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Zahir MEKSEM

TISEKKIWIN
N YIRISEN
Tagmert d teslet

Asqamu Unnig n Timmuza 2010

Zahir MEKSEM

Tisekkiwin n yirisen
Tagmert d teslet

Asqamu Unnig n Timmuza 2010

Enchainez un peuple dpouillez-le fermez-lui la bouche, il est encore libre. Privez-le de son travail, de son passeport de la table o il mange du lit o il dort et il est encore libre. Un peuple devient pauvre et esclave lorsqu'on lui vole la langue qu'il a hrite de ses aeux il est perdu jamais. Ignazio Buttit, Lingna e dialetu ( Sicile 1899)extrait de Marti F. et al. Un monde de paroles, paroles du monde, Paris, LHarmattan, 2006, p. 61. Qqen agdud err-it ndel-as imi, ad yeqqim d ilelli. Kkes-as amahil-is, apaspor-is tagida $ef itett ussu $ef yeggan ad yeqqim d ilelli. Agdud yettu$al d igellil, d akli mi ara s-tettwakkes tutlayt i yas-d-an yimezwura-s.
Tasuqqilt : Meksem Zahir

AAWAS

1. Asissen n umahil 2. Tarrayt n usismel Ief amezwaru Asismel n yirisen Tazwart 1. Tawuri n tsensekka n yirisen deg uselmed 2. Tabadut n tmirant tasekka 2.1. Tasensekka tarisant 2.2. Tasensekka talemmast 2.2.1. Tasensekka ilmend n twuri 2.2.2. Tasensekka n waddad n yinan 2.2.3. Tasensekka ilmend n wadeg (typologie situationnelle) 2.2.4. Tasensekka timgerredt (htrogne) 3. Tamirant n tewsit deg tesnalmudt 3.1. D acu-tt tewsit ? 3.2. Tawsit deg uselmed Ief wis sin Taslet n yirisen ilmend n tsekka Tazwart 1. Tasekka n wullis 1.1. Taessa n wullis

11 13

17 18 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 31 33 34

41 42 43

1.1.1. Addad amezwaru 1.1.2. Addad n tigawin 1.1.3. Addad n taggara 1.2. Azenzi n wudmawen 1.3. Allalen n tutlayt 1.4. Amedya ef wullis 1.4.1. Taslet n tuddsa 1.4.2. Azenzi n wudmawen 1.4.3. Allalen n tutlayt 1.4.3.1. Taliwin n umyag 1.4.3.2. Udmawen n tjerrumt 1.4.3.3. Isuraz 2. Tasekka n yimsegzi 2.1. Tuddsa n yimsegzi 2.2. Allalen n tutlayt 2.2.1. Isuraz 2.2.2. Udmawen n tjerrumt 2.2.3. Taliwin n umyag 2.3. Amedya ef uris imsegzi 2.3.1. Asnekwu n temsukt-is 2.3.2. Allalen n tutlayt 2.3.2.1. Isuraz 2.3.2.2. Udmawen n tjerrumt 2.3.2.3. Taliwin n umyag 3. Tasekka n uris afuklan 3.1. Tuddsa n uris afuklan 3.1.1. Taessa taerfit 3.1.2. Taessa tuddist 3.2. Allalen n tutlayt 3.2.1. Udmawen n tjerrumt

43 43 44 44 46 47 49 51 51 51 52 54 55 56 58 58 59 60 62 64 65 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 71 71

3.2.2. Taliwin n umyag 3.2.3. Isuraz 3.3. Amedya ef uris afuklan 3.3.1. Tuddsa 3.3.2. Iferdisen n tutlayt 3.3.2.1. Isuraz 3.3.2.2. Udmawen 3.3.3. Taliwin n umyag 3.4. Amedya wis sin ef usfukel : aris n usussen 3.4.1. Tuddsa 3.4.2. Allalen n tutlayt 4. Tasekka n uris n tgelma 4.1. Tuddsa 4.1.1. Tiin (ancrage) 4.1.2. Asettwel (aspectualisation) 4.1.3. Aleddem n usentel 4.1.4. Agassa (mise en relation) 4.2. Tarrayin n uglam 4.3. Iferdisen n tutlayt 4.4. Amedya ef tgelma 4.4.1. Tuddsa-s 4.4.2. Iferdisen n tutlayt 4.4.2.1. Arbib 4.4.2.2. Asemmad n yisem 4.4.2.3. Imataren n wadeg 5. Tasekka n uris imsendeh/imwelleh 5.1. Tuddsa n udis imwelleh 5.2. Iferdisen n tutlayt 5.3. Amedya ef uris imwelleh 5.4. Tuddsa-s

71 72 72 74 76 76 79 81 82 83 85 87 87 88 88 89 89 90 91 91 92 93 93 93 94 95 95 96 96 99

5.5. Iferdisen n tutlayt 5.5.1. Taliwin n umyag 5.5.2. Udmawen n tjerrumt 5.5.3. Isuraz 6. Tasekka n udiwenni 6.1. Tuddsa 6.2. Iferdisen n tutlayt 6.3. Amedya n udiwenni 7. Taggrayt 8. Ibula 9. Amawal 10. Ammud n yirisen Ullis Ullis + imsegzi Ullis + aglam Imsendeh / imwelleh Imsegzi Aglam Afuklan Asussen (adellel) Tawsit tamezwarut : asusen n radyu Tawsit tis snat : isusnen n ssuq

99 99 100 100 102 102 103 104 106 108 112 116 116 132 136 138 142 162 170 180 180 182

Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

1. ASISSEN N UMAHIL Iswi n umahil-a d agmar d teslet n yirisen ara yilin ilmend n tsekkiwin yemgaraden. Deg tama, irisen-a ad ilin d allalen isensegmiyen i kra n win yesran i tsekkiwin n yirisen: wid ara d-yessufen idlisfusen, iselmaden, inelmaden. Deg tault-a ammud ad yili daen d abalu i yiselmaden akken ad suddsen tugzimin n uselmed ara yessifsen aselmed n tsekiwin n yirisen akken inelmaden ad siwen ad d-snekwun yerna ad semgirden gar yirisen n tmazit. Deg tama-nnien, zemren ad ilin d ammud i yimnuda deg tesdawiyin akken ad gen tiselin deg taulin yemgaraden : tasnilest, tasnilest tarisant d tsensekka tarisant akked tesnalmudt, atg. Ma nmuqel anagar er tixutert-is tasensegmit, ammuda ad yili d abalu ideg ara yaf yiwen irisen ara yessemres deg taulin yemgaraden. Tamezwarut, ad yili d tala i yiselmaden ideg zemren ad d-kksen irisen ara sqedcen deg tneriyin acku deg umahil-a llant aas n tsekkiwin. Tin ur-s, tisekkiwina ad ilint d amedya ideg ara ren, lada yinelmaden, llant aas n tsekkiwin n yirisen deg tmazit ; irisen-a ur mgaraden ara kan deg yisental, maca mgaraden daen deg tala-nsen. Nnig wannect-a, inelmaden ad gzun amek ttwrun yirisen ayen ara
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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

ten-yeen ad awen er tzemmar tutlayanin n tegzi d ufares. D annect-a ara d-yessegmun tigensas yelhan yelhan ef tutlayt-a deg walla, amedya, n yinelmaden. Irisen-a i d-negmer ad nessassen-iten-id ilmend n tulmisin yerzan yal tasekka : taessa (tuddsa) d wallalen utlayanen. D tineggura-ya ara yilin d allal s yezmer yimeri ad yaru, ad ifares war uguren deg tmazit. Ammud-a d win i d-nekkes seg yibula : ungalen, tulizin, tisunin, imisen i d-yeffen s tmazit aas-aya segmi tebda tettwaru seg tazwara n tasut tis 19- D ibula-ya, s umata, iseg nessawe negmer-d irisen ieqqaniyen (authentiques) ilmend n tsekkiwin yemxalafen, yerna d wid yettwasmettin. Tin ur-s irisen d wid yettmeslayen ef yisental yemgaraden i d-icudden er waas n taulin : tudert tatrat, ilmeyen, timetti Amgired n yirisen yeskan-d tutlayt n tmazit tu deg waas n taulin, yes-s nezmer ad naru ef waas n yisental i yesan assa d waas n taulin, ur teni ara kan deg yiwet tewsit yecban timucuha d tmedyazt. ef waya ad negzu tamazit tennerna tihawt-is deg tmetti.

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

2. TARRAYT N USISMEL Deg tazwara nessasmel irisen-a d tigruma ilmend n tsekkiwin : aris afuklan, imsegzi, aris imwelleh (imsendeh), ullis, atg. Asismel am wa yella-d ilmend n yiswi amaynut ier tezzi ti n tesnalmudt i yefkan azal, taggara-ya, i tsekkiwin n yirisen iwatan i uselmed n tutlayin. Seld afran d usismel n yirisen-a nessassen-d ittewlen s yezmer umdan ad d-yesnekwu yal tasekka n uris. Gar-asen ad naf ittewlen i d-yeqqnen er tuddsa d wid i d-yeqqnen er wallalen utlayanen. D wi, s umata, ara yessifsen tigzi d ufares n uris.

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Ixef amezwaru

Asismel n yirisen

Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

TAZWART Deg yixef ad d-nessegzi tamrant n usismel n yirisen d wayen akk i d-icudden ur-s. deg tazwara ad d-nual er tault n tsensekka, ssyin akin ad d-nessegzi tisensekkiwin yemgaraden, s eren yimusnilsen ad d-ad d-sbedden isismlen n yirisen. Maca, send ameslay ef wannect-a ad d-nebdu seg txutert n tsensekka deg tault n uselmed.

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

1. TAWURI N TSENSEKKA N YIRISEN DEG USELMED Iswi agejdan n uselmed n tutlayt, am wakken yera yal yiwen, d asiwe n yinelmaden akken ad smeren tamussninsen n umawal n tutlayt akked usiwe-nsen akken ad sun tizemmar iwatan deg turi d tira 1 n yifuras n tutlayt akken ma llan. D annect-a i d iswi amezwaru n uerbaz. Deg tilawt, mi ara nmuqel ad naf d tirmad i d-icudden er uselmed n yilugan n tira akked tseddast i yefen amur ameqqran deg tnerit. D acu, ma nerra tamawt deg uerbaz anagar er uselmed n tirawalt d tjerrumt ad nerr deg rrif ayen yellan d agejdan yerna yesa azal deg tmusni n tutlayt. Annecta yerza tira d turi n yirisen yemgaraden. D tamawt am ta i yean tasnalmudt ad tger ti-is er yiswiren-nnien deg uselmed n tutlayt. Yerna terra deg rrif tarrayt n zik i yefkan azal anagar i yirisen n tsekla d uselmed n tjerrumt d tirawalt. Tura tettwali tixutert deg yiferdisen-nnien, wid izemren ad ilin d tallalt i unelmad akken ad yezmer ad yaru, ad yegzu
1

Tira : anamek-is deg tseddart-a d amatu, yerza akk ayen yettwarun deg tutlayt akken tebu tili.

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

irisen akken tebu tili tsekka-nsen. Acku tutlayt ur tettwaseqdac ara kan ne ur d-ttbin ara kan anagar deg tault n tsekla. Tutlayt d ayen i d-yettmagar umdan yal ass deg tmetti. D ta i d-yewwi ad yelmed unelmad ma nra ad yual d anesim n tmetti ideg yettidir. D annect-a daen ara t-yesmettin. Deg waya ad negzu tutlayt d aferdis agejdan i ila umdan akken ad yekcem deg tmetti acku s tutlayt ara yelmed akk ayen yerzan timetti : ansayen-nsen, tasekla-nsen, axemmem-nsen. A.S. Boulifa yuki-d i tmuli-ya aas aya, asmi i d-yura adlis-is wis sin ideg d-yessegza tarrayt i yssemres deg-s i uselmed n tmazit. Hata wayen i d-yenna deg useggas 1913 : Win yeban ad yissin tutlayt, yessefk ad yissin leqliya,

tidmi akked terci n wid i tt-yettmeslayen : d acu leqliya n ugraw imetti ur yezmir yiwen ad tt-yekcem, ad tt-yegzu s telqey anagar ma yezrew s wudem usdis axxemmem-nsen d wansayen-nsen. D annect-a i nettwali d abrid s nezmer ad nesseqdec tarrayt tusridt 1 2 .
D wasmi tura tutlayt tettwaselmad ilmend n wamek i tettwaseqdac deg tmetti. Da ttarran tamawt er tutlayt akken
1 A.S. Boulifa, 1913, Mthode de langue kabyle-Cours de deuxime anne, Ed. Jourdan, Alger. 2 D tasuqqilt n yinnan-a : Connatre la langue, cest connatre la mentalit,

lesprit, le gnie, de ceux qui parlent cette langue : or, la mentalit dun groupe quelconque dindividus, ne peut tre pptres, saisie et comprise que par une tude exacte de leur caractre et de leurs moeurs. Cest l, pensons-nous, lesprit de la mthode directe . 19

Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

tella deg tmetti acku ur nezmir ara ad ne tutlayt n uerbaz tegguga (tebed) aas ef tin n yal ass. Timentelt-a tewwi-d ef tesnalmudt ad tewwet amek ara d-tesbedd tarrayin s ara yelmed unelmad tutlayt akken ad tessemres deg tudert-is taurbizt akked tin n yal ass. D annect-a i yean aas n yimsensegmiyen ad d-gren kra n yiseqsiyen er tault n tesnalmudt. Anezgum i d-ilulen d wa : ma ur d-yewwi ara deg uselmed n tutlayt ad nbeddel tarrayt-a taqburt i yerran tamawt er uselmed n yilugan n tjerrumt yerzan anagar aswir n tefyirt. S wawal-nnien, ma, deg uselmed n tutlayt, ur ilaq ara ad ner amek ara nessiwe inelmaden ad gzun amek i ttwasuddsen yiricen yugaren tafyirt akken ur nettiimi ara kan deg uselmed n tjerrumt n tefyirt. Amek ara d-naf abrid ara yawin inelmaden ad gzun irisen, ad d-farsen s timad-nsen, da nutni, irisen ? ef wannect-a i d-tenna C. Barr-De Miniac : D tidet, tamussni n tutlayt d wamek i tettwasuddes d

ayen yellan d agejdan. Acku amek ara naru ma ur negzi ara ayen i d-icudden er tseddast, er umawal akked yirisen ? Maca tizemmar-a, iman-nsent, ur caent ara akken ad seknent amek ara d-nfares irisen yelhan, igerzen yerna lan tawuri, atg. 1 .

Barr-De Miniac C., 2000, Barr-De Miniac C., 2000, Le rapport lcriture. Aspects thoriques et didactiques, Paris, Presses universitaires du Septentrion,
1

p. 13.

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

S umata d ieblan am wi i d-yewwin tamuli-nnien er uselmed n tutlayt. Deg tama, deg wayen yerzan irisen, tura tezzi ti er yisemras utlayanen n tmetti (productions langagires de la socit). Deg tama-nnien isemras-a ilaq ad ttwaslemden deg tala-nsen tummidt i yettakken anamek i tutlayt. D ti i wimi yessemma M. Bakhtine1 iricen imeqranen n tutlayt (grandes masses verbales) acku wi (iricen-a) ttbinen-d amzun d leqwaleb ne d timudmawin ideg yessuddus umdan tiktiwin-is mi ara nebu ad tent-idyessenfali, ad tent-id-yessufe. Ihi, ticki ira ad d-yini kra, yesa yakan deg uqerruy-is tarrayin i yas-d-yeskanen amek ara dyalles, ara d-yeglem, ara d-yessegzi D aswir-a (aselmed n yisemras imettiyen deg tala-nsen tummidt) ier terra tamawt tesnalmudt deg uselmed tura acku d nutni i yeskanen tala d unamek n yiznawen-nne. D iswi am wa i yean taggara-ya ad yettunefk wazal ameqqran i usmudem n yirisen. Anamek-is d asbedded n yirisen d tisekkiwin ; yal aris ila tasekka ier yettekki.

Bakhtine Mikhal Mikhalovitch (1895-1975) est considr avant tout comme un historien de la littrature. Il a crit aussi sous le pseudonyme de V.N Volochinov. Mais ce nest quen 1963 que son uvre sest affirme comme essentielle. Il a crit notamment : Le marxisme et philosophie du langage, paru en 1929, traduit en franais en 1977 et Esthtique et thorie du roman en 1978 et Esthtique de la cration verbale, traduit en franais en 1984. Informations cites dans le Dictionnaire de genres et notions littraires, 2 dition, Paris, Encyclopaedia Universalis et M Albin, p. 60.
1

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

Tikti-ya n usmudem tu-d aar seg yimahilen n Yirussiyen (les formalists russes) i gan ef uris. S yimahilen-a sawen ad d-snekwun taessa (ne tamsukt) n wullis, azenzi n wudmawen akked wassa yellan gar tikli tamatut n uris (son fonctionnement global) d tikli-is tagensant (son fonctionnement local). Imahilen-a, mi d-kecmen annar n uselmed, wwin-d yid-sen amaynut. Seg tama, ldin tawurt i tezrawt n tewsatin-nnien n wullis i yecban : tamacahut, tadyant yeran, atg.. Nnig n waya lulent-d waas n tirmad n tira i yessifsusen almad n wullis. Gar-asent ad naf : iluma yerzan aseggem n uris, tacart n yilmawen, tifin n tazwara n wullis, asemmed n taggara n uris Seg tama-nnien imahilen-a neren-d abrid akken ad ilint tezrawin d timaynutin i yerran tamawt er tsekkiwin-nnien n yirisen s ara yishil uselmed n tutlayt. D annect-a, ihi, i yefkan tagnit akken ad d-ffen aas n tezrawin d yimahilen. Imnuda, deg tallit-nni, ran ad gen taslet i tsekkiwin n yirisen-nnien yerna ad d-sbedden aswir-nnien i teslet n tutlayt ara yeflen akin i uswir n tjerrumt imi, taneggarut-a, terza lada ayen i d-yeqqnen er tefyirt D tiktiwin am ti, d imahilen am wi i d-yeslulen tasnilest tarisant. Taslet deg tault n tesnilest-a tezzi er tuddsa n yirisen akked unadi n yiferdisen n tutlayt (ne n tjerrumt) imezgiyen. S wawal-nnien deg teslet n uris ttmuqulen tuddsa ne aawas i yellan d llsas i tira n yal aris. S yin akin ttmuqulen allalen n tesnilest i yettusemrasen deg yal aris. Taslet am ta tettili ilmend n wakken mgaraden yirisen. S wakka yal tasekka n uris ad d-nesnekwu aniwi allalen iwatan
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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

akken ad tt-id-naru. Iswi n usnekwu n tuddsa n uris akked yiferdisen utlayanen d tikci i unelmad tissura ara s-yilin d tasalelt akken ad yezmer ad yegzu yerna ad d-yaru, da netta, aris ilmend n tsekkiwin yemgaraden. Ihi, d tamusni-ya ara yeen anelmad ad yezmer ad yesseqdec tutlayt deg yal tault, ama deg uebaz ama deg tegnatin yeffen i uerbaz. Deg wayen yerzan tikti-ya, E. Roulet, yenna-d : Seg yiseggasen n 70 d asawan, medden akk san d

akken iswi n uselmed d ulmad n tutlayin : tanyemmat ne tis snat mai d awwa er tezmert tasnilsant yeni tazmert deg usuddes d tegzi n tefyar, maca anelmad yessefk ad yawe er tezmert n teywalt ne ad d-ini tazmert n yinaw, s unameknnien tazmert deg ufares d tigzi n yinawen yemgaraden 1 2 .
Deg tikti-ya ad negzu aselmed n tutlayt ibeddel tanila ; yual yerra tamawt er wayen yellan d amatu ideg yezmer unelmad ad ier, deg tazwara, amek tettwaseqdec tutlayt deg yal tagnit. Tin ur-s, ad yesu allalen s ara tt-yelmed akken ad d-yessenfali ef yal tikti-s, ef yal tamuli-s, deg yal tagnit. S wakka anelmad ad yual mai d tamusni ara yesu ef tutlayt maca d tamusni ara tt-yissin s ufares d tigzi.
E. Roulet, 1999, La description de lorganisation du discours, LAL, Didier, Paris, p. 9. 2 Innan-a s tefransist : On admet gnralement depuis les annes soixante-dix
1

que lobjectif de lenseignement-apprentissage des langues maternelles et secondes nest pas seulement dacqurir une comptence linguistique, cest-dire la capacit de construire et dinterprter des phrases, mais dacqurir une comptence de communication, ou je dirais plutt une comptence discursive, cest--dire la capacit de produire et dinterprter des discours varis . 23

Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

Segmi nera s umata tixutert s d-glan yimahilen n tesnilest n uris i tault n uselmed, ad nere tura ad d-nual er usenfar-nne yerzan tisekkiwin n yirisen. Awal ad ayawi er umeslay ef tesnsekka s umata, ef tmirant n tsekka.

2. TABADUT N TMIRANT TASEKKA Aas n yimahilen i yellan ef tsensekka n uris. Yal amnadi yewwet amek ara d-yesbedd tarrayt s ara yezmer ad dyessemgired gar yirisen. Amgired deg tsensekkiwin-a yettual er tiri n taslet n yal amnadi. Maca, aseqsi iwatan d wa : d acu i d imataren s nezmer ad d-nesbedd tasensekka ? Tiririt ef useqsi-ya ad a-tawi ad d-nebder H. Isenberg i dyesseknen amek i d-yettili usbedded n tsensekka. ur-s : Tasensekka tbedd ef : - Llsas n tsensekka, deg-s ad naf : isfernen ibanen (ama mtawan, ama mgaraden, ama msezwaren ama ala) n usismel n yirisen ; - Tault n validit, ta terza ammud n yirisen i ilan ittewlen i d-yettwasbadun deg llsas n tsensekka ; - Tigin n wassa gar llsas d tault, annect-a yeba ad dyini yessefk ad yili wassa gar yisfernen-nni akked d yirisen 1 1 .
1

D tasuqilt n : La typologie met en uvre :

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

S umata d wa i d adasil n tsensekkiwin yettwasnen. Hatenta s umata tsensekkiwin ief d-yettili wawal. 2.1. Tasensekka tarisant Tasensekka-ya tettwassen daen s yisem n tsensekka tamtawit (homogne) acku adasil n usismel-ines ibedd ef yiwet kan n tault n usismel. Asismel-a yettual er umahil n E. Werlich akked d umahil n J. M. Adam. Tasensekka-ya tettarra tamawt er uawas ne er tuddsa ief tbedd tira n uris akked d wayen i wimi semman imataren n tesnilest i yellan d ittewlen n yal tasekka. Amedya i nezmer ad d-nefk ef wannect-a d aseqdec n taliwin n umyag, asemres n yimqimen udmawanen, asemres n yisuras, atg. Tisekkiwin yettwasnen, yeqqnen er usismel-a d ti : ullis, aglam, imsegzi, afuklan, adiwenni, tamedyazt, aris n usfilet ne ukacef (irisen n ukacef ideg amaru yeqqar-d d acu ara yerun deg yimal : prdictifs. Maca deg tezi n umahil n J. M. Adam 2 yerzan tault-a n tesnilest n uris, yual yassader aswir n teslet er yiwen n

- Une base de typologisation : ensemble de critres explicites (homognes ou htrognes, hirarchiss ou non) de classement des textes ; - Un domaine de validit : cest--dire un corpus de textes qui possdent les caractristiques dfinies dans la base de typologisation ; - Une mise en rapport de la base et du domaine, cest--dire un certain nombre de principes dapplication mettant les critres en relation avec les textes
1 2

lanalyse textuelle, Lige, Mardaga.

K. Canvat, 1996, idem. J.M. Adam, 1990, Elmnts de linguistique textuelle. Thorie et pratique de

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

uric yellan ddaw n uris i wimi yefka isem tugzimt.Tugzimt d aric ne d amur deg uris. ef wannect-a yenna-d, s umata, yuqa akken ad naf aris ibedd anagar ef yiwet n tsekka acku deg uris nezmer ad naf dduklent-d tikwal aas n tsekkiwin. er J. M. Adam, yal aris deg-s aas n tugzimin, yal tugzimt d tasekka deg uris-nni. Ilmend n waya i d-teffe tmirant agetsekka : polytypologie i d-yeskanan deg uris ttilint aas n teskkiwin taddayin (prototype). Ma d ayen yerzan tugzimt, hatan tabadut i yas-dyefka Adam : D tayunt i ikecmen deg uris. Tayunt-a, nettat daen, tettwasuddes s tayunin1 timeqqranin i yettwasuddsen s waas yisumar 2 . S wakka tugzimt d allal s nezmer ad d-nesnekwu tayunin yemgaraden yettwasmersen deg yiwen n uris. 2.2. Tasensekka talemmast Fkan-as isem-a acku adasil (llsas) n tsensekka-ines ibedd ef waas n yisfernen n usismel. Asismel deg tsensekkaya ibedd ef : addad n yinan (mode nonciatif), iswi n teywalt akked waddad n ufares (conditions de production). Da ef

Sqedce awal tayunin s unamek macro-proposition, ma d awal isumar yaba ad d-yini micro-propositions. 2 J.M. Adam, 1990, op. cit., p. 85.
1

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

wannect-a ad naf ffent-d deg tasensekka-ya kra (03) n yisismlen yemgaraden. 2.2.1. Tasensekka ilmend n twuri Ta tbedd ef yimahilen n R. Jakobson, lada azenzi n teywalt i d-yesnekwa ideg llan sdis n yiferdisen : amazan, izen, anermas, tamselut (asatal) targa, tangalt. D azenzi-a i yellan d llsas i tsensekka-ya acku, ilmend n yal aferdis yellan deg-s, nezmer ad nessemgired gar yirisen yerna ad d-nessufe tawuri n yal yiwen. Yal tikelt ideg nra ad d-nesnekwu tawuri n uris ad nennadi deg-s anwa aferdis i wimi yefka azal ameqran umaru deg uris-is. Amedya ma yella aris yefka azal i tangalt (code), akka am deg yisegzawalen, deg tjerrumt, deg tbadut ; ad d-nini aris-a ila tawuri taeftutlayant acku yesseqdec tutlayt akken ad d-yemmeslay ef tutlayt. Ma yella deg uris awal iress ef umazan, ad d-nini tawuri n uris-a d tanfalant acku ad naf win i d-yettmeslayen yu-d awal ef tektiwin-is, ef yiulfan-is d wayen i t-iceben. Ihi, tasensekka-ya terra tamawt er sdis n twuriwin i nezmer ad naf deg uris. S umata, yal aferdis yellan deg uzenzi n teywalt, yesa tawuri : *er ismawen-nnien i twuriwin-a : tanermisant ilaq assa Amazan : tawuri tanfalant : (Fonction expressive, motive) ; Izen : tawuri tudyizt : (Fonction potique) ; Anermas ; tawuri tanaant : (Fonction impressive, conative) ; Tameselut : tawuri tamselant : (Fonction rfrentielle) ;

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

Targa : tawuri tanermisant : (Fonction phatique) ; Tangalt : tawuri taeftutlayant : (Fonction mtalinguistique). 2.2.2. Tasensekka n waddad n yinan Taggayt-a tis snat tu-d aar seg yimahilen n E. Benvesniste, lada Problmes de linguistique gnrale de 1966, i d-yewwin ef waddad n yinan (nonciation). E. Benveniste, yessemgared gar sin n wudmawen n usemres n tutlayt. Annect-a yessawe-it ad yebu gar wayen yellan d ullis akked wayen yellan d inaw. Deg tama, ma inan icudd er win i t-id ifarsen, yewwi-t-id ef ddemma-s, ne tban titlin-is deg-s, ad d-nini d inaw. Deg tama-nnien, ma yella beu gar yinan d win i t-id-ifarsen, s wawal-nnien ma yella amaru ur yekki ara deg wawal i d-yu ad d-nini d ullis. Deg waya ad negzu win i d-yettmeslayen, deg yinaw ad tili tihawt-is deg yinan ; ma deg wullis, ad yili d uffi i yinan-is. Deg snat n tegnatin-a llan yiferdisen i seqdacen yimdanen akken ad d- semgirden gar-asent. Iferdisen-a d : imqimen, imataren, taliwin n umyag, imataren n wakud d wadeg Tawuri n yineggura-ya d askan n wassa n umsiwel deg yinan-is d wamek tella tihawt-is daxel. Tasenkka-ya terra tamawt lada er yiferdisen i d-yeskanen asatal ne addad n yinan ideg yella : umsiwel, win ne wid i wimi yettmeslay, adeg akked wakud d wi i d iferdisen igejdanen ef tres tsensekka-ya.

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2.2.3. Tasensekka ilmend n wadeg (typologie situationnelle) Asismel-a yerza amahil n J-P. Bonckart d ugraw d wi yettmahal. Deg tazwara, deg tezrawin-nsen rran azal i waddad n yinan : adeg, akud, amsiwel, anermas (win d wi yettmeslay). Maca, segmi ddan deg umahil-nsen, rnan gren-d aferdis agejdan er tezrawin-nsen, wa d adeg imetti (lieu social) ideg terru termidt tutlayant. 2.2.4. Tasensekka timgerredt (htrogne) Tasensekka-ya tis kra terza asismel n yirisen ilmend n tewsit. Fkan-as isem n tsensekka timgerredt (htrogne) acku llsas n usismel-is ibedd ef waas n yisfernen. M. Bakhtine deg udlis-is Esthtique et thorie du roman yenna-d yettwali d akken yewwi-d ad kecmen iferdisen-nnien deg usismel n yirisen yeffen i tesnilest. S umata ibder-d : Adeg imetti d tsuddwin*, addad n ufares, iswi n teywalt, udem n waddad n yinan, tuddsa n uris, asentel-is 1 2 . Maca, send ad d-nemmeslay ef wawal amaynut i dyellan ef tewsit, ilaq ad ner tamirant-a n tewsit d tin i dyuen aar deg tsekla. Ssyin, taggara-ya kan i tettusemres deg taulin n tesnilest n uris iwakken ad d-temmel ifuras utlayanen (productions langagires) akken ma llan. Deg tsekla
Lancrage socio-institutionnel, la situation de production, lintention communicationnelle, le mode nonciatif, lorganisation formelle, le contenu thmatique. 2 K. Canvat, 1996, op. cit.
1

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tawsit tettbin-d amzun d tamudemt (d lqaleb) terza tault n tira n yidlisen n tsekla: tamedyazt, ungalen, amezgun Tawsit d tasekka timezgit i yeafaren wid yettaraun. Yal tira n tsekla teafar yiwet seg tewsatin yettwasnen. S umata, d Hegel i dibanen d amaru i d-yewwin awal ef unagraw n tewsit (systme gnrique). Hegel yemmeslay-d ef tilin n kra n tewsatin tigejdanin ief tbedd tsekla tansayt : lpope, posie lyrique et la posie dramatique. Maca, ma neffe i tault n tsekla, ad naf d ayen-nnien, ef wannect-a i d-yenna D. Maingueneau : Ticki annect-a ur yerzi ara ayen i d-yesnulfa umaru s

timad-is akka am ungal, akka am uneqqis n tannant, ne akka am uneqqis anaddal deg tiliri ne tamsirt deg tesdawit, atg., wi ur sin ara assa d wayen yellan yakan yettwassen (s wawalnnien ur telli ara tmudemt tban ara efren) ; ttbinen-d d tannumi, d tiwsatin timezgiyin er medden akk. Maca, d tiwsatin yezgan ttbeddilent, ttneflint 1 . 2
Tiwsatin am ti, i yellan d ifuras imettiyen ier d-yewwi ad tezzi ti tura acku simmal ntteddu keccmen-d annar n uselmed.
1 D. Maingueneau, 1998, Analyser les textes de communication, Nathan, Paris, p. 50. 2 Quand il sagit non duvres singulires mais de rapports de stage, de reportages sportifs tlviss, de cours duniversit, etc., il ny a pas de relation de filiation lgard duvres consacrs : ce sont des routines, (soulign par lauteur) des comportements strotyps et anonymes qui se sont stabiliss peu peu mais sont sujets variation continuelle.

