by

hoards, or the recurrence of symbols probably to be identified as the badges of magistrates,

it is possible to eliminate doubt as to which of two groups must have preceded the other.

When all the data has been gathered, a sequence frequently may be established which

carries conviction except for the placement of a relatively few singletons for which no

connecting combinations exist as yet. Generally, the interpolation of these is unlikely to

affect radically the final arrangement.

The sequence submitted here does not claim finality. Perhaps an unpublished variety in

possession of some fortunate collector will be all that is needed to clarify uncertainty in the

arrangement. Among the double-relief staters there are many known by a single specimen

only, and since some of the flans are too small for the dies, the symbol and the form of the

inscription are often uncertain. The coins show that dies were often used after cracks or

fissures had developed and long beyond the point at which they would have been discarded

in larger or better regulated mints. It is the growth of these defects, however, which

frequently dispels any doubt as to which of the accompanying dies, whether obverse or

reverse, precedes the other.

There is some ground for the feeling that the date in the Historia Numorum for the

beginnings of coinage at Caulonia (550) is too early. It would be most helpful if we could

fix the date for the change at this mint to coins having both sides in relief and the hoard

from South Italy appended (p. 59) provides reason for placing this before 473 b.C. The

bronze coins of Caulonia are to be dated shortly before the city's destruction; they are of

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very great rarity. The introduction of symbols in addition to the type occurs soon after the

change from incuse to double-relief. These symbols precede the introduction of single

letters, which herein are usually considered to be the initials of die-cutters. At Caulonia

these do not extend beyond a two-letter form.1

1 For the procedure at Tarentum, cf. Evans, The Horsemen of Tarentum (London, 1889), p. 45.

THE TYPE

A consideration of Caulonia's coin type should precede the catalogue. A discussion of

the interpretations will show the thorniness of the problem. There is very little evidence

that is new. Even the excavation of the site by Orsi2 was disappointing in that it disclosed

little of significance for our purposes.

A careful description of the coin type is given by Macdonald:3 "Naked male figure,

standing with one foot planted in advance of the other; hair bound with diadem and falling

in ringlets; in raised right hand a branch; on left arm, which is outstretched, a small figure

running forward with head turned back, holding a branch in each hand; in front, a stag on

basis, with head reverted." The identification of the larger figure as Apollo seems to be

generally agreed upon,4 but several differing interpretations exist concerning the identifi-

cation of the smaller figure.5 Head, offering an unique interpretation to both figures, states

the following:

"I am inclined to believe that the original name of the town (KocuAcov) may have had a simpler

though humbler origin in (KauX6s), a vegetable with a single stalk, such for instance as the Pastinaca

sativa, a tall erect plant the stalk of which is flanked by a row of pinnate leaves. The roots of this plant

have been cultivated from very remote times as a valuable esculent. Subsequently, here as elsewhere, a

nobler origin and an eponymous oekist would naturally be sought for and identified as KotOXos, son of

the Amazon Kleite; and the local plant would be assigned to him as an emblem, just as the crfXivov

leaf became the emblem of the eponymous hero of Selinus. On the coins of Caulonia the principal figure

would thus represent the mythical founder holding in his raised right hand the irapdoTmov of the city,

and on his left arm a small genius running at full speed and carrying apparently the same emblem in

each hand. If the earliest coins of Caulonia, like those of so many other cities, were chiefly used on

special occasions, e.g., recurrent agonistic festivals ..., then the small running genius with winged feet

may have been intended for a personification of 'Ay6v or Hermes dycovios or 8p6uios ..."

If Head's statement on the founding of Caulonia shows but little connection between

the legendary beginning and the coin type, his explanation of that type shows its signi-

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ficance to be far from obvious and his usual acumen in analyzing published opinions to be

lacking. This reasoning, based as it is on a series of assumptions, discloses its weakness as

soon as the initial premise the identification of the branch is challenged. The size of

2 Cf. NSc, 1912, 1913, 1915. These excavations afford evidence regarding the temple and the walls

of the city. Of the former, the floor and the foundations alone remain, but it was possible to reconstruct

a peripteral structure with a facade of six columns, having a roof of Parian marble tiles. This may be an

indication that the wealth of the city was greater than the extent of its coinage would have led one to

suppose. The city's walls were constructed of boulders from the beds of the streams on either side of the

site.

* George Macdonald, Coin Types, their Origin and Development (Glasgow, 1905), p. 132.

4 William Watkiss Lloyd, "On the Types of the Coins of Caulonia," NC X (1847-48); M. Raoul-

Rochette, "Observations sur le type du monnaies de Caulonia, et sur celui de quelques autres m6dailles

de la Grandc-Grece et se la Sicile," Mimoires de Numismatique et d'AntiquiU (Paris, 1840); E. S. G.

Robinson, "Rhegion, Zankle-Messana and the Samians," JHS LXI (1946).

5 HN2, p. 93; Lloyd, op. cit.; Raoul-Rochette, op. cit.; Robinson, op. cit.

See HN*. p. 93.

The Coinage of Caulonia

this growth is more similar to the laurel than to the pastinaca sativa. Furthermore, the

leaves on the coin are pinnate whereas those of the pastinaca sativa are irregular.

The large standing figure is identified by Raoul-Rochette7 as Apollo. He points out

that such a nude, virile figure is to be identified, if this is possible, by the distinguishing

attributes and peculiarities or symbols. The long hair of this beardless figure, as well as the

diadem, are of a form which can be associated with the youthful Apollo. He feels that the

small figure is "Katharmos," a personification of the genius of lustration and rejects

Hermes, Perseus, and Boreas as possibilities. The subordination of the winged figure to

that of Apollo precludes the suggestion of Hermes and the absence of a single occurrence of

the caduceus among the symbols on the coinage of the city is surely conclusive evidence that

the figure is not Hermes. The lustral branches make it unlikely that this figure is Perseus as

does the absence of further symbols associated with him.

