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CHAPTER 1

1. Define the term personal trainer:

2.

List the sixteen characteristics that make up a personal trainer:

(1)

3.

The greatest legal concerns for a personal trainer are:

4.

(T/F) A failure to screen or even perform screening which results in client injury may actually increase the likelihood of legal claims and suits based upon negligence.

5. 6.

(T/F) Employers may not be responsible for the actions of their employees. (T/F) It is recommended to utilize applicable protective documents such as waivers, releases and informed consents to meet their legal duties.

7.

(T/F) It is not recommended to obtain liability insurance when working as an independent contractor.

8.

(T/F) Professionalism has nothing to do with punctuality, appearance, presentation, knowledge or hygiene.

9.

Define "vicarious liability" or "respondent superior" and why it is important.

10.

When a client complains of pain in their joints, is it in your scope of practice to diagnose their condition?

(2)

CHAPTER 2
1. Define exercise physiology:

2.

What is the basic unit of life?

3.

Name the three energy systems:

4.

Which energy systems are anaerobic? aerobic?

5. 6.

(T/F) The term anaerobic means oxygen is not required to function. Give three examples of activities that primarily require use of the ATPCP system:

7.

What is Glycolysis? How long does it last?

8.

What is lactate threshold?

(3)

9.

What is glucose? Where is it stored? What is it stored as?

10.

What is Aerobic Oxidation?

11.

What allows the human body to move?

12.

What are the three types of connective tissue that encompass muscle?

13.

What is a myofibril? What are the two myofilaments that compose a myofibril?

14.

What role does a muscle fibers arrangement play?

15.

What is a hinge joint?

16.

What is a ball and socket joint?

(4)

17.

What are the two types of muscle fibers? Explain the difference between the two:

18.

What muscle fiber type is predominantly involved in activities such as sprinting, power lifting and the high jump?

19.

Define the All or None principle:

20.

What are the three types of contraction? List them in the order of strength from strongest to weakest:

21.

Define concentric strength:

22.

Define eccentric strength:

23.

What is the function of blood?

(5)

24.

Define periodicity (periodization):

25.

What is the overload principle?

26.

What are the five major factors that effect training?

27.

Explain the difference between using free weights and selectorized equipment:

28.

What is ATP?

29.

What would afferent information be?

30.

What is a motor unit?

(6)

31.

What are the three types of muscle tissue?

32.

What are the prime movers or agonists in a biceps curl?

33.

What would the training heart rate of 70% be for a 32 year-old female with a resting heart rate of 72?

34.

Give a few examples of signs of overtraining.

35.

What time of the day are the highest levels of blood secretion levels of growth hormone released?

1.

What is metabolism?

(7)

CHAPTER 3

2.

What is the primary fuel source in the human diet? How many calories in one gram of carbohydrate?

3.

Give three examples of a simple carbohydrate. Complex carbohydrate.

4.

According to the Institute of Medicine what percentage of the human diet should consist of carbohydrates? %.

5.

What is the Glycemic Index?

6. 7.

How many calories are there in one gram of fat? According to the Institute of Medicine what percentage of the human diet should consist of fat? %.

8. 9.

(T/F) Fat is the most concentrated source of energy in the diet. What are the four types of fatty acids?

10.

What are the two essential fatty acids?

(8)

11.

What is cholesterol?

12.

What is considered to be a healthy level of cholesterol?

13.

What is the total cholesterol ratio?

14.

What is the range for normal cholesterol?

15.

What is protein? What important role does it play in the body?

16.

How many calories are in one gram of protein?

17.

According to the Institute of Medicine what percentage of the human diet should consist of protein? %.

18.

What are vitamins?

19.

Which vitamins are fat soluble?

(9)

20.

What are minerals?

21.

What is the most abundant mineral in the body?

22.

How many minerals are required in the diet?

23.

What are the only metabolically active tissues in the body?

24.

What is the most abundant protein in the human body?

25.

Name the nine essential amino acids:

26.

What is the Institute of Medicine's recommended intake of carbohydrates, proteins and fats?

27.

What constitutes a serving for pasta from the Food Guide Pyramid?

28.

What percentage of ingested calcium is absorbed by the human body? What is the RDA for calcium?

( 10 )

29.

Which vitamins are affected the most due to the industrialization of our food supply?

30.

What are the key antioxidants (vitamins)?

1.

What is flexibility?

( 11 )

CHAPTER 4

2.

Define the term range of motion:

3.