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3. TAMIRANT N TEWSIT DEG TESNALMUDT Deg unnar n tesnalmudt n tutlayin, mi ara d-ttwabder tmirant n tewsit ur tt-ttwalin ara s unamek i tla deg tsekla. Hatan n umamek-is deg usegzawal Dictionnaire de didactique du franais langue trangre et langue seconde : Deg tsensekka n yirisen d yinawen, nezmer ad naf

amgired gar tsekkiwin am : ullis, afuklan, aglam, atg., akked tewsatin ; tid yeafaren tasuddut n tsekla am : tamacahut, tullizt, atg, ideg nezmer ad naf myekcamen uglam d wullis. Deg tsuddwin-nnien, amedya taamsa ad naf ttwasmersent tewsatin-nnien. Ihi, tisekkiwin d timadwanin, ur ttbiddilent ara ne rekdent (stabes) deg wakud. Ma d tiwsatin d tid yettbeddilen ilmend n wakud, n yidelsan akka am tewsatin n tsekla d tid n uerbaz 1 2 .
ef wannect-a deg tault n uselmed tamirant n tewsit terza yal afares utlayan yettwseqdacen deg teywalt, ama d ayen

Tasuqqilt n : Dans la typologie des textes et discours, on peut ainsi distinguer des types comme narratif, le descriptif, largumentatif, etc., et des genres, caractristiques de linstitution littraire comme le conte, la nouvelle, etc., qui mlent moments descriptifs et moments narratifs. Dautres institutions, comme la presse par exemple utiliseront un moment donn un autre ventail de genres. Alors que les types abstraits seraient a priori stables diachroniquement et synchroniquement, les genres varieraient dune manire trs sensible en fonction des poques et des cultures comme le montrent les genres littraires ou scolaires. 2 J.P. Cuq, (dir.), 1990, Dictionnaire de didactique du franais langue trangre et seconde, CLE International, Paris.
1

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yellan s tira, ama d ayen yellan d timawt. Ilmend n waya B. Schneuwly yura : Yal aris yettlal-d seg usatal imetti. Yal win ara d-

yarun aris ila iswi (asenfali ef yiulfan, asedhu n yimsefliden, tazrirt n umserti ne asegzi n kra n tawsa), yesa win i wimi yettmeslay iban, deg kra wadeg imetti (d anelmad ad yaru i uselway n tiwant, d amezda ad yaru i yimezdannien deg umis, d amaru amanun i yinelmaden n tnerit, atg.). Yal asatal yessawal (ne yesra) i tala n uris i t-yenan. Tala-ya n uris tettili d allal n taywalt ara yessiwen er yiswi d wayen ttrajun yimsula. D tala-ya i wimi semma tawsit
12.

S yifuras-a utlayanen yettilin deg tmetti deg tudert n yal ass, s nezmer ad d-nefk anamek i uris am wakken d tawsit timettit. Akeccum n tmirant n tewsit er unnar n tesnalmedt, ef wakken yettwali K. Canvat3 , yeqqen er umusnaw M.
Tout texte rsulte dun contexte social. Cest--dire qu travers son texte, le scripteur vise un certain but (exprimer ses sentiments, divertir un public, convaincre un politicien ou encore expliquer un processus complexe), sadresse en tant qunonciateur dun certain type un certain destinataire dans un lieu social donn (en tant qulve au maire, en tant que citoyen travers le quotidien local aux concitoyens, en tant quapprenti-crivain aux lves dune classe, etc.). A chaque contexte correspond typiquement une forme textuelle - qui est loutil communicatif le plus performant pour atteindre le but tant donn les usages et les attentes des destinataires. Jappellerai cette forme un genre . 2 B. Scheuwly, 1993, Enseigner crire des textes, dans A. Bentolila (dir.) Les entretiens Nathan. Parole, crit, image. Nathan, Paris, pp. 14 -152.
1 3

K. Canvat, 2003, Lcriture et son apprentissage : une question de genres ? Etat des lieux et perspectives, dans Pratiques, n 117/118, pp. 171 - 179.

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Bakhtine, i yewten akken ad tili tezrawt n wayen i wimi yessemma (iricen imeqranen n tmenna : les grandes messes verbales). Yenna-d daen K. Canvat seg yimahilen n M. Bakhtine i yellan d llsas akken ad nissin ittewlen n tewsatin n yirisen. 3.1. D acu-tt tewsit ? S umata hatnan yittewlen n tewsit i d-yesbedd K. Canvat seg yimahilen n M. Bakhtine. - Tiwsatin bant d lesnaf war tilas. - Tiwsatin d taliwin timezgiyin n yinaw yettwasnen. Tineggura-ya d timudmawin i neafar deg tmeslayt n yal ass, maca ttaant tagnit akken yal amsiwel ad tent-yesseqdec ilmend-is. (Rendent possibles les variations singulires). - Tiwsatin sant tazrirt ef yal aswir deg uris, ama d taessa-s ama d tuddsa-s tagensant. (Strucure et texture). Imenzayen-a d iferdisen igejdanen ef tres tmirant n tewsit. D nutni ara yilin d allal s ara d-nessegzi tamirant-a. Ihi, nezmer ad d-nini tiwsatin s umata : - Mgaradent seg yidles er waye, seg tmetti er taye ; - Ttwagzant anagar ilmend n wadeg akked wakud ideg d-ffent ; - D tismilin i yettwaseqdacen s wudem usrid (spontane), war ussis n walla, acku kecment deg tnummi n umeslay n yal ass.

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

S wakka sawen yimusnawen deg tault n tussniwin n tmeslayt (sciences du langage), ad d-inin d akken anamek n tmirant n tewsit yugar anamek i tla deg tsekla imi tawsit, terza akk tiwsatin n yinaw. K. Canvat, deg umagrad i d-nebder yakan, yual er yimahilen n ugraw n Genve lada ayen gan B. Schneuwly et J. Dolz yesken-d d akken tawsit tbedd ef kra n tzemmar (capacits) : - Tazmert n usastel 1 , amsiwel yessefk ad yezmer ad yessemtawi (adapter) gar yinan-is akked usatal imetti ideg t-idyenna ; - Tazmert n usuddes ne n usile (structuration) n yinaw, amsiwel yessefk ad yezmer ad yesseqdec timudmawin iwatan yal tagnit n yinan ; - Tazmert n tira n uris (textuallisation : aseres ?*), annect-a yerza tamusni n tutlayt, amsiwel yewwi-d ad yezmer ad d-yefren tayunin tisnilsanin akken ad d-yaru aris d amaynut. 3.2. Tawsit deg uselmed Gar yiseqsiyen igejdanen er tezzi ti deg tesnalmudt, ad naf aseqsi-ya : amek ara nesselmed ? D acu ara nesselmed ? Ma amezwaru, akken nera, d win yeqqnen er tarrayin n uselmed, wis sin yerza agbur ara yesselmed uselmad deg
1 - Asastel : awal-a yekka-d seg wawal asatal : contexte i wim rni amatar S n uswa + tala n yisem s uzwir A. Sqedece-t s unamek contextualisation.

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

tnerit. Deg wayen yerzan aselmed n tutlayt, iseggasen-a ineggura imnuda ttwalin tualin ne asekcem n tewsit er uerbaz, i wakken ad tili d allal n ulmad n tutlayt tla tixutert d tameqqrant acku tiwsatin tinmettiyin (genres sociaux) d tid ara yeen anelmad ad yessiwe ad yesu tizemmar tutlayanin iwatan. Aselmad yezmer ad tent-yessemres, ad tent-yesselmed akken ad d-isuddes yes-sent tugzimin ne isenfaren deg tnerit. Tin ur-s, akken ran akk medden, yella wassa gar wayen i wimi tesra tmetti akked d wayen yettwaselmaden deg uerbaz. Deg wassa-a ad negzu taneflit n tmetti deg tallit er taye yeslalay-d lew amaynut d yiswan imaynuten deg wayen yerzan asegmi s umata, d wayen yerzan tasnalmedt s wudem usdis. Ihi, d assa-a gar unefli n tmetti d wayen tettraju tmetti-ya deg uerbaz i yean simmal tettnefli tudert ttilint-d tmuliwin d teriyin timaynutin i yessemhazen tasnalmudt. Da taggara-ya, ilmend n unefli ef d-nemmeslay, deg tault n uselmed n tutlayin lulen-d inezgumen-nnien ne iberdan-nnien deg unadi, amedya : - Tura tual tigawt n uselmed tettarra tamawt tameqqrant er unelmad imi yessefk ef uselmad ad ier d acu i wimi yesra unelmad ad t-yelmed, akken ad d-yesbedd ahil ne ad yessewjed agbur ara yeser ;

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

- Aselmed n tutlayt akken i tettwasemres deg tmetti. ef wannect-a i yual wazal deg uselmed er tirmad n tira akked tirmad n tmenna ; - Asekcem n yirisen inmettiyen, (sociaux) n timawit d wid yuran, er uerbaz ; - Lebi akken ad yili umtawi ne umqarab gar yirisen iurbizen d wid yettilin deg tmetti. - Asekcem er uerbaz n tewsatin n yirisen yettwaseqdacen deg tmetti, smenyifen-tent ef tsekkiwin n yirisen i d-yettbanen d tirayanin 1 . Tanila-ya tamaynut n unadi i d-yetilin deg tsenalmudt akked yisental imaynuten, deg tama-nsen, slulen iseqsiyen-a : - Aniti tiwsatin i d-yewwi ad ttwaslemdent ? Ma nezmer ad nesselmed tiwsatin tinmettiyin akken ma llant ? - D acu ara nesseer deg tewsatin ? - Amek ara d-nesbedd tarrayin s ara nesselmed tiwsatin-a ? Deg tmazit, tiririt ef yiseqsiyen-a ad a-tessiwe ad ner amek ara tt-nesselmed, d acu ara nesselmed deg-s. Acku iwakken tutlayt ad tual d tin ara yettwalmaden ilaq ad tbedd ef ku n tzemmar tutlayanin tigejdanin : snat rzant tault n timawt : tigzi n wayen yella d imaw akked ufares s timawt ; snat rzant tault n tira : tigzi n wayen yellan yura akked ufares

ef tektiwin-a, er : Z. Meksem, 2007, Pour une sociodidactique de la langue amazighe : approche textuelle, thse de doctorat, Universit Grenoble 3,
1

p. 128/129.

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

s tira. S wudem-nnien tizemmar-a sawaent anelmad akken ad yegzu ayen yellan d timenna d wayen yuran, deg tama ; sawaent-t daen, deg tama-nnien, ad d-ifares s wawal akked tira. Ihi, ku n tzemmar-a yessefk ad d-awint anelmad ad yezmer ad yessemres tutlayt deg yal tagnit ama deg uerbaz, ama deg tudert n yal ass. S wakka ad negzu tiwsatin n yirisen ttilint d timudmawin (leqwaleb) s nezmer ad nemsel s tefses tutlayt, yerna ad nessiwe ad tt- negzu, ad d-nfares yes-s. ef wannect-a i d-yenna Y. Reuter ef yimi n Bakhtine : Almad n umsal 1 n tmeslayt yettili-d s tewsatin. Yal

tikelt ara nsel i umdan yettmeslay, nettulfu deg tazwara yakan anta tawsit ideg yella, nettaki-d i tezi n wawal-is akked tuddsa-s. Nezmer ula ad nulfu i taggara n tmesalyt-is, acku deg tazwara i nettaki i tala n yinaw deg udem-is amatu 2 3 .
Hatan, deg tneggarut, acuer aselmed n tutlayin i yerra tamawt er uselmed n tewsatin.

1 2

et, entendant la parole dautrui, nous savons demble, aux tout premiers mots, en pressentir le genre, en deviner le volume, la structure compositionnelle donne, en prvoir la fin, autrement dit, ds le dbut nous sommes sensibles au tout discursif .
3

Amsal : sqedce-t s unamek n tikci n tala i tawsa. Tasuqqilt n Nous apprenons mouler notre parole dans les formes du genre

Bakhtine M., cit par Y. Reuter, ????????

37

Ixef wis 2

Taslet n yirisen ilmend n tsekka

Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

TAZWART Aselmed n tutlayt yefka daen azal i tsekkiwin n yirisen. Tamirant-a akken i tt-nesbada iwsawen (er 2.1. tasensekka tarisant) ula d nettat tla azal deg uselmed acku tettili d tamudemt s yezmer unelmad ad yegzu aris, am wakken ara yissin amek ara t-d-ifares. Deg teslet n tsekka n uris nettakk azal lada i tessa-ines akked yiferdisen utlayanen i yettwasqedecen deg-s. Sin n yiferdisen-a i s nezmer ad d-nesnekwu yal tasekka iman-is. Deg umahil-a ad nere ad nessukk ti ef 6 n tsekkiwin n tmazit akken ad ner aniwi i d ittewlen n yal yiwet. S yin akin, ad yili d talalt i uselmad d unelmad akken ad walin d acu i ilaqen deg tira n yal aris.

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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

1. TASEKKA N WULLIS D aris ideg amaru yettales-d (iekku, yettawi-d) ayen yeran ne ayen yellan d asugnan. Yessemlili-d aas n tigawin yerzan kra n tedyant tera ne d tasugnant, ierrun deg wakud. Ullis yerza akk ayen i d-ttalsen yimdanen. as ulama yella wayen yellan d asugnan akka am ungal, tamacahut, tullizt ; yettili daen wayen yellan d tilawt akka am tadyant yeran, tudert n umaru. 1.1. Taessa n wullis S umata, akken t-id-snekwan yimnuda n tsekla, ullis ibedd ef semmus n waddaden. D nutni i d-yemmalen tuddsa ne taessa ief ibedd wullis. S wawal-nnien, mi ara d-yawi umdan tamacahut ne ad yales i kra n tedyant d addaden-a ara yefer akken ad d-yebdu seg tazwara alma d taggara n wullis. Asnekwu n tessa n wullis yettili d tagnit akken ad tifsus tegzis akked tira-s. Hatenta semmus n tegnatin ief yebna wullis 1. Addad n talwit, d tagnit tamezwarut; 2. Aferdis n urway ; 3. Tigawin ;
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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

4. Tifrat n ugur ; 5. Addad n taggra.n tegnatin. Nezmer daen ad nwali tuddsa-ya ilmend n kra n waddaden igejdanen : Addad amezwaru ; Addad n tigawin ; Addad n taggara. Deg wayen i d-iteddun ad nere ad d-nesnenkwu azenzi-a : 1.1.1. Addad amezwaru D tazwara n wullis, qqren-as addad n talwit acku kra ur yeri. Deg waddad-a yettil uglam ne usissen n wudmawen, n wadeg akked wakud. S umata d tagnit n talwit yersen, kra ur yeri deg-s. Akken ad bdunt tigawin, yessefk ad ad yennulfu uferdis d amaynut, ara d-yeslalen uguren. 1.1.2. Addad n tigawin Deg waddad-a ad naf : - Aferdis n urway D ayen ara d-ikecmen er tegnit, ad d-yennulfu ; ad dyas ad ibeddel udem i tegnit-nni n talwit n tazwara, s wawalnnien ad yeslu tagnit. - Tigawin Segmi ara yerwi wudem n talwit-ni n tazwara ne segmi ara d d-yennulfu umaynut, ad yebdu erru n tigawin.
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Iswi-nsent d asisi n talwit-nni jennejlan ne d tulin er tegnitnni tamezwarut yersen. - Tifrat n ugur Deg-s ad kfunt tigawin. Deg-s ad yili uferdis-nnien d amaynut ara d-yefken tagnit-nnien n talwit, da ad yefru wugur. 1.1.3. Addad n taggara Taggara n wullis ne taggara n tesri tezmer ad tili s wudem yelhan ne s wudem n dir. Deg-s, tagnit ad d-tual tres, ad tfak tesri, ad fakent tigawin. 1.2. Azenzi n wudmawen Azenzi-a yeskan-d udmawen yettilin deg tedyant Imnuda i wimi semman les fromalistes ruses i d imezwura i ieren ad d-sbedden udmawen ilan tawuri deg wullis, fkanasen isem les forces agissantes, les actants, ialen i isedduyen ullis. Azenzi-a ires ef kra n tyugwin : asa/ (iswi) objet, amazan/anermas, amalal/amnamer. Ad naf ihi : Seddis n wudmawen i yettikkin deg wullis. Seddis-a n

wudmawen ttemlilin sin sin ilmend n twuri-nsen. Sin yesdukel-iten wassa n lebi ban ad awen er kra, asa yettnadi taawsa ne yeba ad yawe er yiswi. Sin-nnien, yesdukel-iten wassa n tezmert, amalal yeggar afus n talalt, amnamer ireggel-d abrid i wasa. Ma d sin ineggura, amazan d unermas yesdukel-iten wassa tmusni/taywalt acku d nutni i
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d-yemmalen d acu ara yexdem wasa, d nutni daen ara dyefken tamuli ef tigawt n wasa telha ne xai 1.2
- Asa : d win ief beddent tigawin n wullis. S wawalnnien d udem agejdan. - Iswi : d ayen i isedduyen asa, d ayen ier ira ad yawe. Yezmer ad yili d yal taawsa ef yettnadi wasa : d amdan ad t-id-yefdu, d ttar ad t-yerr, d tayri n tmeut, d agerruj, d nnif, d tilelli, atg. Amazan : d udem i yettnadin ad yawe er yiswi. D win ara yaznen asa ad yeg tigawin ilaqen iwakken ad d-yawe er yiswi. Tikwal ur nezmir ara ad nebu ne ad nessemgired gar-asen acku asa yezmer ad yesu snat n twuriwin, yettili d udem agejdan d amazan deg yiwet n tegnit. - Anermas : d udem ier ara tual tigawt ne d win ara yesfaydin seg tigawt n wasa. - Amalal : d udem ara yefken afus n talalt i wasa.

REUTER, Y., 2005, Lanalyse du rcit, Paris, Armand Colin, p.31. Ces six catgories se reproupaient deux par deux selon des axes fondamentaux pour dfinir les conduites humaines. Sur le premier axe -celui du dsir, du vouloir- le sujet chercherait sopproprier lobjet. Sur le second axe -celui du pouvoir- ladjuvant et lopposant aident ou sopposent la ralisation de la qute. Sur le troisime axe -celui du savoir et de la communication- le destinateur et le destinataire, dterminent laction du sujet en le chargeant de la qute et en dsignant les objets de valeur. Ils sanctionnent cette action en reconnaissant son rsultat et le sujet qui la accompli.
1 2

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- Amnamer : d win ara d-yeffen mgal asa, da ad asyili d ugur. Tamawt : Tikwal kra n wudmawen zemren ad ilin d tiawsiwin tikmamin : adrar, ier, times, adfel ne d tiawsiwin tudmawanin : tismin, tayri, ttar, ddel 1.3. Allalen n tutlayt Allalen n tutlayt rzan iferdisen n tjerrumt i yettilin d imezgiyen deg yal tasekka n uris. Ad negzu deg waya d akken deg tira n uris, ttilin kra n yiferdisen n tjerrumt zgan ttwseqdacen ilmend n tsekka n uris-nni. Ilmend n wannect-a i yasen-semman iferdisen imezgiyen. Wi rzan s umata : taliwin n umyag, imqimen, isuraz.1 Akken nezmer daen ad naf asemres n yiferdisen n tesnukyist. Amedya deg wullis, deg wayen i d-icudden er taliwin n umyag, ad naf, s tuget, ttwasemrasent taliwin-a : izri, urmir ussid. Deg wayen yerzan imqimen akked yimataren, ad naf : udem wis kra. Ma d isuraz ttilin wid i d-yesnekwayen akud n erru n tigawin. S umata, d nutni i d-yemmalen amek i yettili umyezwer gar tigawin, seg tmezwarut ar tneggarut. Yewwi-d ad nerr tamawt

er amahil : Z. Meksem, 1999, taywalt ef wullis, ??????. Deg wayen yerzan isuraz, er amahil : Z. Meksem, 2008, Isuraz n usdakel d tnemla n tmazit : agmar d teslet, HCA, Alger.
1

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deg wullis ugten s waas, yal aris aniwi i yellan deg-s. Maca, ad ten-naf ban ef sin n wudmawen : - Wid i d-yeskanen ayen ierrun ilmend n wayen yellan deg yimir n yinan ; qqnen er umatar n wakud : ass-a, imir-a, tura Mmalen kra n tegnatin : wid i d-yemmalen tigawin yeran deg yizri, wid i d-yemmalen tigawin ierrun imir-nni akked wid i d-yemmalen ayen ara yerun deg yimal ; - Wid i d-yemmalen ayen yeran, yekfan. Wi cudden er umatar n wakud i nezmer ad naf deg wullis-nni. Ban daen ef kra n tegnatin : wid i d-yeskanen tigawin yezrin, tid ierrun, tid ara yerun er zdat ilmend n umatar n wakud d tid ierrun deg yimir n umatar. Amedya, ma yebda-d umdan ullis akka : yiwen n wass : akud-a (yiwen n wass) ad yili d amatar ier qqnent akk tigawin n wullis acku ayen-nnien nettmuqul-it ilmend-is. Tigawin yezrin nesseqdac isuraz-a : zgelli, ielli-nni, ilindi-nni, aseggas uqbel Ma d tigawin i yeran seld amatar yiwen n wass nesseqdac isuraz-a : azekka-nni, qabel-nni, kra n yiseggasen akken S umata yal ullis aniwi isuraz ef yebna. 1.4. Amedya ef wullis Aris : Tukksa n sser Qbel nfaq 1 aneggaru, yella yiwen n uxxam d ameqqran
1 Nfaq : d tanekra n ugdud mgal amnekcem am tnekkra n Ccix Aeddad deg useggas 1871.

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n ccurafa deg mrawa i wimi qqaren axxam n Sidi Crif Ajennad. Deg lweqt-nni, la s tjadit-is, la s leqraya-s, ulac wi mechuren am Sidi Crif deg Leqbayel. Yella d netta i d aqerru deg lerc. ur-s yiwen n wakli i d-irebba am mmi-s, ef ur ieeb ara. Sidi Crif, ttkabaren akk medden, yella yesa sin n warraw d teqcict. Asmi meqqrit, taqcict tewwe d tameut, tekker teceq deg wakli n baba-s armi teli yid-s. Kra akka, iban-d fell-as uebbu. Ma yella d akli-nni yefhem tin yexdem, yerwel deg yi, ur yeri edd anta tamurt i t-yean. Akken yesla Sidi Crif s lmusiba i d-yelin fell-as, iceyye er lerc ad yennejma akken yella er temelt. Iru netta d mmi-s er tmeqbert, yeza aekka. Yiwen ur yefhim i wimi. Lweqt deg i d-leqen akk medden, yewwi-d yelli-s gar lerc akk, armi d aekka. Iedda yezla-tt netta s ufus-is. Yekker netta d mmi-s melentt. Imdanen akk ad yili akter n walef, ttmuqqulen wehmen deg lejeb yeran. Lweqt deg yeffe lexber, fehmen yimdanen ssebba n wannect-a, ualen ameyan, ameqqran ttcekkiren deg-s ; yalmi yual, ef tin yexdem, ef nnif, ttawin-t-id d lemtel ; win yekkren ar waye yini-yas : D anifi am Sidi Crif.
Abalu : M. S. Boulifa, 1913, Mthode de langue kabyle-Cours de deuxime anne, Ed A. Jourdan, Alger, isebtar 13 d 14.

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1.4.1. Taslet n tuddsa Deg wayen i d-iteddun ad neg taslet i uris-a akken ad ner amek i yeba wullis. Beu-ya yeskan-d ayen iwimi qqaren azenzi n wullis ne tuddsa n wullis yeban ef kra n waddaden. - Addad amezwaru S umata yettili d aglam n wayen i d-yezzin i tigawin. Deg-s yettili usissen n wudmawen, n wadeg akked wakud. D addad-a ara d-yefken i yimeri iferdisen s ara yegzu ullis. Deg uris-a yellan d amedya, ad naf addad amezwaru yebda seg : Qbel nfaq 1 aneggaru alma d : yella yesa sin n warraw d teqcict. Am wakken nera, amaru deg uric-a n uris yessassen-d : - Udmawen : Sidi Crif Ajennad, sin n warraw d teqcict, akli ; - Adeg : mrawa (deg tmurt n Leqbayel). - Akud : Qbel nfaq aneggaru. - Addad wis sin D aric agejdan deg yal ullis ; deg-s i errunt tigawin. ef waya i yas-semman aric n tigawin. Ad t-naf yeba ef kra n tegnatin ne llan deg-s kra n yiferdisen :

1 Nfaq : d tanekra n ugdud mgal amnekcem am tnekkra n Ccix Aeddad deg useggas 1871.

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- Aferdis n urway : nezmer ad t-naf daen s yisem aferdis n ubeddel. Yettban-d mi ara ibeddel wudem n tegnit tamezwarut, ad tual ad tenwawel cwi talwit-nni. Deg wullisa, yebda mi meqqrit warraw n Sidi Crif, yelli-s : Tekker teceq deg wakli n baba-s armi teli yid-s. Kra akka, iban-d fell-as uebbu. Ma yella d akli-nni yefhem tin yexdem, yerwel. D ta i d tadyant i yerwin tagnit yersen n wullis. Ayen ara yerun er zdat icudd ur-s. - Tigawin : segmi tenwawel tegnit n tazwara d ayen tlu, udem agejdan yewwi-d ad yeg kra akken ad tifrir tegnit yerna ad d-tual talwit-nni yennejlan. Da lulent-d aas n tigawin ara yessiwen er yiswi-ya. Hatenta tigawin tigejdanin : - Akli yefhem tin yexdem, yerwel Akken yesla Sidi Crif iceyye er lerc Iru netta d mmi-s er tmeqbert, yeza aekka yewwi-d yelli-s Iedda yezla-tt Yekker netta d mmi-s melen-tt. Imdanen ttmuqqulen wehmen - Tifrat n ugur : s tifrat-a ara kfunt tigawin, ad tefru tmukrist n wullis. Deg wullis-a, taggara n tigawin tettbin-d mi ara yessired Crif Ajennad nnif-is ad gzun yimdanen d acu i yexdem.

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- Addad n taggara Taggara n wullis-a tettbin-d deg ferru n tedyant, mi medden ran d acu yexdem Crif Ajennad yerna sbedden-t d azamul n lerma yalmi d-yea awal deg tmetti. 1.4.2. Azenzi n wudmawen Tazrawt n uzenzi n wudmawen teskan-d ialen (forces) ilan tawuri deg wullis. Deg uris-a udmawen yekkin deg tigawin d wi : - Asa : Sid Crif Ajennad ; - Iswi : tarda n nnif-is ; - Amazan : d netta yakan Crif Ajennad ; - Anermas : netta akked uxxam-is i wimi yessefk ad as-d-yerr isse; - Amallal : mmi-s - Amnamar : deg erru n tigawin Sidi Crif Ajennad ur dyemlal ara imnamren, maca ayen i yas-d-yeslulen uguren d yelli-s akked wakli-is. 1.4.3. Allalen n tutlayt Yerza asnekwu n yiferdisen n tjerrumt imezgiyen deg wulli-s. 1.4.3.1. Taliwin n umyag Akken nera deg wullis yettili usuget n taliwin-a : izri, urmir ussid. Hatenta tigawin tigejdanin yeftin er yizri :

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Yella qqaren Yella i d-irebba yella yesa tewwe tekker teceq teli yid-s... iban-d yefhem tin yexdem, yerwel yesla iceyye... Iru yeza aekka yewwi-d... Iedda yezla-tt... Yekker melen-tt. Tuget deg tigawin-a mmalent-d ayen yezrin ; tuget degsent ad tent-naf deg waddad wis sin n wullis. Tigawin-a ttbintd myezwarent ta deffir ta, yerna wezzil erru-nsent deg wakud. - Tid yeftin er wurmir ussid : Ur ieeb ara Ttkabaren ttmuqqulen... ttcekkiren Ttawin Tigawin-a ftint er wurmir ussid, tala-ya tettwasemres akken ad d-temmel tigawin ezzifen, yefen aas n wakud deg erru-nsent. Ma nmuqel-itent ad naf ku seg-sent kkant aas deg walud, yeni d iseggasen, akka am : ur ieeb ara, Ttkabaren, ttcekkiren, Ttawin. Anagar yiwet seg-sent i d tameyant deg erru-ines, tekka kra n teswit kan, ma nesserwes-itt d tid-nnien : ttmuqqulen. 1.4.3.2. Udmawen n tjerrumt Deg uric-a ad ner aniwi udmawen n tjerrumt i yugten deg wullis. Ad d-nesmekti taslet i nga yakan ef usentel-a, nufa-d tuget n wudmawen i d-yettualen deg wullis n tmazit d wid n wudem wis kra, maca tikwal ttwasemrasen

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wudmawen-a : XXXX 1 . Yewwi-d ad negzu udmawen-a zemren ad ilin d imqimen, d imataren ne d iwsilen i dyemmalen win terza tigawt. Deg wayen yerzan aris-a haten udmawen yettwasqedcen : - Udem wis kra asuf wid yerzan Crif Ajennad : la tjadit-is, la s leqraya-s,... Yella d netta... ur-s am mmi-s, ef ur iejjeb ara yella yesa Akken yesla Sidi Crif fell-as, iceyye Iru netta d mmi-s, yeza yewwi-d yelli-s. Iedda yezla-tt netta s ufus-is. Yekker netta d mmi-s melen-tt ttcekkiren deg-s ; yalmi yual yexdem ttawin-t-id Wid yerzan akli-s : ef ur iejjeb ara teli yid-s akli-nni yefhem tin yexdem, yerwel ur yeri edd anta tamurt i t-yean. Wid yerzan yelli-s : taqcict tewwe tekker teceq n baba-s armi teli yid-s / iban-d fell-as uebbu Iedda yezla-tt melen-tt - Udem wis kra asget - Wid yerzan imdanen i d-yusan er tmeqbert : d-leqen akk medden, imdanen ttmuqqulen wehmen fehmen - Wid yerzan imdanen s umata : i wimi qqaren axxam n Sidi Crif Ajennad ualen ttcekkiren deg-s ; ttawin-t-id

Tazrawt n lmajister akked d umagrad n temlilit.

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Tamawt : Asnekwu n wudmawen yettilin deg uris yerza akk iferdisen i d-yemmalen udem ne taawsa i d-yettwabedren yakan deg uris. Akken amaru ur d-yettales ara anagar i yiwen n yisem n wudem ne n tawsa yessemras tikkesrert. Tikkesrert-a tettili s sin n yiberdan : - Yezmer umaru, deg tama, ad yesseqdec tikkesrert n umawal ; da ad yessexdem awal deg umiq n wawal-nnien. Amedya amaru yezmer deg wadeg n Sidi Crif Ajennad ad yesseqdec awalen-nnien ; amar, amar n taddart, aqerruy n Lerc, anifi, - Yezmer, deg tama-nnien, ad yesseqdec tikkesrert n tjerrumt ; da deg wadeg n wawal ad yessemres iferdisennnien n tjerrumt, s umata wiyi ttilin d udmawen : imqimen, imataren, iwsilen, imassaen. Amedya deg uris, ad naf : - Imqimen : netta ; - Imataren : yesla, teli, ualen, - Iwsilen n yisem ne n umyag n tenzet: yelli-s, afusis, i t-yean, melen-tt, ttawin-t, deg-s, fell-as - Imasaen : iwimi qqaren. 1.4.3.3. Isuraz D awalen i yettgen assa gar tefyar d tsedarin deg uris. Yes-sen i yezmer yimeri ad yegzu akken iwata aris. Deg wullis tuget n yisuraz d wid n wakud i yettwaseqdacen. Deg uris-a, ad naf :

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Qbel nfaq1 aneggaru Deg lweqt-nni... Asmi meqqrit Kra Akken Lweqt deg Lweqt deg
Deg tneggarut d annect-a s umata ef ibedd wullis, d wi i d iferdisen ier ttarrant tamawt deg tselet n tsekka n uris-a.

2. TASEKKA N YIMSEGZI 2 Aris imsegzi d aris i d-yessegzayen kra n tawsa. Deg yal tault, win ara terr tegnit ad d-yessegzi yalmi ila tamussni yugaren win i wimi yettmeslay. Aneggaru-ya d amdan yessuturen ad yissin ne ad yegzu kra n tedyant, n tawsa ne n tumant. Ihi, ad t-naf d aris i yekkaten amek ara isemmed tamussni n umdan. Aris imsegzi yerza yal tault. Nezmer ad t-naf deg tudert n yal ass mi ara ttmeslayen yimdanen; nemzer daen ad yerzu taulin timadwanin n tfelseft ; maca nettaf-it s tuget deg taulin n tussna akken ma llant. S umata aris-a d win s ara d-yebnu umdan tamussni tamaynut ne d win s ara isemmed tamussni-s yerna ad tt-idye i wiyi.

Nfaq : d tanekra n ugdud mgal amnekcem am tnekkra n Ccix Aeddad deg useggas 1871. 2 Z. Meksem, 2004, Aris imsegzi, deg Tannant n usile n tmazit / Lexplicatif Actes du Stage de perfectionnement des enseignants de la langue amazighe . Zeralda, les 30 et 31 mars 2004, Publication de HCA, Alger. - M. Fedila Le texte explicatif de la langue amazighe , Mmoire de licence, soutenu en juin 2003, universite de Bjaia. - Z. Meksem, 2007, Pour une sociodidactique de la langue amazighe : approche textuelle, Thse de Doctorat, Laboratoire LIDILEM-Grenoble 3.
1

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Deg tuget n tegnatin aris imsegzi yettili d tiririt ef yisastan-a : - Acuer ? - Amek ? 2.1. Tuddsa n yimsegzi Tuddsa ne tamsukt n uris imsegzi tbedd ef kra n yiricen. - Aric amezwaru : d aric n usastan, n ugnu (Problmatisation). S umata, aric-a yettili deg tazwara n uris. Deg-s i d-yessissin umaru asentel n uris, ssyin akin ad d-yefk aseqsi ief ara d-yerr. Yezmer daen ad t-id-yefk srid deg uzwel. Maca llant tikwal yettili d uffir, s leqraya n uris ara yegzu yimeri agnu-ines. - Aric wis sin : deg uric-a i tettili tririt ef useqsi n tazwara. Deg-s i d-yessegzay umaru ayen yerzan asentel-nni. - Aric wis kra : d aric n tsemlilt, deg-s ara d-yesmekti umaru ayen i d-yessegza. Tamawt : Maca, mai anagar tuddsa-ya ief ibedd uris imsegzi. Llan yirisen i iefren tala-nnien, am wakken i d-yenna D. Coltier :

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Kra n yiricen ur d-ttbinen ara yal tikelt s

umyezwer-a, yerna mai yal tikelt yewwi-d ad yili useqsi deg uric amezwaru. Tin ur-s, ma ulac, llan sin n wudmawen s zemren ad myezwaren yiricen n usegzi. Seg tama, nezmer ad d-nebdu s useqsi imir ad d-tefer tririt ne ad d-nefk srid tiririt ssyin akin ad d-nessegzi 1 2 .
- Tikwal aric-a aneggaru ur yettili ara. Kra n yimnuda ttwalin yezmer ad yili akken yezmer ur yettili ara. Ma yella, yettbin-d s sin n wudmawen : - D awal aneggaru ef usentel-nni ; amedya, ma yessegza-d amek i d-yekkat ugeffur, amaru yezmer ad d-yini : hata ihi amek i d-ielli ugeffur - D ameslay ef tawsa-nnien yerzan asentel-nni, amedya, yezmer ad d-yini: ageffur d ayen ilan azal deg tudert n umdan.

