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Ivirs seven strategies for overcoming Cultural gaps Translation process is not just a matter of linguistics because the

translator is also dealing with two different cultures. In other words, the translator should be able to deal with the cultural aspects in the source text (ST) and finds a suitable way to transfer them in the target language (TL). ne scholar who tried to sol!e this issue is called "I!ir#. $e stated that when it comes to cultural references there are two types. The first one is the differences in extra%linguistic reality of language. These are the references that do not include language. The second is the differences that include language problems and gaps. $ere, the words exist but the culture ma&es the translation difficult. I!ir suggested se!en strategies in order to bridge the culture gaps. These strategies are' borrowing, definition, literal translation, substitution, lexical creation, omission and finally addition. (irst of all, borrowing means that the translator imports a SL expression into the TL. (or instance, )*+' )llah, ,uran, $aj, -ufti, Intifada, and .ihad/ +*)' 0123456 ,782349 ,:12;< ,=879>? ,2@>;ABC, and >8DEF. Gorrowing should be used when there is a need for it and it will only succeed if the borrowed term is freHuently repeated. In addition, the borrowed expression should easily integrate into the TL, both phonologically and morphologically. This procedure is often combined with definition or substitution. $owe!er, the translator must not borrow too much in one text because this will impede communication. Iefinition means that the translator defines a new term or concept and explains it in detail. This depends on the translator#s &nowledge about (what the target readers &now and what they do not &now). (or example, -ufti is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter of Islamic law (Sharia). Iefinition can be either within the text itself or as a footnote. )lso, it is usually combined with borrowing. $owe!er, definition lengthens the text and this will lead to (o!er%translation). Therefore, translators must focus on what is rele!ant to the context only. Literal translation is the most common strategy used when it is combined with borrowing. The main !alue of this procedure is its faithfulness to SL expression and its transparency in TL. (or instance, JKone with the wind' QM825E PM? LMNOR, "the cold war' UDF7MA5E S2MT5E#, "the blac& mar&et' XED>MW5E V>MW5E#. $owe!er, translators do not use literal translation when it would clash with some expressions in the TL, or if the translation leads to problems in the grammatical structure in TL. Substitution is used when there is an o!erlap rather than a clear%cut presence !s. absence of a particular element of culture. Therefore, translators use something similar to it, but not exactly the same. (or examples, cool !s. DF79, !eil !s. S7YZ, chapter !s. UF>[, and capitation !s. \8]^. This method could be combined with addition. $ere, the receptor has no difficulty to understand and identify the term and concepts. $owe!er, substitution remo!es the strangeness of the foreign culture. Therefore, substitution is easier if the terms ha!e something in common, for example, tax !s. U7C_ or if the terms are functionally %`%

similar, for example, chapter and UF>[.

ther examples can be found in pro!erbs in both languages. (or

example, in +nglish we ha!e pro!erbs a a cat has nine li!es, he who steals an egg steals an ox and diamond cut diamonda. These ha!e )rabic eHui!alents with some substitutions. These )rabic pro!erbs are' iE1Fj PAW9 hY5E 1 gB^ V2W8 \f;9 V2W8 e? 1 d8dT5E b6 d8dT5E =c8 b Lexical creation means that the translator produces a new !ocabulary, for instance, mobile' kE>^, computer' S>[7l, telephone' m@7N, radio' n78o?' and helicopter' \;l12?. There is no restriction on how translators in!ent these new words as long as they are acceptable. $owe!er, this procedure is used less than the other procedures because it taxes the brain of both the in!entor and the reader. )nother term is belly dancing which won entry to the +nglish lexicon about a decade ago. It means rq2s5E pq25E mission is necessitated not by the nature of the cultural element, but by the nature of the communicati!e situation in which such a cultural element appears. (or example, )rab people sometimes greet each other in the morning by saying J 2;w579 vE t4TAuR, so when we translate it into +nglish it is enough to say agood morninga because +nglish culture prefers simple greetings. )lso, if an )rabic text contains \;Z7{82A5E \yEOzE \x;N, then when we translate it into +nglish/ we simply omit \;Z7{82A5E \yEOzE \x;N and write GG|, because the +nglish readers will immediately recognise its meaning. )ddition of cultural information is used when translating implicit elements of culture. It is combined with lexical creation, borrowing or substitution. (or example, if an +nglish text has the abbre!iation of - I, then when we translate it into )rabic/ we simply add this explanation " \;Z7{82A5E n7<d5E UFE_1#, as an )rabic reader may not recognise its meaning. )nother example of addition is the +nglish metaphor "to Sa!e one}s face# ~ ^>5E X7? cT8, here the )rabic word "X7?# is added because it is used with this )rabic metaphor. To sum up, I!ir pro!ides the translators with helpful procedures in order to bridge the cultural gaps and achie!e a communicati!e translation. $owe!er, no one procedure could be used fully for each single text. (or an optimum transfer of message, a combination of procedures is better than single use. Therefore, a translator decides on the optimum strategy of translation depending on each indi!idual text she
is faced with. ow, the problem which faces any translator is how to deal with cultural references

when they are only in the text as bac&ground. If the translator omits these references, then she will lose the faithfulness. )t the same time, if the translator translates them, then she will gi!e them more importance than what was originally intended. This is a no%win situation/ translators can only use compromise and relati!ity.


Reference' Jrocedures and strategies for the translation of cultureR by ladimir l!ir, cited in aTranslation across culturesa, Kideon Toury, Gahri ublications, ew Ielhi, `.