Boreas, however, seems a preferable identification for the smaller figure to Lloyd.8 He

endeavors to connect it with the tradition quoted by Pausanias9 that Caulonia was founded

under the leadership of Typhon of Aegium. An unconvincing effort to connect Typhon with

the daimon of stormy winds is not pressed, but support is claimed from the name given to

Cape Zephyrius (between Caulonia and Locri) as the indication of a local cult of this

particular wind-god.

It is possible that due to certain climatic conditions Caulonia's daimon type was a

wind-god. The coin type of another southern Italian town reflects its climatic conditions;

e.g., Metapontum used the ear of barley which was an indication of its agricultural wealth.

Caulonia, situated on the coast in a mountainous region, seems to have derived its chief

source of wealth from the nearby forests. Apparently this town enjoyed a rather constant

water supply furnished by the streams Alaros on the south and Precariti (the modern

name) on the north.10 Lying on the southern slope of the watershed, Caulonia was in the lee

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and consequently protected from the west and northwest winds in the winter. During the

remainder of the year a sea breeze tempered the heat11 and the south and southeast winds

prevailed at that time. These favorable conditions may possibly have been attributed by

the Cauloniates to a wind-god.

Each figure on the coin carries a lustral branch, an essential part of every sacrifice.12

Could these branches indicate that Caulonia was cleansed from a pestilence? This is not

true of the healthy and prosperous Croton whose later type shows Herakles Oikistas holding

a lustral branch13 as Raoul-Rochette14 points out. Although southern Italy is known to have

been conducive to miasmatic conditions, the fact that Caulonia was surrounded by forests

and had adequate drainage facilities would seem to indicate that she enjoyed healthful

7 M. Raoul-Rochette, op. cit., p. 25.

8 William Watkiss Lloyd, "On the types of the Coins of Caulonia," NC, X (1847-1848), pp. 1-20.

Pausanias vi. 3. 12.

10 Thucydides vii. 25. David Randall-McIver, Greek Cities in Italy and Sicily (Oxford, 1931),

p. 53.

11 Pliny N. H. ii. 62. Norman Douglas, Old Calabria, p. 413.

18 A Companion to Greek Studies, ed. Leonard Whibley (Cambridge, 1916), p. 405. Cf. Dictionnaire

des Antiquitis Grecques et Romaines, ed. Ch. Daremberg, Edm. Saglio and E. Pottier (Paris, 1905), III,

pp. 1408-1409.

13 Cf. Plate XIV, nos. 176-181, where the fillet is hanging over the arm of the god.

14 Raoul-Rochette, op. cit., pp. 33-37.

The Type

conditions. We may therefore the more warrantably concur with Raoul-Rochette's belief

that the coin type did not refer to the city's having been cleansed from a pestilence.

Robinson, in discussing the association on coins of olive and bay with the head of

Apollo as signifying his function as god of midday light and heat, recently suggested the

following interpretation regarding the coin type in question:

It may be suggested that this aspect of the god was well-known in this particular corner of Italy,

and should also be recognized in the familiar coin type of neighboring Kaulonia: a youthful figure

striding with a branch in his hand and with a secondary figure, sometimes with winged heels, also

holding branches, running along his outstretched arm (Traits III 1, PI. LXX 14-5, PI. LXXI 1-5).

This figure has from time to time been interpreted as a river-god, but the deer that always accompanies

him should mark him for Apollo; the lustral branch which he is swinging is the means of fertility, and

the little winged figure on his arm symbolizes the same power as the swastika or triskeles, to which

incidentally it bears some resemblance. It is interesting to note in this connection that on an early

Kaulonian obol (B.M.C. Italy, p. 336, No. 16) Apollo as type is replaced by the triskeles, and that on a

group of late fifth-century staters the hair of the striding figure is deliberately treated so that the locks

rise from his head like rays...15

The resemblance of the daimon to a swastika or triskeles and the interpretation of the

lustral branch as a "means of fertility" do not cary fullness of conviction.

These divergent conceptions by four distinguished numismatists show how difficult it

is to arrive at a convincing exposition of the meaning of the type. Let us conclude merely

that the chief figure is probably that of Apollo, presented as the city's founder, that the

daimon figure still eludes identification, and that the stag is the parasemon of the city.

For some time students of Greek sculpture and numismatics have questioned whether

this coin type was originated by a die-cutter or was derived from a sculptural prototype.

Percy Gardner rejects the latter suggestion when he writes, "exact and servile imitations of

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things (statues) however beautiful did not suggest itself to the mind of the artists who

executed coin dies..." and concludes, "as long as Greek art was alive, an exact or slavish

copy of a statue or a relief was all but unknown."16 Regling holds a similar view but at the

same time he feels that the persistence of a coin type almost unchanged for 150 years may

indicate derivation from a statue.17 Raoul-Rochette18 as well as Macdonald19 consider the

latter as a possibility only in the case of the Apollo figure. Macdonald, however, rejects the

idea that the stag might be an integral part of a group because it rests upon a separate

groundline.20 But the attitude of dependancy or expectancy to be seen on the part of the

small figure and on that of the stag seem to me to indicate a relationship between them.

Such an attitude is retained even by the crudest die-cutters up to the time of the disap-

pearance of the two figures from the obverse. The separate groundline of the stag might

even be taken to support the possibility of a sculptural prototype.