Coltier D, 1986, Approches du texte explicatif, dans la revue Pratiques, n 51, pp. 3 22. 2 Bien entendu, ces trois moments du texte explicatif napparaissent pas ncessairement, ni dans cet ordre, et la phase de questionnement ne contient pas obligatoirement une interrogative indirecte. Pour ce qui est de lordre, il existe deux faons au moins denchaner les diffrents lments qui composent le texte explicatif: on peut, soit aller de la question la solution, soit donner la solution ds le dbut et enchaner par un nonc qui justifie la solution.
1

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2.2. Allalen n tutlayt Anadi ef wallalen n tutlayt yerza anadi ef yiferdisen n tjerrumt imzegiyen deg yal tasekka. Deg yimsegzi wid i dyettwaseqdacen s waas d wid i izemren ad fken i uris udem amesaran. ef wannect-a, deg tira-nsen, yewwi-d ef win ara yarun, ad yere amek ara t-yebrez seg wayen akk yesan assa d yiulfan-is d tmuliwin-is. Swakka ara d-ibin d amesaran. D acu ihi i d allalen-a ? 2.2.1. Isuraz Deg wayen yerzan isuraz, deg uris imsegzi ttuwaseqdacen s tuget isuraz n tmela, d wi i d-yesskanen assa gar tektiwin akked d ubrid i yewwi umaru deg usegzi-s. Haten yisuraz yettilin deg yimsegzi. - Wid n usmiwer ne n ubdar, d isuraz i d-yeskanen amyezwer yellan gar tektiwin n umaru, amedya : amezwaru, wis sin..., deg tazwara, tin ur-s..., deg tama, deg tamannien... - Wid n tguri (n usekcem) n yimedyaten : d awalen i yettwaseqdacen akken amaru ad d-yessekcem amedya deg uris-is, amedya : nezmer ad d-nefk amedya amedya, ef umedya, akka am... - Wid n ulsegzi : d awalen ne d tinfaliyin s nezmer ad d-nger asegzi s wudem-nnien i kra n tikti ne n wawal i d58

Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

yettbanen yuar i yimeri, amedya : s wudem-nniven, s wawalnnien, s unamek-nnien - Wid n userwes : am, amzun, yettanzi, yettak anzi, ad as-tinni - Wid n tmela ne n usezen : acku, akken, imi, axaer 2.2.2. Udmawen n tjerrumt Deg yirisen n usegzi, akken nera deg yimahilennnien, imqimen yugten s waas d wid s yezmer umaru ad dyefk udem amesaran i uris-is. S umata ttilin wudmawen-a : - Udem amezwaru asget : Nekni, yetwaseqdac wudem-a mi ara yebu umaru ad d-yemmeslay ef kra n tawsa i ixeddem netta, i xeddmen medden-nnien yellan am netta, wid yezdi kra n umahil ne kra n lirfa. S umata, yerza nek + nutni. Amedya : aselmad mi ara d-yemmeslay ef uskazal, ad d-yini : Deg uselmed nessemras askazal deg tazwara, deg tlemmast akked taggara n tugzimt n uselmed. Afran n wudem-a yettili akken win i d-yettmeslayen ad d-yesken mai anagar netta i terza taluft maca medden akk xeddmen akka ne ttwalin akka.

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- Udem wis kra asget : Nutni, udem-a yettwasemras mi ara yili ayen ef d-yella usegzi yerza imdanen akken llan. Mi ara t-yesseqdec umaru yettak-as azal ardabu. Amedya : mi ara d-yettmeslay yiwen ef usuter n uselmed n tamzit ad d-yini : Suturen medden aselmed n tmazit acku d tutlayt-nsen yerna ran ma ur tt-slemden ara ad tenger. - Udem wis kra asuf : netta, nettat, s umata udmawwen-a ttwaseqdacen mi ara d-nettmeslay ef yimdanen i yezdi kra n umahil ne kra n tawsa. Deg tegnit udem wis kra asuf ur yerzi ara kan yiwen n umdan. Ihi, nessemras-it mi ara yezmer ad yili d agensas n ugraw ne n medden Amedya : Aselmad ara yesseren s usenfar, ad dyessewjed isental, s yin akin ad ten-yessumer ef yinelmaden akken ad fernen win i yasen-yehwan 2.2.3. Taliwin n umyag Timera i yettwaseqdacen s tuget deg uris imsegzi d urmir ussid d ad + urmir. Tamawt : as deg waas n tegnatin urmir ussid akked ad+urmir i d-yessenfalyen azal awarkudan ne amatu (atemporel ou gnral), maca tikwal yettili umgired, amedya gar umyag amagnu d umyag n tara. Yella wadeg anida azal-a amatu
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yessenfaly-it-id yizri, amedya mi ara d-nini Iij zegga, as d tidet tamatut (vrit gnrale) maca anagr izri i izemren ad dyessenfali tikti-ya tawerkudant acku ur nezmir ad nessexdem la Ad + urmir Iij ad-yettizwi, la urmir ussid : Iij yettizwi. Deg waya ad negzu tikwal d tasekka n yinaw akked tara n umyag i d-yeqqaren tala iwatan ad tettwaseqdec, akken d-yenna S. Chaker 1 . - Urmir ussid: acku d timeri i d-yessenfalayen tigawt ezzifen urad temmid d ayen ierrun deg yimir n tmeslayt yeni deg umha. Deg yimsegzi yettwasemras akken ad dtessenfali tigawt ezzifen i d-yettalsen ne i d-yettualen, yal tikelt kif kif-is. S wawal-nnien temmal-d tigawt ierrun yal tikelt s yiwen n wudem. Amedya : Imdanen ttidiren d igrawen acku yiwen, iman-is, ur izemmer ara ad iqabel uguren n tudert.
1

S. Chaker, 1989, Aspect (verbe), Encyclopdie berbre VII, p. 971-977. C'est en fait toute une typologie des discours qu'il convient d'laborer : discours didactique, descriptif, potique... Chacun de ces conditionnements discursifs peut dterminer un fonctionnement particulier du systme verbal : dans chacun d'eux, l'inventaire des formes n'est pas ncessairement le mme et les signifis peuvent tre profondment diffrents. Ainsi, une squence ad + aoriste sera un indicatif futur dans un change d'information courant (ad yawe azekka = il arrivera demain) et un atemporel gnral abs-trait dans l'nonc d'un mode de fabrication (ad kksen anadn-nni... = on enlve les poils). Variabilit laquelle il faut, bien sr, rajouter celle lie au smantisme particulier des verbes qui suppose de son ct l'laboration d'une typologie lexico-smantique des verbes. Un thme dtermin n'aura videmment pas la mme valeur pour un verbe d'action ponctuelle, un verbe d'action dure intrinsque, un verbe d'tat ou de qualit....

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- Ad + urmir : ugtent tegnatin ideg tettwasemras tmeri-ya acku tla aas n wazalen. Tezmer ad d-tessenfali : imal, warilaw, asirem ne tigawin tiwarkudin. ef wurmir + ad, S. Chaker yenna-d :

Deg tugzimt 1 n tmeslayt n yal ass Ad+urmir yezmer ad yili d imal, amedya ad yawe azekka. Yezmer, deg tugzimtnnien, ad yili d warakud amadwan amedya ad kksen anzaden-nni 2 3 .
Ihi, deg yimsegzi ttwaseqdacent taliwin-a acku mmalent-d tigawin ierrun yal tikelt s yiwen n wudem yerna ur cuddent ara er kra n tiremt deg wakud. Yal tikelt kif kif i errunt. 2.3. Amedya ef uris imsegzi Aris : Taerma d uwanek er Ibn Xeldun Taerma d uwanek akken i ddukulen er Ibn Xeldun. Di tlalit ad tt-id-yezwir cwi uwanek, acku war awanek ur

1 2

Une squence ad+aoriste sera un indicatif futur dans un change d'information courante (ad yawe azekka = il arrivera demain) et atemporel gnral abstrait dans lnonc d'un mode de fabrication ad kksen anzaden-nni = on enlve les poils. 3 Chaker S., 1991, Manuel de linguistique berbre II. Syntaxe et diachronie,
Alger, ENAG. p. 58.

Awal tugzimt ila anamek n uric n uris ne n yinan ilan anamek yemmed.

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tettili terma, ma d tamettant ad tili deg yiwen n wakud. Tudert n terma icuba-tt er tin n wales, acku yeba-tt ef kra n yiricen : tallit n unegmu, temer d ufrak, di taggara tewser d ugrireb ! Hatan wamek yettwali iricen-a deg yidlisen-is : Di tazwara, ad d-yekker uella, ad yessali awanek s yiserdasen n udrum-is. Ssyin ad yebnu tamdint tamaynut ara yilin d taremt i udabu-s. anaba n tallit-a ad yili gar yieggalen n yiwen udrum. Taluft-a isemma-yas Ibn Xeldun lasabiyya, yerra-tt d ajgu alemmas di tezmert n udabu. Aric wis sin yerza abeddel ne tamhezt n terma i dyettilin di tegti di tallit n ugellid wis sin ne wis kra. Di tsertit, adabu ad ibedd ef yifadden-is akken iwulem, asrad (lehna) d tneflit ad d-ualen er yal tamnat n tmurt. Assa n lasabiyya ad yeqqers, acku ad bdun ijentaen ad kecmen er udabu. Da yenna ef waya : deg uric wis sin, ageldun ad yekkes ayetma-s seg udabu. Di tdamsa, afares n yisufar n tudert ad yali, asnuzu ad yefti, acku tagnit n tsertit ters. Idles d turi ad ugen di temdinin. Di tallit-a, awanek d terma ad awen er tqacuctnsen.

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Deg uric wis kra, adabu ad teli tezmert-is. Agellid ad yual d asnaraf (d amesbali) ef ugdud, ad yessenker rad d yiwunak icerken yid-s tilisa. D wi i d udmawen n tewser n terma er Ibn Xeldun. Da tamettant-is ur tetteil ara ad d-tawe, s tnekra n kra n uella ne s ufus n yiwunak i das-d-yezzin.
H. Belaid, 1996, Tira n Ibn Xeldun, deg Izen Amazi, uun 6, isebtar 35, 36.

2.3.1. Asnekwu n temsukt-is Deg tazwara ad d-nesmekti aris imsegzi ibedd ef kra n tegnatin ; maca tikwal ur ttilin ara akk. Deg umedya-ya, amaru yeba aris-is akka : - Tazwert n uris d aric ideg yettili useqsi ef ara dyerr umaru. Aric-a yebda seg : Taerma alma yidlisen ; deg uris-a mai d aseqsi i d-yefka umaru maca yessassen-d deg-s ayen ef ara d-yemmeslay. Deg-s, yesnekwa-d asentel yerzan assa gar terma d uwanek er Ibn Xeldun. Da s tezwert-a ad negzu ef wacu ara d-yawi uris. Lada yessexdem tafyirt taneggarut : hatan wamek yettwali iricen-a deg yidlisen-is i d-yeskanen s wudem usdis d acu i ira ad dyessegzi.

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- Taneflit n uris d aric ideg tettili tririt ef ugnu, tebda seg Di tazwara alma d tilisa, deg uric-a yessegza-d tudert n terma i yettakken anzi er tudert n umdan acku nettat daen tettekk-d ef kra n waddaen. Da amaru yessegza-d amek i ttilin waddaden-a d wamek i yella wassa gar terma d uwanek. - Taggara n uris aric-a, deg tama, yezmer ad yili yezmer ur yettili ara. Deg tama-nnien, ma yella yezmer ad yili d tasemlilt n usentel ne amaru yezmer ad d-ya awal-nnien yerzan asentel-nni. Deg uris-a ad naf taggrayt tella-d d tasemlilt ef wayen yezrin. Amaru yessegra-d s tikti tamaut : D wi i d udmawen n tewser n terma er Ibn Xeldun 2.3.2. Allalen n tutlayt 2.3.2.1. Isuraz Tura ad d-nesken iferdisen i yesseqdec umaru akken ad yeg assa gar tefyar d tektiwin n uris iwakken ad yessiwe ad d-yesken asezen ef ibedd uris-is. - Isuraz n usmiwer : yes-sen i d-yesken umaru addaden ef d-tettekk yal taerma, ef waya i yefren isuraz-a : D tazwara, ssyin, aric wis sin, aric wis kra - Isuraz n usezen : d iferdisen n tjerrumt : tisunin n tuqqna ne d tisunin n usentel i d-yeskanen assa gar tefyar d tseddarin n uris. Deg uris-a amaru yessemres isuraz-a :

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- Di tlalit ad tt-id-yezwir cwi uwanek acku war awanek ur tettili terma. - Tudert n terma icuba-tt er tin n wales acku yeba-tt ef kra n yiricen. - Hatan wamek yettwali iricen-a deg yidlisen-is. - Aric wis sin yerza abeddel ne tamhezt n terma wis sin ne wis kra. - Da yenna ef waya : deg uric wis sin, ageldun ad yekkes ayetma-s seg udabu. - D wi i d udmawen n tewser n terma. - Da tamettant-is ur tetteil ara ad d-tawe. Yal yiwen deg yisuraz-a ila tawuri : acku yessenfalay-d tamentilt, hatan, D wi : d isuraz n usissen ne d imeskanen, ne : yessenfalay-d afran gar tawsiwin, da : yessenfalay-d tagrayt ne agmu. 2.3.2.2. Udmawen n tjerrumt Deg yimsegzi seqdacen udmawen n tjerrumt i izemren ad d-senfalin tikti n tmesara s yezmer umaru ur d-yeskan ara iulfan-is. Hatnan yimataren i d-yemmalen udmawen-a deg uris : - Udem wis kra asuf : a)- Nettat (taerma) : ad tt-id-yezwir, icuba-tt, ur tettili ara terma, tamettant-is. b)- Netta : (awanek) : ad tt-id-yezwir.

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- Netta (aella) ad d-yekker, ad d-yessali, udrum-is, ad yebnu, udabu-s. Ageldun ad yekkes ayetma-s, Agellid 1 ad yual ad yessenker rad d yiwunak icerken yid-s tilisa. - Netta (adabu) : ad ibedd, ifadden-is, tezmert-is, Taerma d uwanek : ad awen er tqacuct-nsen. Udmawen-a akken ma llan ttwasqedcen s unamek amatu acku Ibn Xeldun, deg tault-a n tussna, yettmeslay-d ef yal taerma, ef yal awnek d wamek i ttnernin ssyin akin amek i ellin. 2.3.2.3. Taliwin n umyag Ma nual er yimahilen yemmugen yakan ef usentel-a, ad naf deg yimsegzi tuget n taliwin i d-yettualen d urmir ussid akked urmir + ad. Ttwasemrasent taliwin-a acku, yessent, nezmer ad nefk taara tamesarant i uris. Ad ner dag uris-a anta timera i yettwasqedcen d waniti tiwuriwin i ilant. Amaru deg uris-a ideg d-yessegzay tiri tussnant n Ibn Xeldun yesseqdec Ad + urmir. Yes-s ira ad d-yesken udem amesaran n wayen i d-yura. Timeri-ya tettwaseqdec akken ad d-yemmel yes-s ayen i wimi yessemma S. Chaker tigawin tiwarkudin. Tigawin-a d tid ur nli ara asa d kra n wakud ibanen imi d tigawin izemren ad runt yal akud. D ta i d tawuri-s deg uris-a. Hatnan yimedyaten ideg yettwaseqdec wurmir + ad. - Ad d-yekker uella, ad yessali awanek.
1

Agellid ne aella d imegdawalen, senfalyen-d yiwet n tikti.

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- Anaba n tallit-a ad yili gar yieggalen n yiwen udrum. - Adabu ad ibedd ef yifadden-is. - Ad d-ualen er yal tamnat n tmurt. - Assa n lasabiyya ad yeqqers, acku ad bdun ijentaen ad kecmen... - Ageldun ad yekkes ayetma-s seg udabu. Afares n yisufar n tudert ad yali. - Asnuzu ad yefti. -. Idles d turi ad ugen di temdinin. - Awanek d terma ad awen er tqacuct-nsen. - Adabu ad teli tezmert-is. - Agellid ad yual d asnaraf (d amesbali) ef ugdud, ad yessenker rad

3. TASEKKA N URIS AFUKLAN Aris afuklan d aris ideg amaru yekkat amek ara yefk afud i rray-is ne i tmuli-s akken ad tettwaqbel sur win i wimi yettmeslay ne sur yimeri. Iswi n usfukel d abeddel n tmuli ne n uxemmem n yimeri. Da yal tikelt asfukel yettbin-d tagnit ideg amaru yettara ad d-yesken tidet n tmuli-s zdat n tmuliwin-nnien akken ad tesu azal ugar tidyi. D wasmi i semrasen deg usfukel tarrayin n usezen. S usezen-a ara yezmer umaru ad ig tazrirt ef yimeri ; ssyin akin ad as-ibeddel tamuli, ad t-iwelleh ar tnila i yas-yehwan. D wa, deg taggara, i d iswi n yal aris afuklan, s wawal-nnien deg uris-a amaru yekkat ad izerrer amselu (imeri ne d
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amseflid). D wasmi aris afuklan, akken yebu yili, ibedd ef ugemmir (tamuli n wid i d-yettmeslayen ne ayen yettxemmim). Ssyin yal agemmir ila ifukal i yas-yettilin d tasalelt s ara ibedd. Tin ur-s yal afakul, tikwal, rennun-d ur-s imedyaten ara yefken tazmert ne ara d-yesseknen tidet n yifukal. 3.1. Tuddsa n uris afuklan Taslet n uris afuklan tettili akken ad d-nesnekwu tarrayt i yefer umaru deg usfukel-is. Tarrayt-a teskan-d amek i d-yefren abrid s yezmer ad izerrer imeri. S wawal-nnien taslet ad tili d allal s ara d-nesnekwu tala s yesbedd asfukel s ara yefk afud i tmuli-s akken ad tesu tazmert ugar tin ne tid ira ad yesseli. S umata aris n usfukel yettili s snat n tuddsiwin ne snat n tessiwin. 3.1.1. Taessa taerfit Tuddsa-ya tettili mi ara yili uris ibedd kan ef yiwen n ugemmir. Amaru deg tegnit-a ad yesnekwu tikti-s ne tamulis, ssyin akin, deg tneflit n uris, ad d-yefk ifukal s ara d-yesken tixutert akked tidet n wayen ef d-yettmeslay. Deg teggrayt ad d-yefk awal aneggaru izemren ad yili d tasemlilt ef tmuli-s. 3.1.2. Taessa tuddist Tuddsa-ya tettili mi ara yili uris ibedd ef sin n yigemmiren yemgaraden. Yettwasuddes s kra n tegnatin.
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Yettili deg-s ugemmir amezwaru d ugemmir i yellan mgal-is (amgelgemmir) akked tsemlilt ara yessemtawin gar-asen. Tuddsa-ya tettwassen s tuget deg taulin n tfelseft akked tsertit Akken ad d-naf tuddsa-ines tamelant nettmuqul deg tazwara anwa i d agemmir ief yessebibir umaru ne anwa i d agemmir i yekkat ad yesseli. Tin ur-s, nettnadi ef tmuli-s n umaru, ifukal-is, akked yimedyaten i yettilin d anzaten ef usentel. Agemmir : yezmer ad yili d ayen ibanen ne d uffir deg uris. Ma yella d uffir d imeri ara t-id-yesnekwun ar taggara n turi n uris-nni. Ifukal : d nutni i d-yeskanen tazmert n ugemmir, ttilin akken amaru ad d-yesken d akken tamuli tebna ef wayen yellan yerna ad d-yesken timental ef ibedd ugemmir-s. Imedyaten : ttilin akken ad d-rnun tixutert i yifukal, ad asen-fken afud ugar yerna ttakken i usfukel udem akmam. Tikwal, mi ara yili ufakul d uffir d amedya ideg nezmer ad tid-nesnekwu. Isuraz : ttilin akken ad d-seknen tanmela d wassa yellan gar yifukal. Tarrayt n usfukel Llan yirisen ideg amaru yessissen-d agemmir-is deg tazwara, llan wiyi ttaan-tt d taneggarut alamma ibder-d asezen-ines s yifukal d yimedyaten.

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3.2. Allalen n tutlayt Deg uric-a ad ner iferdisen n tjerrumt i d-yettualen s tuget deg uris afuklan. 3.2.1. Udmawen n tjerrumt Ayen i d-yufraren deg uris n usfukel deg wayen yerzan udmawen yugten deg-s d akken deg yal asfukel imsula (win i d-yettmeslayen d win ne wid i wimi yettmeslay) ttbinen, acuer ? Acku nera iswi n usfukel d azerrer ; azerrera yettili s tiktiwin n umaru da, ama s wudem usrid, ama s wudem arusrid, d udem amezwaru d wudem wis sin i yerza usfukel. Amedya deg uris n usussen (adellel), s umata d udem wis sin i yugten acku amaru yettmeslay srid i win ara yaen ; d acu yezmer, deg kra n tegnatin, ad yessemres udem wis kra. Dwasmi ur yettwagdel ara tilin n wudmawen-nnien. Yal aris amek ila tarrayt n usezen. Da asemres n wudmawen ur iris ara ef kra n udmawen ulmisen. Ad nwali annect-a deg teslet ara neg i yiwen dg yirisen. 3.2.2. Taliwin n umyag Deg ufran n tmera aris afuklan yesseqdac timera ilmend n waddad n yinan ; nezmer ad naf aseqdec n yal timeri tid i d-yessenfalayen ayen yeran, ayen ierrun d wayen izemren ad yeru. Am wudmawen n tjerrumt asemresnsent icudd er tala n usezen akked waddad n yinan.

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3.2.3. Isuraz Akken ad yessiwe umaru ad d-yesbedd aris n usfukel s ara yezmer ad izerrer imeri, yewwi-d fell-as ad isuddes akken iwata asfukel-ines. ef waya i yesra ad yesseqdec isuraz s ara d-yesbedd asezen-ines s wudem anmelan. Da deg uris n usfukel ttagten yisuraz i dyeskanen assa er yifukal d ugemmir assa gar yimedyaten d ugemmir d yigma n usezen. D annect-a ara yefken tagnit i yimeri ad yegzu abrid i yefer uris. Ihi, deg usfukel amaru yesra i yakk isuraz. Isuraz i d-yettualen s waas d wi : - Timentelt : acku, imi, laxaer - Agmu (analkam) : da, d wasmi, ihi, - Amgired : d acu, mena, maca - Timerna : amezwaru, wis sin, deg tazwara, tin urs, rnu, deg taggara 3.3. Amedya ef uris afuklan ef usfukel ad d-nessisen sin n yirisen yemgaraden, yiwen ad yili d aris amagnu ef wazal n tmeut deg tmurt n Leqbayen, waye d aris n usussen. Aris : Tameut n Leqbayel Aas n wid iheddren, inesxen lektub ef tmeut d lala n Leqbayel, nutni ur ssinen acu ef llan, wala fehmen bia n
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lejdud-nsen, yettwassnen seg wasmi d-texleq yemma-s n ddunit. ret, steqsit, sani terram, anda tewem ad tafem awal yiwen : d ayen yenna umezwaru i yenna uneggaru. ef wawalnsen, ef wakken i yasen-tefka tmussni-nsen tameut er Leqbayel ur teswi, ur terri ; argaz yeseb-itt am nettat am zzayla, ur aken-ni ; ad tt-ya, ad tt-yezzenz am wakken ara ya, yezzenz taa ne tafunast deg ssuq. Deg uxxam ur tesi rray ula deg ucemma ; kra ara yili mazal-itt meiyet, deg-s cwi n lmenfia, hatan iban; asmi meqret, tekcem-itt tewser, ad tt-ezlen er rrif, ad tt-deqren am nettat, am uqecwal iqersen . Aya yakk d lekteb. Nekni yessnen akken tella lala n Leqbayel, ifehmen, yeran acu yellan deg wul n Uzwawi, nezmer ad neggal ur nennet belli ulac i yezizen er Uqbayli am tmeut-is, laxaer yera bla nettat ddunit-is tefre, axxam din ur yelli. Kra n lbana d rray yellan, telem yes-s tmeut. Yak d Igawawen i yas-yeqqaren : Ulac i yuren, i nettagd am lehur n tsumta. Mei meqqer, ur-sen, yiwen ur yettuqam laa melba ccwer n uxxam-is. Lemmer d lecal n rray d ttedbir i yettarran bunadem d argaz, yili amur ameqqran deg Leqbayel yessefk d nutni ara yelsen icwawen, ad en iberniyas i tulawin-nsen laxater, ef wakken nessen nera teddun lecal, d rray-nsent i ixeddmen. Kullec ef ufus-nsent, ula ma ur heddrent ara deg tejmuya akked leswaq, d lehur-nsent i ierrun, d rray-nsent i
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ixeddmen s ddaw ufus; aqerru n uxxam d tameut, am wakken i yas-qqaren : Axxam bla tameut am leber melba lut. Mesub d laa ur nekmil ara.
Abalu : S. A. Boulifa, 1913, Mthode de langue kabyle-Cours de deuxime anne, Alger, Adolphe Joudan (Editeur), Isebtar, 276/277.

Deg teslet n uris-a, ad d-nessukk ti ef yiferdisen imezgiyen i d-yettualen deg usfukel. S umata d nutni i yettakken i uris udem n usfukel. Da ad nwali tuddsa-s ssyin akin ad nezrew iferdisen n tutlayt ef yezmer uselmad ad yesbedd tugzimin-is deg tnerit. 3.3.1. Tuddsa S.A. Boulifa deg uris-a ira ad yesseli ne ad d-yesken tikerkest n tmuli n yiberraniyen yettwalin tameut er Leqbayel ur tli tixutert, d tin rran deg rrif am tawsa kan. Akken ad yawe er yiswi-s yefren aris afklan s tessa tuddist ibedden ef sin n yigemmiren. Yessasen-d deg tazwara d acu i ttxemmimen wiyi, ssyin yefka-d tamuli-s netta i yellan mgal tamezwarut. Hattan tuddsa n uris amek tella. - Tazwert : d taseddart tamezwarut, deg-s amaru yessasen-d s umata asentel n uris. Asentel-a yerza wid yettmeslayen ef Leqbayel nutni urin ran amek ttidiren ne amek tella tmetti-nsen.

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- Agemmir : (ne tamuli tamezwarut) d taseddart tis

snat, deg-s i tella tmuli n medden, wid yettwalin tameut er Leqbayel ur tli azal, tettwasab d taawsa ne d aersiw. ef waya yessassen-d umaru ifukal ef ibedd ugemmir-a. Ifukal n ugemmir-a : - Tameut er Leqbayel ur teswi, ur terri. - Tettwasab am zzayla. Amedya : ttaen-tt, znuzun-tt am yal aersiw yettnuzun deg ssuq. - Ur tesi rray deg kra, yerna mi wesret ur tezmir i kra, ttarran-tt deg rrif am tawsa. Amgelgemmir : tiseddarin tis kra akked tis uku, deg uric-a n uris ad naf tamuli tis snat yemgaraden ef tmezwarut. S tmuli-ya amaru yewwet amek ara d-yesken tikerkest n tmuli n wiyi iwakken ad tt-yesseli yerna ad dyesken amek tella tidet ef waddad n tmeut er Leqbayel. Da yessassen-d ifukal i yefkan afud i tmuli-s. Ifukal : Ad naf deg uris yal afakul amaru yefka-d tamulinnien magal tin n yiberraniyen yerna yessegza-d annect-a s s yifukal d yinzaten ne imedyaten. Hattan tmuli numaru : Tameut tla azal tla rray yerna tettucawar deg kra yellan. Acku :

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- Ulac i yezizen er Uqbayli am tmeut-is. - Telem s kra n lbana d rray yellan. - D rray-nsent i ixeddmen. - Kullec ef ufus-nsent. - Aqerru n uxxam d tameut. Anzaten : - laxaer yera bla nettat ddunit-is tefre, axxam din ur yelli. - Yak d Igawawen i yas-yeqqaren : Ulac i yuren, i nettagad am lehur n tsumta. - Mei meqqer, ur-sen, yiwen ur yettuqam laa melba ccwer n uxxam-is. - Ula ma ur heddrent ara deg tejmuya akked leswaq, d lehur-nsent i ierrun, d rray-nsent i ixeddmen s ddaw ufus ; - Am wakken i yas-qqaren : Axxam bla tameut am leber melba lut. Mesub d laa ur nekmil ara. Deg usfukel-is amaru yewwet amek ara iqenne imeri s tektiwin-is, da yal afakul yerna-yas-d amedya, tin ur-s yual er yidles d wansayen n tmetti yewwi-d kra n yinzan s dyesken d akken ayen i d-yenna d ayen ttxemmimen akk medden, ur yelli d tamuli-s iman-is. 3.3.2. Iferdisen n tutlayt 3.3.2.1. Isuraz Isuraz mmalen-d assa yellan gar tefyar, yes-sen i nezmer ad negzu tidmi n umaru d usezen-is deg uris ; yessen i tettifsus turi-ines. Deg uris-a n Boulifa llan yisuraz-a :
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- Ulac i yezizen er Uqbayli am tmeut-is, laxaer yera bla nettat ddunit-is tefre. - Lemmer d lecal n rray d ttedbir - laxater, ef wakken nessen nera teddun lecal, d rray-nsent i ixeddmen. Ulama ur heddrent ara deg tejmuya akked leswaq, d lehur-nsent i ierrun, d rray-nsent i ixeddmen. Yak d Igawawen i yas-yeqqaren Axxam bla tameut am leber melba lut. Mesub d laa ur nekmil ara. Amaru yessemres laxaer (snat n tikal) akken ad dyefk timental n tikti-s. Yesseqdec daen lemmer akken ad yessenfali assa n tewtilt. Assa n umgired yessemres ulama. Ar taggara n uris yessemres mesub d asaraz n usegzi yessexdem-it iwakken ad d-yefk anamek n yinzi i d-iger deg uris. Ma nerra tamawt ad naf deg uris-a amaru ur yessuget ara deg yisuraz, yesmenyif ad ilin d uffiren (implicites). Hatna yimedyaten ideg imeri ad iulfu s wassa gar tefyar maca amaru ur ten-yessemres ara : - Aas n wid iheddren, inesxen lektub ef tmeut d lala n Leqbayel, nutni ur ssinen Assa i nezmer ad d-nesnekwu deg tefyirt-a d assa n umgired (n tmegla), amaru yesmenyif asemres n ticcert deg wadeg n usaraz i izemren ad yili d : mena, d acu, maca, as, ulama
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- Gar tseddart tis snat d tis kra, amaru ur d-yessenfali ara assa yellan gar-asent s usaraz n tenmegla, amedya : mena, d acu, maca; as akken imeri yezmer ad t-idyesnekwu seg turi n uris. Lada imi amaru yebda taseddarta s tefyirt : Aya yakk d lekteb i d-yeskanen tamuli-s temgarad mai ef tmezwarut. Yes-s yesken-d ayen qqaren wiyi seg rrif er rrif d tikerkest. - Yella wadeg-nnien anda amaru yefren ad yesseqdec asmiwer 1 deg wadeg n usemres n yisuraz n tmerna ne n ubdar asemres am wa ttarran ur-s yimura mi ara xsen ad fken udem afessas i uris deg turi, da beddren-d iferdisen wa deffir wa, war isuraz. Amedya aric-a n uris : Tameut er Leqbayel ur teswi, ur terri ; argaz

yeseb-itt am nettat am zzayla, ur aken-ni ; ad tt-ya, ad ttyezzenz am wakken ara ya, yezzenz taa ne tafunast deg ssuq. Deg uxxam ur tesi rray ula deg ucemma ; kra ara yili mazal-itt meiyet, deg-s cwi n lmenfia, atan iban ; asmi meqret, tekcem-itt tewser, ad tt-ezlen er rrif, ad tt-deqren am nettat, am uqecwal iqersen.
Am wakka d-yettbin deg tseddart-a yezmer umaru ad iger aas n yisuraz n tmerna (addition) : rnu, tin ur-s, nnig n

1 Asmiwer : ila anmek n abdar, deg tefyirt-a sqedce-t s unamek n juxtaposition.

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waya, rnu ur-s s ara yeqqen ifukal i d-yessassen. Deg umedya :

Tameut er Leqbayel ur teswi, ur terri yerna argaz yeseb-itt am nettat am zzayla, ur aken-ni Tin ur-s, deg uxxam ur tesi rray
Ad negzu s wakka deg uselmed n tsekka n uris-a yewwi-d ad nerr tamawt tameqqrant er yisuraz acku lan tawuri tameqqrant deg usfukel. 3.3.2.2. Udmawen Amdiq i san wudmawen deg tsekka-ya ur yelli d ameyan acku asfukel s umata ires ef uzerrer n umselu. D wasmi, deg tama, yewwi-d ad d-nesnekwu tihawt n umaru deg udis. Acku yezmer ad yessemres udem amezwaru asuf ne amalay nek, nekni, nkenti ; yezmer daen ad yefren ad yesseqdec udem wis kra asget nutni s unamek n medden akken ma llan, ideg ila azal n wardabu. D annect-a ara dyesseknen, i win ara igen taslet, ma amaru yebna assumer ef tektiwin-is, ma yekcem s yilfan-is deg wayen i d-yeqqar ; ne ira ad as-yefk udem amatu ideg ara negzu mai anagar netta i yettxemmimen akka. Deg tama-nnien, yewwi-d ad nezzi ti er wudmawen yerzan amselu iwakken ad ner anwa i wimi yettmeslay umaru, ma i yiwen ibanen ne i medden s umata. Annect-a ad d-yemmel amek i yasen-yettmeslay, anwa udem i yesseqdec.
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Deg uris-a, deg wayen yerzan win i wimi yettmeslay, win i d-yeqsed s wawal, amaru yessemres udem wis sin asget, yettmeslay-asen srid akken ad yessiwe ad yekkes yir tamuli i zemren ad sun ef tmeut n Leqbayel. D wasmi i yasenyettmeslay srid, annect-a yettban deg yimedyaten-a :

ret, steqsit, sani terram, anda tewem ad tafem awal yiwen.