List the six factors that can influence or limit your joint mobility:

4.

What is the purpose for stretching?

5.

List three benefits of a good warm-up:

6.

What is a static stretch?

( 12 )

7.

What does the abbreviation PNF stand for?

8.

List four benefits of stretching:

9.

What problem can excessive stretching lead to?

10.

List three specific reasons you would not stretch a muscle:

1.

What is the most important role a trainer can play when working with a client with AIDS?

( 13 )

CHAPTER 5
2. How often should you evaluate a clients ability if they have the AIDS virus?

3.

How does arthritis affect a persons range of motion?

4.

What may be a better form of exercise for individuals with arthritis?

5.

What is the difference between Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2?

6.

When would it be necessary to more closely monitor blood sugar levels with a diabetic?

7.

What should the goal be when working with an obese client?

8.

Obese people are more likely to develop which diseases?

9. 10.

(T/F) Weight bearing exercise is of primary importance to someone with osteoporosis. (T/F) Resistance exercise increases bone density cross-sectionally.

( 14 )

11.

What issues should a trainer pay close attention to if training a client in the first trimester of pregnancy?

12.

What should be the primary concerns of a pregnant woman who is trying to maintain her exercise habits in the third trimester?

13. 14.

(T/F) Stretching can be done with caution in a pregnant womans training program. How many tender points must a person have to be diagnosed with Fibromyalgia?

15. 16.

What is the primary symptom of Fibromyalgia? What problems can Multiple Sclerosis cause?

17.

What causes Multiple Sclerosis?

18.

What should be avoided in an exercise program for someone with Multiple Sclerosis?

19.

What response during exercise can you suspect from a client who is taking a Beta Blocker?

( 15 )

20.

What response during submaximal testing can you suspect from a client who is taking a Calcium Channel Blocker?

21.

What causes Lupus?

1.

Define the sagittal plane. Give an example of a movement that takes place in the sagittal plane:

2.

What is the frontal plane? Give an example of a movement that takes place in the frontal plane:

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CHAPTER 6

3.

What is the horizontal plane? Give an example of a movement that takes place in the horizontal plane:

4.

What is scapular abduction (protraction)? Give an example:

5.

What is scapular adduction (retraction)? Give an example:

6. 7.

Define the term superior: (T/F) The term proximal means away from the center of the body.

8.

Define the term superficial.

9. 10.

(T/F) The term unilateral means one side. Define the term flexion. Give one example.

11.

Define the term extension. Give one example.

1.

What are the three major components of the musculoskeletal system?

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CHAPTER 7

2.

What are the two parts that make up the skeletal system?

3.

(T/F) The axial skeleton consists of the upper and lower extremities.

4.

What are the two most important functions of the skeletal system?

5.

What is a lever arm?

6.

What is a fulcrum?

7.

Name the three types of lever systems:

8.

What is the most rigid connective tissue found in the human body?

9.

What is trabeculae?

10.

What is the strong fibrous membrane that offers strength and stiffness to the skeleton?

11.

Give examples of a long bone:

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12.

Give examples of flat bones:

13.

What are irregular bones?

14.

What is Wolffs Law?

15. 16.

(T/F) One of the benefits of exercise is that it helps increase bone mass. (T/F) The two categories of joints are synarthroses (non-synovial joints) and diarthroses (synovial joints).

17.

The cartilaginous joints are made of what cartilage?

18.

(T/F) In diarthrodial (synovial) joints, the ends of the bones are free to move in relation to one another.

19.

All synovial joints have what five characteristics?

( 19 )

20.

What are proximal joints? Give examples:

21.

What are the distal joints? Give examples:

22.

Define the term agonist. Give an example:

23. 24.

What opposes the agonist? What is a synergist? Give an example:

25.

(T/F) A stabilizer is a muscle or set of muscles that steady or support a joint so another muscle or sets of muscles may move a portion of the body.

26.

Which muscle dorsiflexes the foot?

( 20 )

27.

What is the action of the rectus abdominis?

28.

What is the action of the transversus abdominis?

29.

What is the origin of the serratus anterior?

30.

What is the insertion of the pectoralis major?

31.

What nerve innervates the deltoid?

32.

What is the insertion of the biceps brachii?

33.

What is the origin of the brachioradialis?

34.

What is the insertion of the psoas major? Actions?

35.

What makes up the posterior oblique system?

36.

What makes up the anterior oblique system?

37.

What makes up the deep longitudinal system?

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38.

What muscles make up the inner unit?

1.