The daimon figure is in opposition to any consideration of the obverse types as derived

from a group sculptured in the round because of the technical difficulty of supporting it

mechanically. Nor do known remains of other groups provide a satisfactory analogy. The

15 E. S. G. Robinson, "Rhegion, Zankle-Messana and the Samians," JHS, LXI (1946), p. 16.

"Percy Gardner, The Types of Greek Coins (Cambridge, 1883), pp. 68-69.

17 Kurt Regling, in Handbuch der Archdologie, ed. Walter Otto (Munchen, 1939); "Anhang:

Die Miinzen," pp. 134-138.

18 Raoul-Rochette, loc. cit. p. 28.

"Macdonald, op. cit., pp. 97 and 132.

m Macdonald, op. cit., p. 132.

The Coinage of Caulonia

colored terra cottas found at Locri by Orsi,21 may have been inspired by such an earlier

monumental relief. The remarkable metopes found at Paestum in recent years by Dr.

Zanconi Montuori22 demonstrate how limited the known examples of sculpture from Magna

Graecia are, and suggest that important additions to what we know may be awaiting

excavation at this site or at the sites of other Greek cities in Italy. But even on the earliest

of the incusi at Caulonia, the treatment of the reverse details, especially the delineation of

Apollo's long locks of hair, remind one of the like care taken with the folds of the chlamys

worn by Poseidon on the reverses of the incuse staters of Poseidonia.23 And certainly the

way in which the lustral fillet hangs over the arm of the figure on the latest staters

(Plates XIV and XX) implies that the figure is inanimate. As for the stag, the attachment

of a long and thin fillet (Plate XI, 139 - unique piece from Mr. Newell's collection) as well

as the wreath about the stag's neck (Plates VI and VII, 69-70, 72-75, and 77) also seem

reasonable as additions to a statue and difficult otherwise to explain as accessories of the

type. On only a few of the staters with both sides in relief is the animal represented as

moving (Plate IX, 102-3, 106, 110-114).

Although these conditions may not be enough to prove that the type of Caulonia was

originally inspired by a sculptural prototype, they do show, it seems to me, that such a

derivation is admissible.

The completed form, KAVAOHIATAM, which does not occur until well along

in Caulonia's coinage, is analogous to what is found on the coins of neighboring Croton,

Poseidonia, and Sybaris (in a single instance). The inscription occurs sometimes on the

obverse and sometimes on the reverse, and sometimes singularly enough, it occurs on

both. Variants include the interchanging of the letters O and 2, and also the final M

and M (i.e., a prostrate 2). The customary form of Z occurs on the coins of the last

group in this study. None of the known specimens of nos. 119-23, 160, and 161 show any

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inscription. Macdonald, in discussing the significance of inscriptions on ancient coins,

mentions that the characteristically Italiot use of the nominative singular adjective of

the national name standing by itself is found on Caulonia's coins among others.24 In the

double-relief coinage with Apollo on the obverse and the stag on the reverse one might

supply the words "oekist" and "parasemon" respectively thereby rendering the readings

"(this is the) Caulonian (oekist)" and "(this is the) Caulonian (parasemon)."

The coinage of Caulonia has two clear-cut divisions; namely, incuse and double-relief.

The incusi are separable according to flan-diameters. Four steps or gradations are dis-

tinguishable. The broadest flan-diameters are found on the earliest coins and the changes

to smaller flan-diameters are abrupt rather than gradua1. The last incuse staters approxi-

mate in size the first double-relief coins as well as contemporary coins of the neighboring

cities of Croton, Metapontum, and Tarentum,25 and the Sicilian mints of Agrigentum, Gela,

Leontini and Syracuse, as the overstrikes testify.

21 See RE, s. v. Locri, sec. III and D. Randall-McIver, op. cit., PI. VIII.

22 For illustrations see G. M. A. Richter, Archaic Greek Art (New York, 1949), Figs. 204-6.

Additional metopes have been found within the past year. Cf. A J A, Vol. 62 (1958), p. 418, pi. 113.

23 Macdonald, op. cit., p. 97.

21 George Macdonald, "The Original Significance of the Inscription on Ancient Coins," Procis-

Verbaux et Mimoires du Congris International de Numismatique et d'Art de la Midaille Contemporaine

(Bruxelles, 1910), pp. 287s. 2 Cf. ANSMN VII, 1957, pp. I3ff-

INCUSE COINAGE

Group A. Nos. 1-26, Plates I-III.

The Caulonian incusi are herein sub-divided into four groups. The first, and the largest

numerically, uses the largest flan (c. 30 mm.). Throughout this group, the inscription is

limited to the first four letters of the city's name, and it occurs on the obverse only. Fifteen

obverse dies with twenty-seven reverses have heen distinguished. On the reverse, the

outlined figure of the daimon, being incised in the die, would have been susceptible

to possible deepening, but neither this nor any other modification has been detected.

Throughout this group, the obverse has a cable border, with the possible exception of

no. 25 on which the border is not preserved.

Some justification for the order within Group A should be submitted. These staters

will be seen to have their inscriptions in larger letters than are to be found for the succeeding

group. Of these letters, the V is different in the later coins of Group A, where it takes a

curved form which resembles Y. There is also support for this sequence in the posture of

Apollo. On what have been considered the earlier pieces he is shown with his right heel

raised, giving a sense of forward movement. For the pieces on Plate II, and notably on

nos. 23-25 of Plate III, both feet are flat on the groundline, thereby lessening the feeling of

movement. The frontal eye on both obverse and reverse is consistently present. The order

of the first four pieces on Plate I is determined 'by the die-flaw between the initial letters

of the inscription. The break behind the head of Apollo, not to be seen in no. 1, is present in

nos. 2-4.

The intriguing changes in the posture of the reverse daimon should be noted. There

is a slight shrinkage in the diameter of the flan so that the transition to Group II is less

noticeable than between Groups II and III. In this shrinkage, it is the borders which suffer.