Deg uris-a amaru yessemres udem amezwaru asget akken ad d-yemmeslay s yisem n yimezda n tmurt n Leqbayel, yerna akken ad yefk afud ameqqran i yifukal-is. Yes-s ira ad d-yini mai d rray-is kan i d-yefka maca d tamuli n wid akk yesnen tilawt n tmurt n Leqbayel. Da yefren udem amezwaru asget nekni, akka am : - Nekni yessnen akken tella lala n Leqbayel, nezmer ad neggal ur nennet S umata ur dilen ara yirisen n usfukel, yal yiwen anwa udem i yezmer ad yesseqdec. Maca s umata imi iswinsen d azerrer, ttarran tamawt tameqqrant i wudem wis sin, ama d asuf ama d asget. S wannect-a amaru iqessed srid amselu. A. S. Boulifa, deg tesddart tamezwarut d tis snat ira ad yesseli tiktiwin n wid i d-yuran d wid iheddren akked d widnnien ur nban. Da yesmenyif ad yesseqdec udem wis kra asget nutni , yeqsed-d yes-s wid d-yessufen tikerkas ef waddad n tmeut er Leqbayel. Maca ur asen-yettmeslay ara
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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

srid i nutni, yea tagnit d tamatut ideg yal yiwen ad yeqel iman-is. Imedyaten :

- Aas n wid iheddren, inesxen lektub ef tmeut d lala n Leqbayel, nutni ur ssinen acu ef llan - ef wawal-nsen, ef wakken i yasen-tefka tmussninsen
3.3.3. Taliwin n umyag Akken i ya-d-iban deg yirisen i wimi nga taslet, yal amaru iferren taliwin iwatan aris ilmend n waddad n yinan akked d yiswi n usfukel-ines. S wannect-a ad negzu yal tala n umyag tezmer ad tettwasemres deg usfukel. Deg uris-a, d amedya, amaru yessemres : - Amaun : iheddren, inesxen, yesnen, ifehmen, yeran, amaun yettusemres ilmend n tsekka n tefyar i yessemres umaru aris-is ; ad tent-naf srant i useqdec n umasa i i d-igellun s umaun s wazalen yemgaraden : ama akken ad d-yessenfali tigawt ezzifen deg wakud, amedya : iheddren, inesxen, ama akken ad d-yessenfali ayen yeran yekfa, amedya : yesnen, yeran - Izri + izri ibaw : ur ssinen, llan, yettwasnen, tefka, yera, tefre, telem - Ana : ret, steqsit. - Ad + urmir : ad neggal, ad en

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Ma d timera-nnien, azal-nsent icudd er waddad n yinan yal yiwet yettusemres akken ad d-yessenfali tigawt ilmend n erru-ines. Izri i wayen yekfan, ana i usendeh, ad+urmir yesqedce-it umaru s uzal amatu ne s wazal arakudan akken ad d-yessenfali tigawt timezgit, i d-yettualen s yiwen n wudem. 3.4. Amedya wis sin ef usfukel : aris n usussen Aris n usussen ila ismawen-nnien s yettwassen ; yella wanda s qqaren adellel, yella wanda s qqaren aberre. Yettili s waas n wudmawen. Nezmer ad t-naf d aris yuran deg umis, deg tesunt,nezmer adt-naf daen d aris imaw deg radyu, nezmer ad t-naf d aris aselri (audio-visuel) deg tiliri, deg Internet. Deg usussen amaru yekkat amek ara izerrer amdan akken ad ya taawsa d wasmi i yettwasab d tawsit i ikemen deg tault n asfukel. Deg tmazit as adellel s timawt yella seg zik deg leswaq, udmawen-nnien n usussen d imaynuten ; nnulfan-d taggrara-ya, segmi tual tmazit tesa amiq deg wallalen n teywalt yerna tual d tutlayt taelnawt. Ayen yerzan tuddsa-s akked wallalen n tutlayt imezgiyen ad ten-id-nesukkes deg teslet ara neg i uris-a i dnessekles seg radyu Summam d wiyi iseg ara d-nefk imedyaten.

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Aris n usussen : Ssif ileq-d. Asewjed n tmeriwin yebda. La grande surface du lac, di ssuq n lfella n zik n Yieddaden, tessewjed-d le salon wis sin n lehaz n teslit, seg 26 mai alma d 10 juin i d-iteddun. Ili-ken di ttiadd, mreba yes-wen yal ass, seg 10 n sbe alma d 10 n yi.
Abalu: Radyu Summam.

3.4.1. Tuddsa Taessa n usussen tbedd ef kra n yiricen. Aric amezwaru yettili d awezlan, tafyirt ne snat ; deg-s amaru yettak-d isalli ef tawsa ief d-yella usussen. Tawuri-s d ajbad n lwelha n win ara yaen. S umata yettili-d s kra n wudmawen. - Yezmer ad yili d aselem kan n medden ef tawsanni ; amedya : Ilmend n useggas ajdid Bougie-viande tettxebbir belli asenqes deg ssuma n uksum d lut seg wass n sebt 20 disembr . (Aris uun 2 1 ). - Yezmer ad yili d asmekti ef wayen snen, ran akk medden; amedya: Ssif ileq-d, asewjed n tmeriwin yebda (er er zdat aris i d-nefren d amedya, uun 1).
1

D uun n uris deg tjenet.

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- Yezmer ad yili d asmekti ef wayen ttnadin akk madden, amedya : Tettnadim ef tkerrust i ken-ilaqen. Aric wis sin d agejdan deg usussen acku deg-s i yettili usissen n yifukal s ara izerrer umaru imeri ne amseflid. Deg uric-a i yekkat umaru amek ara d-yeslal lebi i tiin n tawsa-nni d wasmi i yesseqdec akk allalen n tutlayt: irbiben, aserwes, akken ad d-yesken ayen yufraren deg-s. Da, tikwal yettili usmiwer ne ubdar n yiferdisen yelhan deg tawsa-nni, akka am uris (uun 2) : Ayen tebam ad tafem-t dina s rxa : lmakla-nwen, lebsa-nwen, les cosmtiques akked les articles de mnage . Tikwal-nnien, aric wis sin yettili d askan n ubrid ara yawi win yettnadin kra ne d tiririt ef useqsi-ines, akka am uris (uun1) : La grande surface du lac, di ssuq n lfella n zik n Yieddaden, tessewjed-d le salon wis sin n lehaz n teslit, seg 26 mai alma d 10 juin i d-iteddun. Ahric wis kra, d asiwel ne d tiri srid i umsa akken ad ya. Yettili s umata d tafyirt tawezzlant ideg semrasen akk iferidisen n tesnukyist, akka am: anya, tamerut, imesliyen 1 . Yes-sen i tettcebbi tiri taneggarut n usussen, yes-s daen i zuzunen tamezut n yimeri. S umata wid i d-yessewajeden

Sqedce awal s unamek n sonorits.

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asussen semrasen tafakust i yettwaseqdacen deg udellel imawi n leswaq 1 . Ama deg udellel 2 ama deg yirisen yuran ne n radyu, amsussen yekkat amek ara tili tefyirt n tiri ne tafyirt taneggarut d tawezlant, d tagrurzant, d tafessast i cfawat d umekti. Maca llan yirisen ideg aric aneggaru yettili d awelleh n umsa er umiq ideg ara yaf ayen yettnadi ne yettili d awal udiq n ukyis n usnebgi. Amedya : Les galeries marchandes de lAtlas, cest la classe 3 /er wiyid r turagt/ Ili-ken di ttiadd, mreba yes-wen yal ass, seg 10 n sbe alma d 10 n yi. Aigle Azur tessaram-awen tirza yelhan. 3.4.2. Allalen n tutlayt Iswi n uris-a d azerrer n umseflid akken ad d-yas ad ya ayen ef d-yella usussen. Da, amaru yekkat amek ara dyesken cbaa n tawsa-nni, ayen yellan d iferdisen, aniti tulmisin i tesa iman-is kan. Tin ur-s, iwakken ad d-yejbed amsa yessaqdac allalen s ara iulfu umseflid i netta srid i wimi d-yettmeslay ne d netta i terza taluft. Da ef wannecta i ttwasemrasen s tuget yiferdisen-a :
er imedyaten deg tjentat ef usussen imawi n ssuq. Hatnan kra n yimedyaten i germre deg leswaq ef usussen imawi : - Lubya n lefuru, lhem ad iru. - Tiurin, d ddwa i umuin. - D amerre, d aserre, mai d aderre. - ina n yilmaten, em, erem ay atmaten. 3 Amedya-ya n radyu Summam yettwaxdem akka s tefransist.
1 2

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- Irbiben : mmalen amek temmug, amek tga, amek tettwaxdem tawsa ; amedya : aidan, ameqqran, ahrawan, awra, udiq - Asmiwer : d abdar n wayen tla tawasa akka am uris (u.2) : Ayen tebam ad tafem-t dina s rxa : lmakla-nwen, lebsa-nwen, les cosmtiques akked les articles de mnage . - Ana : yettwaseqdac akken ad nini i umseflid d acu ara yexdem ne ad t-nwelleh, deg usussen nesseqdac-it akken ad nessegzi srid i win ara yaen d acu n tigawt ara yeg. Amedya : - Aris (u.1) : Ili-ken di ttiadd.... - Aris (u. 5) : Azelt er. - Udem wis sin : acku d allal s ara d-nejbed win i disellen akken yebu yili. Ad iulfu i netta srid i wimi nettmeslay Amedya : - Aris (u.1) : Ili-ken di ttiadd, mreba yes-wen. - Aris (u. 3) : Aigle Azur tessaram-awen tirza yelhan. - Uudem wis kra : tikwal yettili maca iseu azal ardabu. Udem yettussemras lad deg yirisen n usussen n leswaq, wid i yettilin d iamawiyen. Amedya : - Win yesan afrux, ad as-yawi lxux. - Win yeban ad yili labas, yawi abesbas. Tamawt : Mai anagar iferdisen-a i yettilin deg usussen, mazal
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allalen-nnien ef ur d-nemmeslay ara akka am : urmir, ad + urmir. Imeri yezmer, ma yesra i waas n yisallen, ad imuqel amahil n doctorat ideg gi taslet ef tewsit-a n uris.

4. TASEKKA N URIS N TGELMA Aris n uglam yeskan-d amek iga ne yemmug umdan, taawsa ne adeg. S umata aglam d asnekwu n tulmissin n wayen i d-yettwagelmen ne d abdar n yiferdisen ief ibedd wayen i d-yettwagelmen. Ih, aglam d asissen n tawsa s wawalen. Nezmer ad t-naf d aric deg ungal ideg amaru yessissen-d udmawen, imeqan ne n tiawsiwin ara yefken i yimeri tikti ef wayen ierrun deg wullis-nni. Aglam, ihi, d tugna tusdist n i d-yettakken tikti i yimeri ef wayen i dyettwagelmen. S umata, amaru, mi ara d-yeglem taawsa, yezmer ad d-yebder iricen-is, ne tiarawin-is, ne tulmisinis. Am wakken i yezmer ad t-id-yessissen ilmend n umiq ideg yella, ilmend n wakud ne ilmend n yiferdisen-nnien i dyezgan er tama-s. 4.1. Tuddsa Adam J.-M. deg umahil-is (1990) yettwali aglam ibedd ef tuddsa i d-yettbanen deg tnemhal-a (oprations) : tiin : (ancrage), asettwel : (aspectualisation), agassa : (mise en
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relation), alsawal (reformulation), aleddem n uglam : (thmatisation) 1 . Tinemhal-a i d-yettakken tala i uris n uglam. 4.1.1. Tiin (ancrage) Tiin d asnekwu n tawsa ief d-yella uglam, J.-M. Adam yessemma-yas daen asentel-azwel. Nessemma-yas tiin acku d netta i d aferdis agejdan iseg ara ya uglam. Yes-s i d-yessissin umaru asentel amatu n uglam. Yezmer ad yili deg tazwara n uris ne ar taggara-s, d asegri (affectation). Ma yella-d deg taggara, alamma yekfa yimeri tauri n uris ara ier asentel n uglam. 4.1.2. Asettwel (aspectualisation) Nefren awal asettwel acku send asnekwu n usentelazwel, amaru ad yebdu aglam n yiferdisen ne iricen n tawsa i yerza uglam yiwen yiwen. Yal yiwen deg-sen ad dyefk ittewlen-ines. Deg tegnit-a i yettili uglam, deg-s ara yebu umaru taawsa i d-yeglem d iricen, yal yiwen ad d-yini : amek iga, amek yemmug, d acu n yinni ila, atg.

- Tiin, asettwel, aleddem n uglam, agasse, alsawal : Awalen-a d isumar, ur lin ara d timiranin i d-yeddan deg kra n usegzawal, nesseqdec-iten i tikelt tamezwarut deg umahil-a. Sin deg-sen : tiin d agassa ttwasqedcen yakan deg tezrawt n turagt n : Rabdi K. & Rabhi L., 2005, Aris aglaman, tasdawit n Bgayet.
1

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4.1.3. Aleddem n usentel Aleddem 1 n usentel (thmatisation) d asezef n uglam ne d aglam deg uglam. Annect-a yettili mi ara d-yual umaru er kra n uferdis n usentel-azwel ad as-yeg daen aglam. 4.1.4. Agassa (mise en relation) Deg uglam yella wanda i d-ngellem (nessidig : situer) taawsa ilmend n wadeg ne ilmend n wakud ideg tella. Maca tikwal nessemras aserwes ne tanumnayt akken ad d-nesken tiawsiwin ier tettkanzi (tettemcabi). D annect-a i wimi qqaren agassa. S umata deg wayen yerzan tuddsa, aris n uglam ibeddu s usissen n wudem amatu ssyin yettual-d er yiferdisen yiwen yiwen. Yezmer daen ad yebdu seg yiferdisen, ssyin ad yefk tugna tamatut ne ad ye imeri ad d-yesbedd iman-is udem amatu n tawsa-nni. Amedya : mi ara yili uglam n taddart, taddart ad tili d asentel-azwel. Ssyin ad yefer usettwel : d aglam n yiferdisen ne n yiricen yiwen s yiwen, amedya : ixxamen, iberdan, tibirin izemren ad d-fken tugna-s tummidt. Ma yual-d er yiwen n uric igellem-it-d daen, qqaren-as aleddem n usentel.

Aleddem : yekka-d seg umyag ldem anamek-is timerna n kra i wayen iteddun ad yekfu. Amedya: ma tella lila teur d aman, mi qrib ad tfak ad as-nernu, timerniwt-a i wimi qqaren aleddem .

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Ma d agassa d aseqdec n userwes n tinumnayin. Yes-s i dyeskan umaru er wacu i tettkanzi tawsa-nni. Hattan temsukt taddayt n uglam i d-yefka J.-M. 1 Adam . Tuddsa-ya tettemgirid seg uris er waye. Tezmer ad timur ma aris ila aas n yiricen i d-yeglem yerna yefka-d i yal yiwen ittewlen-ines s usemres n yirbiben, aserwes akked d ulsawal. Asentel - azwel

Asettwel :

agassa

Iricen

ittewlen

4.2. Tarrayin n uglam Deg uglam amaru ila aas n tarrayin s yezmer ad dyessissen taawsa. Tarrayin-a nezmer ad asent-nsemmi iawasen i yezmer ad yessemres deg uglam. Yella wanda amaru ad d-yezwir seg udem n zdat, ayen i dyettbanen d amezwaru, (avant-plan) er wayen yellan deffir
1

J.-M. Adam, 1990, Elments de linguistique textuelle, Bruxelles-Liege, Mardaga, p.135.

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(arriere-plan), s wawal-nnien izewwir-d deg wayen yellan akka, yea-d ti ne yeur-d ti er wayen yellan akkin, i dyezgan d asmadan. Yella wanda ara naf amaru izewwir-d seg iwsawen d akessar ne seg ukessar d asawen, seg zelme er yeffus, seg yeffus er zelme. Annect-a yezmmer ad d-ibin s uzenzi-a : - (akka akkin), (iwsawen akessar, akessar iwsawen ), (zelme yeffus, yeffus zelme). 4.3. Iferdisen n tutlayt Deg uglam ugten lada iferdisen i d-yemmalen s wudem usdis tugna n wayen i d-igellem ; da ttilin : yirbiben, isuraz n wadeg i ilan azal meqqer acku d nutni i yessuddusen tagelma amedya : ef yeffus, ef zelme, nnig, ddaw, isemmaden n yisem, imyagen n tara, imeskanen akked kra n yiferdisen n tesnukyist akka am aserwes d tanumnayt / amerwes 1 . 4.4. Amedya ef tgelma Aris : Taxxamt n Salas Deg texxamt deg yella Salas, llan reba n wusawen, sin n iqan i d-yezgan ef tama n ufella wean er temdint. Mi
1

Sin n wawalen-a ttwasemrasen s unamek n mtaphore.

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ara tbede zdat-sen, ad k-id-iqabel udrar n Yicellaven, er tama tayeffust, yella unnar n ddabex n uar, ef yiri-s d ixxamen n usar bnan Yibiljikiyen. Ixxamen-nni d iqehwiyen, derren wa zdat wa, wa nnig wa, seg yal tama yezzi-yasen-d erb.
B. Tazaart, Salas d Nuja, 200 ?, asbt. 07

Aris-a, as d ameyan, deg-s aas n yiferdisen ara yilin d imataren akken imeri ad yegzu amek i yettili uglam. 4.4.1. tuddsa-s Deg uris-a amaru yezwar-d seg usissen n usentelazwel taxxamt d takemmalit d wayen yellan deg-s : usawen, iqan. Ssyin akin yesken-d ayen i yas-d-yezzin : adrar n Yicellaen, annar n ddabex, ixxamen. D ineggura-ya i wimi qqaren isental-isuddimen ne iricen. Ad negzu deg tgelma-ya d akken amaru yefka-d tugna tamatut n texxamt ssyin akin yual-d er yiricen yiwen yiwen. Akka ad yesu yimeri tugna ef wayen terza tgelma. S uzenzi-a ad negzu amek tbedd tuddsa-s.

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Asentel-azwel Taxxamt Agassa (Ayen i yas-d-yezzin) ittewlen Icellaen annar ixxamen (ulac aglam-nsen) iqan n ddabex n usar Iqahwiyen sin Asettwel :

Iricen Ussawen reba

4.4.2. Iferdisen n tutlayt Deg uris-a taselt ad terzu anagar wid ilan tixutert deg uglam : irbiben, imyagen n tara, isuraz ne imataren n wadeg 4.4.2.1. Arbib Arbib d awal i d-yeskanen amek tga ne temmug tawsa, deg uris-a amaru yessemres yiwen : Iqahwiyen, yes-s i d-yefka inni n yixxamen. 4.4.2.2. Asemmad n yisem Asemmad n yisem, d isem wis sin i yessimiden isemnnien i t-id-yezwaren. Gar-asen tettili tenzet n i tenyetteqnen. Tawuri-s am urbib, yeskan-d taara n tawsa ne amek temmug. Amedya deg uris-a ad naf :
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Yella unnar n ddabex n uar, ef yiri-s d ixxamen n usar.


Awalen : ddabex, uar, usar yesseqdec-iten umaru akken ad d-yemmel s wacu ttwaxedmen ne amek gan : annar, ddabex, ixxamen. 4.4.2.3. Imataren n wadeg D wi i ilan azal ameqqran deg uglam acku yes-sen i yettwasuddes uris, tin ur-s d nutni i d-yemmalen i yimeri amek ara yefer ti yettwalin n win i d-igelmen. Hatnan wid yellan deg uris :

ef tama n ufella zdat-sen er tama tayeffust ef yiris derren wa zdat wa, wa nnig wa, seg yal tama...
Tamawt : 1. Akken nwala mazal aas n yiferdisen yerzan aglam, ur llin ara deg uris-a, yessefk ef win ara iselen ne win ara yeslemden aris n uglam, ad yerr tamawt ur-sen, amedya : amyag n tara, asmiwer akked yiferdisen n tesnukyist : aserwes d tenumnayt ne amerwes. (Comparaison et mtaphore). 2. mazal daen deg uglam ayen yerzan amgired gar uglam urkid d uglam imwiwel (itinrante et statique).

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5. TASEKKA N URIS IMSENDEH/IMWELLEH Aris-a d win ideg amaru yettak-d nehwat, iwellihen, tisuniwin (ordres), tinemlin (indications). D aris i dyeskanen i umdan amek ara yeg kra ne d acu ara yeg, d acu ur yetteg ara. Iswi-s d askan i umdan ne d ahettem fell-as akken ad yerr tamawt er yisuaf ne er yiwellihen i yettilin anda yettidir. Aris-a, tikwal teddun-d yid-s kra n yizenzien akked tugniwin. Nezmer ad t-naf deg tsafart n tenwalt, ilugan n useqdec (mode demploi), iwellihen n usellek (rgles de secours) seg kra n twait, akka am tmes, znezla, tiferret n userkeb, (notice de montage) isuaf (rglements intrieurs) i yettilin deg tsuddwin akka am yierbazen, sbitarat, luzinat) ara ayefer umdan deg umahil-is ; yettili daen deg tfertin n ddwa, atg. 5.1. Tuddsa n udis imwelleh Deg wayen yerzan tala-s, ad tt-naf temgarad ef yirisen-nnien acku aris-a ur ibidd ara d tiseddarin akken nwulef nettwali wiyi. Taessa-s s umata tettili d abdar s wudem usdis, wa deffir wa n yiwellihen ne n yilugan. Amaru yessissen-d yal alugen ne awellih deg tseddart iman-is, yettbin-d s ujerrid deg tazwara.
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5.2. Iferdisen n tutlayt Allalen n tjerrumt i yugten deg tsekka-ya d ayen fessusen i usnekwu yerna d wid i d-yettwafernen akken ad tifsus tigzi n yizen. S wannect-a imeri ad ier srid d acu i yessefken ad ig ne d acu ur d-yewwi ara ad yexdem. Da deg uris imwelleh yettili wana ne ad + urmir, udem wis sin ne udem amezwaru ma amaru iger iman-is deg yiwellihen i d-yettak. Ma d ayen yerzan isuraz, i izemren ad seknen tarrayt n usezen ne assa gar tefyar d tseddarin, mai d wid i yugten aas acku aris yettwasuddes s tefyar ne s tugziminn d tilelliyin, ur srint ara i tuqqna gar-asent. Maca nezmer ad naf isuraz ttwasqedcen kan deg tefyar akken ad d-mmlen assa gar yiferdisen-is. 5.3. Amedya ef uris imwelleh Aris : Lqanun n taddart n Teslent Wa d lqanun n taddart n Teslent, ef wakken llant tudrin n Leqbayel deg zman amezwaru almi d tura. 1.u. Win yukren axxam deg yi, iban fell-as ayen i yewwi, ad yefk xemsin n teryalin d lexiyya i tejmat ; xemsin d lerm i bab n uxxam. Ad yernu ad yefk azal n wayen yewwi ne, ma yella, ad t-yerr. w.2. Win yukren tibirt, iban fell-as wayen yewwi, ad yefk xemsa u ecrin n teryalin d lexiyya i tejmat, xemsa u

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ecrin d lerm i bab n tebirt. Ad yernu ad yerr ayen yewwi i bab n tebirt. w.3. Win yewten s tmekelt ad yefk meyya i tejmat d lexiyya. Wa ma yella ur yejri ara yes-s, win akken yewwet. Wamma ma yejre-it, ad yerr ttar-is win yettewten. Alama yefa-yas, imir-nni ad ad ya leqq n yidammen-is, ayen i yasiqedder lqai. w.4. Ma yella yena, ayla-s ulamma deg waman, ad tye lerc, ad yernu ad yemmet, ne ad yefk ddiya, ma qeblen yimawlan n win yemmuten. w.5. Win yewten s ujenwi ne s tgelzimt, ad yefk xemsin n teryalin d lexiyya i tejmat. Wa ma yella ur yejri ara yes-sen. Wamma ma yejre yes-sen, ad yerr ttar win yettewten. Ne ma yefa bab n ler ef ttar-is, ad ya ayen i yas-iqedder lqai deg yidammen-is. w.6. Win iwehhan s ujenwi ne s tgelzimt, ur yewwit ara yes-sen, ad yefk tmanya n teryalin. w.7. Win yewten s tekkazt ne s uda, ad yefk xemsa n teryalin d lexiyya i tejmat. Ad yerr ttar win yettewten, ne ma yefa fell-as, ad yefk leqq n ler, ma yejre-it. Ma yella ur t-yejri ara, ur yettak wayra. w.8. Win iwehhan s tekkazt ne s uda, ur yewwit ara yes-sen, ad yefk taryalt d lexiyya i tejmat. w.9. Tameut ma teyye s ler-is, yewwe-d chada er tejmat, ad yefk urgaz xemsin n teryalin d lexiyya i tejmat d timecre. Ad ternu tejmat ad ter lqermud n uxxam n win ixedmen lamer-nni.

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w.10. Win yukren era ne taffa deg yi, iban fell-as wayen yewwi, ad yefk lerma i bab n era ne n taffa. Ad yernu ad yexser ayan yewwi. Ad yernu, ma yeccekta yes-s i umeqran n tejmat, ad yefk ecrin n teryalin d lexiyya. Ma yella ur yeccekta ara yes-s win yettwakren, ulac fell-as. w.11. Win yukren lexrif ne azemmur ne rremman, ne tiurin, ne ddukkar, yeef-it bab n cci, ad as yefk lerm, ayen i t-ihan Rebbi fell-as. Ad yernu ecra n teryalin i tejmat d lexiyya. Ma ur yeccekta ara yes-s bab n cci i umeqran ur yettak wayra. w.12. Win yennuen d tmeut ad yefk xemsin d lexiyya i tejmat, ama tewwe-it tmeut ne ur t-tewwi. Lamena ma tewwe-it tmeut ad yefk urgaz-is ayen iger fellas umeqran. W.13. Win ur nedir ara i unejma ad yefk snat n teryalin. Win ur d-neliqq ara ladad ad yefk reba alamma iserre-as umeqran ne amen.
Abalu : A. Hanoteau, 1858, Essai de grammaire kabyle, -Les principes du langage parl par les populations du versant nord du Djurdjura et spcialement les Igaouaouen ou Zouaoua. Suivi dune note et dune notice sur quelques inscriptions en caractres dits Tifinar et en langue tamacert-, Bastide, Alger, Isebtar: 315, 316, 317.

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5.4. Tuddsa-s Deg tala-s yettbin d aris imwelleh acku, tamezwarut aris-a yettwasuddes s usmiwer (abdar) n yisuaf. Tin ur-s yal taseddart tbedd iman-is s tualin er uzarig amaynut yerna yettwassissen-d s wuun-is iman-is. Maca llan yirisen deg wadeg n wuunen, semrasen ijerrien deg tazwara n yal asauf. Ihi, tugna-ya n uris i ef d-nemmeslay i d-yettaken tala n yimwelleh. 5.5. Iferdisen n tutlayt 5.5.1. Taliwin n umyag Deg uris-a, d wid yettakken anzi ur-s, llant snat n tmera, ttwasuddsent d tayuga : izri d ad + urmir. Maca azal n yizri deg uris-a ibedd ef umaun d yizri i d-yemmalen tigawt yemden, tekfa. Tayuga-ya tessenfalay-d sin n wazalen yemcudden deg erru-nsen. Izri yemmal-d tigawt tamezwarut (antrieure), ad + urmir yemmal-d agmu ne ayen s ara dteglu tigawt yeftin er yizri. Assa-a yettili akka : mi ara teru tigawt, d ayen temmed = izri tgellu-d s unelkam ne s ugmu = ad + urmir. Isuaf yellan deg uris-a ad ten-naf akk ftin s wassa-a amelan. Amedya : - Win yukren axxam deg yi, iban ad yefk xemsin n teryalin... Ad yernu ad yefk azal ad t-yerr. - Win yennuen d tmeut ad yefk xemsin d lexiyya i tejmat

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Tamawt : as deg uris-a nufa d amaun, d yizri akked ad + urmir i yugten, deg yirisen-nnien, i yettilin s tuget, d ana. er imedyaten-nnien deg tjentet. 5.5.2. Udmawen n tjerrumt Deg tsekka-ya d ayen ibanen udem ief tbedd d udem wis sin d asuf ne d asget. D udem-a i yugten acku iswi n uris d nehwat ne d awelleh n yimdanen, yemmal-asen d acu i d-yewwi ad t-gen, d acu ur nlaq ara ad t-gen. Am wakken i yasen-yemmal daen abrid ara win deg kra n tegnatin. Deg uris-a i wimi nga taslet, d udem wis kra i yugten. Hatnan yimedyaten n uris : - Win fell-as yewwi, ad yefk Ad yernu ad yefk yewwi ad t-yerr. - Win ad yefk yewwet. Wamma ma yejre-it, - Win fell-as ad yefk... Ad yernu ad yexser ayen yewwi. Ad yernu, yes-s ad yefk ecrin n teryalin d lexiyya... Aris-a aken ma yella yerza udem wis kra. Yessemres-it umaru akken ad yefk azal amatu i yisuaf, s wawal-nnien, udem-a ila azal amatu, yerza yal amdan. 5.5.3. Isuraz Am wakken d-nenna iwsawen aris imwelleh ur yesri ara i yisuraz, ara d-yesseknen asezen d wassaen gar tseddarin acku tineggura-ya d tilelliyin, ur zdint ara d aris yedduklen. Da isuraz i yellan deg uris-a d wid yettgen assa
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gar tefyar n yal taseddart ne n yal asauf. Hatnan kra n yimedyaten. - Win yewten s tmekelt ad yefk meyya i tejmat d lexiyya. Wa ma yella ur yejri ara yes-s, win akken yewwet. Wamma ma yejre-it, ad yerr ttar-is win yettewten. Alama yefa-yas, imir-nni ad ya leqq n yidammen-is, ayen i yasiqedder lqai. Deg tseddart-a yella usaraz yessenfalay-d tawtilt : ma, yiwen yessenfalay-d amgired : wamma, yiwen yessenfalay-d akud maca deg tefyirt-a ila azal n ugmu : imir-nni. Deg taggara yewwi-d ef yimeri ad yerr tamawt, tuget deg uris imwelleh ne imsendeh seqdacen deg-s ana ne ad+ urmir d wudem wis sin. Yettili wannect-a acku mi ara yebu umdan ad yesken abrid ne ad iwelleh waye yewwi-d ad as-yemmeslay srid i netta, da iwellihen yesseftay-iten er wana imi s tala-ya s yezmer ad t-yessendeh. Amdya deg ferret n ddwa iwellihen ttilin s wudem-a : - Uqbel ad teswe ddwa-ya, semu aman. - Smir-iten er tqeet alma teur. - Rwi taqeet-nni alma texle akken iwata. - S wakka ad tili ddwa tewje, tess snat n tenawin n wu i wass er yimekli. Iwellihen-a zemren daen ad ilin ftin er ad + urmir.