What are the six steps to any resistance exercise?

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CHAPTER 8

2.

What are the three types of range of motion?

3.

Define active range of motion:

4.

What are the five sections that make up the vertebral column?

5. 6.

How many vertebrae make up the vertebral column? List the four different spinal motions.

7.

What is the number one cause of back pain?

8.

How much does the intradiskal pressure increase when someone goes from a standing position to a seated position? %

9.

(T/F) When training the rectus abdominis you cant create regional emphasis on upper or lower abs.

( 23 )

10.

What muscles play a role in stabilizing the trunk?

11.

What should you look for when assessing someones posture?

12.

When beginning a strength program what should precede mobility?

13.

What is the law of facilitation?

14.

What is the goal of the seated posture trainer exercise?

15.

What is abdominal coordination?

16.

What is the key to using the back extension machine?

17.

What is the shoulder girdle composed of? What is the shoulder girdle a foundation for?

( 24 )

18.

What are the motions of the shoulder girdle?

19.

What is scapulohumeral rhythm?

20. 21.

What is considered to be normal ROM in shoulder flexion? Name the SITS muscles:

degrees.

22.

What are the three divisions of the pectoralis major?

23. 24. 25.

When performing a lateral raise what is the prime mover? What is the strongest, heaviest, and longest bone in the body? Each hip bone is fused by which three bones? , & .

26.

What is the true function of the hip abductors?

27.

What bones make up the knee joint?

( 25 )

28.

How is lower extremity alignment accomplished?

29.

The ankle is a hinge joint formed by what bones?

30.

What two muscles make up the calf muscles? & .

31.

What action does the gastrocnemius perform?

32.

When performing a prone leg curl the pivot point of the machine should be lined up with the:

1.

(T/F) Before a client engages in physical activity the trainer should look at any orthopedic concerns the client might have. (T/F) Before loading a client the trainer should ensure the client knows how to perform the movement properly.

2.

( 26 )

CHAPTER 9
3. What should the client concentrate on in the first 69 months of training?

4.

Define the term frequency:

5.

What is tensile loading?

6.

What is relative strength?

7.

When do slow twitch fibers fatigue?

8.

The tempo of movement determines what?

9.

What is the stretch shortening cycle?

10.

How much time under tension is needed to receive a maximal strength/hypertrophy training seconds TUT. effect? If the tempo prescribed is a 4:1:2:1, which number is eccentric? Isometric, Concentric?

11.

( 27 )

is eccentric, 12.

is isometric and

is concentric.

(T/F) Training should always start with fast movement and progress to slower movements.

13. 14.

(T/F) Increased torque and joint loading occur when fast movements are used. What training effect will a client receive if they train with a 16 repetition load? Adaptation?

15.

What is a metabolic adaptation?

16.

(T/F) There is an inverse relationship between sets and reps. As the number of reps decrease, the number of sets increase and vice versa.

17.

What is the rationale behind performing six different exercises per body part but only doing 1 set per exercise?

18. 19.

How long does it take for a hypertrophy response to occur? (T/F) Smaller muscle groups take more time to recover.

weeks.

20.

How long should rest periods last if working above 90% of maximum? Approximately minutes.

21.

(T/F) Larger individuals require longer rest periods because their bodies have to work harder to support the greater mass.

( 28 )

22.

What occurs if the individual is given too long a rest period?

23.

What is exercise selection dependent on?

24.

Why is it important to use unilateral movements?

25.

When should complex exercises be performed?

26.

(T/F) The exercises done at the beginning of the week and the beginning of the workout receive the best effort and the best result because the muscles are being trained under full recovery.

27.

What is alternating periodization?

28.

(T/F) The client should always build off of a solid foundation first. The client should begin with a base conditioning program and progress into later phases of conditioning.

1.

Why is it important to do fitness testing?

( 29 )

CHAPTER 10

2. 3.

How long should you take a clients resting heart rate?

seconds.

What is the most accurate technique for counting heart rate at rest and during exercise?

4.

What artery is the best to palpate when checking heart rate?

5.

What is considered a normal resting heart rate?

bpm.

6. 7.

What is considered to be a normal blood pressure reading?

mm/Hg.

(T/F) If a blood pressure measurement needs to be repeated, you should wait approximately 60 seconds or more with the cuff completely deflated to allow circulation to return to normal.

8.

What does the term body composition mean?

9.

A high fat weight is a risk factor for what?

10.

How do you calculate body mass index?

11.

