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Attribute Gage R&R

An Overview

Presented to ASQ Section 1302 August 18, 2011


by Jon Ridgway

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Overview
What is an Attribute Gage R&R? Why is it worth the work? What are the caveats? How do I perform it? How do I understand the results?

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My Attribute Gage R&R Experience


First Data
Credit Card mailings (packages)

Airlite Plastics:
Mold & Print Quality Print Quality, Cup & Lid Decoration

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WHY conduct a Gage R&R????


Some processes require subjective decision making:
Inspection Validation

Subjectivity creates the potential for variation Measurement System variation impacts process capability:
Type I Errors Type II Errors

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So, Why Conduct a Gage R&R?


To understand:
How likely Appraiser will agree with himself / herself: WITHIN / Repeatability How likely all Appraisers will agree with each other: BETWEEN / Reproducibility

Understanding R&R allows you to:


Predict probability (%) of agreement / disagreement Implement training to improve that probability Reduce Type I and Type II Errors = $$$

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MSA
The Foundation of everything in Quality is measurement Measure for two primary reasons:
To make a decision As the basis for process improvement

Can we trust our measurement system to give us reliable data?


CONFIDENCE
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Ultimate purpose of the Attribute Agreement Analysis


To determine if your measurement system can distinguish between a good & bad part Accuracy & Precision:
Accuracy:
Absence of bias, or agreeing with the standard.

Precision:
Ability of different Appraisers to reach the same conclusion several times.

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Accurate, But Not Precise

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Precise, But Not Accurate

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Which is Easier to Remedy?

Accurate, but not Precise

Precise, but not Accurate

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Gage R&R Review


Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
1st R: Repeatability 2nd R: Reproducibility

Data in General:
Continuous / Variables Attribute / Discrete

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Attribute vs. Continuous


Attribute Data:
Categorical, named only, arbitrary scales Also known as Discrete Data

Continuous Data:
Allows for infinitely finer sub-divisions Also known as Variables Data

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Basic Data Types


Nominal:
Literally, name Represents categories

Ordinal:
Ordered or ranked data Not scaled

Interval:
Measured / scaled data: Each position equidistant 0 can be relevant (temperature)

Ratio:
Numbers compared as multiples of one another
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Hierarchy of Data Types


Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio

Classified Data

Quantified Data

DISCRETE / ATTRIBUTE

CONTINUOUS / VARIABLE

Non-parametric

Parametric

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2 Main Attribute Gage R&R Types


1) Binary / Nominal
GO / NO GO Data are Categorical and mutually exclusive Kappa statistic is relevant

2) Ordinal
Rank, not categorical Data are not mutually exclusive Kendalls statistic more relevant than Kappa

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Kappa Statistic
Proportion of agreement between evaluators after chance agreement has been removed:
Kappa = P observed P chance / P chance

Expressed as a number:
From 0 (expected by chance) Up to +1 (complete agreement)
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Kendalls Statistics
Two different Kendalls for different tests:
Kendalls Coefficient of Concordance:
Rankings without a known Standard

Kendalls Correlation Coefficient:


Rankings with a known Standard

Expressed as 0 (weaker agreement) to +1 (stronger agreement)

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Kappa & Kendalls Summary


Kappa:
Nominal / Binary Only Match or No Match

Kendalls Coefficient of Concordance:


Ordinal but not using a known Standard

Kendalls Correlation Coefficient:


Ordinal and using a known Standard

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Attribute Gage R&R Considerations


Study Purpose Destructiveness Precision vs. Time Binomial / Nominal vs. Ordinal

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MSA Factors Impacting Variation


Gage Appraiser Method Part Environment

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Controlling MSA Factors


Ideally:
1. Use the same Assessment Method 2. Require all Appraisers to assess the same dimension / feature / sample 3. Conduct the study under the normal assessment conditions

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Controlling MSA Factors, Cont.


1) Appraisers: Select from group that normally appraises the part. 2) Number of parts should cover the entire range of variation. 3) More than one appraisal per Appraiser should be done. 4) The presentation of the samples within the Trial should be randomized.
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Nominal / Binary Study


Two Appraisers 50 Parts 2 Trials

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Output: Within

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Output: Within vs. Standard

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Assessment Agreement

Date of study: Reported by: Name of product: Misc:

Within Appraisers
100
95.0% C I P ercent

Appraiser vs Standard
100
95.0% C I P ercent

95 Percent Percent Lee Appraiser Fred

95

90

90

85

85

80

80 Lee Appraiser Fred

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Output: Between

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Output: Between vs. Standard

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Ordinal Case Study: Print Quality

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What did we want to know?


Do all Appraisers of Print Quality:
Agree consistently with Themselves? Agree consistently with Each Other? Given our world, we have an ordinal system:
Accept Accept but Adjust Reject

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How was it Done?


10 samples, Good & Bad Random Order, Same for All 2 Trials per person All people in the study Environment

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Ensure Gage R&R Consistency

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Spanish Version

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Vietnamese Version

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Trial Order

My Checklist

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Results
Sample QA1-1 QA1-2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 QA2-1 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 QA2-2 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 QA4-1 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 QA4-2 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 Standard

2 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 1

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False Alarms & Misses


Assess Fail when Standard = Pass:
False Alarm Type I Error

Assess Pass when Standard = Fail:


Miss Type II Error

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Results
Sample QA1-1 QA1-2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 QA2-1 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 QA2-2 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 QA4-1 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2

False Alarms
QA4-2 Standard

MISSES
2 2 3 2 3 2

2 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 1

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Minitab 15
Four Results:
1. 2. 3. 4. Within Within vs. Standard Between Between vs. Standard

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Check Here
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Assessment Agreement

Date of study : Reported by : Name of product: Misc:

Within Appraisers
100
95.0% C I P ercent

Appraiser vs Standard
100
95.0% C I P ercent

80

80

Percent

40

Percent QA-2 Appraiser QA-4

60

60

40

20

20

0 QA-1

0 QA-1

QA-2 Appraiser

QA-4

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Two Big Lessons


You cant trust your data until it is proven to be trustworthy. A single, one-time Gage R&R study is not enough

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Questions?
Thank You!

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