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6. TASEKKA N UDIWENNI Tasekka n udiwenni, d aris i d-yettawin tameslayt yellan gar sin ne ugar n yimdanen. Nezmer ad t-naf deg teywalt n yal ass, deg umezgun, deg tsastanin i ttgen yinemassen, deg uskasi akken yebu yili. Ibedd s umata ef useqsi d tririt. Adiwenni yettili daen deg ungalen mi ara yebu umaru ad d-yawi tameslayt ef yimi n wudmawen yellan deg wullis. Awway-a n tmeslayt yettili srid war kra n ubeddel 1 . 6.1. Tuddsa Adiwenni yettwaqal s tefses ama iman-is i yella, ama yekcem deg uris am wullis. Ila sin n wudmawen ne n taliwin : Udem amezwaru : yettbin-d s kra n yittewllen i d-icudden, s tuget, er usenqe, da amaru mi ara t-iger deg uris yessemras : - Amyag n wuduf ne n tguri am yenna, yerra i wimi d-yessefar snat n tneqin. - Tuccar ( ) deg tazwara n udiwenni akked tagarra-s, ti skanent-d tilist-is.

Awway n tmeslayt deg yirisen d aric-nnien i yesran i tezrawt akken ad dibin amek i yettili deg tmazit yinnaw usrid akked yinaw arusrid. Yezmer yimeri ad ier imahilen yemmugen ef usentel-a, amedya : Senhadji Wassila, 2008, Inaw usrid d yinaw arusrid, Tasdawit n Bgayet.
1

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- Tualin er uzarig amaynut, d tririt n ujerrid yal tikelt ara d-yemmeslay wudem. Udem wis sin : s umata d tala-ya yakan i yettiman maca llan kra n yimura ur rennun ara tuccar-nni acku ttwalin yezmer yimeri ad d-yesnekwu s tefses adiwenni deg uris. Da semrasen anagar tualin er uzarig amaynut akked ujerrid yal tikelt ara tbeddel tmeslayt. (er aris amezwaru). Tamawt : Llan yirisen akka am umezgun bedden anagar ef udiwenni srid maca amaru yettaru-d yal tikelt deg tazwara n yal tameslayt isem n win ara d-yemmeslayen. Am wakken yella udiwenni ideg amaru yessissin-d tuddma n wawal tamaynut s tualin er uzarig akked umyag n tguri. (er aris wis sin). 6.2. Iferdisen n tutlayt Deg udiwenni s umata tettual tamawt er yimayagen n tguri ne wuduf n tmeslayt, am : yenna, yerra, isu, ieyye, yessawel, inebbeh, yeggul, igem, yesseqsa, yessegza, yessumer,. Ma deg wayen yerzan timra d addad n yinnan (situation dnonciation) i d-yemmalen aniti taliwin i iwatan i izemren ad mlent ayen yeran, ayen ara yerun ilmend n tegnit-nni ne imir-nni n tmeslayt. D ta i yettilin d amatar (repre) n erru n tigawin. Akken ula d udmawen n tjerrumt rzan srid wid yettmeslayen : udem amezwaru d wudem wis sin.

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6.3. Amedya n udiwenni Adiwenni deg wullis Aris 1. Snat n tullas d timeca sawalent gar tumas, daxel n ujelbab, awal n Rebbi. Tullas-nni ur wwient ara ahat rbeac n yiseggasen deg lemer-nsent. D tulawin n uzekka. D Lezzayer n uzekka, daen. D tdayin-nni d azekka, d aekka. - Ur nettimi ara ! Ad nru, ma yehwa-yas er Burkina Fasso ! - D acu ? - Ulac asirem deg tmurt-a, a Dalila ! Nan-a ula deg ddu. - Anida ara naf asirem ? - Anda ur ttmettaten yifrax. Tewwe-d tmacint. Nerkeb. Neef imukan. - Tif lkar ! - Amek, a Dalila ? - Nni-ak : tamacint-a tif lkar. - Ula d tamacint armi d ass-a i tt-tesne ? - Armi d ass-a. Tesla-ya-d Nadya, tecmume. - Twala akken tettasa fell-am Nadya. - D sse, fell-i i tesi ? - Ala fell-awen ! Amacint tsadd. Dalila tettmuqqul deg yidurar nettaa deffir. Nadya tennec er Murad, awal ulac. Nettayeef-as
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afus. Muqqle seg aq, iban-iyi-d wiss ma d bururu ne d agerfiwyers ef teslent. Neffe Bumerdas ? Tserre tmacint i tikli.
T. Oould-Amar, 2006, Bururu, Tizrigin Azur, Isebtar : 122, 123.

Aris 2 : Irgazen 1 Nnig lekem d cci ssebba tis tlata n tezmert d irgazen. Lketra n tegmat d cci, ne ad tif cci. Tusa-d yiwet n tmeut er Ccix, tebda la s-tettru, tua aas. Yenna-yas : Acu kem-yuen ? Tenna-yas : Anam a Ccix, efk-iyi-d kra s lemun. Yenna-yas : Ayen ? Tenna-yas : Kkatent deg-i tulawin s wawal. Yenna-yas : Amek ? [] Tenna-yas : Yiwet ad testemil ad tcennu zdat-i, teqqar-as : Ay yifer n yibawen Yegman d asawen Amek ara k-id-yas yies A win yean yiwen. Yenna-yas Ccix : Daya ? Tenna-yas : Anam a Ccix, nek awal-a yera-yi []

Aris- a yella d ummid deg tjenet.

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Yenna-yas : Ad am-d-mle amek ara sent-teqqare, mi ara m-d-qqarent akka. Tenna-yas : Anam a Ccix amek ? Yenna-yas : qqar-asent : Ay yifer n yibawen Yegman d asawen Xellun-tt ecra Iemmer-itt yiwen. Da seg wass-nni yeqqim-d wawal-a d lemtel.
M. Mammeri, 1990, Yenna-yas Ccix Muend, Laphomic, isebtar : 123, 124.

7. TAGGRAYT Amahil-a yekcem deg tesnilset n uris, yella-d akken ad d-yeldi abrid i tselin yerzan irisen iwakken ad nissin iferdisen imezgiyen n yal yiwen deg-sen, ama d ayen yerzan tuddsiwin-nsen, ama d ayen yerzan iferdisen n tulayt yettwaseqdacen deg yal yiwen. Asnekwu d tmusni n wallalen s yettwaru yal aris yessifsus, deg tama, i yimeri tigzi akked tira-ines acku d iferdisen-a i d tisura i yessefk ad ilint er unelmad akken ad yesnerni tizemmar-is tutlayanin. Deg tamannien, asnekwu-ya yezmer ad d-yefk tikti i uselmad akken ad ier aniwi iferdisen iwatan yal tasekka n uris akken ad tenyesselmed ne akken ad d-yesbedd tugzimin-ines tisnalmudin.

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Amahil-a ur d-yessukk ara ti ef tsekkiwin akken ma llant ; mazal amedya tasekka tudyizt ne tasekka n tesnukyist (type potique ou rhtorique) akked tsekka n ukacef ne n usfilet 1 (type prdictif). Tin ur-s yessefk ad ilint tezrawin2 ara yerren tamawt er tewsatin n yirisen acku lulent-d tura deg tmazit aas n tsekkiwin 3 yuklalen tiselin akken ad ten-idnegmer, ad tent-nesle, ad tent-nissin. Da amahil-a nezmer ad t-nwali zun d tiri n usalu akken ad d-rnunt tezrawin-nnien deg tault n tesnilest n uris acku tamazit tesra i waas n yimahilen yecban wa. D imahilen-a, akken nettwali, i izemren ad ilin d tallalt i tmusni n tulmisin n yal aris akked tmusni n wayen terez tutlayt d tiwsatin iwatan ad ttwaslemdent. Tiwsatin ne akken tentttwalin yimusnilsen ifuras utalayanen : productions langagires d nutenti i d iqulab ne d nutenti i d timudmawin i neafar mi ara nettmeslay ne mi ara nebu ad d-naru aris.

1 Aris n ukacef d win i d-yemmalen d acu ara yerun deg yimal. Adris-a yerza sumata: tawenza (horoscope), tugnewt(mto), akked ugezzen. Ur as-yettunefk ara yisem ulmis iban, da deg umahil-a smerse awal akacef, ne asfilet. 2 Ier ara d-nual deg yimahilen i d-iteddun. 3 Yezmer yimeri ad ier tazrawt n Doctorat ideg d-snekwa twsatin yemgaraden n tmazit yellan deg tallit-a.

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8. IBULA Adam J.-M., 1990, Elments de linguistique textuelle, Bruxelles-Lige, Mardaga. Adam J.-M., 1992, Les textes : types et prototypes Rcit, description, argumentation, explication et dialogue, Paris, Nathan. Adam J.-M., 1999, Linguistique textuelle. Des genres de discours aux textes, Paris, Nathan. Adam J.-M., 2005, La linguistique textuelle, Paris, Armand Colin. Ayt Yiil M., 2001, Atalanta, tasuqqilt n Instant crucial n Pierre Bellemare. Belaid H., 1996, Tira n Ibn Xeldun, deg Izen Amazi, uun 6. Bouamara K., 1998, Ussan di tmurt, Tasuqqilt n ungal Les jours de Kabylie M. Feraoun. Boulifa A.-S., 1913, Mthode de langue kabyleCours de deuxime anne, Alger, Adolphe. Boutal A., Iuran 38, Yennayer 2003. (Aris Tamazit). Canvat K., 2003, Lcriture et son apprentissage : une question de genres ? Etat des lieux et perspectives, dans Pratiques, n 117/118, pp. 171 - 179. Chaker S., 1989, Aspect, Encyclopdie berbre VII, p. 971-977. Chaker S., 1991, Manuel de linguistique berbre II. Syntaxe et diachronie, Alger, ENAG. p. 58.
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Chaker S., E.D.B n 12. (Aris Tifina). Chemakh S., Tasunt Timmuza, HCA, Un 16, 2008. (Tullizt ecrin duru). Coltier D., 1986, Approches du texte explicatif, dans la revue Pratiques, n 51, pp. 322. Djellaoui M., 2007, Tiwsatin timensayin n tmedyazt taqbaylit, HCA, Alger. FDB n 102, Quatre aspects de la coutume en voie dvolution. FDB, n 102, (Aleszreg wis 2) 1969 (2), aric wis kra Tigujelt. FDB, Un wis 1021960, Yamina At mer U Said 1947. (Aris n ???). Genevois H., Un village kabyle Taguemount-Azouz, FDB, 1972. Genevois H., Educaion familale en Kabylie, FDB n89, 1966. Genevois H., Le sage Bou-Amrane, 1965. Hanoteau A., 1858, Essai de grammaire kabyle. Les

principes du langage parl par les populations du versant nord du Jurjura par les Igaouaoouen ou Zouaoua, suivi de notes et dune notice sur quelques inscriptions en caractres dits tifinagh et en langue tamachrt, Bastide, Alger. Imarazen M., 2006-2007, Timayin n Leqbayel, HCA,
Alger. Kezzar A., Tasunt TIRA, uun 02, 2000. Mammeri M., 1990, Inna-yas Ccix Muhend, Alger, Laphomic.
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Meksem Z., Aneskin ef wullis, yedda-d deg Yirit (Document) n temlilt n yiselmaden, 1997, deg Bgayet. Meksem Z., Ammud n yirisen n uselmed, i d-sufen yiselmaden deg temlilt n 15 ar 17 mayyu 1999, Bgayet. (Aris : Tamart n setti). Meksem Z., Aris imsegzi, deg Tannant usile n tmazit, Actes du Stage de perfectionnement des enseignants de la langue amazighe. Zeralda, les 30et 31 mars 2004, Publication de HCA, Alger 2004. Meksem Z., Communication Lintroduction de tamazight lcole et la didactisation des textes, prsente au colloque : Lvolution de lamazighit depuis son introduction dans les institutions tatiques organis les 12 et 13 mai 2008, au Palis de la Culture dOran. Meksem Z., 2007, Pour une sociodidactique de la langue amazighe : approche textuelle, Thse de Doctorat, Laboratoire LIDILEM-Grenoble 3. Merahi Y., 2008, Tigejdit n tesunt Timmuza, HCA, uun 16. Mezdad A., 1990, I d wass, Asalu/Azar, Alger. Nekkar H., Yugar ucerrig tafawet. Ed. Yuba Wis sin. Ould Amar T., 2006, Bururu, Azur, Bgayet. Ouslimani, 2004, Akli ungif, Lezzayer, HCA. Alger. Picard A., 1958, Textes berbres dans le parler des Irjen, Imprimerie La Typo-Litho et jules Carbonel, Alger. Abdenbi R., 2008, Tamazit di internet, Tasunt Timmuza, Uun 16.

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Reuter Y., 1992, Enseigner et apprendre crire Construire une didactique de lcriture, ESF, Issy-lesMoulineaux. Reuter, Y., 2005, Lanalyse du rcit, Paris, Armand Colin. Scheuwly B., 1993, Enseigner crire des textes, dans A. Bentolila (dir.) Les entretiens Nathan. Parole, crit, image, Nathan, Paris, pp. 14 -152. Tasunt n Tiddukla tadelsant n Udrar n Fad, meres 2008. Tazaghart B., 200?, Lerrat. Tazaghart B., ????, Salas d Nuja. Tizrawin n turagt Zemmour S. & Benchalal S., 2007, Taslet nusussen n tutlayt n tmazit, Tasdawit n Bgayet. Sadou S. & Hassani A., 2008, Adris afuklan, Tasdawit n Bgayet. Senhadji W., 2008, Inaw usrid d yinaw arusrid, Tasdawit n Bgayet. Rabdi K. & Rabhi L., 2005, Aris aglaman, Tasdawit n Bgayet. Fedila M., 2003, Le texte explicatif de la langue amazighe, universite de Bjaia. Agaoua O. & Akli N., 2007, Tasekka n wullis : amedya temayt, Tasdawit n Bgayet.

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9. AMAWAL

A adasil base 25 agemmir thse 69 allalen isensegmiyen moyens pdagogiques 11 amatar / n wakud repre / indice temporel 47 amesaran / tamesara objectif / objectivit 58 ammud corpus 10 amsussen publicitaire 85 anesim membre 19 asatal contexte 27 asezen raisonnement 65 asisse / agassa mise en relation, mise en rapport 9 asmiwer numration 78 asussen publicit 10

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azenzi n teywalt schma de la communication 27 azenzi n wudmawen schma actanciel 22 I idlisfusen manuels 11 imsensegmiyen pdagogues 20 isfernen critres 24 L leqwaleb ne d timudmawin moules 21 S snekwun identifier 11 T tadyant yeran fait divers 42 tault domaine 11 tamsukt structure 22 tasensekka typologie 7 tasnalmudt didactique 18
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tazrirt influence 32 tasnukyist rhtorique 46 tezmert tasnilsant comptence linguistique 23 tidmi pense 19 tigensas reprsentations 12 tigruma (cf : tagruma) ensembles 13 tihawt tirant prsence graphique 12 tikkesrert substitution 54 tirawalt orthographe 18 tirmad n tira activits dcriture 22 tisekkiwin n yirisen types de textes 24 tugzimin n uselmed sequences denseignement 11 tumant phnomne 55 U urkud (awarkudan) atemporel 60

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usis effort usmudem (asmudem) modlisation 21 Y yettwasmettin socialiss 12 yettwasmettin, asmetti socialiss, socialisation 12 yinefkan donnes

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10. AMMUD N YIRISEN1 ULLIS

Nnmara n sin n yimekraen Yiwen n wass ruen sin n lxuyan ad d-akren. Fetken er yiwen, kecmen i sin ar daxel n uxxam ; bdan ttqelliben, ttnadin armi mlalen d yiwet n tdebrit ; wet kksen-as aumu ufan-tt teur d udi yesbek lamer n Rebbi. Yeneq umeyan er umddakel-is, yenna-yas ar umeu : Rfed s lemadra ad tt-nessufe, d udi aleqqaq i teur. Yesferfec waye s ufus-is armi d immi n teqdurt-nni yebbe-it, yere-it : ay, d leeb i tesne ? Ta d tamemt mai d udi. Tual tekker gar-asen : win yeqqar-as d tamemt, win yeqqar-as d udi. Ula yiwen deg-sen ur yebi ad yer awalis, armi mesalen yimeslayen, rran-tt imir-nni akken dina deg lam u ellis d rregmat d uxucim. Yaki-d bab n uxxam-nni, yessazel ilua-d akk i liran-is ; kkren-d, zzin i uxxam armi ten-id-fen cudden-ten seg yiaren d yifassen, kkaten-ten armi ttfuun ; ddmen-ten, zuren-ten qbala ar lekem. Akken wen, bedden ar cra, yekem fell-asen s lebs ameqran s ur

ere deg ummud-a amek ara d-fke imedyaten i yal tasekka n uris akken imeri ad yesu tikti ef yal yiwet. Maca ur d-sedda ara adiwenni acku yella deg waas n yirisen n ummud-a, tin ur-s ur sawe ara ad d-germre ugar n yirisen n uwelleh ne n usendeh.
1

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tettun ara s kra ara ilin ddren, lemxilaf yellan gar wudi d tamemt.
Abalu : M. S. Boulifa, 1913, Mthode de langue kabyle. Cours deuxime anne, Alger, A. Jordan, p. 333.

* * * Tamsirt n yimdukal Tizerzert yiwen n wass teli, tuwas. Ussan-d ur-s lewuc, imdukal-is, ad tt-ren. an-as akk rbi i yas-d-yezzin, aquran azegzaw; win i tt-qerben s idisan-is. Mi d-tekker deg waan tnuda kra ara te ur tufi ara.Yena-tt la. Lmena n wawal : win yesan aas n yimdukal ur-s aas n uilif.
Abalu : A. Hanoteau 1858, Essai de grammaire kabyle. Les principes du langage parl par les populations du versant nord du Jurjura par les Igaouaoouen ou Zouaoua, suivi de notes et dune notice sur quelques inscriptions en caractres dits tifinagh et en langue tamachrt, Bastide, Alger, p.255.

* * * Tamnafeqt Tella yiwet n tmeut tejwe seg Waiyen er Tgemmunt n Ukerruc. Ass-nni deg ussan n Rebbi, tru-d ar taddart-is telsa-d lfea-ines. Teqqim ayen teqqim er
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yimawlan-is. Mi d-tual, tu-d abrid n Tgemmunt ezzuz. Tufa-d imeksawen ksan deg lexla. teda-d d tama-nsen. Armi twala ur d-niqen ara ur-s, tusem deg-sen : teba ad sen-ternu idawen akken ad tecel gar at Tgemmunt ezzuz yakked Tgemmunt n Ukerruc. Tera seg zik ur dilen ara gar-asen. Temme tekkes lfea-ines, tenel-itt dinna deg-yiwen n umruj, anda ur tt-id-walan ara. Tewwe er Tgemmunt n Ukerruc, tenna-yasen : - Ay at taddart, -Ay at taddart, erran-iyi At Tgemmunt-ezzuz, kksen sser fell-i : eqren-iyi imi d tameut. Refden At Tgemmunt n Ukerruc tiekzin bla leqel. Ufan-d imeksawen-nni la kessen. Arrac-nni messakit ugaden-ten, rewlen. Wen ar taddart, nnan-asen : - Hatan usan-d At Tgemmunt n Ukerruc, kksen-a lmal-nne, efren-a-d ad a-nen. Aql-a d tarewla i dnerwel. At Tgemmunt-ezzuz refden lesla ula seg liha-nsen, ruen s ameri nutni d Tgemmunt n Ukerruc. Tekker lfetna. Almi d yiwen n wass At Tgemmunt n Ukerruc faqenas i tmeut-nni asmi telsa lefea-ines. Seqsan-tt, ersen-tt, eqlen d lfea-nni n zik. Kkren yimeqranen-nsen wwin-tt-id er Tgemmuntezzuz; kkren ula d imeqranen n taddart-nne nnan-asen : - Ay At Tgemmunt-ezzuz, ad d-nejmaem irkelli akken ad awen-d-neleb sma akken ma tellam, am urgaz am tmeut. Hatan newwi-d tin i d-yegren lbael. Rran-tt deg tlemmast, nan-tt.

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Seg yimir-nni At Tgemmunt n Ukerruc ualen d ibiben-nne.


Abalu : H. Genevois, Un village kabyle Taguemount- Azouz, FDB 1972, Asebter 139.

* * * Ul yemmuten yedder Yusef, i wimi ttlain Romo, yedder deg yiwen n uxxam netta d yimawlan-is akked gma-s ameqqran Rafiq. Atlanta, fell-as 14 n yiseggasen, ula d nettat tezde deg yiwen n uxxam d yimawlan-is. Atlanta, teba ef lakul azal n ddurt; tekcem er sbiar, acku tuen ul-is, Yusef, segmi yesla, tenbeddal lala-s, tudert tual-as d tarzagant : ur yessibnin ui, yeddelwi ur yeri anida itteddu. - Bi ad am-d-ini kra n wawalen a yemma ! i yasyenna Yusef i yemma-s. - Ini-d a mmi, ini-d, aql-i da, ad k-d-sle. - Ma mmute, fkem ul-iw i Atlanta. Yezmer ad as-iliq. Steqsa imawlan-is, nnan-iyi-d tuen nezzeh ul-is. - Acu i d-teqqare akka ! Anwa i k-yennan ad temte ? Ilemiyen ma ehden am ke, ur ttmettaten ara. Yerwi-k wayen yeran d Atlanta ! Sexdem aqerruy-ik, i wimi-ten ebbat ? Nutni ad as-d-afen ul, mai d ayla-k i uwajen.

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- Bi ad yi-tahde, ma mmute, ad as-tefkem ul-iw. Akka ara nekfu tamacahut. Deg uqerruy n Yusef, taluft tefra : Iemmel Atlanta, ilaq ad as-yefk ul-is, D aya. Imawlan n Yusef, ia-iten mmitsen iemmlen taqcict armi yeba ad as-yefk ul-is. Zrin kra n wussan, Atlanta mazal-itt deg sbiar. Yusef, tikwal, irezzu yur-s yesteqsay anda tewwe lala n tin iemmel. Simmal zerrin wussan, lala tessefcal, ul ur d-iban i Atlanta. Tuen nezzeh, udem-is ssellaw. Lezen yu deg wudem n Yusef, itett drus, ur tyessibnin, lqer n uqerruy-is yal ass yettzid, asekkud-is yenqes. Mi ara d-yezdi lqedd-is seg wusu, s yiil i yteddu. Yemma-s n Yusef tuggad, mmi-s tura yeggugem. Refden-t srid yer sbiar. Yiwen ur yeri acu t-yuen ; deg ddunit-is werin yuen. bib, mi yekfa auffu, s usurrif ayen, yena imawlan n Yusef. Yenna-yasen : - Mmi-twen yessalqaf. Aqerruy-is yensa ! - Yemmut ? - Ur yemmut ara, aqerruy-is yensa, ma d ul-is mazal ixebbed. Ulac ara s-nexdem. Deg sbitar-nnien, Atlanta tettraju ul ansi ara tt-idyawe. Yemma-s n Yusef tenna i bib : - Yera ad yemmet, yenna-yi-d d akken ilaq ad astefkem ul-iw i Atlanta, ana meqqar mai ef waya i yemmut? - Ala a massa, yiwen ur yezmir ad yefru taluft akka. I yas-yerra awal ttbib.
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- Ur fhimey ara, deg ddunit-is yuen. Azekka-nni, iqeddacen n sbitar heyyan-d takerrust ara d-irefden Yusef yer sbiar anda tella Atlanta. ebbat nnan i Atlanta, ufan-as-d ul, ilaq ad theyyi iman-is. er tlemmast n yi n wass wis kra tela, tuki-d, gar yidmaren-is d ul n yiwen-nnien i yzedyen. Acemma acemma, tewre ef wudem n Atlanta tettekkes, tikwal tettbeddad-d tneqqeb kra n wui. Ul n Yusef icudd-itt er ddunit, yesserwel-itt-id ef lmut. Yiwen n wass, mi d-yerza baba-s n Yusef er Atlanta, yefhem deg wallen n teqcict, yezde usteqsi ef mmi-s, yenna-yas : - Yusef yedder deg yidmaren-im !
Abalu : Aris-a yettwakkes-d seg : Pierre Bellemare, Instant crucial. 2001. Yerra-t-id er tmazit : Muhend Ayt Yiil.

* * * Tilifun Mi yessawel tilifun, lli ddaw tduli se, ttraju am wakken rekbe di lbabur ad inige. Lada ruen akk wid ukud d-kkre, wid lwai d-nekka tizerbatin n wussan, nezre ieqqayen n tirga. Racid, tman, Laziz, Murad xtaren tamuli s mebid, tilelli n tilit, an-iyi-d irrij n tmes i nessa ad as-ili d aessas. Nni mi yessawel tilifun, s tmara i d-ldi allen-iw. Refde-tent s leddez d cwi n zzef. I yezrin ur ise ara,

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nfuk aqeed n wudem anaggaru n tceqquft i nessawjad. Mi akken d-yewwe ssut s imezza-iw, yefferfer leddez, yefruri zzef. - D kem ? - Anita tenwi ihi ? Teereq d tasa. - Ur tufi anita, teri d kem kan i si ! Ansa i dtessawale ? - Da, seg lexmis. Arju din, tegnit ad n-awde. Allu, allu
Abalu : B. Tazarart, 200, Lerat, isebtar : 45 d 46.

* * * Mmi-s n Bu emran Mmi-s n Bu emran yemel yiwet n taklit. Yenna-yas baba-s : E tameut-a ur k-tlaq ara. Mmi-s yugi. Bu emran isewweq yu-d turin 1 d uksum. Gren-ten er tugi 2 . Akken yettewwa, yenna-yas i mmi-s : - Ger afus-ik, yewwa uksum-nni. Iger afus-is, yeddem-d anagar turin, yera axaer azegga-nni yezzer. Amar-nni iger, da netta, afus-is yeddem-d aksum, yenna-yas :

1 2

Afewwad. Taccuyt.

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- Win yeran, ire meqqar ef wayen yelhan. Seg tedyant-a mmi-s yea taklit-nni.
Abalu : H. Genevois, Le sage Bou-Amrane, Kabyle, 1965. Asebter 89.

* * * ecrin duru1 Ah ! saa deg yemma-s saa ! D wi i d imeslayen i wumi d-yebra Urezqi mi yeqqim er abla di ttberna... Yettkemmil ihedder ud-s. - Ru tura ke amen-iten !... Am win yettrebbin azrem s iri-s ! Arezqi ur nennum ara ttbernat, d tikkelt taxeayt mi ara yerr ad d-isew tabyirt ne snat netta akked yimeddukal-is, as ad bun ad qqimen, netta yettaf-d amek ara yennser mebla ma yella win ara inadin ad t-yeef din s uiwet ne s wawal. Maca d acu i t-id-yewwin ass-a, hatan yekcem-d am uzger ihajen. Yerra-d nnehta, yessawel-as i ucqcic-nni yesserbayen, yessuter-as taqret n ccrab. Da akken i s-d-yenna uqcic-nni : - Ur nesserbay ara ccrab mebla lmakla... Arezqi iru am win izefen yenna-yas : - Awi-d, ma yella ad swe s wui ne mebla ui, mai di cene...

Tullizt.

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Simi yettrau, simi yettayes, iar, qqlent ddqayeq d sswaye... - Uuk !... Atan yewwe-d uqcic s teqret n uzegga, yekkes-as-d aummu-nni uqeccuc, yerra ad d-yesmir, yemme Urezqi ef tqeret-nni yekkes-as-tt-id seg ufus yenna-yas : - Hhe ! D nekk ara d-yesmiren iman-iw, awi-yi-d acu ara e, ternu-d taqeret-nnien... Aqcic yezzi s tawalt, Arezqi la yesmaray, itess... Yebda yettmekti-d, yettwali kra yedder, udmawen i d-yettasan, isell i imeslayen n wid yettwali... Arezqi mai akka i yettwassen ur medden d acu i t-yewwin ad yual akka ? Ad ibeddel di ci n lweqt ? Amek i yuyal d asekran netta yellan d amedya n yirgazen ? Hata wakken tera yid-s... D ayen yettwali deg temdint n Lezzayer i yewwin Arezqi ad iruh ad d-yesli (ney ad d-yezwe) si taddart-nni iseg d-rewlen yimawlan-is deg lgirranni er da, er La Kasba. Fea, akka i d isem n teqcict-nni i yu ur teri ara, ur tessin ara d acu i d lakul. Imawlan-is ur ttfkin ara ad ter acku deg tallit-nni urad fhimen medden acu i teswa leqraya n tullas. D arrac kan i yeqqaren, ma d tullas messakit ttimint deg uxxam qeddcent, ttxiint... ne xeddment tibirin d lecal-nnien n lexla. Ttimint, akken qqarent ...Ttrajunt lmektub-nsent !. Lmektub- a d alba n yilmeyen ne ahat d alba n yimaren i wumi ara tt-fken yimawlan-is. Lmektub n Fea d Arezqi. Arezqi yenna-yas deg wul-is : ad ae tin ur neri ara, tin ur nessin ticmatin-a i ssnent temserrin yeran.... Iyil umebun d leqraya i dyeslalen kra n leyub yellan deg tmetti tazzayrit. Mbad anadi
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d tifin n Fea, tella-d tnefkit di taddart, tedda-d teslit. Sakin, usan-d yislan er Lezzayer anda ara zeden. Axxam ideg llan yezga-d di lbaimat yebnan d timaynutin, deg wannag wis ukuz. Arezqi ixeddem deg lbiru, segmi ara yeffe tifawt ef sseba d uzgen armi d lxemsa n tmeddit i d-itezzi. Itett imekli anda ixeddem. Si laman yellan gar-as d tin yellan d tacrikt n ddunit-is, Arezqi iulfa i yiman-is seg wid uur i d-yerza lfer. Ussan ideg ur ixeddem ara, Arezqi yesedday-iten d Fea deg ttemri, d tirza er yimeddukal ne er yiulan. Tameut ur yelli kra i txuss ad tlum fell-as : - Kra teba yella ma ur yelli ad d-yili ! Maca tettxiqi deg timit ud-s deg uxxam kra yekka wass. Kra n tmeddit n wass, yekcem-d urgaz si lxedma, aqrab ddaw ufus, yesla i uan, aessas n tewwurt n lbaima yessawel-as-d. Yenna-yas : - Mselxir ay Arezqi, ass-a yusa-d ur-k yiwen n uqcic s axxam, ur t-ssiney ara iqder d gma-s n tmettut-ik. Yenna-yas Urezqi : - Saa a Dda uan ! Arezqi yettali tirekkabin yettxemim yef teswit amek tella : limmer i d-yusa mmi-s n udeggal-is, hatan ad yerr yur-s er lxedma akken i iwulef seg zik... Amek ur t-yessin ara uessas n tewwurt mi yi-d-yenna iqder d gma-s...? Mi yewwe s axxam, Arezqi yerra s lfer yessuden tameut-is, ssyin akin yea imensi. Maca ur yesteqsa ara Fea ef win dyusan. Nettat ur s-d-tenni acemma, amek ara tt-yesteqsi ? Azekka-nni, iru er lxedma, yekkes akk kra yesa d ccek, iil ahat d araq kan i yereq uessas-nni n tewwurt. Ulac uilif
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errqen akk medden, tikwal. Maca, tameddit mi d-yekcem, yenna-yas-d uessas-nni : - Mselxir ay Arezqi ! Ula ass-a yusa-d uqcic-nni ief kd-mmeslaye idelli... Arezqi yerra am win iwehmen, yeqqel am win ffen yidammen, maca yugad yella kra yettikki ukunsyirj-nni dya yenna-yas : - Ah ! ttu ur ak-d-nni ara, d mmi-s n udeggal-iw maca ur t-tessine ara acku urin d-yusi er da armi d tallilagi... Yenna-yas ukunsyirj : - Semmeh-iyi ay Arezqi di lenaya n tebbut-nni i k-idyefkan, ur t-ssine uqcic-nni d mmi-s udeggal-ik acku yennezruref yekcem ula d awal ulac-it, ula d udem-is yeffer-it fell-i amzun d amakar, maca ttwali yettara er wannag wis reba, uggade ad yili d albad ur tessinem ara, ad yili kra ideg ara ken-iurr... Yeqqim din Urezqi qessren cwi, awal yettawid waye armi yessawe yezra amek iga uqcic-agi i d-yettasen, d acu yelsa, amek ileu... ayagi mebla ma icukk ukunsyirj yella kra yellan. Mbed Arezqi yuli s axxam. Temmugger-it-id Fea s tasa maca, mbed mi qqimen akken ur tufi acu i yasd-tenna. Aqcic-nni ief yas-d-imesslay ukunsyirj sin yiberdan ur t-id-yewwi ara akk wawal. Ur tufi acu i d-tesban n lid ne n wayen-nnien ief ara tt-yesteqsi. Yerra iman-is amzun ur yesli kra s yimezzuen-is, yea-t wul-is ad ier ma yeskiddib uessas ne d tameut-is i yeffren kra fell-as. Yees deg lir... Azekka-nni, akken yu tannumi, yeffe iru... maca mai er lxedma i yerra, yerra er yiwen n umkan iqubel
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lbatima-nni ideg yezde. D kra ubedada ideg rsen yiqudas n waman. Amkan-nni yewa s axxam-is. Yeqqim din yessikid deg wid ikemen tteffyen, deg warrac yetturaren ; yettasa imi netta yezmer ad d-iwali medden, nitni ur t-id-ttwalin ara acku yedduri deffir n yiqudas. Tikkelt-nni, iwala Fea teffe-d s abalku, iwala-tt tesweday er yiwen n uxxam di lbaimannien anda i d-yettban yiwen n yilemi i s-d-yettarran... Cwi akka iwala ilemzi-nni yerra er lbaima-nni anda yezde, yekcem... Arezqi yera azal n mraw n ddqayeq, yekker yefer-it. Yuli tirekkabin, yewwe zdat tewwurt yesmesis da yesla i tasa tekka-d si daxel n uxxam-is. Yemme er lib n lbista yeddem-d tasarut tis snat n tewwurt, tin akken i d-iheyya inni izeryen. Yeldi tawwurt, yekcem, yesla i tasa tekka-d seg texxamt n tguni, yerra er din. Yekcem, yeqqur s yibeddi mi iwala tameut-is eryan gar yifassen n uqcic-nni i d-yefer Aqcic akken i d-iwala Arezqi iserre i Fea ef umetre, yebda la yettergigi. Ttmesmuqalen, amzun mraw n yiseggasen i ieddan deg ddunit-nsen... Allen n Urezqi urwent-d aldun yeran mi d-mlalent d tmuyli n Fea, dya akken i t-twala la ttyettxeir tserre d imetti acku til ad tt-ine ad yernu aqcicnni. Arezqi yezzi s ilemzi-nni yenna-yas : - Els iceien-ik ! Aqcic am win ara d-tekksed seg yimi n lmut, iuref yelsa aserwal, yerna atriku mbad yekkes-it-id acku yetti-t, ad as-iawed timelsiwt... Arezqi yenna-yas : - Awi-d ecrin duru...