What determines how an individuals subcutaneous fat levels are distributed?

12.

Where do most females store fat?

13.

The waist-to-hip-ratio is effective in measuring what?

( 30 )

14.

(T/F) In the waist-to-hip-ratio, the hip measurement should be smaller in circumference than the waist measurement.

15. 16. 17.

What is a normal waist-to-hip-ratio for a male between the ages of 1739? What is the estimated accuracy range of hydrostatic weighing? Describe how an individual would take a skin fold measurement on the axilla. %.

18.

What is the standard three site skin fold formula for a man?

19.

The bioelectrical impedance analysis technique is based on what assumption?

20. 21.

What is the estimated accuracy range of BIA?

%.

When using the BIA technique how long should a person fast before being tested?

22.

What is the purpose of the sit and reach test?

23.

What position creates maximal compressive forces on the intervertebral disks?

( 31 )

24.

How do you score the client on the sit and reach test?

25.

What is the assumption of the three-minute step test?

26.

How long should you count the clients heart rate once they have completed the three-minute step test? seconds.

27.

How many beats per minute should you set the metronome at for the three-minute step test? bpm.

28.

The push up test measures? In what muscles?

29.

When is the push up test considered to be complete?

30.

The sit-up test measures? In what muscles?

31.

The crunch test has recently been developed as:

32.

Weak abdominal musculature is common with individuals who experience?

1.

(T/F) If a client has chest pain you should call 911.

( 32 )

CHAPTER 11
2. (T/F) A fitness professional should diagnose injuries.

3.

What does the acronym RICE mean?

4.

Why do you apply ice to an injury?

5.

How long should you apply ice to an injury?

6.

Why should you elevate the injured part?

7.

What are the symptoms for heat exhaustion?

8.

What is the treatment for a contusion?

9.

What is a sprain?

( 33 )

10.

What is the treatment for a strain? . . . .

11.

What are the symptoms of fainting?

12.

What is the treatment for a client with hypoglycemia?

1.

How much does a standard seven foot Olympic bar weigh?

lbs.

( 34 )

CHAPTER 12
2. How much does the Cybex smith machine bar weigh? lbs.

3.

What are the disadvantages of the Cybex equipment line?

4. 5.

What is the name of the largest treadmill making company in the world? What is the benefit of a recumbent bike?

6. 7.

How much does an e-z bar weigh? What is unique about the Cybex squat press?

lbs.

8.

What are the advantages of Hammer Strength equipment?

1.

What is the number one killer in America?

( 35 )

CHAPTER 13

2.

What percentage of American adults get enough exercise to achieve cardiovascular fitness? %.

3. 4. 5.

(T/F) Regular physical activity has been shown to improve self image. (T/F) Regular physical activity improves energy levels and decreases stress. (T/F) Exercise has no effect on high blood pressure or diabetes.

6.

(T/F) Physical activity builds healthy bones, muscles and joints, and reduces the risk of colon cancer.

7.

(T/F) Physical activity needs to be strenuous to achieve health benefits.

8. 9. 10.

What percentage of adults are not active at all?

%.

(T/F) Female adolescents are much less physically active than male adolescents. (T/F) In high school, enrollment in daily P.E. classes dropped from 42% in 1991 to 25% in 1995.

1.

(T/F) Before you set up your company you should see an accountant or lawyer for advice as to what is the best option for you.

( 36 )

CHAPTER 14
2. 3. (T/F) If youre going to run your own business, it is a good idea to accept credit cards. What are the four keys to handling objections?

4.

What is hard selling?

5. 6.

(T/F) Every trainer should have some kind of introductory special. What are the five main points to look for on the client profile?

7.

(T/F) You should never call and confirm your appointments.

8. 9.

When you try to sell someone your service, always focus on their what? What form should you always make sure the client signs prior to engaging in activity?

10.

What are the three means of communication?

( 37 )

11.

(T/F) It is important for clients to use the mirrors to monitor technique.

12.

Two subjects to refrain from speaking with your clients are:

( 38 )

STUDY GUIDE ANSWERS

( 39 )

Chapter 1 1.

2.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. Chapter 2 1. 2. 3.