Nos. 11-15 come into position because the branches held in each hand of the daimon

are minimized as though their significance has been lost. Again, because this figure wears a

chlamys it is less simple and direct than in the earlier form. For no. 15, the daimon figure

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has been omitted from the reverse, a condition which recurs in succeeding groups. The

reverses of only two dies (nos. 1 and 11) show this figure carrying a branch. Can the reason

for this omission have been that it offered more complication than the die-cutter was

willing to face?

Of the pieces on Plates II and III (nos. 16-26), a sharply bent left arm distinguishes

nos. 23-25, with the fore arm slanting upward instead of horizontal as heretofore. No. 20

is a variety which Garrucci26 desribes from a specimen in his possession as bearing in tiny

letters IKETEZI(A). The first three of these letters are read by him to the left of the

head of Apollo and parallel with his arm; the other four follow the rim in front of the

stag. The specimens which I have examined show that this reading is unwarranted and

fanciful.

* P. R. Garrucci, Le Monete dell'Italia Antica (Roma, 1885), p. 186, sec. 17.

The Coinage of Caulonia

Group B. Nos. 27-41, Plates III and IV

Throughout this group the flans are slightly reduced and a tiny circle or annulet,

usually with a pellet in its center, is frequently placed above the obverse stag. This is

usually and perhaps correctly identified as the letter theta, although Regling reads it as the

fifth letter of the ethnic.27 This letter, if it is a letter, also occurs on the reverses of nos. 27,

29, 34( ?), 35, 36 and 39-40, but is is not uniformly placed. These reverse occurrences and

the well-defined central dot preclude associating it with the ethnic. Another letter, re-

sembling epsilon or digamma retrograde, occurs between the feet of Apollo on one obverse

die (37-39) and is also found on the reverse of one of the varieties associated with this die

(nos. 39-40). The first four letters of the city's name occur on the reverses with three

exceptions (nos. 21, 28, 29). The assignment of the varieties at the beginning of the group

is due to their retention of the cable border. This is almost immediately replaced by a

border with dots between two linear circles. Besides this, these first three varieties share

with the latest issues of Group A the omission of any reverse inscription. To replace the

daimon on the reverse, Apollo is sometimes given a second lustral branch (nos. 30-32, 36,

39), the branch held over his shoulder being indicated very summarily throughout the

group. No. 36 has a branch in front of the stag.

Group C. Nos. 42-46, Plate IV.

This group hardly deserves the distinction of being classed separately, since there are

but five varieties with a single obverse die. The shrinkage of flan is now more marked

(27-26 mm.). The inscription is in five letters and now appears on both obverse and

reverse. A long-necked water bird resembling a swan replaces the letter above the rump of

the stag. None of the five reverses omit the daimon figure, which, however, does not have

the linear outline previously customary.

Group D. Nos. 47-61, Plate V.

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The last of the four incuse groups shows further shrinkage of the flan (from 24 to 21 mm.

for the smallest) and a growing crudity in the die-cutting, especially for the reverses (cf.,

no. 58). The ethnic, usually occurring with three letters but sometimes with five letters, is

confined to the obverse except for nos. 49, 53, 54, 56, and 57. On nos. 59, 60 and possibly

61, a heron or crane occupies the reverse space usually reserved for the inscription, paral-

leling the procedure at Croton. The interval between may have been considerable since

almost all of the refinements of the incuse process seem to have been forgotten.

Certain of the technical features of these incuse staters call for comment. In their

beginnings, there is little or nothing that might be called primitive about either the type or

the workmanship. The incuse format itself marks an advanced stage in coining, and

although at Caulonia this might be explained by its having been borrowed from Croton,

this can hardly be claimed for the type. For analogy regarding the type, we must go to

Poseidonia, where the figure of Poseidon immediately reminds one of the heroic statue

27 Kurt Regling, Die Griechischen Miinzen der Sammlung Warren (Berlin, 1906), p. 22, no. 136.

Incuse Coinage

found in the sea of Cape Artemesion.28 As has been mentioned, Regling makes a specific

exception of the Caulonia and Poseidonia types in formulating his opinion that the die-

cutters did not draw their inspiration from statues until the Hellenistic period.29 In studying

the composition or design of the Caulonia type, we note the effectiveness with which it

fills the circular field, the nice placement of the inscription and the daimon's figure, and,

not least, the proportions of the stag. The avoidance of awkwardness in the Apollo figure

commands admiration the torso frontal, the head and lower limbs in profile. The shorten-

ing of the right arm is disguised by the hair tresses, so that the contrast is less noticeable.

By comparison, the earliest issues of Poseidonia are less finished and much more

primitive than those of Caulonia. For Croton, there are too few elements in common to

permit a decision as to difference in incidence. We do not know how long the disaster at the

River Sagras antedated the coinage beginnings at Croton (Head dates the latter as 550 b.C.).

Croton must have suffered a severe setback, however, in which Caulonia would have

shared, being within a short distance from the Sagras. At Caulonia, such refinements as the

cutting of the small-scale daimon suggest an interval between the coinage on which it first

appears and those of the other cities using the incuse convention. Moreover, the outlining

of this figure on the reverses is a technicality not found at Metapontum until well along in

the coinage of that city. These conditions point to an earlier beginning at Metapontum, it

seems to me, but there is not yet sufficient data for establishing how much earlier.

28 Cf. article by George E. Mylonas, "The Bronze Statue from Artemision," A J A, XLVIII (1944),

pp. 143-160.

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29 Regling, op. cit., in note 17.