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Yemme uqcic er lib-is yeddem-d ecrin duru, yefkayas-tent-id. Arezqi yenna-yas : - Tura, nnejli, acu tettraud ? Geffel ! Yeffey uqcic-nni seg texxamt ; ddeqs-zzalla, teerdeq tewwurt n berra ala tiri n warkasen ef trekkabin i wumi ara tesle tama n usmicrew n Fea. Ahat tera yid-s am win ara d-tessuksed seg tizi n lmut, ahat ad ibeddel tanezdut werin ad d-yezzi s akartyi-ya. Arezqi yettmuqul deg tmettut-is, yesteqsay ma d nettat i d nettat ne mai d nettat i d nettat. Ma d Fea tettru tugi ad tesusem. Yenna-yas : - Aha ! tura dayen ! Susem ! Yya-d ur-i !... Terra ur-s s urgagi, yenna-yas : - Serre tura i tmeleft-nni swayes tumme tafekkam ! Aha bru-yas ! ne tesseta-iyi ? Tebra i tmeleft er tmurt, allen-is ttazzalent d imei. Arezqi la tt-yettmuqul, yettxemmim : ayenakk i yella yid-s seg wasmi zewen, d tikkelt tamezwarut i yas-d-tban tecmet. Amzun akken sser-nni i tt-yedlen yenser, yerwel, yennejla, yenfa deg yiwet n tikkelt. Yenna-yas : - Els iceien-im ! ad yi-d-tafed deg usalu. Yeffe seg texxamt n tguni. Ci akka tekcem-d er tmesrit, targagit ur tekkis ara. Iwehha-yas-d akersi yenna-yas : - Qqim ! rfed-d allen-im, muqel-iyi-d, tini-iyi-d d acu i kem-ixussen ? ur-m ad tru... Terra ad tsu, ad tru, tual tessusem, tenna-yas : - Ulac ! Semme-iyi ay Arezqi ! deg lenaya-k... - Xai ! ini-yi-d acu i kem-ixussen ? Limer ur kem-ixuss wacemma, yili ur txeddme ara akka.
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- Ulac acu i xusse, di lenaya-k, semme-iyi... Yenna-yas : - Ana seg wasmi i kem-ue, kra ur kem-ixuss... Tfere mai d kra ahat di lemer-im ur tefrie am wasmi i telli yid-i, ur tellue, ur kem-yeni usemmid ; ayen akk i tebi s tawant i kem-id-yettawe ; kra i d-tesutre xedmeam-t-id. Ur am-kkise ara imawlan-im, yal tikkelt i lebi ttawi-kem er tmurt. Yal ass ur- m i ggane, ur afare ara sut iberdan, ur am-d-sekkre ara s axxam, ur kem-ttaa ara ud-m ad txiqe : anda i rriy ad kem-awi. Ayen i yitxede?... Tebbejneq d imetti, teli er yiarren-is, teqqar-as s usnexfet Semme-iyi.... Netta yekker amzun mai d netta i wumi tettmeslay ne uur teckene. Yeldi leqjer n texzant, yeddem-d lesqa Scotch, yebbi-d yiwen umur s lemqes, yenne-it i ecrin duru-nni, yenna-yas : - Nek hatan semme-am maca wissen kan alla-im d wul-im ma ad am-semmen, kem ixedmen tagi acemma ur ttectaqe... Azal n ssmana i ieddan, Arezqi ur yeggan ara er tmeut-is, ur itett ara imensi wala tiremt n tifawt deg uxxam. Yal ass d ssekran, si ttberna er taye, hala tissit. Itess am win iffuden aman deg unezruf. Maca fad yeggumma ad yekkes, yezga yettnerni... Ass-nni yenna-yas Urezqi i Fea : - Heyyi-d imekli i uzekka, ad d-asen yimawlan-im... Awal ur t-id-yerni ara, yeffe, iru er ttberna. Azekkanni mi d-ussan yimawlan n Fea, yefre yes-sen mai d kra, am zik ne ugar. Tu d netta i iceyen yiwen uqcic ur-sen er
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taddart yenna-yas : Ini-yasen ad d-asen, ere-ten-id s imekli... Iulan n Urezqi usan-d s axxam, ur yelli kra i cukken yella-d gar yelli-tsen d urgaz-is. Qqimen mmeslayen ef tmurt, ef lxedma, ef at uxxam... Ualen an imekli s tasa d uqesser. Mi fukken, qqimen deg usalu, yemme Urezqi er lib-is yeddem-d cecrin duru-nni i wumi yenne llesqa yennayasen i yinebgawen-is : - Anwa seg-wen ara yi-d-yinin ansi iyi-d-kkant ecrin duru-ya ad as-fke ayen i das-yehwan ? Tekker Fea tennayasen : - Ad rue ad awen-d-ssewwe llatay... Teffe seg usalu, terra er tenwalt (takuzint), yiwen ur d-yelhi yid-s imi caxen akk di tteqsir akked Urezqi. Maca teqqim tesmesis-d i wawal d-yellan gar-asen. Yezwar-d umyar (baba-s n Fea) yenna-yas i Urezqi : - ecrin duru-nni, iban d tid i k-d-iqqimen seg wayen i k-yefka baba-k, ad yettwarem, asmi yedder... Arezqi yenna-yas : - Xai. Da yeneq-d gma-s ameqqran n Fea yenna-yas : - Ihi iban tufid-tent asmi tellid mezziye, teffre-tent armi d tura... Arezqi yenna-yas : - Xai. Da teneq-d yemma-s n Fea tenna-yas :

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- A mmi zizen, ihi, ecrin duru-nni d tid i k-dyeqqimen seg wayen i k-d-tea yemma-k zizen uqbel ad tsahel s anda akken ara nawe, ad tettwarem... Yenna-yas Urezqi : - Xai. Da yeneq-d gma-s wis sin n Fea yenna-yas : - Dayen isehlen ihi, ecrin duru-nni d tid i k-dyeqqimen seg lexlas amezwaru i d-tefed, teffre-tent acku d ayen i d-thella s tidi n yiyallen-ik... Yenna-yas Urezqi : - Xai. Da slan i usebeb deg tewwurt, ubbnen yimeuen-nsen akken ma llan deg uxxam. Akken d-yeldi gma-s n Fea tawwurt, kecmen-d sin n warrac ttcercuren d tidi, lehhten, zzin er Urezqi nnan-as : - Azzel ! azzel ! iwel ! a Dda Arezqi ! tameut-ik teli-d seg ubalku, temmut...
Abalu : S. Chemakh, Tasunt Timmuza, Un 16, 2008, isebtar 60-65.

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ULLIS + IMSEGZI

Tukksa n sser (Nnif) [Aris-a yettmeslay-d ef wazal yesa nnif deg tuddar n Leqbayel deg lqern wis 19] Ulac i yettagden am tukksiwin n sser. Argaz ef ara yettwakkes sser, abeda zdat n tlawin, lmut axir fell-as, wala lefaye n ddunit. D lewayem ti ef ttmettaten neqqen Leqbayel. Kra yellan ttemmiden-as, xeddmen-t, ad ttawe er nnif, ulac din urar. Win ef ara yettwakkes sser, aya d ayen akk ran, ssnen yimdanen, ur yettirid aca s yidamen n win yekksen fell-as sser. Ulama ulac ay yuren er Leqbayel am temgert, mi ara yili tewwe akken ara yettwakkes fell-as sser, lmut axir-as wala tudert n ddell. ekkun-d yimaren ef zik, asmi llan yimdanen ssnen acu yeswa nnif, ef i d-yenna lqanun. Win ara ren yea seg usegres-is am zzayla, yera nnif-is. Ad as-elqen tabarda am uyul, ur aken-ni, yerna ad t-nfun ne ad t-rejmen mai. D aymi i d-nenna tukksiwin n sser, tarda-s s yidamen. Qbel nfaq 1 aneggaru, yella yiwen n uxxam d ameqqran n ccurafa deg mrawa i wimi qqaren axxam n Sidi Crif Ajennad. Deg lweqt-nni, la s tjadit-is, la s leqraya-s, ulac wi
1 Nfaq : d tanekra n ugdud mgal amnekcem am tnekkra n Ccix Aeddad deg useggas 1871.

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mechuren am Sidi Crif deg Leqbayel. Yella d netta i d aqerru deg lerc. ur-s yiwen n wakli i d-irebba am mmi-s, ef ur ieeb ara. Sidi Crif, ttkabaren akk medden, yella yesa sin n warraw d teqcict. Asmi meqqrit, taqcict tewwe d tameut, tekker teceq deg wakli n baba-s armi teli yid-s. Kra akka, iban-d fell-as uebbu. Ma yella d akli-nni yefhem tin yexdem, yerwel deg yi, ur yeri edd anta tamurt i t-yean. Akken yesla Sidi Crif s lmusiba i d-yelin fell-as, iceyye er lerc ad yennejma akken yella er temelt. Iru netta d mmi-s er tmeqbert, yeza aekka. Yiwen ur yefhim i wimi. Lweqt deg i d-leqen akk medden, yewwi-d yelli-s gar lerc akk, armi d aekka. Iedda yezla-tt netta s ufus-is. Yekker netta d mmi-s melentt. Imdanen akk ad yili akter n walef, ttmuqqulen wehmen deg lejeb yeran. Lweqt deg yeffe lexber, fehmen yimdanen ssebba n wannect-a, ualen ameyan, ameqqran ar ttcekkiren deg-s ; yalmi yual, ef tin yexdem, ef nnif, ttawin-t-id d lemtel ; win yekkren ar waye yini-yas : D anifi am Sidi Crif. Hata wakken tella lala n Leqbayel n zik.
Abalu : M. S. Boulifa, 1913, Mthode de langue kabyle Cours de deuxime anne, Ed A. Jourdan, Alger, isebtar 13 d 14.

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Asended1 Seg wass amezwaru mi yekcem er lluzin tamcumt ur yufi iman-is. Wissen anda yexdem kra. Dayen yual umdan d tamacint ur t-id-isa ad yerfed aqerru. Ussan-nni imenza yekkat fell-as uzaylal awal ur t-id-yettali. Ahat d tugdin i yugad ad tt-id-yawi deg berra. Yeya deg yiimi. Akken akken yalmi d yiwen n wass, s dat n yimddukalis merra ccaf-is yeba ad t-yerr d ulac. Ass-nni yeddem-it Muend Ameyan seg lexnaq, iennec-it er tmacint, yennayas : - Ssya d afell-a ader iman-ik ne ad d-snele ierman-ik. Deg wass-nni am win icektan i Rebbi. Ass-nni n larba, deg lkantina, akken tessusem cwi tegnit, yekker-d Muend Ameyan. Yezdi lqedd-is akken medden akk qqimen. Iserre i yiles-is ulac algam. Ayen yellan deg tassilt yessuli-t-id uena. Iez-d kra yellan yeffer. Medden akk elqen er yimi-s Awalen tteffen-d yugar asafsar. Yual yilesis d timezbert deg Walla-nsen. Yefres-asen kra n wacu iuren abrid n tmuli-nsen. Tban tidet deg tmurt. as aas i wen-d-sewwen lexrif deg tefsut, ttarran ssera d seksu. Maca ad tenger yemma-twen, d taguni i ken-sganayen. Yak zik ula d arum ur t-terwim. emdet Rebbi, tura kra yellan d ayla-nwen. Team, terwam. Akka Muend Ameyan yemmeslay tasaet ne tedda. Yekfa imekli. Ualen, yal wa s amiq-is.
1

D taganit : grve.

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Tameddit, iqerreb-d ur-s ahar yenna-yas : - A Muend n twait, tecfi d acu yakk i d-tenni deg lkantina ? Kra din yewwe er tmeut-nsen. Ad as-qqaren wa mai er uxeddim i d-yusa ; i uhuddu i wimi i d-yestufa [] Ammer ur as-d-ieyyen ara ahar ahat Muend ad yertem mi s-d-sawlen azekka-nni. Yeldi tawwurt s tehri-s, udem n talext iqubel-d Muend. abla teur d lekwae, wan nig wa. Yenna-yas wudem n talext : - Ammer am nek ula d alai fiel ma lua-ak-d, taqsit-ik ri amek ara tt-fru acku ke seg yimsedramen. Iles-ik yugar ialen-ik. Kra n wanda yella cwal aql-ik din. Kra n tikelt ara yili usendded, ke d amezwaru. Maca, abrid-a d aneggaru. Cwi akka yessuni-d tilifu, yerfed-it s zzef, yesseglef deg-s : - D acu ?... Tura kan ? Yea Muend din yeffe. Yekcem-d Dda Rabe, yenna-yas : - Tesli ne werad ? Imddukal-ik ugin ad kecmen er lkantina acama teffe ssya. Ixeddamen, nutni, ccna d ubendayer er tewwura :

Wala tasekkurt ! s ufell-a n tzemmurt, argaz-is iru, ibeddel tamurt.


Tema zedwa. Mi d-yeqqel Dda Raba yenna-yas :

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- La k-qqaren yiqemqumen ffe ssya, d lawan n yimekli. Deg lkantina, mi kecmen tera yid-sen am warrac tasa, anecre. Mi kfan ui yeneq ur-sen lxuni : Tura mi nea neswa ad yelhu umesllay. Ay atmaten ass-a d Muend, azekka d aher, waye d nek Ad a-ennun yiwen yiwen. Ihi, ulac am tagmat ! Ulac am tdukli! Ma neddukel yiwen ur a-yezmir.
Abalu : A. Mezdad, 1990, I d wass, Asalu/Azar, Isebtar 9, 70, 71, 130. (Aris-a nessamtawi-it acku yettwakkes-d seg waas n yisebtar).

* * *

ULLIS + AGLAM

Ayen i tei ad ak-ye Uyale-d si jji, wwe-d er taddart tameddit n wass, qbel ad yeli yitij. Zegre azniq n taddart, tabalizt deg ufus-iw. Ttmagare-d laci, ttmaqalen-iyi-d, mena ulac win ssne, ulac win i yi-yessnen. Aas-aya segmi i yi-ggi taddart. Tamurt tbeddel. Wwe er lara-nne, ldi tawwurt n usqif, kecme er ufrag ef yixef n tfednin, am umakar. D leyu-nni i i,
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i mazal bedden, d isemmaen. Tawwurt n uxxam temdel. Tawwurt-nni ef tteddi asmi meiye, ur yi-d-teqil ara. Texla lara. ef umnar n tewwurt, yees uqjun ; akken kan i d-yesla i later, yeldi-d allen-is, yesken-iyi-d uglan-is.ebse. Serse tabalizt-iw er Iqaa, qqure ! er lid n uxxam, isenned dduzan d aqdim, yulli-t sid, iban ulac win i ten-yessexdamen. Seg aq, s nnig n tewwurt, yetteffe-d dduxan, yettawi-d yid-s rria n Iqahwa. Sli i lehdur. Smuzegte ma yella kra ara fehme, ulac. Yebed ssut. Nni-as ahat d lbadna ay heddren. Cfi asmi mezziye, mi ara d-qqle deg uzniq, selle i yimaw!an-iw heddren s tuffra, ttaggaden ad sen-d-slen liran. Qerbe ciuh. Aqjun yesmezher-d fell-i. Iheyya-d iman-is. Uale er deffir. Ttxemmirne, nni-as ad tafed ulac win yellan sdaxel n uxxam-a. Dayen selle asmi meiye i dyettualen gar wallen-iw. D temi i d-yerran ssut. Bi ad ssiwle, seta. Bi ad sebebe, uggade. Anwi i yellan sdaxel ? Anwi ara yi-d-yeldin tawwurt ma sebebe ? D acu ara s-ini ma yesteqsa-yi-d ? Ad qerbe, kukra. Ad qqime... d axxam-nne. ewqe. Nni-as : lemmer ad d-yeffe walbed, ad yi-d-yini diri win yesmesisen er yixxamen ! d acu ara s-ini ? Ri zdat n tewwurt almi yeli yiij, ulac win i d-yeffen. Ri almi usse i yiman-iw d aberrani, refde tabalizt-iw, uale...
Abalu : A. Kezzar, Tasunt TIRA, uun 02, 2000.

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IMSENDEH / IMWELLEH

Lqanun n taddart n teslent Wa d lqanun n taddart n teslent, af waken llant le Dnsen deg zman amezwaru almi d tura. 1.u. Win yukren axxam deg yi, iban fell-as ayen i yewwi, ad yefk xemsin n teryalin d lexiyya i tejmat; xemsin d lerm i bab n uxxam. Ad yernu ad yefk azal n wayen yewwi, ne ma yella ad t-yerr. w.2. Win yukren tibirt, iban fell-as wayen yewwi, ad yefk xemsa u ecrin n teryalin d lexiyya i tejmat, xemsa u ecrin d lerm i bab n tebirt. Ad yernu ad yerr ayen yewwi i bab n tebirt. w.3. Win yewten s tmekelt ad yefk meyya i tejmat d lexiyya. Wa ma yella ur yejri ara yes-s, win akken yewwet. Wamma ma yejre-it, ad yerr ttar-is win yettewten. Alama yefa-yas, imir-nni ad ad ya leqq n yidammen-is, ayen i yasiqedder lqai. w.4. Ma yella yena, ayla-s ulamma deg waman, ad ye lerc, ad yernu ad yemmet, ne ad yefk ddiya, ma qeblen yimalan n win yemmuten. w.5. Win yewten s ujenwi ne s tgelzimt, ad yefk xemsin n teryalin d lexiyya i tejmat. Wa ma yella ur yejri ara yes-sen. Wamma ma yejre yes-sen, ad yerr ttar win yettewten. Ne ma yefa bab n ler ef ttar-is, ad ya ayen iyas-iqedder lqai deg yidammen-is.
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w.6. Win iwehhan s ujenwi ne s tgelzimt, ur yewwit ara yes-sen, ad yefk tmanya n teryalin. w.7. Win yewten s tekkazt ne s uda, ad yefk xemsa n teryalin d lexiyya i tejmat. Ad yerr ttar win yettewten, ne ma yefa fell-as, ad yefk leqq n ler, ma yejre-it. Ma yella ur t-yejri ara, ur yettak wayra. w.8. Win iwehhan s tekkazt ne s uda, ur yewwit ara yes-sen, ad yefk taryalt d lexiyya i tejmat. w.9. Tameut ma teyye s ler-is, yewwe-d chada er tejmat, ad yefk urgaz xemsin n teryalin d lexiyya i tejmat d timecre. Ad ternu tejmat ad ter lqermud n uxxam n win ixedmen lamer-nni. w.10. Win yukren era ne taffa deg yi, iban fell-as wayen yewwi, ad yefk lerma i bab n era ne n taffa. Ad yernu ad yexser ayan yewwi. Ad yernu, ma yeccekta yes-s i umeqran n tejmat, ad yefk ecrin n teryalin d lexiyya. Ma yella ur yeccekta ara yes-s win yettwakren, ulac fell-as. w.11. Win yukren lexrif ne azemmur ne rremman, ne tiurin, ne ddukkar, yeef-it bab n cci, ad as yefk lerm, ayen i t-ihan Rebbi fell-as. Ad yernu ecra n teryalin i tejmat d lexiyya. Ma ur yeccekta ara yes-s bab n cci i umeqran ur yettak wayra. w.12. Win yennuen d tmeut ad yefk xemsin d lexiyya i tejmat, ama tewwe-it tmeut ne ur t-tewwi. Lamena ma tewwe-it tmeut ad yefk urgaz-is ayen iger fellas umeqran.

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w.13. Win yeksan deg uctal, ad yefk snat n teryalin d lexiyya ; lamena ma yufa-t amen ne umeqran. Ma d bab n cci i t-id-yufan, ad ya deg-s lerm. D acu i d actal ? D azemmur, d tazzart, d tenirt, d iger, d taffa, d abellu, d aslen. w.14. Win ieddan i uerban n umeqran deg tmuqqint ad yefk snat n teryalin, alamma iserre-as umeqran ne amen imir-nni ur yettak ara lexiyya. Aya deg wayla-s, fiel ayla n lir-is. W.15. Win ur nedir ara i unejma ad yefk snat n teryalin. Win ur d-neliqq ara ladad ad yefk reba alamma iserre-as umeqran ne amen.
Abalu : A. Hanoteau, 1858, Essai de grammaire kabyle, - Les principes du langage parl par les populations du versant nord du Djurdjura et spcialement les Igaouaouen ou Zouaoua. Suivi dune note et dune notice sur quelques inscriptions en caractres dits Tifinar et en langue tamacert -, Bastide, Alger, Isebtar 315, 316, 317 (Aris-a mazal deg-s aas n leqwanen, rnu er isebtar : 318, 319, 320).

* * * Asaduf agensan n warraz Amagrad 1 : Amyezwer, yezmer ad yekki deg-s yal amdan i imelken akk allay-is, i yesan seg 18 n yiseggasen dasawen. Wid yewwin arraz n twala yezrin, ur zmiren ad kkin deg warraz tikelt-a (tis 6), anagar ma yella kkin berra umyezwer ma tessuref-asen tegnit.

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Amagrad 2 : Arraz yessutur seg yimekkiyen : ad kkin s tutlayt n tmaziyt kan, ad kkin deg sin n yimuren : amur n tira d umur n tmenna ; daymi yessefk ad yili yimekki deg tfaska ass n tmenna. Amagrad 3 : Isem n yimekki akked tansa-s, yessefk ad ilin uran akken ara teshel turi-nsen ; isem n twacult s yisekkilen irneqqranen, isem uzzig (slid asekkil amezwaru) s yisekkilen imezzyanen. Amagrad 4 : Ad d-yazen yimekki, er tansa-ya deg wadda, kra n yisefra s umedya uslig. Tezi n yal asefru, ur ilaq ad tili nnig kra n yisebtar yuran s uselkim (tehri 14, agerjerrid : 1,5). Amagrad 5 : Yessefk ad ilin yisefra uran s tira tamirant (tira tumrist n tmaziyt). Amagrad 6 : Irusfusen i d-yewwlen yer warraz, ur ttuyalen i yimawlan-nsen. Amagrad 7 : Uqbel amur n tmenna yakan, ad yeggal imekki : - Ar ines usefru i d-yewwi, - Ard ad yeqbel tiytas n tseqqamut akked yigmal n warraz, ay akken byun ilin. Amagrad 8 : Taseqqamut n warraz, deg-s imusnawen n tsekla akked yimedyazen. Amagrad 9 : Inesuma ad skizlen, ad zemlen, ad semlen imekkiyen n umyezwer s umyelfer n wuklal. Isefra yal imekki, ad ten-skazlen ma ulac mali sin n yinesyuma. Asesmel n taggara ad yili deffir tesnefrut (deg ugraw uffir, war inagan). Anagar kra yimekkiyen imezwura ara yawin arraz.
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Amagrad 10 : Inesyuma n tseqqamut ssebdaden tafrent-nsen yef yisefranen n uskazal. Taggara n tfaska, deffir yigma, ad ten-id-sissnen iwakken, ma yella wakud, ad tenyessezri ugraw deg tallumt, ad ten-yessifef. Amagrad 11 : Win, seg yimekkiyen, yunfen i usauf-a (ney ulama i yiwen seg yimagraden-is), ad yeffey seg twala-ya n warraz. Tiddukla tadelsant Adrar n Fad, tamsuddest n warraz, tessutur seg yal (t)imekki(t) ad as-bedden i usaduf-a, akked tuddsa n tfaska s umata,iwakken ad tedru, ad teddi tfaska deg talwit d tegmat.
Abalu : Tasunt n Tiddukla tadelsant n Udrar n Fad, meres 2008.

* * *

IMSEGZI

Lemwarba Xai mexa mi ara tafe tameut n Leqbayel tga ddunit deg uxxam n urgaz-is alamma temmut. Llant tiggad yettwaraben, lamena ttualent, lada ma sant arraw-nsent. Llant tiya, mi wurbent, ur ttualent ara i lebda : ttawadent zwaj. Llant tiggad yettaen tlata, reba n
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yirgazen deg ddunit-nsent : mi d-wurbent s ur yiwen, ad asent-d- sebrun yimawlan-nsent, ad tent-fken ad zewent s axxam-nnien. Llant tiya daen i d-yettwaraben kul ass : tameddit-nsent tettegray-d er yimawlan-nsent.
Abalu : Y. At mer U Said, 1947, Yeffe-d deg FDB, uun wis 102 1960

* * * Tifina Tifina d tira tamezwarut n Yimazien. Tella di tmurtnne dat n tira n tarabt d tlainit. Tennulfa-d dat n yimir n Massensen. Imazien n yimir-nni ttarun-tt ef yera, deg yifran ; ef yegduren, maca tigti ttarun-tt ef yiekwan : ttarun fell-asen isem n win yemmuten, d wi t-ilan, d wayen yexdem di tudert-is akken ur t-ttettun ara yinefaren. Tura, as d imuca i yefen deg-s, isul ar ass-a ttaruntt ; wiyi an-tt akk. Macan aas i iran ad neqqel ur-s, ad ttid-nessekfel, ad nettaru yes-s. D iseggasen i d-iteddun ara -dyinin sani ara teffe taluft-a.
Abalu : S. Chaker, E.D.B n 12.

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Tiqqar Tiqqar d urar tturaren-t warrac s yiarren-nsen, deg tefsut d unebdu. Urar n tiqqar yettili gar sin ne aas n warrac. Mi ara yili gar waas ttilin sin n lesfuf ; zeggen-d yiwen seg rrif, waye seg rrif, imir-nni ad myebdun d tiyita s yiarrennsen, wa s ubuqeddam, wa s tuna : wet ad wte ; mkul yiwen yettunu ef ssef-is. Ad uraren ard yun // imir-nni ad eddin ad qqimen, ad stefun.
Abalu : M. S. Boulifa, Mthode de langue kabyle Cours de deuxime anne, Ed A. Jourdan, Alger, 1913, p.321.

* * * D acu i d yir taqcict Mai d lebsa, mai d lmakla i yuren ef teqcict. Yefka-tt-id Rebbi asmi i tt-id-yexleq er ddunit : yexleq-as-d tamict-is ad tic alamma d asmi ara temmet. Ur nettebbir ara aas fell-as : nettebbir ammar ad d-teffe d yir taqccit. D acu i d yir taqcict ? D tin ur nesmesis ara i yimawlan-is, ixeddmen rray n uqerruy-is. Nettebbir-as ammar lecumat. Tinna ur as-teiwil ara ddunit. Imawlan-is ur frien ara ; baba-s yewer fell-as lal. Ad yerr taqelmunt

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ef uqerruy-is mi ara yeffe er ssuq. Tinna, ttweqqimen-as iniem n Meyeddin 1 . Ad tt-tettu yemma-s am teqqayt n turet, laxaer tafamilt n lali, akka i txeddem i teqcicit. Ma d yir tafamilt, baba-s ad yawi tihudit ef urur-is am bururu : ur yesi ara lmedheb : ad yefi cclaem-is. Tura, a Sidi Rebbi sser-a, tesre lmumnin. Dayen ef i yas-neqqar : win yesan taqcict am win yettwalasen ; taqcict am win yettfeen uzzal. Ma d taqcict n lali am sela ireben, d tin yeksen tacebbubt i yimawlan-is 2 : yes-s ara sellin deg tejmat. A Rebbi, efk-a-d taqcict s ara neher tafenazit.
Abalu : H. Genevois, Educaion familale en Kabylie, FDB n89, 1966 (1), asebter, 31.

* * * Azuzen Azuzen d yiwen n ssenf n tmedayzt i d-tettawi tyemmat s tjinantin d ccnawi ninen, mi ara tebu ad tesgen llufan-is. Anagmay P. Zumthor yefka-d yiwet n tbadut i ssenf-a n teskla ideg d-yenna :

D semm. Yeksen tacebbubt i yimawlan-is : annect-a yezmer yaba ad d-yini d akken taqcict iedqen, imawlan-is ur tteffren ara, sbeddaden iqerray-nsen.
1 2

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Azuzen d yiwen n ssenf n ccna i yessen akk umaal

tamedyazt-a tcennu-tt tyemmat i llufan tessdhay-it yes-s akken ad yees 1 .


Mhenna Mehfoufi deg tektabt-ines i yura ef ccnawi iqdimen n kra n tudrin n Leqbayel, abeda At Yessed, yefkad reba n yisemawen yemgaraden i ssenf-a n tmedyazt 2 : (Ahuzzu, asberber, azuzen, ashulli.) Ma d Muend Akli Sali yettwali Azuzen d ccnawi n usgan n llufan. Yefka-d ula d netta reba n yismawen i ssenf-a n tmedyazt : (Azuzen, ahuzzu, ashulli, adewwe) 3 . Kra seg yismawen-a ttwabedren-a-d deg unnar 4 mi d-nejme ammud-nne n yisefra, rnu ttwaberdren-d daen ula deg yirisen n tmedyazt am wakken ara -d-iban wannect-a-nni seg yimedyaten ara d-nefk.

Tthuzzu-k ul-iw yefre 5 . Sberber i lwens-inu. Zuznemt mmi di ddu.


Abalu : M. Djellaoui, 2007, Tiwsatin timensayin n tmedyazt taqbaylit, HCA, Alger, asebter 13.

P. Zumthor, 1983, Introducton la posie orale, Seuil, Paris, p.88. M. Mehfoufi, 1992, Le repertoire musical dun village berbre dAlgrie (Kabylie), thse de Doctorat, Universit de Paris, p.262. 3 M.A.Salhi, 2001, Posie fminie et potique kabyle , in Actes du colloque international. Des femmes et des textes dans lespace magnrebin, Constantine. Expression n7. 4 Deg kra n tudrin n lerc n At Meddur : Slim, Ighil-Zeggaghen, Agentur. 5 Amaru yefka-d isefra d umiden, nekni nekkes-d anagar afyir ideg yella wawalnni.
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Tazzult Tazzult d ayen tteffrent tlawin i yiman-nsent, edd ur yelim. Tameut, ma tesa azzul, ur tesselam yiwen. Ansi i sent-id-tekk ? Llant tid i yettekksen seg lerzaq n uxxam ne seg wayen weant : ttfarasent kan. Lamena mai ala deg tukera i d-ttekk tezzult. Llant tid yettrebbin iwtal, tiyua, itbiren, lebrak. Ttcarakent lmal, am tixsi, ara sent-yessefrurxen, ne taa. Llant tid i tt-id-yettetilin s tfucal n yiallen-nsent : zeent itrikuyen s lijara, izewan. Tiyi, d ayen tteunt deg tebrin-nsent i znuzunt. Llant tid yettawacen azemmur, tazart. Acal d yiwet i d-yewwin tacekkart n yifelfel, ad t-serent, ad t-gezment ; mi yeqqur, ad t-zent d awren : wa, aas n lfayda i yesa. Lasun mai d yiwen. Taqcict mi ara timi, s lxedma-s ne deg wayen i sttaken, i tbeddu taezzult-is. ef lmital, ma tu-d tafruxt, ad tttrebbi ; mi meqqret, ad as-d-tarew timellalin ad tent-tezzenz [] Ma d tura, deg wasmi qqarent tullas, xai d tin ara tafe tesuzzul, aca ma tufa-d yemma-s ; wanag tidayin yeran, ur ttxemmiment ara er tezzult, laxaer dhant deg leqraya akk d wayen efent din. D acu kan aheyyi dayem taqcict tettheyyi lqecc i yiman-is. Ma tessawe tekcem ixxamen n medden, as ur tesi ara, yili ewqen-tt yimaren, akken yebu yili, tezmer i cwi er urgaz-is ara s-yettaken sya er da cwi n yidrimen.