Personal TrainerA) student/empathetic teacher of the movement and functions of the human body, the internal and external forces that act upon it and who professionally motivates, plans and monitors the benefits of fitness, exercise and nutrition as it relates to their clients health-related goal. B) a protector of health and well-being. Knowledge, Empathy, Professionalism, Psychology, Companionship, Communication, Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Teacher, Patience, Consideration, Common Sense, Versatility, Salesmanship, Proactive. Pre-activity health screening of clients, interpreting the results, the development of physical activity recommendations and parameters for training, the instruction and supervision of physical activity, emergency preparations and timely fulfillment of such services. True. False. True. False. False. Employers are vicariously liable, that is, responsible for the negligent acts or omissions of their employees in the course of their employment. For example, if you were to take a client's purse or gym bag to safeguard, both you and your employer would then be responsible for its contents or any loss. No, this would not be within your scope of practice to diagnose.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Exercise Physiologythe study of the cellular functions in the human body during and after exercise. Energy. a) ATPCreatinePhosphate system b) Glycolysis c) Aerobic Oxidation The ATPCPSystem and Glycolysis are considered anaerobic. The Aerobic Oxidation system is aerobic. True. Weight lifting, sprinting, tennis. Glycolysis is the breakdown of carbohydrate to pyruvate or lactic acid to produce ATP. It lasts from ten seconds to three minutes. Lactate thresholdthe accumulation or rise in lactate. Blood sugar and is the main source of anaerobic ATP production. Glucose is stored in the muscles and liver. Glucose is stored as glycogen. The aerobic pathway to produce ATP.

( 40 )

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

26. 27.

28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Skeletal muscle. Endomysium, Perimysium, Epimysium. Myofibrilthe smallest unit of a muscle cell. Actin (thin) and myosin (thick) filaments. Speed of contraction and force output. Hingeelbow and knee, this movement is limited to extension and flexion. Ball and Socketshoulder and hip, this movement provides the widest range of motion in all planes. Slow twitch and fast twitch. Slow twitchtype 1, red fiber, oxidative fibers, fatigue resistant. Fast twitchtype 2, white fibers, divided into type 2a and 2b, type 2a have moderate glycolytic and high oxidative capacities, type 2b have high glycolytic and low oxidative capacities. Type 2b. All or None principlewhen a myofiber is innervated by a nerve cell, the myofibrils contract totally or not at all. Eccentric, Isometric, Concentric. Concentric strengththe amount of musculoskeletal force to overcome a resistance by a shortening of the muscle fibers. Eccentric strengththe amount of musculoskeletal force displayed when a muscle is lengthened under tension. Blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body. Blood also retrieves waste products from the cells and carries them to be expelled or metabolized. Periodicity is the gradual cycling of specificity, intensity or volume of training to achieve a specific goal. Overload principlethe attempt to challenge the musculoskeletal system with unaccustomed stimulation such as, but not limited to, increased weight, speed, or volume of training (number of sets or reps). Level of fitness, intensity, duration, frequency, genetics. Free weights can be used in several exercises, but not all; selectorized uses only select muscle groups. Free weights are functional, real life easy to transport; selectorized doesnt require a spotter, safer and easier to change resistance. Free weights require more technique; machines do not fit everyone and can limit ROM. Free weights usually require more stabilization than machines. Adenosine Triphosphate. Afferent information is nerve impulses from receptors or sense organs toward the central nervous system. Is a single a-motor neuron and all of the corresponding muscle fibers it innervates. Skeletal, cardiac and visceral. Biceps Brachii, brachioradialis and brachialis. 153.2 or 153 bpm (beats per minute)

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34. 35. Chapter 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Elevated resting heart rate, difficulty sleeping, fatigue, excessive weight-loss, excessive soreness. At night.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

12. 13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23. 24.

Metabolismis the chemical and physiological process in the body that provides energy for the maintenance of life. Carbohydrates. There are four calories in every gram of carbohydrate. Simple carbohydrates are fruits, syrups, honey, chocolate bar, etc. Complex carbohydrates are potatoes, corn and rice, etc. 45-65%. Glycemic Indexis a number (1100) given to determine the rate at which the carbohydrate is broken down into glucose. The lower the number the longer it takes to break down, and the higher the number the faster. There are nine calories per gram of fat. 20-35% fat, with a balance of saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fats. True. Saturated, Monounsaturated, Polyunsaturated, and Trans-fatty acids. Linoleic and Linolenic. Cholesterol is a lipid or fat-related substance necessary for good health. It is a normal component of most body tissues, especially those of the brain and nervous system, liver, and blood. Below 200 mg/dl. HDL + LDL HDL = Total Cholesterol Ratio. 120 to 260 mg/dl. Protein is a substance containing nitrogen and is one of the most important elements for the maintenance of good health and vitality. It is of primary importance in the growth and development of all body tissues and the major source of building material for muscles, blood, skin, hair, nails, and internal organs, including the heart and brain. There are four calories in a gram of protein. 10-35% of the diet should be protein. Organic compounds required by the body in minute amounts for physiological maintenance and growth. A, D, E, K. Inorganic (non-living) nutrients found in the body and in food of organic and inorganic combinations. Approximately 26 minerals have been found to be essential to human nutrition. Calcium. 21 minerals according to the FDA. Muscles, the brain, and other organs. Collagen.