DOUBLE RELIEF COINAGE

Group E. Nos. 62-77, Plates VI and VII

In submitting the reasoning behind the arrangement of the double-relief staters, it is

fortunate that for the purposes of comparison this group does not greatly overrun a single

plate. In one of the fasciculi30 of the Sylloge, the type for the reverse with the branch in front

of the stag (heie Group F) is given precedence over this group (E), and for that reason the

cause for differing should be made clear. In Group E, the obverse inscriptions are of three

letters only whereas in Group F they are consistently of four letters. The cable border, a

convention inherited from the incuse format, gives place to a dotted border before we

reach the end of Group E. Whether the branch characteristic of Group F is considered a

symbol or part of the type may be open to question, but the varieties without this accessory

are more likely to precede than to follow its introduction, and stylistically, they come

earlier rather than later.

The arrangement within the group is simplified by the die combinations which dictate

the sequence. I have found but seven obverses combined with sixteen reverses; there must

be further dies not represented. No. 62 is placed at the very beginning because of the form

of its reverse rim and because 64a which immediately follows (by reason of the scale of

the inscription letters) occurs in the hoard discussed hereafter (cf. p. 59). This stater is

the latest of the Caulonia issues in that hoard along with it is a single double-relief

stater of Poseidonia. The hoard must have been secreted not long after the transition

to the double-relief form had taken place at Caulonia and Poseidonia, and to judge from

the staters of Metapontum and Croton in this hoard, before the change took place at

those two cities. The small-scale letters of the inscription for Group E give place almost

immediately to larger ones. The reverses of this group bear no inscription. Those showing

the farasemon of the city with a wreath about the neck of the stag (nos. 69, 69a, 6gd

and 70) are joined to obverses also combined with a wreathless stag which show by the

lessened wear of the obverse die that the wreathless form preceded the other, as was to

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be anticipated. Finally, no. 62 has a reverse, unique among double-relief staters, which has

a countersunk rim bearing a border of dots a form obviously derived from the rim of the

incuse reverses. The border of dots on the reverse which immediately follows is minimized

at first, but attains decorative importance in Group F.

Group F. Nos. 78-101, Plates VII, VIII and IX

In Group F both obverses and reverses bear inscriptions. In addition the reverses have

either a leaf or a branch in front of the stag. The sequence is achieved by working back-

wards. No. 101, which has the longest inscriptions so far, is placed last because a tendency

toward longer inscriptions becomes common in the following group. It also shares the same

* SNG II, pi. XIX.

Double Relief Coinage

ii

obverse die with no. 100, where there is a complex of branches on the reverse. Because

nos. 88-90 are closely copied from no. 87, the complex of branches is simpler for no. 87 than

for the following dies. It is reasonable that the simpler branch should precede the more

complicated form, and although we may not determine the progression die by die, it is

fairly certain. This suggested evolution is confirmed by changes in the inscriptions, by the

placement of the daimon figure, and by the proportions of the stag on both obverse and

reverse. It is not certain that nos. 78 and 79, with the leaf instead of the branch, belong at

the beginning of the group. The three letter reverse inscription and the scale of the stag seem

to entitle them to precedence.

Group G. Nos. 102-117, Plates IX and X

There is a marked change in style between this group and Group F. If the arrangement

submitted is correct, there is a clear indication of an extended interval between nos. 101

and 102. In this group both the figures of the obverse Apollo and the reverse stag, instead of

having their customary quiet pose, are represented in motion with a vigor little short of

violence, alternating with and ultimately returning to a static position. There is notable

improvement in the die-cutting which seems to partake of the new vigor in the types.

Another innovation is the introduction of symbols or accessories to the type. Except for the

reverse of no. 102 these are placed on the obverse. For the succeeding group, these additions

are made on the reverse.

Within the coining interval for this group, the daimon figure disappears. Although it

had previously been minimized to some extent, it here reaches a limit of crudity and

unintelligibility (cf. enlargements of nos. 104 and 107 on Plates XIX and XX respectively).

The daimon figure is omitted from nos. 105, 106, 116 and 117 while there are possible

traces on nos. 110 and III. On no. 104 the stag is badly placed and on no. 105 which shares

the same reverse there is no stag at all. The stag is again omitted on the obverses of nos. no

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and 1n. Another change is so casual that it might easily evade observation. The obverse

stag, up to this time, has been shown with head reverted, indicating a dependent re-

lationship to Apollo. Beginning with no. 112 the stag's head is like that on the reverse

forward looking and, except in no. 118, continues in this position.

The order reached is best explained by working backward from no. 117. Nos. 115-117

have a common reverse and on this reverse, the progression of the die break shows that this

must be the order. Nos. 113-115 share the same obverse die, the deterioration of which

gives this sequence. The bounding stag of nos. 110-113 ties them together. On nos. 107-109,

the reverse stag is stationary but the obverse figure of Apollo is not. It agrees perfectly with

either no. 106 which precedes or no. no which follows. Nos. 105 and 106 (same obverse)

have contrasting reverse stags while a common reverse brings no. 104 into place. Nos. 102

and 103 have a common obverse, the latter being more worn. Perhaps the leaves on the

reverse of no. 102 are a stylization of the branch of Group F rather than a symbol. On the

obverse of no. 116, the spray of three leaves seems to be the prototype of the reverse spray

on nos. 118-126, although two berries have been added to the latter.