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Lawam imezwura ur seunt ara aas, mena, simmal ad tesserkad tmeut tiqejjarin-is deg uxxam, simmal ad tettxemmim er tezzult-is [] Lamana ulamma qqaren medden diri-t, yella wayen deg yelha. Yiwet n tmeut akka da d mm uezzul ; nettat qwant ur-s tullas; tijiratin qqarent-as : Tihin texla argaz-is. Nettat meskint telha kan s lqis ; taxxamt-is, akken yella wass i t-yeksa umeksa. D ssse tejme cwi, ayen i wimi tezmer. Asmi zewjent yessi-s, ur tt-yerra lewj er yiwet; kulci tejbedit-id d amelan, argaz-is tessafes-as takemt, nettat teda-d ur tennecam.
Abalu : FDB, uun wis 102, 1969.

*
1.

* * Ssebbat n lemwarba2

Acimi ttwarabent tlawin ? Ttwarabent mi ara yili ur tent -yejib ara uxxam, mi ara yili weren yimaren, mi ara yili yewer urgaz-nsent. Tikwal ula ma yili ur sint ara dderya, ur seat ara. Yernu ula d tilawin, tikwal llant tid n dir. Hatta yiwen n umedya n lemwarba 1 .

Aris-a deg-s d agetsekka : s umata d aris imsegzi maca yella deg-s udiwenni akked wullis i d-yefka umaru d amedya. Da yezmer yiwen ad d-yekkes anagar tadyant-nni n Fariza ad tt-yeg d ullis. 2 Lemwarba: seg umyag wareb, anamek-is: mi ara te tmeut axxam-is ad tual s axxam-sen war ma tenebra. Yella wanda qqaren tua.
1

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Tella yiwet n teqcict isem-is Fariza. Meiyet : ac n sna deg lemer-is. Yessuter-itt yiwen n urgaz ad tt-ya i mmis. Abrid mezwaru, yugi babab-s ad as-tt-yefk. Yual yeba. Yenna-Yas : - Ihi, ad as-tt-fke, lamena ur tetteddu ara d tislit aca ma wen fell-as xemseac n sna. Yenna-yas : - Yerbe. Yu-itt. Heren ef temamat ? Ttren fell-as lfatia, d ayen. Akken yewwe uzgen n useggas, iru umar-is er baba-s, yenna-yas : - Nekki ad awi yelli-k d tislit. Yenna-yas baba-s n Fariza : - Ala ! Yelli meiyet, ur tezmir i cel, ur tezmir ara ad tfareq imawlan-is. Amar-nni yeba ad tt-yawi d tislit, ad tt-yawi. Iru, yeef-as madden i urgaz-nni iwakken ad yeqbel. Yual yeqbel, d acu yenna-yas zdat yak n medden : - Ih, ad cere fell-ak ur d-tettagem, ur d-tettawi takkemt, ur tettruu er lexla; melmi i yas-yehwa, ad d-tru ad d-terzef er uxxam. Ma d cel isehlen, ad t-texdem, ma ulac ala. aca ma wen fell-as xemseac n sna. Amar-nni, zdat n medden-nni, yenna-yas : - Yerbe, qeble.
1

Tafyirt-a d nekni i tt-id-yernan akken ad d-nessegzi yes-s assa yellan gar usentel d wullis-a i d-yessedda umaru deg tjena.

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Da tedda d tislit. Aggur-nni amezwaru, xeddmen-as at uxxam-is akken yecre baba-s. Txeddem kan cel fessusen fell-as. Akken wen cehrayen ne telt chur deg tedda d tislit, bdan ttakken-as cel am tmeut : tettagem-d, tettawi takkemt, tettruu er lexla, lhasun txeddem am tmeut tameqrant. Lewam imezwura, tesber ; er taggara, tenna-yasen i yimawlan-is : - Ur ttima ara ! Tettru kan mi ara tru er yimawlan-is. Yemma-s, meskint, tendem imi i tt-fkan ar tekkat deg uqerruy-is, teqqar-as : d nekkini yakk i tt-ixedmen. D nekkini i tt-yefkan mazal meiyet !... Dima kan tettebbir fell-as, ma tea ur tei ara, ma telsa ur telsi ara. Tasa-s lemer tethenna seg wakken tesa abel fell-as aas. Tesa taqcict-nnien tamejut : teggul ur tt-tefki ad tezwe hacama wen fell-as tmenac n sna ! Yiwen n wass, Fariza tennu cwi nettat d temart-is. Yemma-s, akken i yas-teka yelli-s amennu, da tenna-yas da : - Azekka ad n-rue ur-m, ad d-twarbe. Azekka-nni, tru nettat d teslit-is, wwint amerkub, ebbant-d lqecc, wwint-d taqcict ; rnant daen nutenti d temart-is nnuent.

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Fariza tefre meskint : teba ad teqqim er yimawlanis. Mi d-tedda deg uzniq n taddart, tin i tt-walan ad tessiwel i taye, ad as-tini : - Hattan Fariza tura i twureb-d. Yemma-s tebba-d merra lqecc. Mazal tewwi s axxam, taddart akk tesla, ta teqqar i ta. Tmanya n wussan ne ecra segmi d-twureb, at uxxam-is fen-d lejma i baba-s. Tual s axxam-is. Tettru, meskint : ur tebi ara ad tual, lamana baba-s yesseta ad yerr irgazen-nni i d-iruen : da yeqbel, rran-tt yijmayiyen. Seg wass-nni, ur d-twureb. Tura rbeac n sna deg lemer-is, terna ur-s teqcict. Tga ddunit deg uxxam-is, tesber, meskint, i tlufa. Ad as-yessufe Rebbi letab er tafat.
Abalu : Quatre aspects de la coutume en voie dvolution : Abandon par la femme du domicile conjugal ; Nouvelle des des migrs ; Ltat des orphelins, Le pcule clandestin des femmes. FDB, n102, (aleszreg wis 2) 1969 (2), isebtar 5-49.

* * *

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Asegzi n tenfalit amennu deg yiciwi i yettili Iciwi d ayen iuz wagus d asawen, gar letta n umdan d lewaye : ayen yeba bab-is ad t-yaf i lmendad, yettarra er-s, abeda tilawin d yimaren yettlusun ijellaben. Ma yeqqim bnadem, yual yekker, ma ur yerri ara lbal-is, ad as-dyeli wayen yellan deg yiciwi mi ara yeknu. Da netta, amennu yettili mi ara yerfu bnadem ; mi ibeddel taswit, ad ieddi, mesub ad yeli.
Abalu : Quatre aspects de la coutume en voie dvolution : Abandon par la femme du domicile conjugal ; Nouvelle des migrs ; Ltat des orphelins, Le pcule clandestin des femmes FDB, n 102, (aleszreg wis 2) 1969 (2), isebtar 5-49.

* * * Ibn Xeldun Ibn Xeldun iger irebbi i tsertit, maca yegra-d yisem-is deg umezruy s wayen yura d tussna d-yea deg yidlisen-is. as akken yuli-ten ugedrur (uebbar) n tatut almi d timii tis XIX, anida i bdan ssufuen-d idlisen-is, taktiwin-is qqiment zwarent s waas tallit i deg yedder. ef waya, yenna fell-as umassan V.Monteil Ibn Xeldun iban-a-d am wakken d anmezray -d ayen yellan- maca yella daen d amesnulfu n tussna n tmetti, semmus n tmiwin sdat umassan afransis Auguste Comte.

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Taerma d uwanek akken i ddukulen er Ibn Xeldun. Di tlalit ad tt-id-yezwir cwi uwanek, acku war awanek ur tettili terma, ma d tamettant ad tili deg yiwen n wakud. Tudert n terma icuba-tt er tin n wales, acku yeba-tt ef kra n yiricen : tallit n unegmu, temer d ufrak, di taggara tewser d ugrireb ! hatan wamek yettwali iricen-a deg yidlisen-is : Di tazwara, ad d-yekker uella, ad yessali awanek s yiserdasen n udrum-is. Ssin ad yebnu tamdint tamaynut ara yilin d taremt i udabu-s. anaba n tallit-a ad yili gar ieggalen n yiwen udrum. Taluft-a isemma-yas Ibn Xeldun lasabiyya, yerra-tt d ajgu alemmas di tezmert n udabu. Aric wis sin yerza abeddel ne tamhezt n terma i dyettilin di tegti di tallit n ugellid wis sin ne wis kra. Di tsertit, adabu ad ibedd ef yifadden-is akken iwulem, asrad (lehna) d tneflit ad d-ualen er yal tamnat n tmurt. Assa n lasabiyya ad yeqqers, acku ad bdun ijentaen ad kecmen er udabu. Da yenna ef waya : deg uric wis sin, ageldun ad yekkes ayetma-s seg udabu. Di tdamsa, afares n yisufar n tudert ad yali, asnuzu ad yefti, acku tagnit n tsertit ters. Idles d turi ad ugen di temdinin. Di tallit-a, awanek d terma ad awen er tqacuctnsen. Deg uric wis kra, adabu ad teli tezmert-is. Agellid ad yual d asnaraf (d amesbali) ef ugdud, ad yessenker rad d yiwunak icerken yid-s tilisa.

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D wi i d udmawen n tewser n terma er Ibn Xeldun. Da tamettant-is ur tetteil ara ad d-tawe, s tnekra n kra n uella ne s ufus n yiwunak i das-d-yezzin. Ayen i d-yufraren deg tira n Ibn Xeldun d akken taerma ur telli d akemmel ef wayen yezrin, maca yal tagelda s terma-ines. Tin i d-ilulen ad tawi yid-s taerma ara yemten.
Abalu : H. Belaid, 1996, Tira n Ibn Xeldun, deg Izen Amazi, uun 6, isebtar 35, 36.

* * * Anamek temayt Asentel-a n tsekla, am yinzan, yella deg tmetti iwakken ad yemmel iberdan. Sexdamen-t at zik, deg tudrin n Leqbayel, am tmucuha, mi ara d-ttawin lweqt deg wuan-nni iberkanen n ccetwa. Ad d-nesmekti belli at zit ur ur-sen ara ttawilat yella tura i useddi n lweqt. Uan n ccetwa rnu ezzifit, yella ubrida yessiwzil-iten. Rnu er waya, tawacult n zik mai am tin n tur. Tawacult n zik d adrum. Iderma ilaq-asen ad mlilen as ula tameddit n wass ad mcawaren, ne ad myukkasen ef wulawen. Azal wis sin i yesa unamek d tterbiyya imi t-sexdamen yimezwura akken ad rebbin neq ad wassin tadfert-nsen er

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wayen yelhan s ttawil n wayen seddan, ayen walan d wayen i yasen-d-kan. Azal wis tlata d ayen d nebder deg tezwert. Imezwura effen inzan d tmucuha d temayin am win yettrebbin tineqlin, tizemrin d tmerusin. Yes-sent i d-ttawen ne i dqeun mi ara ruen ad frun tadyant ama meiyet ama meqqret. Sexdamen-tent akken ad siwen tikti er walla, d iulfan er tasa d wul n win yellan d axsim.
Abalu : M. Imarazene, 2006-2007, Timayin n Leqbayel, HCA, Alger, Asebter 22.

* * * Tala n temayt Tamayt d yiwet deg tewsatin n tsekla timawit n teqbaylit. Tettas-d, s tuget, s tala tawezzlant imi tcuba aas er yinzi. Temxalaf ef tmacahut acku ayen ief d-ttawi icudd srid er tudert n yal ass, isental-ines ttawin-d ef tilawt n tmetti. Tebna ef teqsi ne tamacahut tamecut. Seg-sent i d-tufrar temayt am yinzi ; ama deg tala, ama deg yinumak. Aas n temayin i yeqqlen d inzan acku amdan yettaf lbenna deg usewzel n umeslay, da yettekkes i temayt taqsi ideg dtefruri yettaa-d kan inzi-nni i d-turew. Temgarad tala n temayin akken mgaraden yinumaknsent akked tewsatin ef ttmeslayent. Zemrent ad ilint d awal

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yeddan ef yiwen n uric ne sin, maca ur sin ara tamerut. Zemrent ad ilint d inzi, d afyir ne d asefru ijebbden tameut s tkatit-ines d tmerut-is, yettawin leqel s unamek-is alqayan. Imedyaten : Tamayt-a ttawin-tt-id ef lxir ur nettual, ne win yettualen d ixmir imi nnan Xdem lxir ad ak-yual d ixmir. Tebna d asefru yesan tlata n yifyar deg ara naf sin n yiricen deg yal yiwen. Ttfakan akken ma llan s yiwet n tmerut is .

Lukan yettual lxir Ad yeqqel i tixsi d mmi-s Ay telles deg yilisen Ay tessels deg lebd-is Zlan-tt an-tt d imensi Ccah i iid uksum-is.
Abalu : M. Imarazene, 2006-2007, Timayin n Leqbayel, HCA, Alger, Asebter 10.

* * * Tuddsa timettit n Leqbayel 1 Ttufiq, d taddart meqqren ne d tixliin yedduklen, ideg yekem yiwen n lamin, yesan lejme yiwen. Taddart teba d tixerrubin, taxerrubt d ixxamen ; ixxamen d lekwanen.

Azwel-a d nekni i yas-t-yefkan.

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Mkul taxerrubt yekem deg-s ammen, ttsemmin yimawlan n txerrubt. D lamin d emman d leqal i iferrun lecal n taddart. Lamin ur yezmir ad yexdem ula d acemma bla ccwer n emman d leqal n taddart, yellan deg yiwen n ttufiq. Mi ara ilin lecal imeqqranen, ferru-nsen d lejma ideg iedder kra n win yettekkin deg ttufiq mei, meqqer. Ur yettili lejma acama s laden n lamin Ttufiq d ayen, am wakken id-nenna, ideg yekem lamin. Ma yella d tama n walba n tuddar, llant texlin timeyanin ur nezmir ara ad kfunt iman-nsent ued-nsent, rennunt, esbent er taddart tameqqrant. Llan ttufiqat i yesan xemsa, setta n texliin. Ma yella ttufiq yefreq d tixliin, mkul taxlit tezmer ad tili s rray iman-is ama d tamelt, ama d timecret. Idrimen n ssadaqa d wid n lid, ines ; yiwen ur yettalas deg-sen. Lemkayen ma yella-d fell-as kra n lmesruf ne kra n letab-nnien yiwen ur tt-yettawan deg texliinnnien, ama deg temelt, ama d lxedma n yiberdan, ama deg waggay n yisulas. Ayen deg tezel iman-is, ad tt-ezlen wiyi ama deg txessart, ama deg lewqama. Ur yezmir ad yettekki yiwen deg ttufiq, acama yefka leqq n lid deg useggas deg ara yekcem ttufiq [] Da netta, ulac Aqbayli ara tafe ur yettekki ara deg ttufiq ideg yezde. Win ur nebi ara ad yettekki deg ttufiq n waba n tuddar tewwi-yas-d ad yeffe tamurt, ad iru anda ara yewqem ddunit ud-s. Hata lqanun n taddart akken tella zik asmi llan Leqbayel s rray-nsen.
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S nnig n ttufiq yella udewwar deg yekem lamin n lumna Mi ara ilin lecal imeqqranen, inefen akk ttufiqat n udewwar, ferrun-ten deg lejma deg heddren leqal, emman d lumna n udewwar. Iwakken ad frun ddawi yettilin gar yimdanen d wiyi, ttsemmin tnac n yimdanen, yettiman d lamin n lumna, kra n tikelt deg aa sen-d-tili ddewa n yimeni ne ccre. D ta i wimi qqaren tajmat n tnac. Lekem n udewwar akk yettili gar yifassen-is. D ttufiq ne d adewwar, idrimen ttrusun dayem er lukil yettilin sef ssef ur nedil ara d lamin. Idrimen n ttufiq ttmean d timecret. Ma yella d wid n udewwar jemmenten i umnei ma yella ; ttaen-d yes-sen lesla d lbarud.
Abalu : M. S. Boulifa, 1913, Mthode de langue kabyle Cours de deuxime anne, Ed A. Jourdan, Alger, isebtar 8, 9, 10.

*
1.

* * er tala yettfun2

er tala yettfun, tilemiyin ttruunt ad merrent s ucrah ; am wakken i d-yella ucrah deg taect-nni n ccna yesan ccia meqqret. Ilaq ad yerr yiwen iman-is deg umkan-nsent : nutenti, ur sint ara tijmain am yirgazen, d tala i d tajmat-nsent kan ihi. Din, zemmrent ad meslayent, ad necraent, ad sent alma
1 2

Aris-a yezmer daen ad yili d aris n uselu (informatif). Yettfun (deg umyag fu ) : tin tewa tafat.

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yeur-d usagem. er din, ttruunt d tirebba, dukkulent lwaid, akken i dmyezgent leqliya ; s yin da i d-ttawint lexber amaynut, din i ttemyuzzament, din i d-ttemyukkasent tamussni gar-asent. Nekni, s yirgazen, amiq tu tala deg wulawen n yilmeyiyen-nne, nessen-it ; s yin akin, ur a-iru wayra deg wayen ierrun din. Mi nmeyyez, naf tala d amur deg tmeddurt-nne ; amur-nni teef tala annect n win teef lqahwa, tajmat ne lexla. Yiwen ur yettamen ad tili tudert lemmer ulac tala ur-nne. Nekni d wid ur nezmir ad asenxun waman, degmi i nettru ef lbed i wakken ad ten-idnagem. Aman-a nesseqdac-iten s lqis, deg unebdu. D ayen yellan : nettcuu akk i yisafaren yuqan ur-nne, nbeu ten da d imuren [] Zik-nni, i d-ttalsen yimaren-nne, Leqbayel ur mqebban ara s tmezdut ef taltin ; imir, ixxamen-nsen mfaraqen, am yibawen ef llu, deg tmurt yea umada. Yal yiwen yesa, zdat-s ne tama-s, tawint deg yezmer ad dyagem. Asmi yulin er tqucac, ttadren-d i wakken ad swen, terra-ten tmara. Iban-ak lal ihi, d ayen isehlen i ufham : aman ef d-nerwel akken deg tazwara, nual armi i a-terra tmara nettagem-iten-id, deg taggara. Hatan wamek i d-tlul tala. Ilaq ad nessezwer awal ef tala-ya. Yezmer ad tili d targa yettazzalen kra kan n wussan n unebdu ; d tawint n ccetwa ne d tin n tefsut i d-yeffalen seg kra n yidis i wimi bnan medden tidikelt ; d linser n tidet ef yesberber ugrur, ulmu ne ail ; d linser i d-yezgan deg kra n tezuyt tewa cbaa ; ne, ma ulac akk ya, d tala-nni i ssnen akk medden,
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tala yesan agelmim d usarij abeddis1 , tala mm yicercuren n neas, mm yinebdaden (tigejda) yebnan s tyajurin, mm terert i wimi ssan (abeli) n ssiman ; ta , d tala n at lera, tin yebna akken umessali (ubennay) arumi d yiwiziwen n taddart, mai aas aya, zdat n emman d lamin n taddart i sen-yeqqlen i lmendad.
Abalu : K. Bouamara, Ussan di tmurtn, Tasuqqilt n ungal Les jours de Kabylie n M. Feraoun. Isebtar : 116,117, 118.

* * * Abandi Mi ara ixas bnadem lmesruf, ad yeef deg wayla-s, ad tiselnin ne tizemrin ad idellel yes-sent i win yuwaen aslen akked uzemmur ; ad msewaqen ; ma edlen di ssuma, ad asent-yezzenz, ad tent-yesu d ayal-as ; winna i yasent-yezzenzen, ur yezmir ara ad as-yini : ur tkeme ara er da. Lmal ur yezmir ara ad t-yawi er dinna siwa zzayla ef ara d-iebbi, tinna ilaq ad tt-yeqqen acam yella lxir deg win i yas-yezzenzen ; lawan n uzemmur, ad true er din ; ma yella uslen, lawan n lecic ad true, tjur-a tue, ad tenttneqce, a tent-tferse ; ur tetttaa ara afrasen di lqaa-nni, iferre 2
1 2

Abeddis : seg bedd d idis. Ad iferre : yezmer ilmend n uris ad yesu anamek n yefren ne yebrez.

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imi mai inek ; ma yeker-ak lal ula d ke tzemre ad tezzenze i win i yak-yehwan ; ma tebi ad tent-tezenze i bab-nsent aqdim, ad t-tecciwre ; ma tnuqme-t, ad tentterre 1 ad tent-teddelle i wid ara t-iurren, netta ad yetteqlili imir-nni ad tent-ya akken ur as-yehwi ara, ad as-dyesseli tumas, jur yu akka ma qqurent ad yeu tiyi deg umkan-nsent alamma lata n yiberdan ; ma qqurent imir-nni d ayen ; d tigad-a i wimi neqqar ibunda. Nesa yiwen n ubandu di Temdunin, d aeccad, yuli-t wail ; d amar ; ur as-d-yecfi edd asmi yea ; d lejdud-nne mai i t-id-yean ; nettalas akk deg-s ; ula deg At Yequb llan lemum ukud i -yecrek ; seba ne tmanya n yixxamen ay yettalasen deg-s, At Qai yirkel, win yewaen asar, ad iru er din ; ail-nni ula d netta yecrek, mena d imeksawen kan i itetten ; lukan d ara afen uxxam n At U ezzuz ad t-aen, ad t-xelsen ayen ur yeswi ara, mena yiwen deg-nne ur iqebbel ad yenz ; abandu ur t-znuzun ara medden alamma tewweasen er sse.
Abalu : A. Picard, 1958, Textes berbres dans le parler des Irjen, Imprimerie La Typo-Litho et jules Carbonel, Alger, isebtar : 280-283.

* * *

err ilan yiwen n unamek.

Amaru mai d awal-a i yesseqdec, ur sawe ara ad t-id-re, rri deg wadeg-is

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AGLAM

Akli Akli d amdan yellan d tidet, mai d win d-yesnulfa walla. Iac gar 1929 akked 1980 deg yiwet n taddart seg Yigawawen n lerc ameqran At Uberun. Akken, Akli yettban am tqejmurt. Ikersemmumi si lif, maca iqewwa. Gar uqerru d yiarren, ur telli ssura : d taxsayt n usendu. Hraw, yeur abrid. Abrid n taddart ezzif tezi n ddunit, yenne, maca yedyeq ddiq n wulawen n laci-s. Ma yemlal-d Wakli tameut, alama s yidis ara ieddi, ad icer iman-is er yiri, da ma tbbub-d takkemt. Tayet tayeffust temmwexxar ef tzelmat tehri n ubrid n taddart. Aebbu-ines yexwa as yea, yeqber, yettban-d innejma. Iarren-is d tirukwin inegamen er tigad mazal isura, da mi ara yels arkasen n ukawiu, wigad s wayes ineqqec, iferres. Yal arkas iga-yas tifli seg ara teffe rria : Yerec wungif ! Akli yettenne agennur alma iga rrua tamellalt tesmundel tidi akked wakal ef uqerru [] tayuga n aucin tuqmicin, timecuin ef tigad neggren lecfar. Nnig-sent taye n timmiwin tunciwin. Inzer-ines annect uyeddid yeban ef sin am tliwa. Dmuj ne lenak kkawen, lulqen d icelbuen, wissen ma si tumas yeser ne si kra n uksum yezwi. Lqewwa-ines yegla-d yes-s asmi d-ilul, d win kan i d awin s i
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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

d-yegla si teddist n yemma-s er ddunit. Seg-s akin ur yesi aric-nnien s nnig dderz d usuu. Yezga lif, yettemderkal d ddunit. Tekkat-it netta yettarra-yas s ucmume d tasa : am win igan ul-is d imensi. Deg yimi n Wakli, ttbanen-d sin n yiceqfan n tumas deg uesmar n ufella, mmyenaden almi gan am yiwet n tumest, maca mmalent er tama taelmat. Yiwen n uceqqufnnien annect n sin-nni deg uesmar n wadda. Tumas i tlala yid-sent d tiberkanin wissen seg wacu ? Akli yexa ccemma, ne igirru, ne ccrab. Yelha kan d la-is, win akken yugin ad tyeffe. Limmer t-yettu ahat ula d netta ad t-yettu. Akli d bu cclaem. Tayuga ef ucenfir-nni azuran ad as-tini d tazgent n temtunt, igan am snat n teflucin tiqdimin tigad i s-ttummun tasirt, ne am ceb n tezdayt turict lemer yuli ufella. Wehme di tamart-ines, ur tengir ur texlif. Teffe-d teqqim akken ur tegmi ur ter. Akli d aqeddac. Ccel-is yezga yefrez. Ma yenec taferka tufaf, ma iqedder iqejmyar, ijme ticeqlalin, yessazdeg amkan, ma yefres tineqlin cebent, d ayen i d tislatin ne timnifriyin ass n unebgus (seba n wussan si tlalit n llufan), ma yeksa lmal yea yerwa : da ke yezga yefre mi ara dyerr lmal s axxam. Ur qqaren ara At Uyaden : yea lmal yefre bab-is ?! Lasun leqdic-ines merra izehhu win t-yeran. ur-s, ttemzazzalen at taddart wi ara t-yesxedmen. Anwa ara d-isa wakli ?

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D acu kan ur yessin ad yeseb, ur yeri anga ddan wussan, ur yeri ma tered ne tewwet.
Abalu : R. Ouslimani, 2004, Akli ungif, Lezzayer, HCA, Alger, isebtar 2, 3, 4.

* * * Jeiga Jeiga d tudimt, deg temdint i d-tegma. Tekkat yiwet lea n yiceien d ayen igerrzen nezzeh. Amzur teeggir-it er deffir tutayt, d amubrik, mi ara d-yewwet ur-s uenar n tafukt yettara-d ini s tzegzew arawal am tedmert n ujemum. ef tenyirt, tunef lint kra n tmettulin n ucekku ttwagzement er yisera n timmiwin da d ayenni i s-yernan sser n thuski. Tettrebbi ccuca armi ula d inelmaden n uerbaz semman-as mm ccuca. Udem-is d ahrawan, allen d timserrin, lecfur leamen s tebrek d asawen d akessar, amemmu d aberkan am ueqqa n uzemmur yettummu deg yimelli. Timmiwin ur d-ttbanent ara, acku tum-itent ccucanni. Taqemmuct tewzen, ticenfirin s tezwe, ur tewa ara izriran i wudem. Tahuski-s tagmawit terna-yas aas deg sser d wazal.
Abali : A. Nekkar, Yugar ucerrig tafawet, Tizrigin Yuba Wis sin. Sbt. 66.

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Tamart n Setti Tugna tamezwarut i d-yettasen er walla, mi ara tt-id mmekti, d tin n umdan ur tessexle tudert. D tin n umdan werin yessin tugdi yurzen talsa, s la-is d tedyanin-is. Ulac ula d yiwen n uwellih deg wudem-is ara dyemmlen d akken terfa ne tennuna. Inezgumen-is akk, as gten, ur ten- tei ad d-fflen. Udem-is yeqqim amzun d win n tlemit acku ieblan ur s zmiren ara ad tt-sselin. Ula d allenis ef yezga tault mmalent-d anagar talwit. Imi-s d awezi ad d-yeffe seg-s wawal izelgen anagar awal yessujayen win yunen i tessen. Setti ur tessin ulac. Yella d awal yezgan ef yiles-is er ugellil, ne er umattar ney er yinebgi. Imdanen akk s wazal-nsen, s tunett-nsen deg ddunit. Degmi ur tezmir ara ad tagi i yiwen mi ara d-yessuter deg-s tagella. Ayen i yi-taan tweide deg-s, d tiktiwin-is ef medden. Mi ara as-inin wihin yuker, wihin yea arraw-is, wihin d aqemmar werin ad d-tewwet deg-s. awal-is yiwen : Meskin, ne irad-itt Rebbi fell-as ne ah ! A Rebbi surefasen.
Abalu : Z. Meksem, Ammud n yirisen n uselmed, i d-sufen yiselmaden deg temlilt n 15 ar 17 mayyu 99 Bgayet.

* * *

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Tamazit Deg tmurt-a, tella yiwet n teqcict isem-is Tamazit. Win ara yilin yid-s ur yettergigi. emlen-tt akk medden imi yesfa wul-is. Ur tessin ara lekdeb, tidet d ayla-s. Zzin-is ulac tin i t-issawen. Treqq am twizet. Lqedd-is d win n tezalt, tikli-s d tin n tsekkurt. Udem-is mellul am udfel. Leyun-is d wid n awes. Dacu n tqemmuct i tesa ! Win ara tt-iwalin deg uzal ad tt-ittargu i kamel akk medden ban ad taen. Qeblen ad mmten fell-as, acal n walla i tesleb.
Abalu : A. Boutal, Iuran 38, Yennayer 2003.

* * * Taxxamt n Salas Deg texxamt deg yella Salas, llan reba n wusawen, sin n iqan i d-yezgan ef tama n ufella wean er temdint. Mi ara tbede zdat-sen, ad k-id-iqabel wadrar n Yicellaven, er tama tayeffust, yella wannar n ddabex n uar, ef yiri-s d ixxamen n usar bnan Yibiljkiyen. Ixxamen-nni d iqehwiyen, derren wa zdat wa, wa nnig wa, seg yal tama yezzi-yasen-d erb.
Abalu : B. Tazaart, Salas d Nuja. Sbt 07.

* * *
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Tisekkiwin n yirisen Tagmert d teslet

Muend Muend d yiwen n bu lenak ur ikeem ara di tewwurt. Aebbu-is ad as-tini s tadist. Mi ara icennu, yettizwi am ujibu. Tidi ad d- tettcercur, allen-is ad as-tini ad d-negent seg twenza-s, ma d acebbub-is yettembiwil am yierman. Yezga-d akk d yinemhalen n luzin akken ma llan, ulac win ur t-nessin. Hemmlen-t akk. as ifeqe, ur s-ttattafen ara tusift. Yerna axir win i t-yesan d amdakkel, ad yili Rebbi d ucengu-ines. Di tesmea d netta i yasen-iferqen tagella. Aas i wimi yenna : Ad tee ma yegra-d. Win i t-yesserfan ad as-yini : Aena, d aberi i d-yettagem. Muend mai d menwala, yera yalmi yecef, ur-s agerdas n tusnakt asmi i teswa turi, mai am tura. Wiyyi i dyessuffu uerbaz ur rin anda ara ffen ama s trumit ama s tarabt. Ula d tamazit snen kan tin-a n : emmle-tt temmel-iyi baba-a yugi-yi.
Abalu : A. Mezdad, 1990, I d wass, Asalu/Azar, Alger. Sbt. 38.

* * * Tagrest Deg tegrest, ussan wezzilit, uan ezzifit. Igenni d aberkan s usigna, tamurt d tamellelt s udfel. Agris ur yei

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amkan anda ara ires. Isekla d ieryanen. Aman gersen deg yieran, sbedden tikli ualan d ijenwiyen. Asemmi n tegrest iman-is. Kerfen iwazniwen deg tegi. Telli-d tsusmi ef tmurt; ulac asrugmet n testan, ulac asbebe n wulli. Imeksawen tturaren tiddas deg tejmat. D ussan n ubisar i yemdanen, d walim i i yizgaren. Amebun d win ur as-nebber, d win ur nessager i wussan-a. Temi tebber i temer, anebdu iebber i tegrest. Tewer tegrest acku ikufan qrib d ilmawen. Imi ayen ara yeffen yella, ayen ara d-ikecen ulac. La d imdanen ; er tmes zalalyen, ttrajun melmi ad d-tas tefsut.
Abalu : A. Mezdad, 1990, I d wass, Asalu/Azar, Alger.

* * * Axxam n Leqbayel Ad tkecme s axxam si tewwurt ; tawwurt-ni tesa sin n lelwa, er liha n ufell-a yella wagens d udekkan ; ef udekkan llan yikufan d leqsa ; deg wagens yella lkanun, s ddaw udekkan, llan yikwaten srusun deg-sen tasilin, tibaqiyin, tiqedin, aajin d lawal-nnien ; s nnig lkanun, tella yiwet n terust srusun fell-as taftilt ; nnig-s telleq tufalt i tenayin, ef liha n yeffus tella tesga ef elme, yella srir, fella-as ay ttarran aea ; zik asmi reken azemmur d rke, lberka

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ttarran-tt di temmart d tama n udekkan ; zdat lberka llant leali ; fell-asent i yettrusu useksut n uzemmur. Si liha n wadda, tella tdekkant, s ufell-as llan yikufan ; si tdekkant i yettalin er terict, deg terict srusun akk lewal ; ayen iuren deg wagens, ad t-salin er terict ; tkeem-d er-s tafat seg yiwen n aq d amecu ; s ddaw tdekkant yella lemdawed deg itett lmal, s ddaw terict, d addaynin i yizgaren d lmal-nnien. Mi ara teqqime deg wagens, ad twali lmal er uddaynin, yesilli-d mai aqerruy-is seg lemdawed ; ma yea, terid-t, ma yellu, terid-t ; aberur n lmal yetteffe seg tzullixt er berra, ielli er tebrit n uberur ; llan wid ur tnejemme ara, yettazzal deg berra ne deg uzniq. Ayen yesa bab n uxxam hatan gar wallen-is, ama d lmal, ama d zzit, ama d tazrt, ama d tafellat ; kul laa tesa amkan-is ; deg yi iuss akk ayla-s, ur yettagad ara ad t-akren.
Abalu : A. Picard, 1958, Textes berbres dans le parler des Irjen, Imprimerie La Typo-Litho et jules Carbonel, Alger, Isebtar 286-288.