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25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Chapter 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Chapter 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Phenylalanine, valine, tryptophan, methionine, threonine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, leucine. 45-65% carbohydrates, 10-35% protein, 20-35% fat. 1/2 cup of cooked pasta. 20-30% of ingested calcium is absorbed. 800 mg. Vitamin B. Beta carotene, vitamin E and C.

Flexibilitythe capability of a joint to move freely in every direction or, specifically through a full or normal range of motion. ROMthe possible movement about a joint in a static (held) or dynamic (moving) state within the anatomical limits of the joint structure. Genetics, age, hypokinesis, gender, body type, body temperature. To restore muscles that are shortened, tight or weak to their optimum length. Prevent injury. In the Personal Training Manaul see pages 4-5 for the benefits of a good warm-up. Holding the body part in a stationary position in order to stabilize the muscles and its connective tissues safely at their greatest length. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation. In the Personal Training Manaul please see pages 4-6 - 4-7 Benefits of Stretching. Joint instability from over-stretched ligaments. In the Personal Training Manaul see page 4-7 When Not to Stretch.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

A wellness protector. On a day-to-day basis. By the swelling and inflammation of joint surfaces which cause pain. Non weight bearing such as pool exercise or stationary bicycling. Type 1insulin-dependent, juvenile-onset diabetes, pancreatic deficiency, requires insulin injections. Type 2non-insulin dependent, maturity-onset diabetes, commonly a result of obesity. When exercising at a higher level of intensity, because there is a greater risk of hypoglycemic reaction, especially 24 to 48 hours after activity. To increase basal metabolic rate and expend calories. Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, hormonal changes, joint-related problems. True. True. Attention must be given to heart rate and core temperature elevation. A high core temperature can damage the fetus.

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12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Chapter 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Hydration, proper nutrition, rest, and relaxation. True. 11 out of 18 tender points for three months or longer. Muscle soreness. Muscle control, strength, vision, balance, sensation and mental functions. Multiple Sclerosis is the process of demyelination and subsequent disruption of the nerve impulse flow. Exercise programs should be designed to avoid over heating. A client taking Beta Blockers can have a decreased exercise heart rate. A client taking a Calcium Channel Blocker can have a lower blood pressure when performing a submaximal exercise test. The exact pathology of lupus is unknown.

Splits the body into right and left halves. Elbow flexion/standing biceps curl. Splits the body into front and back halves. Lateral flexion of trunk. Splits the body into top and bottom halves. Trunk rotation. Joint movement away from anatomical position in the frontal plane or in the transverse plane, when joint motion is moving from a position of adduction to, or past neutral. Joint movement returning to anatomical position or crossing the midline of the body in the frontal plane or the transverse plane. The position above. False. Proximal is nearest to the trunk. Near the surface. True. Flexion occurs when the joint motion is moving away from neutral in the sagittal plane, or if past neutral in a position of extension, is moving back to neutral. Elbow Flexion - curl. Extension occurs when the joint motion is moving from a position of flexion back to, or past anatomical neutral in the sagittal plane. Elbow extension / triceps push-down.

Chapter 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Bones, skeletal muscle, connective tissue. Axial and appendicular. False. The axial skeleton consists of the head, neck and trunk. Leverage and support. A lever arm is the distance from the axis or fulcrum to the point at which a force is applied to the lever. The pivot point of a lever. First class. Second class. Third class. Bone. Plates of calcified tissue that make up the innermost layer of bone.

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10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

20.

21. 22. 23. 24.