The additions to the obverse type for this group are very interesting, partly because

they successfully elude classification. Their nature is quite different from the more personal

12

The Coinage of Caulonia

symbols (plough, star, oinochoe, etc.) which are accompanied by the initials of the names of

magistrates on the late fourth century staters of Metapontum. In the fifth century there are

parallels or analogies to the Metapontine symbols. Their occurrence on the reverse generally

gives them a less obvious relation or connection with the main type. For if the reverse

branch which is common to Group F at Caulonia is a symbol for woods or the forest (a

natural enough connotation to indicate the habitat of the stag), the branch added to the

obverse of nos. 11o and 11 1 would have the same significance, although its appropriateness

or relation to Apollo is less clear. The connection between the conventionalized tree form

on no. 107 and the obverse stag is almost obvious, but the sprig on the reverse of no. 102 is

so conventionalized as to deprive it of any connection with the stag. The wreath on no. 112

and the birds on nos. 105 and 113 are less easily associated with Apollo although the birds

are logical enough as wild life. Moreover, on no. 108 the mask of a fox or hind in a frame of

branches would have the same implication.

We thus have an indication that the regularity which had marked Group F has

yielded to a period of innovation in Group G, a characteristic which carries over into

Group H to a lessened degree.

Group H. Nos. 118-140, Plates X and XI

Whereas Group F was marked by the branch on the reverses, this group is distinguished

by a twig or spray with berries or a single leaf. The daimori, which disappeared in the

preceding group, is also completely lacking here. There seems to be a slight deterioration in

the die cutting and notable changes in the treatment of the inscription, including its

omission from both obverse and reverse on nos. 119-123. The figure of Apollo is generally

smaller in scale, and the sense of movement on both sides which marked the issues of

Group G has quite disappeared by the end of Group H. The die mulings bring into close

relationship several pieces which one would have hesitated to associate otherwise.

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The ten pieces placed at the beginning of this group, as already noted, have in common

a spray of three leaves and two berries in the field of the reverse. It seems reasonable to see

in the three-leaved twig on the obverse of no. 116 the prototype of this reverse symbo1.

Stylistically, these initial reverses of Group H are inferior to those of nos. 115-117 which

fact may imply an interval between nos. 117 and 118. Die combinations and progressing die

breaks dictate the order shown as will be seen from the diagram of die combinations.

No. 118 shows a reversion to an earlier form in that the head of the obverse stag is

turned back. As with Group G, we occasionally find obverse additions. On nos. 121-123

there is a large insect (in my judgment not a cicada) which also occurs on nos. 127-129,

possibly indicating a closer relation between these coins although the muhngs seem to

indicate the contrary. The reverse symbol on no. 129 is a tree which is far more conventional-

ized than the other tree forms described previously. On nos. 130 and 131 the reverse spray-

is given a summary treatment, which marks a time separation from the form used on

nos. 118-126.

In the discussion of Caulonia's type I gave reasons for thinking that the placing of the

stag in the field with a separate groundline was perhaps an indication that the two figures

had been inspired by a local cult statue of Apollo accompanied by a stag with some

Double Relief Coinage

13

traditional implication impossible to follow now. In Group G we find the stag's groundline,

which had persisted throughout the incuse format, undergoing a change. On nos. 107-109

and 112 there is something resembling the capital of a column beneath the stag. On

nos. 130-135 this support has been modified so that it is very much like a statue-basis

having high and narrow proportions. On nos. 124-126, however, this basis, which ordinarily

is crowned by the figure of the stag, bears a strange animal without antlers and with a

huge head which is lowered in somewhat the same way as the head of the charging bull on

the staters of Thurium is represented. Gross carelessness seems a more likely explanation

than an intentional substitution for the figure of the stag.

Many of the varieties in this group are known in a single or in a small number of

specimens, and no. 139 is one of the former. Inscriptions, although worn and in shortened

forms, are present for both dies. The fillets hanging from the antlers of the stag, however,

give this piece its greatest distinction. Their delicate linear treatment is best seen in the

enlargement on Plate XIX. Stylistically, the spread legs of this stag are like those of

certain others in this group. The size of the letters of the inscription might give it a place-

ment earlier in the group than is shown here.

Only two specimens of no. 140 are known to exist; one is in Paris and the other in

Naples. These have long been known and Raoul-Rochette31 has written about this type.

Although I have included these coins, I consider them suspect. Looking at the reverse first,

one notices the rectangular position of the inscription with three letters in a vertical line,

which is unlike any found elsewhere in this city's coinage. The position of the stag's antlers

is an awkward one when the stance with the spread forelegs is employed. It is the obverse,

however, that is most questionable. Both the thick groundline and the heavy, clumsy body

of Apollo standing upon it are in contrast to the presentation we have come to know.

Moreover, such a clutter of symbols is not found elsewhere. The fountain is not unlike one

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on the reverse of nos. 155-157, but the lion's-head water spout would more appropriately

empty into a basin or pool as it does on the staters of Terina than into a stationary font. In

the right field there is an ithyphallic herm facing to right with a filleted bucranium above it.

These are unrelated to the figure of Apollo or to each other, and suggest a hand or a mind

that is not Greek. The whole design, if such it can be called, bears the earmarks of the

counterfeiters of a century or more ago.

It should be noted that die combinations unknown to me may alter the arrangement

submitted. For example, nos. 127-129 with the obverse insect, and nos. 130-131 with the

reverse leaves and berries may come later rather than where they have been placed. The

reverse letters AE on no. 127 and A on no. 128 might with equal appropriateness entitle

these dies to a place in Group I, and the long vertical inscription in tiny letters on the

obverse of nos. 130-131 might follow rather than precede nos. 132-134.