* * *

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AFUKLAN

Tigujelt Tigujelt n teqcicit teseb ef tgujelt n uqcic. Tewer tgujelt la ef uqcic la ef teqcict ; lamena i yecban tigujelt n teqcict, ur telli. Qqaren-s : arrac am yirden n walu ; mi lin ad kkren. as ad yili iedda fell-sen lhem deg temi, ceffun-as mi meqqrit, ad emren, ad zuzzfen lif ef yiman-nsen. Yella ma ad d-ffen, ad ifen igad yesan ibabaten-nsen d tyemmatin-nsen imi igujilen ur sin win ef ara tteklen. Ma yella win i yasen-ixedmen ccerr, ceffun fell-as, d lewhayem. Mi yewwe ufus-nsen s imawen-nsen, ad as-t-rren i bab-is s umud u lufa 1 . Ma d lxir akken-nnien : win i yasen-t-ixedmen, ad cfun fell-as. Yda-d lal ttuaen ula d arrac mi ara ggujlen, mana, ihi, cwi n ccedda. Mi ten-fkan tmentac n sna d asawen, ad zemren i yiman-nsen. Ur clien ara la deg babatsen la deg yemma-tsen. Asyax n teqcicin wed-s. Mi ggujlent, ad runt fell-asent jur, ad runt leur. A Rebbi telbe-a ! Ad tebdunt tlufa si temi, awi-d ma ur tt-tewwi akken alamma d temer-is. Mi meiyet, ad teggani ; mi tewwe ef tizi n zzwa, ur yelli wi ara tt-yessiezzen, wala wi ara tt-yesmeren deg uxxam-is, imi

1Anamek

n tenfalit-a ad as-t-rren i bab-is s umud u lufa : ayen i xedmen medden i ugujil, mi meqqer ad asen-t-yerr akken yella ama d ccerr ama d lxir.

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i yessizizen tawellit, d lwaldin-is. Ur tesi, meskint, wi ara ibedden fell-as. D argaz ne d tameut, mi kkren ad mten, i d-ttaan 1 lelila : d taqcict. Ad ttwessin aca ef yessis-nsen. Ad en leram d aseaf, akken i yettmettaten s ubel-nsent. Tigujili ttwaeqrent ula deg zzwa. Akken i yasqqaren : agujil am lemegga 2 laxaer ala aeri i t-ineffqen. aca ma lall-is, yewwet-itt s ubeqqa, yull-itt s waye 3 , teffe-d tezyen, tesa ssura ; tin, as d tagujilt, ur tetxu ara. Acimi eqqren tagujilt imi ula wi tt-id-ibudden ?
Abalu : Quatre aspects de la coutume en voie dvolution : Abandon par la femme du domicile conjugal ; Nouvelle des des migrs ; Ltat des orphelins, Le pcule clandestin des femmes. Abalu : FDB, n 102, (aleszreg wis 2) 1969 (2), aric wis kra Tigujelt isebtar 1-9.

* * * Awal ef usegmi (Aris-a d adiwenni gar kra n wudmawen i d-yessugen M.S. Bulifa. Yiwen d ccix d arumi, yesselmad deg taddart n
Lelila : Anezgum ameqqran. Lemegga : d aksum i ttaen medden s nnig wul-nsen, ttaen-t d lemawna i win i wimi yemmut kra : d ikerr, d azger, deg uxxam. 3 Anamek n tenfalit : yewwet-itt s ubeqqa, yull-itt s waye Rebbi yekkes-as seg tama imawlan, yefka-yas-d, seg tama-nnien, tihuski (zzin d lemle). Ma d amyag yull tala-s n una all, anamek-is iwen, amyag-a yekka-d seg-s tallalt, amallal, tasalelt
1 2

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Leqbayel, d netta i d-yettakken akk iseqsiyen acku yeba ad yelmed tutlayt d wayen akk yerzan tamurt n Leqbayel. Wiyi d imezda n taddart. Yal tikelt anwa ara yesseqsi ccix-nni). Afella : Ur as qqar ara bia, ne d ihin ne d ihin ; azger er ufella ay tella. Win yellan d abujad, i yebun tefkeas, ad t yessewser, ad t-yessexser ; xas ad ig Rebbi, yella uzger ikerrez ad yual d amanun. Ma yella d win yuen tannumi d lmal, yessen i tfellat akken tella, xas efk-as, awi-yas-d tayuga n yilfan, ad ten-yesseret, ad ten-yerr d izgaren imenen, akken yeba wul, amzun d akraren. Kulec er tterbiyya. Ccix : Tterbiyya n uzger n tkerza, cuba-tt am tin nuqcic mazal mei. Yezga-d gar yifassen n wungif, seb-it ad d-yeffe d ungif. Ma yella yekker-d yetturebba d wurif, hatan ad d-yeffe d urif am netta. Am lmal am yimdanen ; lala ideg d-tetturebba ad tili deg-s, d bnadem ne d lmal. Meyan : D tidet d awal iweqmen ; lemkayen gar-asen yiwet n lemxalfa : yiwen d bunadem ; waye d lmal. Bunadem yea-yas-d Rebbi lefhama, yessen acu ay d taxessart, acu ay d luqama Wanag lmal ur yezmir ara ad yefreq gar waye iqewmen d wayen ixesren. Yessexser ur t-iqerre ara wul-is am bnadem. Ccix : Allah yehdi-k, ssnen, ayer ur ssinen ara. Teri aqjun-iw, kra ara s-ini ad t-yefhem. Mi ara refde tamekelt, rue er ssyada, nni-as azzel, ad yazzel ; nni-as xmet, es, ad yees. Yessen ay xesren d wayen iqewmen. Ad wte laa ad teli, ad neddhe fell-as ad iru ad tt-id-yawi i nek, yiwen ur yezmir ad iqerreb ur-s, ad as-tt-yekkes. Tis snat lukan d ur

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yessin ara, acu i d taxessart, yili i tt-yea ne i s-yebra deg ubrid. Llan yian ay ten-ixussen ala ameslay. ri deg tmurtiw, asmi lli deg Fransa, ulama meiye deg lweqt-nni, cfi am wass-a. Yella yiwen deg taddart-nne ur-s aqjun, acatwen, annect n yizem, d aberkan, yesa ccer d azuran ad dyawe er lqaa. Yesemma-yas bab-is : Totos. Seg sbe ar sbe, d netta i yettruun iqeu-d seg temdint. Mi ara dyeer ad t-iceyye, ad yekker bab-is ad as-yessiwel ad d-y ; ad as-yini isem n win uur ara t-iceyye, ad as-yefk aela, ad asyernu iccer n lkae ideg yekteb ayen yeba, ad inebbe fellas, ad yekker uqjun ad yerfed laa ara s-yefk, ad iru, ama ar uxebbaz, ama ar ugezzar. Netta akken d tazzla alma d taanut, ad yekcem. Ur iberru ara i uella aca ma yeef-it bab n tanut, yeddem lkae yellan daxel-is. D arum ne d aksum ad as-t-id-ium s lkae, ad as-t-id-yefk deg ulla-nni ; imir-nni ad t-yerfed s yimmi-s, ad d-yeffe qbala s axxam. Yiwen ur yezmir ad iqerreb ur-s. Deg lemer yesru laa. Acal d abrid ad nili neqqim deg lqahwa, nelha d umeslay ne d wurar, hata-ya Totos qbala ar bab-is, ad yebdu ad yettini, ad t-ijebbd seg yiceien, seg ufus, ad t-yawi amzun d bunadem, ara s-yeqqaren : rwa s axxam la k-d-sawalen, la kttrajun. Lasun aya akk d ayen tera ti-iw. urwet ad yiteskidbem deg wannect-a, u llan wiyi ielban wa. Afella : Ur yettili lekteb deg waya. Nek ur-i azger yeafar-iyi am yikerri. Mi ara d-Yeer ad qqne, akken ara s-siwle ad d-yas iman-is er uzaglu Lweqt n tanalt, ur yeixir acama fki-as iniman,
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yea amur-is. Deg tkerza, akken i yas-nni ad yexdem. Aref ma yexser, yera-t. Ma yella edda qerbe er gma-s selfe-as ne fki-as kra, netta i-t, ad t-tafe ineffes seg urrif d tismin. Ay ixusen ala awal. Muqel tra, lemmer ur ifehhem ara lmal, ad yexdem akka, ad yissin, ad yefhem ayen ara s-yini, ara s-yexdem bnadem ? Meyan : D tidet, ad awen-ini ihi yiwen n wawal, akken i yi-cebba lxaer-iw, deg kra i d-yexleq Rebbi ulac i yellan d axedda d amenkar n lesan d lxir am umdan. Ulac win inesen ibelen am netta ; lemmer yettaf ur irebbe yiwen seg-s akin.
Abalu : M. S. Boulifa, 1913, Mthode de langue kabyle Cours de deuxime anne, Ed A. Jourdan, Alger, isebtar 71, 72,73.

* * * Timmuza s tmazit Asmi d-yeffe wuun amezwaru n tesunt Timmuza deg yebrir 1999, nessarem ad nessiwe yiwen n wass ad d-nessufe yiwen wuun n tesunt-a s tmazit. Asirem-a-nne n yielli, ass-a yual d tilawt gar yifassennwen : Timmuza deg wuun-ines wis 16 s tmazit. Uun-a d uun n nnmara d nnif ! D uun n nnmara acku aas i yas-yennan, asmi slan s usenfar-a, belli d awal kan imi urin ad nessiwe ad d-nezreg tasunt s tmazit. Wigad-a, ur-sen, tamazit cest un objet dtude am wakken i yas-qqaren nutni s timmad-nsen

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Taawsa-ya, tella-d yes-s tesunt akked yidlisen-nnien, imira, tessufe-asen tirga mxalfa i nutni, ma d nekni, tessufea letab er tafat D uun n nnif acku yes-s i nessawe ad nessali yiwet n tesunt n 166 d asebter s tmazit deg yiwen n wayyur ! Timmuza s tmazit nessufe-itt-id i wakken ad d-nini tamazit mai kan d seksu n yennayer ne d tamera n 20 yebrir Tamazit d tudert, d tasekla, d tira, d tayri, d amagrad, d tamedyazt Tamazit d nekni. Hattan ihi tesunt Timmuza s ta-nne. Teffe-d deg tewwurt n useggas, deg yennayer. Neba-tt d lfal i tmazit akken aseggas-a amaynut 2958 ad yili d aseggas deg waydeg ara yaget ufares s tutlayt-nne, ad ilin ugar n yidlisen ara dyettwazergen s tmazit ef tsekla, ef tgemmi, ef umezruy d tutlayt.
Abalu : Y. Merahi, 2008, Tigejdit n tesunt Timmuza, uun 16, isebtar 7 d 8.

* * * Talatinit Ameslay ef tlatinit ur yezmir ad d-yili war ma nenna-d tidet-a. Yessefk ad ren kra n medden -ne ahat ran-tt, emden- yettarran timeckukal i gemmu n tutlayt tamazit : talatinit mai d tutlayt n listimar. Maca, isekkilen n tlatinit tesseqdac-iten tefransist akken ten-tesseqdac teglizit d ddeqs

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n tutlayin-nnien lada tid n tmura n lEurope. D timura ur dnekcim tamurt-nne, ur -d-ettment tutlayin-nsent. Temgarad tmuli fkan yimnuda d yimusnawen imazien -am Dda Lmulud- i ufran n yisekkilen n tlatinit i tira n tutlayt tamazit d tmuli i yas-fkan widen yugin mai ad tili tira n tmazit. Deg tault n tmusni d tussna, ala rray n yimusnawen i yesan azal.
Abalu : R. Abdenbi, 2008, Tamazit di Internet, Tasunt Timmuza, uun 16, isebtar : 148-161.

* * * Amezruy Amezruy-nne yebda kra n yigima n yiseggasen aya war lesab n leqrun n wazermezruy. Di 3000 n yiseggasen-a, uran medden s tefniqit, s tlatinit, s tegrigit, s tarabt, s tefransist, yiwen ur yuri s tmazit, armi teqqim tmeslayt-nne ta deg wakud-nni akk// D taluft-a taqburt i ilaq ad nemu tura, ilaq-a ad dnessemna ayen akk i wimi nezmer deg wayen i d a-dyeqqimen seg yidles-nne skud ur iru ula d netta. Di lqern-a n sant n tmerwin (20) ideg nella, tussna tela yezmer umdan ad yesseqdec allalen-is ad d-yessufe idlisen i yas-yehwan.

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Maca axxam ibennu ef llsas. Llsas-nne, nekni, d ayen nnan d wayen xedmen yimezwura-nne. D win i d a-ilaqen ad nejme ass-a.
Abalu : M. Mammeri, 1990, Inna-yas Ccix Muhend, Alger, Laphomic, asbt. 15.

* * * Tameut n Leqbayel Aas n wid iheddren, inesxen lektub ef tmeut d lala n Leqbayel, nutni ur ssinen acu ef llan, wala fehmen bia n lejdud-nsen, yettwassnen seg wasmi d-texleq yemma-s n ddunit. ret, steqsit, sani terram, anda tewem ad tafem awal yiwen : d ayen yenna umezwaru i yenna uneggaru. ef wawal-nsen, ef wakken i yasen-tefka tmussninsen tameut er Leqbayel ur teswi, ur terri ; argaz yeseb-itt am nettat am zzayla, ur aken-ni ; ad tt-ya, ad tt-yezzenz am wakken ara ya, yezzenz taa ne tafunast deg ssuq. Deg uxxam ur tesi rray ula deg ucemma ; kra ara yili mazal-itt meiyet, deg-s cwi n lmenfia, atan iban; asmi meqret, tekcem-itt tewser, ad tt-ezlen er rrif, ad tt-deqren am nettat, am uqecwal iqersen. Aya yakk d lekteb. Nekni yessnen akken tella lala n Leqbayel, ifehmen, yeran acu yellan deg wul n Uzwawi, nezmer ad neggal ur nennet belli ulac i yezizen er Uqbayli

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am tmeut-is, laxaer yera bla nettat ddunit-is tefre, axxam din ur yelli. Kra n lbana d rray yellan, telem yes-s tmeut. Yak d Igawawen i yas-yeqqaren : Ulac i yuren, i nettagd am lehur n tsumta. Mei meqqer, ur-sen, yiwen ur yettuqam laa melba ccwer n uxxam-is. Lemmer d lecal n rray d ttedbir i yettarran bunadem d argaz, yili amur ameqqran deg Leqbayel yessefk d nutni ara yelsen icwawen, ad en iberniyas i tulawin-nsen laxater, ef wakken nessen nera teddun lecal, d rray-nsent i ixeddmen. Kullec ef ufus-nsent, ula ma ur heddrent ara deg tejmuya akked leswaq, d lehur-nsent i ierrun, d rray-nsent i ixeddmen s ddaw ufus ; aqerru n uxxam d tameut, am wakken i yas-qqaren : Axxam bla tameut am leber melba lut. Mesub d laa ur nekkmil ara.
Abalu : S. A. Boulifa, 1913, Mthode de langue kabyle - Cours de deuxime anne, Alger, Adolphe Joudan, Isebtar 276/277.

* * * Tabrat n yieggalen Atekki-nne deg tfernin n tikelt-a d abrid-nnien ara yessiwen imezda n tmurt ad d-sbedden, deg tsuddwin n uwanek, wid deg ttwalin ad babben takkemt ayen n ukemmel n umenu ef yizerfan-nsen.

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S uttekki-nne deg tefranin-a, nefer ayen yuran deg umagrad wis 11 n terert n Leqser : tualin n yigrawen ierfanen er yifassen n uref d tririt n yisse i yasyettwakksen aas aya. Tualin-nne ass-a er yimukan i yellan d ayla n uref, d imeni s wudem-nnien i usifer n taect n uref-a ; i uettekki, sdat n yialen-nnien, deg lebni n uwanek ara iressin iman-is s tsuddwin-is d ugdud-ines. Tikkin-nne deg tefranin-a, ur d-telli ara s shala, aas n wuguren i ya-d-yemmugren seg tazwara akken ad a-sfeclen, ad a-ren asar deg ufus. Degmi nessuter tamiwna seg ukabar n PNSD. Akabar-a yu abrid zeddigen, seg wasmi d-ilul, yexa i tkerkas n udabu. Yuklal leqder imi yesa am nekni tismin ef tmurt.
Abalu : Tabrat n yieggalen, Elections Lgisltives 2007. Circonscription de Bjaia. Umu n tmetti taarimt s ufus n ukabar PNSD.

* * *

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ASUSSEN1 (ADELLEL) Asussen d tawsit n uris i sismilen deg tsekka n ufuklan imi iswi-s d azerrer n umdan ne d ajabad-is akken ad ya ayen ief d-yella usussen. Ilmend n waya i tt-id-rni deg taggayt-a. Maca aselmad, amedya, yezmer ad yesseqdec isusnen n ssuq akken ad yesken i yinelmaden-is kra n tugniwin n tesnukyist d tmedyazt 2 . Tawsit tamezwarut : Asusen n radyu 1. Ssif ileq-d. Asewjed n tmeriwin yebda. La grande surface du lac, di ssuq n lfella n zik n Yieddaden, tessewjed-d le salon wis sin n lehaz n teslit, seg 26 mai alma d 10 juin i d-iteddun. Ili-ken di ttiadd, mreba yes-wen yal ass, seg 10 n sbe alma d 10 n yi.
Abalu : Radyu Summam.

Asussen : d adellel (publicit), deg ummud-a llant snat n tewsatin : yiwet n radyu, taye d asussen n ssuq. Irisen n n tamezwarut, skelse-ten-id seg radyu Summam, ma d irisen n tis snat, germre-ten-id seg ssuq n Bgayet, aseggas n 2006. 2 Ma d ayen yerzan tasledt-is s telqi yezmer yimeri ad ier amahil-nne n Doctorat ne asarag ef tewsit-a i d-fki deg temlilit Aselmed n tsekla n tmazit s tmazit Tarrayin d yimawalen i d-yellan gar 07 d 10 junyu 2009, deg tesdawit n Tubiret.
1

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2. Les galeries marchandes de lAtlas i d-yezgan zdat n lstade ajdid, tessalam-iken d akken tiwwura-s ldint deg wass amezwaru n juin 2003. Ayen tebam ad tafem-t dina s rxa : lmakla-nwen, lebsa-nwen, les cosmtiques akked les articles de mnage. Les galeries marchandes de lAtlas, cest la classe.
Abalu : Radyu Summam.

3. Ma tebam ad d-beynem sela-nwen. Ma tebqam ad tettwassen lxedma-nwen. Radyu Summam ad ken-tessiwe er lebi-nwen.
Abalu : Radyu Summam.

4. Ma tebi ad tae axxam i ke d warraw-ik ne ad tae axxam sur plan, cwi, cwi ad tessufe tiraga-inek. Tzemre ad tae axxam ajdid sur un promoteur immobilier ne ma yejeb-ak uxxam n kra n yiwen. Tzemre daen ad tikki deg wahil n uxxam n L.S.P ne ad tae taanut wa ad tgerzze tamict-ik. Ass-a yid-nne tzemre ad tili d bab n cci. Tifrat llant er ureal ara k-iwulmen ur-nne. Nekni la C.N.E.P Banque lbanka n lemlek iqedcen ddima ilmendnwen.
Abalu : Radyu Summam.

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Tawsit tis snat : Isusnen n ssuq 1. Win yeban ad yili labas, yawi abesbas. 2. Win yesan afrux, yawi-yas lxux. 3. Ibawen ileqqaqen yerna laqen. 4. Awi lqernun a bu leyun. 5. Lubya n Tici i d-yeffen deg uruci. 6. Lmandarin i mm teyunin. 7. ina n Yilmaten, em, erem ay aytmaten. 8. Awi lin ay umin. 9. D alawan u d abawi win i t-yeran ad t-yawi. 10. Lubya n lfuru lhem ad iru. 11. S waman n Tua kulec d lfayda.

182

Tirigin n Usqamu Unnig n Timmuza Editions du Haut Commissariat l'Amazighit -o-O-oCollection Idlisen-nne 01- Khalfa MAMRI, Abane Ramdane, ar taggara d netta i d bab n timmunent, 2003 (Tasuqelt Abdenour HADJ-SAID d Youcef MERAHI) 02- Slimane ZAMOUCHE, Uan n tegrest, 2003. 03- Omar DAHMOUNE, Bu tqulhatin, 2003. 04- Mohand Akli HADDADOU, Lexique du corps humain, 2003. 05- Hocine ARBAOUI, Idurar ireqmanen (Sophonisbe), 2004. 06- Slimane ZAMOUCHE, Inigan, 2004. 07- S. HACID et K. FERHOUH, Lael ittaba lael akk d : Tafunast igujilen, 2004. 08- Y. AHMED ZAYED et R. KAHLOUCHE, Lexique des sciences de la terre et lexique animal, 2004. 09- Lhadi BELLA, Luna, 2004. 10- Antoine de St EXUPERY, Le Petit Prince, 2004 (Tasuqelt Habib Allah MANSOURI, Ageldun amecu ) 11- Djamel HAMRI, Agerruj n teqbaylit, 2004. 12- Ramdane OUSLIMANI, Akli ungif, 2004. 13- Habib Allah MANSOURI, Amawal n tmazit tatrart, dition revue et augmente, 2004. 14- Ali KHALFA, Angal n webrid, 2004. 15- Halima AIT ALI TOUDERT, Ayen i -d-nnan gar yetran, 2004. 16- Moussa OULD TALEB, Mmi-s n igellil, 2004 (Tazwart : Youcef MERAHI) 17- Mohand Akli HADDADOU, Recueil des prnoms amazighs, 2004. 18- Nadia BENMOUHOUB, Tamacahut n Basar, 2004. 19- Youcef MERAHI, Taqbaylit ass s wass, 2004. 20- Abdelhafidh KERROUCHE, Tezi n yiles, 2004. 21- Ahmed HAMADOUCHE, Tiri n umsedrar, 2004. 22- Slimane BELHARET, Awal ef wawal, 2005. 23- Madjid SI MOHAMEDI, Afus seg-m, 2005. 24- Abdellah HAMANE, Merwas di lberj n yiij - aric I, 2005. 25- Collectif, Tibirt n yimedyazen, 2005. 26- Mourad ZIMU, Tikli, tullisin nnien, 2005. 27- Tayeb DJELLAL, Si tinfusin n umaal, 2005. 28- Yahia AIT YAHIATENE, Fama n Summer, 2006. 29- Abdellah HAMANE, Merwas di lberj n yiij - aric II, 2006. 30- Lounes BENREJDAL, Tamacahut n bu yedmim, 2006. 31- Mezyan OU MOH, Tamacahut n umeksa, 2006. 32- Abdellah ARKOUB, Nnig wurfan, 2006. 33- Ali MAKOUR, med n ugellid, 2006. 34- Y. BOULMA & S. ABDENBI, Am tmeqqunt n tjeigin, 2006.

35- Mohand Akli SALHI, Amawal n tsekla, 2006. 36- O. KERDJA & A. MEGHNEM, Amawal amecu n ugama, 2006. 37- Ali EL-HADJEN, Tudert d usirem, 2006. 38- Hadjira OUBACHIR, Uzzu n tayri, 2007. 39- Djamel BENAOUF, Di tmurt uekki, 2007. 40- Said IAMRACHE, Timenna n Said Iemrac, 2007. 41- Mohamed MEDJDOUB, Baba Carlu, 2007. 42- Nadia BENMOUHOUB, Tafunast igujilen, 2007. 43- Ali MOKRANI, Agama s tugniwin, 2007. 44- Fatma ELKOUCHA, Tamedyazt n Yasmin, 2007. 45- Naima HADJOU, Amennu n tudert-iw, 2007. 46- Hocine LAOUES, Gar umqadmu d umnelti, 2007. 47- Omar KHAYAM, Rubaiyyat, 2007 (Tasuqelt Abdellah HAMANE) 48- Ferdinand DUCHENE, Tamilla, 2007(Tasuqelt Habib Allah MANSOURI) 49- Slimane ZAMOUCHE, Agellil akk d ineffuten yelhan, 2007. 50- Djamel HAMRI, Anadi di tmedyazt, 2007. 51- Khaled FERHOUH, ku-ya-d tamacahut, 2007. 52- Lhadi BELLA, Awal d usefru, 2007. 53- Omar DAHMOUNE, Agu, 2007. 54- SOPHOCLE, Untigun, 2007 (Tasuqelt Yahia AIT YAHIATENE). 55- Ahmed HAMADOUCHE, Inzan tiqsiin, 2007. 56- Ouiza GRAINE, Isefra n tmazit, 2007. 57- Louns BENREJDAL, Inzan n teqbaylit, 2007. 58- Akli OUTAMAZIRT, Targit, 2008. 59- Mohamed Salah OUNISSI, Tametna n umenzu, 2008. 60- Ramdane ABDENBI, Anagi, 2008. 61- Ramdane LASHEB, Ccna n tlawin ef rad 54/62, 2008. 62- Said CHEMAKH, Ger zik d tura, 2008. 63- Tiddukla Yusef U Qasi - Si Muend U Mend, Tafaska n tmedyazt_1, 2008. 64- Sadi DOURMANE, Abrid n tudert-iw, 2008. 65- Dahbia AMOUR, Tudert s tmedyazt, 2009. 66- TANASLIT, Akli n tayri, 2009. 67- Djaffar CHIBANI, Ddeqs-nne, 2009. 68- Belkacem IHIDJATEN, Iij asemma, 2009. 69- Abdellah HAMANE, Tisri n tayri, 2009. 70- Said ABDELLI, Tidwirin, 2009. 71- Said ZANOUN, Bururu yeya-d, 2009. 72- U LAMARA, Tullianum, taggara n Yugurten, 2009. 73- Tiddukla Yusef U Qasi - Si Muend U Mend, Tafaska n tmedyazt_2, 2009. 74- Chabane OULAMARA, Azamul n tmusni, 2010. 75- Mehenna SEHRANE, Awal ef yiersiwen, 2010. 76- Mohand Ouali KEZZAR, Tibratin, 2010.

Actes de colloques 01- Actes des journes d'tude sur La connaissance de l'histoire de l'Algrie, mars 1998. - Actes des journes d'tude sur L'enseignement de Tamazight, mai 1998. - Actes des journes d'tude sur Tamazight dans le systme de la communication, juin 1998. 02- Actes des journes d'tude sur Approche et tude sur l'amazighit, 2000/2001. 03- Actes du colloque sur Le mouvement national et la revendication amazighe, 2002. 04- Actes du colloque international sur Tamazight face aux dfis de la modernit, 2002. 05- Actes des sminaires sur la formation des enseignants de Tamazight et l'enseignement de la langue et de l'histoire amazighe, 2003. 06- Actes des colloques : Identit, langue et Etat -/- La permanence de l'architecture amazighe et l'volution des cits en Algrie, 2003. 07- Actes des stages de perfectionnement pour les enseignants de tamazight, mars 2004. 08- Actes du stage de perfectionnement des enseignants de la langue amazighe, 30/31 mars 2004. 09- Actes du Colloque : Le passage l'crit des langues et cultures de tradition orale, le cas de Tamazight, 2004. (Voir Timmuzgha N13) 10- Actes du Colloque : La littrature amazighe : de l'oralit l'crit, 2005 (Voir Timmuzgha N14) 11- Actes du Colloque : Tamazight dans les mdias et l'cole : hypofonctionnalit et usages du lexique, 2006 (Voir Timmuzgha N15) 12- Actes du colloque sur Le patrimoine culturel immatriel amazigh, 2006. 13- Actes du colloque sur Le libyco-berbre ou le Tifinagh ; de l'authenticit l'usage pratique, 2007. 14- Actes du colloque : Lapport des amazighs la civilisation universelle, 2009. 15- Actes des Journes d'tude sur lenseignement de Tamazight, Rgion Est, 2009. - Actes de la Gense de lenseignement de Tamazight depuis le XIXme sicle, 2009. - Actes du Stage de perfectionnement pour les enseignants du primaire, 2009.

Revue Timmuzgha Revue d'tudes amazighes du Haut Commissariat l'Amazighit : N 1, avril 1999, ----- N 20, juillet 2009. - N10, octobre 2004, Spcial Mohya, Entretien. - N12, dcembre 2006, Tajmilt i Si Muend U Mend. - N spcial en Tamazight : . N16, janvier 2008. . N17, avril 2008. . N19, aot 2008.

Revue Tamazight tura Revue en Tamazight du Haut Commissariat l'Amazighit : N 1, janvier 2009----- N4, janvier 2010.

Autres publications 01- Chafik MOHAMED, Aperu sur trente trois sicles de l'histoire des imazighnes, 1997. 02- Annuaire des associations culturelles amazighes, 2000. 03- Idir El-Watani, L'Algrie libre vivra, 2001. 04- Mohand Oulhadj LACEB, La phonologie gnrative du kabyle : l'emphase et son harmonie. Tome1, Histoire et fondements d'un dbat argumentaire, 2007. 05- Mohand Oulhadj LACEB, La phonologie gnrative du kabyle : l'emphase et son harmonie. Tome2, Analyse et reprsentation phonologique, 2007. 06- Collectif, Mouloud FERAOUN, Evocation, Actes du Colloque, 2008. 07- Catalogue des publications du HCA, 2008. 08- Catalogue des publications du HCA, 2009. 09- Boudjema AZIRI, Nologismes et calques dans les mdias amazighs, 2009.

Consultings 01- Kamel BOUAMARA, Nekni d wiyi, 1998. 02- Mouloud FERAOUN, Ussan di tmurt, 1999 (Tasuqelt Kamel BOUAMARA) 03- Nora TIGZIRI - Amar NABTI, Etude sur L'enseignement de la langue amazighe: bilan et perspectives , 2004. 04- Iddir AMARA, Les inscriptions alphabtiques amazighes d'Algrie, 2006. 05- Kemal STITI, Fascicule des inscriptions libyques graves et peintes de la grande Kabylie, 2006. 06- Mohand Akli HADDADOU, Dictionnaire des racines berbres communes, 2006/2007.

07- Abdellah NOUH, Glossaire du vocabulaire commun au Kabyle et au Mozabite, 2006/2007. 08- Sadaq BENDALI, Awfus amaynut n tutlayt tamazit, 2007. 09- M'hammed DJELLAOUI, Tiwsatin timensayin n tesrit taqbaylit, 2007. 10- Kamel BOUAMARA, Amawal n tunuin n tesnukyest, 2007. 11- Moussa IMARAZENE, Manuel de syntaxe berbre, 2007. 12- M'hammed DJELLAOUI, Tiwsatin timensayin n tmedyazt taqbaylit, 2007. 13- Moussa IMARAZENE, Timayin n leqbayel, 2007. 14- Nora BELGASMIA, L'expression crite en tamazight, 2007. 15- Mouloud LOUNAOUCI, Projet de cration dun Centre de terminologie amazighe, TERAMA, 2007. 16- Zahir MEKSEM, Isuraz n usezdi d tenmela tarisant n tmazit : Asnekwu d teslet, 2008. 17- Mohammed Brahim SALHI, La tariqa Rahmaniya : De lavnement linsurrection de 1871, 2008. 18- Fakihani TIBERMACINE, Tanast u kajjuf, 2009. 19- Mohand Akli HADDADOU, Introduction la littrature berbre, 2009. 20- M'hammed DJELLAOUI, , Tome 1, 2009. 20- M'hammed DJELLAOUI, , Tome 2, 2010.

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Iswi n umahil-a d agmar d teslet n yirisen ara yilin ilmend n tsekkiwin yemgaraden. Deg tama, irisen-a ad ilin d allalen isensegmiyen i kra n win yesran i tsekkiwin n yirisen : wid ara dyessufen idlisfusen, iselmaden, inelmaden. Deg tault-a ammuda ad yili daen d abalu i yiselmaden akken ad suddsen tugzimin n uselmed ara yessifsen aselmed n tsekiwin n yirisen akken inelmaden ad siwen ad d-snekwun yerna ad semgirden gar yirisen n tmazit. Deg tama-nnien, ammud yezmer ad yili d abalu i yimnuda akken ad gen tiselin deg taulin yemgaraden : tasnilest, tasnilest tarisant d tsensekka tarisant akked tesnalmudt, atg. Da, ma nmuqel anagar er tixutert-is tasensegmit, ammud-a ad yili d abalu ideg ara yaf yimeri irisen ara yessemres deg taulin yemgaraden. Tamezwarut, ad yili d tala i yiselmaden ideg zemren ad d-kksen irisen ara sqedcen deg tneriyin acku deg umahil-a llant aas n tsekkiwin. Tin ur-s, tisekkiwin-a ad ilint d amedya ideg ara ren, lada yinelmaden, llant aas n tsekkiwin n yirisen deg tmazit ; irisen-a ur mgaraden ara kan deg yisental, maca mgaraden daen deg talansen. Nnig wannect-a, inelmaden ad gzun amek ttwrun yirisen, ayen ara ten-yeen ad awen er tzemmar tutlayanin n tegzi d ufares.