25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

Periosteum. Humerus, radius, ulna, femur, fibula, tibia, metatarsals, metacarpals, phalanges. Ribs, ilium, sternum, scapula. The bones found in the skull, pelvis, vertebrae and consist of spongy bone with thin compact bone on the exterior. Every change in the form and function of a bone or of their function alone is followed by certain definitive changes in their internal architecture and equally definite secondary alteration in their external conformation, in accordance with mathematical laws. True. True. Fibrocartilage or hyaline growth cartilage. True. Joint capsule, a joint cavity enclosed by the joint capsule, a synovial membrane that lines the inner surface of the capsule, synovial fluid that forms a film over the joint surfaces, hyaline cartilage that covers the joint surfaces. Are the most proximal and the foundation for the extremities (shoulder/hip). These joints generally have the greatest freedom of movement and have a great deal of muscular support in fan-shaped arrangements. Complex in structure (wrist, ankle) with a variety of motions available with intricate control. A muscle that is most effective in causing a certain joint movement. Biceps brachii in a biceps curl. Antagonist. A synergist is when two muscles have a common joint action but also have a joint action that opposes each other. The synergy occurs during the common joint action. Example: Pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi during internal rotation of the humerus. True. Tibialis Anterior. Compresses the abdomino-pelvic cavity; and flexes the vertebral column. Compresses the abdomino-pelvic cavity. Outer surface of the first nine ribs. Greater tubercle of the humerus. Axillary nerve. Tuberosity of the radius. Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus. Lesser trochanter of the femur. Flex the thigh; flex the trunk on the femur. The posterior oblique system consists of the latissimus dorsi, gluteus maximus and the intervening thoraco-lumbar fascia. The anterior oblique system consists of the obliques and the contralateral adductor muscles and the intervening abdominal fascia.

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37. 38.

The deep longitudinal system includes the erector spinae, the deep lamina of the thoraco-lumbar fascia, the sacrotuberus ligament and the biceps femoris muscle. The inner unit consists of the multifidus, transversus abdominis, diaphragm and the pelvic floor.

Chapter 8 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

What is the motion to be performed? Determine the direction of resistance. Determine the starting position. Monitor joint position/stabilization. Monitor the path of motion. Determine and monitor the range of motion. Passive, active, resisted. Your muscular ability to move. Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx. 33 vertebrae. Flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation. Long periods out of a neutral spine. 3040%. False. You can create regional emphasis because of segmental nerve innervation. Back extensors, lateral flexors, anterior abdominals. In the Personal Training Manaul see page 8-6 in standard posture. Stability before mobility. When an impulse passes once through a given set of neurons to the exclusion of others it will tend to do so on a future occasion and each time it travels this path the resistance will be smaller. To teach proper body alignment and increase postural control and strength. The ability to stabilize the pelvis and lumbar curvature while simultaneously raising and lowering the leg (s). The key is control. Do not allow the machine to push you into a slouched position (spinal flexion). Clavicle and scapula. The foundation for the head, neck, and upper extremity. Elevation, depression, abduction, adduction. The relationship between the shoulder joint and the scapulothoracic joint. Two degrees of shoulder motion for every one degree of scapulothoracic motion. 160180 degrees. Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis. Clavicular, sternal, and costal fibers. Deltoid. Femur. Ilium, ischium, and pubis.

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26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. Chapter 9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

To maintain pelvic stability in single leg standing. The knee is formed by the articulation of the distal femur and proximal tibia. Together they form the tibia-femoral (or knee) joint. By ensuring that the femur is directed toward the toes. The tibia, fibula, and talus. Gastrocnemius and soleus. Flexes the leg; and plantar flexes the foot. Axis of rotation of the knee.

7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

True. True. Developing basic strength, endurance, flexibility, efficient connective and supportive systems, stabilization, and proper movement patterns. The number of training sessions per week, month, year, etc. The amount of tension developed in the muscle fibers when loaded. The maximum force the muscles can generate in relation to your body weight. This type of strength is important for individuals who have to move their entire body weight like gymnasts. Begin fatiguing @ six seconds and fully fatigues at 35 minutes. The load, amount of tension developed, use of mechanical energy. The sequence of eccentric, isometric, and concentric action. When the action of eccentric to concentric takes place, the muscle is stretched, and when the muscle is stretched it stores elastic energy. This stored elastic energy provides a more forcible, concentric lift. 2040 seconds TUT. 4 is eccentric, 1 is isometric and 2 is concentric. False, training should always start with slow controlled movement and progress to faster movements. True. Neural training effect. Relative strength gain, adaptation. Is a change in structure, e.g. increase in the size of muscle fibers and connective tissues, increase in the size and function of blood vessels, and increased substrate stores, giving a fuller look. True. Allows for the greatest variety in overloading various lines of movement and joint angles, but doesnt specialize in the skill of any one exercise. 68 weeks. False, larger muscle groups take more time to recover. Approximately 35 minutes. True.