Group I. Nos. 141-161, Plates XII and XIII

This group, as was true of some of the preceding classes, provides evidence that the

mint of this city was not a large one and that strict regularity of procedure, whether stylistic

or mechanical, is lacking. As in previous groups, die combinations bring together staters

11 Raoul-Rochette, op. cit. p. 24, note 1, PI. II, 10.

14

The Coinage of Caulonia

which have little else in common (cf. nos. 150-151). For this group an ivy leaf symbol is to

be found on either obverse or reverse of some of the pieces. Other symbols such as the crab,

wreath or octopus occur sometimes with the leaf on the same die and sometimes with the

leaf on the combining die. The letter phi (is this a signature such as we find at Terina ?) is

usually of moderate size. It is found beneath the right arm of Apollo on no. 142, below the

base line of the stag on nos. 143-147 and on the reverses of nos. 149-151 and 154 The letter

theta, larger in scale, appears on the obverse of no. 150 and in the form GE on the obverses

of nos. 152-153 and on the reverses of nos. 155-158, as well as on the bronze pieces (nos.

233-234).

The inscriptional data are puzzling, differing forms sometimes occurring on the same

stater. As early as nos. 101 and 102 we have the fifth letter, an omicron. This is repeatedly

changed to an omega on later dies (nos. 124-125,130-131, 135,139, 146, 150,152,170-178,

180-181). The final letter of the inscription when given in full, is sometimes N, sometimes

M (the prostrate sigma), and on the last dies, sigma in its normal form. The archaic form

of the iota (three-stroke) here persists as late as no. 166.32

There are other irregularities. The obverse stag is sometimes present, sometimes not.

In the earlier pieces of the group, he resembles a goat more than a deer. The stag's size

differs widely. The figure of Apollo grows steadily heavier almost pugilistic. His attitude

of striding becomes one of running in nos. 158-161. His hair is usually short, but in

nos. 153-154, tresses over his shoulder are clear. A knot at the back of the head is visible

in nos. 162-163. The branch in his right hand interferes with the inscription in nos. 141-145

and, consequently, is so modified that it would scarcely be recognized as a branch if there

were no other dies to establish this intention. The reverse stag is frequently heavy and

wooden and faces left rather than right in no. 161.

The accessories to the type are intriguing; e.g., the bird with upraised wings in a font

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on the reverse of nos. 155-156, and on the obverse of no. 155 what seems to be an altar (cf.

enlargements on Plate XX). The palmettes at its corners, the strut and the manner in

which the legs are joined to the top indicate a structure made of meta1.

On the obverse of nos. 153-154 there are long fillets tied to both arms of Apollo.33

I know of no parallel to explain the purpose of these fillets. The tetrobols on Plate XV

afford a hint. On no. 216, which is connected with this group by the presence of the letter <t>,

the obverse die is first used without the fillet, and then with the fillet. Is it possible that

fillets such as this have been added to the city's cult statue (which may originally have

inspired the coin type) during an agonistic celebration, and have been used on the coinage

with this commemorative implication ? This is but one of the unresolved questions raised by

Caulonia's coinage.

Group J. Nos. 162-181, Plates XIII and XIV

Both the die combinations and the style of these coins leave hardly any alternative as

to the order submitted. The top-knotted Apollo continues on the earliest staters in this

group (nos. 162-163), giving way to a god with clipped hair which bears some resemblance

82 For interpretation of inscriptional forms see Macdonald reference cited in note 24.

83 For enlargements of coins with fillets see Plates XIX and XX.

Double Relief Coinage

15

to a wig. On nos. 158-161 there is a running Apollo which is replaced on nos. 162-166 by

a figure standing with the weight on the left foot, a much more awkward stance than that

of the striding Apollo to which we had become accustomed, and to which there is a return

in nos. 168-181. The heavy-bodied figure continues to the end of the coinage.

The additions to the type are mostly on the obverse; e.g., turtle, dolphins, star and

fibula. There are also large single letters A on the reverse of nos. 168-173, 0 on the

obverse of nos. 173-175, and E on the reverse of no. 175. If these letters are initials of

die cutters, those with one letter on the obverse and another on the reverse would show that

there were two engravers working concurrently, an indication of a stepped-up coinage

which is supported by the relatively large number of surviving specimens of nos. 179 and

180. The significance of the two dolphins is difficult to fathom. The fillet laid across the arm

of Apollo on the obverse of the last type is of a familiar form; i.e., wool with terminal

tassels. The puzzling symbol on nos. 176-181 has never been satisfactorily explained; it

does not resemble a fibula any more than it does a bird trap. The increased scale of the

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letters in the inscriptions is consistent throughout this group as opposed to that of Group I.

ENLARGEMENTS

The selection of the coins shown on the two plates of enlargements was given careful

thought. The arrangement is designed to emphasize some of the ideas presented in the

preceding text, and therefore it does not follow the sequential order in the catalogue. The

liberal, yet limited, number shown may be supplemented by the other plates. It would have

been highly instructive if a series of enlargements devoted to the daimon had been included

to show the changes in form which occur before final disappearance from the obverse.

Two of the misunderstood presentations (nos. 73 and 104) appear on these two plates.

Enlargements are not so necessary for the incuse staters as they are for the smaller

double-relief pieces because of their greater flan diameter.

On nos. 62, 102, 104, 108 and 113 of Plate XIX the increased stride of the main

figure is to be noted. This is most marked on no. 102, which, in my opinion, provides a clear

indication that Apollo was being presented as moving from the very beginning nearly or

quite as much so as the subsidiary daimon. The static stag on the reverse of no. 62, which

comes at the very beginning of the double relief, changes for only a few dies to a realistic

and lively animal (see reverses of nos. 102 and 113). The return to the quiet position is

observed on no. 139 as well as on no. 155 of Plate XX.

Some of the comparisons emphasized extend from one plate to another. The suggested

statue basis on no. 108 is to be compared not only with no. 112 but also with nos. 121 and

124. The addition of the fillet to both obverse and reverse types is shown for the entire

bottom row of both plates. Its significance is far from obvious; for discussion see page 6

and for descriptions the catalogue entries (105, 139, 153 and 176-181).

Several of the enlargements have individual interest. No. 73, for instance, is not

overstruck as one might think, but in some manner the die has been injured and recut for

the injured section. It must have been deplorably bad from the beginning. There are

several examples and combinations with differing reverses. The stylized tree on no. 107

differs from previous tree forms; compare also the reverse of no. 129. No. 121b is noteworthy

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for the large insect symbol and for the long-haired head of Apollo. No. 112 has a fine

wreath which differs from the much later die of no. 151. Both obverse and reverse of no. 155

are shown the obverse to display the altar which seems to be entirely of metal to judge

from the palmettes and the supports for its top, and the reverse to illustrate the stylized

treatment of the antlers of the stag as well as the bird with upraised wings in a pedestalled

water-basin. The letters 0E connect this with the obverses of the bronze issues.

The reverse of the tetrobol (no. 216) shows the kantharos symbol which does not occur

among the staters. Further, the fillet of the obverse is a later addition to this die. The fine

style of the heads on nos. 231 and 232 deserves attention I am unable to find any

parallels from which they might have been derived. Except on the bronze coins, heads such

as these do not occur in Caulonia's coinage, and as conceptions they are of outstanding

quality aside from their originality.

FRACTIONS

Even though there are fairly clear indications that the four divisions of these fractions

are not continuous, no sharp separation exists between the two later divisions.

The coinage of small denominations in the incuse form is not prolific. This condition is

similar to that found at Metapontum for its incuse coinage. Very few of the incuse

fractional issues at Caulonia examined by me have been in good condition; there is seldom

one without considerable evidence of circulation. This makes it difficult to find stylistic

parallels among the incuse staters. The three-letter obverse inscription on nos. 201 and 202

and the five-letter inscription on nos. 203-205 do not occur among the dies of the early

staters until Group D (cf. Plate V). Likewise, the reverse inscriptions such as those of

nos. 202 (mistakenly numbered 203 on Plate XV), 204 and 205 appear relatively late

among the staters. The obol bears the triskeles for its obverse type (nos. 206 and 207)

and this may have been conceived as a correlative of the daimon as Robinson suggests.34

That this issue belongs with the incuse pieces is shown by the reverse border which is like

that of the staters and tetrobols (cf. Plate IV and no. 208).

The group which follows (nos. 208-214) with the later issues having the subsidiary

branch on the reverse, is interesting for the occasional change in orientation for both

obverse and reverse types (any significance for which escapes me) and for the minimizing or

entire omission of the daimon figure. The striding attitude is more pronounced here than

in the first group. The order within the group becomes clear by comparing the rim of

no. 208 with that of no. 62 of the staters. This reverse rim, sunken at first, changes to a

beaded form.

The third group is significant for the kantharos symbol which does not occur among the

staters known to me. There is a further distinctive peculiarity in the fillet which hangs from

the arm of Apollo and also in the circumstance that this has been added to a die already in

use (no. 216). 35 The sprig with two leaves (obv. of no. 217) is also found among the staters

(nos. 120-126) although in the latter occurrence it bears three leaves and two berries.

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The youthful head of the fourth group (nos. 229-232) has been thought by Gagliardi36

to represent a river god because of the horn-like projection on no. 231. In earlier discussions

this head is supposed to have had better claim to being that of Apollo. The exquisite style

of these dies as well as the ivy leaf symbol on the reverse of no. 230 (paralleled on

nos. 150-152 of the staters) marks them as late in the coinage of the city and therefore not

much before 389 b.c. I do not trace any notable resemblance to the issues of neighboring

mints, with the possible exception of Terina where certain staters and late sixths bear a

somewhat similar head.

84 Robinson, op. cit., p. 16.

,s See p. 6 for previous discussion.

se E. Gagliardi, "Di Alcune Monete in Bronzo di Caulonia," Atti e Memorie dell' Istituto Italiano di

Numismatica, VI (1930), pp. looff.

BRONZE ISSUES

The bronze coins of Caulonia present problems, some of which have been outlined

admirably by Gagliardi.37 It is generally thought that the introduction of bronze for coins

in the Greek cities did not much antedate 400 b.C.38 and since Caulonia was destroyed in

389 B.C. these bronzes provide significant data. Before the introduction of bronze for

coinage small silver coins of low denominations seem to have sufficed for currency needs.

Of the four bronze pieces cited by Gagliardi39 two are of the same denomination and a third

is an issue which Garrucci,40 with strong probability, rejects as the core of a plated coin.

Gagliardi41 thinks that this conclusion is less likely because of the patination and the

excellent condition of the coin. This coin seems to me to be what Regling calls a "mysti-

fication."42

Gagliardi's proposed identification of the head on the fractions and on the bronzes as a

river god does not carry complete conviction, although the suggestion is an intriguing one.43

If this theory were correct, it would seem that we should have a greater number of ap-

propriately related symbols or other indications associated with a river god than can be

cited. The letters OE which occur on the obverses of two varieties also occur on the staters

(nos. 152-159). The scanty number of bronze pieces known is indicative of their intro-

duction not long before the destruction of the city.

"Ibid., pp. 99ff.

38 HN*, p. 99. Head dates Croton's bronze coinage as beginning 'Before circ. b. c. 400.'

"Gagliardi, op. cit.

40 Garrucci, op. cit., p. 150.

41 Gagliardi, op. cit. pp. 99-100.

42 Regling in a letter to the author.

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43 Gagliardi, op. cit. p. 101.

PLATED COINS

Plated coins are fairly frequent in the coinage of Caulonia, and Plate XVI has been

devoted to them. Some of these may prove to be counterfeits which are not ancient; e.g.,

<