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22. 23. 24. 25.

26. 27.

28. Chapter 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Core body temperature will decrease, loss of performance, risk of injury is increased. The clients goal. To restore balance in size or strength within the muscular system. They should be performed early in the workout when energy levels are highest because they have a high technical component and require high levels of concentration and coordination. True. Involves alternating between volume and intensity. This type of program avoids the detraining issues that are involved with linear periodization. This type of periodization is more suitable for the advanced individual. True.

20. 21. 22.

To ensure a proper exercise program is prescribed. 60 seconds. Chest auscultation using a stethoscope. The radial artery located at the wrist. 60100 beats per minute. However, a highly trained athlete can have a resting heart rate as low as 40 bpm. 120/80 mm/Hg. True. Dividing the body into two components, fat weight and lean body weight. Disease, cancer, diabetes, and other health problems. BMIdivide the body weight in kilograms by the height in meters squared (kg/m2). Age, gender, body type and activity levels. Triceps, hips, and thighs. Shows the individuals fat distribution as well as their risk factors of mortality and morbidity. False. The waist measurement should be smaller in circumference than the hip measurement. 0.90. 2.5%. Vertical fold on the midaxillary line at the level of the xiphoid process. Chest, abdomen, thigh. Tissues high in water content will conduct electrical currents with less resistance than those with little water. Because adipose tissue contains little water, fat will impede the flow of electrical current. 4%. Eating and drinking should be avoided for four hours prior to testing. The test measures flexibility of the erector spinae muscles, hamstrings, upper back and calves.

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23. 24. 25.

26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

A seated fully flexed position. The clients score is the best of three and can be compared to the norms of their sex and age. The assumption with the step test is that if a client has a lower recovery heart rate one-minute after completing the test, it is assumed that the client is in better physical condition and has a higher VO2 MAX. Count the beats for one full minute. 96 beats per minute. Upper body endurance. Pectoralis musculature, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii. When the client can no longer perform another repetition or correct alignment can no longer be maintained. The endurance of the trunk muscles. Rectus abdominis, internal and external obliques. A safer alternative to determine endurance of the trunk musculature. Low back pain.

Chapter 11 1. True. 2. As a fitness professional you do not have the qualifications to diagnose injuries nor are you allowed. 3. Rest, ice, compression, elevation. 4. Ice causes vaso-constriction. Decreasing the blood flow to the injured area resulting in decreased swelling. 5. Apply for 1520 minutes at a time, every 12 hours during the first 4872 hours after the injury. 6. Elevation of the injured part above the level of the heart uses gravity to help drain the excess fluid and decreases swelling. 7. Pale, clammy skin, rapid weak pulse, weakness, headache or nausea, cramps in abdomen or limbs. 8. Apply ice. 9. Trauma to a joint capsule or ligament. 10. R.I.C.E. 11. Light-headedness, dizziness, pale, light sweat. 12. Call 911, rest, give fluid with sugar (fruit juice) or candy bar if conscious. Chapter 12 1. 45 lbs. 2. 15 lbs. because it has been counter-balanced. 3. Requires technique, some of the lever arms and stability features are too long or too far away and the strength profiles not always optimal for two joint muscles. 4. Star Trac.

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5. 6. 7.

8.

Same cardiovascular benefits but less stressful to the system resulting in less perceived exertion because of easy blood return. 25 lbs. Great strength profile, weight is closer to the user for less momentum and safety, easy to load the weight because its lower to the ground, moving platform keeps a solid contact surface with the feet. Isolateral, unilateral, or bilateral, movement based rather than muscle based, safety; no moving weight stack to get caught in, starting weight can be as low as 0 lbs., because it is not selectorized, you may increase in smaller increments, handles are designed to minimize stress on the wrist joints, converging and diverging axes.

Chapter 13 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Chapter 14 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Cardiovascular disease. 22%. True. True. False. Exercise has been shown to lower blood pressure and decrease the likelihood of someone developing diabetes. True. False. People can improve their health by becoming even moderately active on a regular basis. 25%. True. True.

True. True. Acknowledge, isolate, overcome, close. You are trying to collect money immediately. Your goal is to not to let them walk out the door without buying something. True. Goal, exercise experience, medical history, job or career, and their signature. False, you should always call and confirm your appointments. Goal. Client profile. Make sure they sign the release of liability prior to exercising. If they dont sign it, then dont train them. Visual, auditory and kinesthetic. True. Religion and politics.

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