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Argument Paragraph Prove Your Point Key Terms

Argument In life- conflicts engaged in using language. In writing - opinions that can be backed up with evidence. Persuasion to move another person or group to agree with a belief or position through argument, appeal, or course of action. Fact information that is certain and can be proven. Debatable Claim an opinion that is a matter of personal experience and values that must be backed up with evidence. Others can disagree with this claim. Evidence- details, facts, and reasons that directly relate to and support a debatable claim. Anecdotal Evidence- evidence based on personal observation and experience, often in the form of a brief story. Can come from the writer, friends, family, and ac uaintances. Factual Evidence- data, confirmed facts, and research performed by experts. !ound by the writer performing research. Commentary sentences in an argument paragraph that explain what is important about the evidence and tell the reader how it proves and supports the claim. Topic Sentences the first sentence of a paragraph that provides a promise to the reader about what is to come. In an argument paragraph, the topic sentence must contain a debatable claim and should provide a sense of the evidence that is to come. Subordinating Con unctions words and phrases such as because, even though, since, if, when, and while are helpful in crafting commentary and topic sentences because they point to the relationship between the claim and the evidence.

Argument Concepts Anchor Chart


Debatable Claim an opinion that is a matter of personal experience and values that must be backed up with evidence. Others can disagree with this claim. "lso know as an opinion. Evidence- details, facts, and reasons that directly relate to and support a debatable claim. Argument In life- conflicts engaged in using language. In writing - opinions that can be backed up with evidence. Persuasion to move another person or group to agree with a belief or position through argument, appeal, or course of action.

Claim ! opinion on a topic Evidence ! "acts# reasons# details

Ta$e a Stand Activity

#irections$ %. !or each item, state your opinion&preference one way or the other. '(es, you must pick one.) *. +ive three pieces of effective evidence 'facts, reasons, details) for why you feel this way.
%.

Chocolate or %anilla&

* ,. %.

'bama or (omney&

* ,.

%.

)each or *ountains&

* ,. %.

*ath or +anguage Arts&

* ,. %.

Sun or Sno,&

* ,. %.

-ip.-op or Country *usic&

* ,.

Evidence Types
Evidence ! details, reasons, and facts

EXAMPLE
DE)ATA)+E C+A/* My school lunch isnt as healthy as it should be. A0ECD'TA+ E%/DE0CE details, brief stories, personal observations -riter.s personal observation&experience - /oday I was served chicken nuggets, !rench fries, chocolate milk, a roll and a few brownish carrots and pieces of celery. !riends. experience 0y friends and I always feel sluggish after lunch. /anesha said, 1I can hardly stay awake in art class after rushing through our *2 minute lunch.3 "c uaintance.s story 0att, the boy I sit next to in history class, says he feels sick after eating fried chicken nuggets, which aren.t real chicken but the parts of chicken processed and pressed together.

DE)ATA)+E C+A/* My school lunch isnt as healthy as it should be. FACT1A+ E%/DE0CE !acts, data, statistics, research by experts Confirmed facts - 4oor diet can lead to energy imbalance and can increase one.s risk for overweight and obesity. 'Center for #isease Control) #ata&5tatistics " single serving of chicken nuggets '6 pieces) can contain up to 622 milligrams of sodium, the total amount of salt children should consume daily. 'www.webmd.com) 7esearch by experts - " *228 study by the 7obert -ood 9ohnson !oundation found that by the time many healthier commodities :that are processed before being served in school lunch; reach students, 1they have about the same nutritional value as <unk foods.3 ' New York Times) Challenge 2uestion3 -hy is it important to have a mix of both anecdotal and factual evidence in an argument paragraph or essay=

0A*E T-AT E%/DE0CE TYPE4


>abel the pieces of evidence below as A for anecdotal or F for factual. !or bonus points$ o Indicate whether the Anecdotal Evidence is P ? personal F ? family or friends A5/ ? ac uaintance or interviewee o Indicate whether the Factual Evidence is C ! confirmed facts D5S ? data or statistics ( ? research by experts

C+A/*3 School lunches aren6t as healthy as they should be7 A5F& )onu s4

Evidence
1" study by the federal Centers for #isease Control and 4revention in *22@ found that *,.6 percent of high schools offered fast food from places like 4iAAa But and /aco Cell3 'The New York Times). 0y friend 0ichelle says that at her school, !rench fries and piAAa are options in the cafeteria every single day of the week 'Chen). 1.One of the first indications of a good lunch program is enthusiasm among the people serving the food,. said 0arion Destle, professor of nutrition and food studies at Dew (ork Eniversity and author of What to Eat 'Dorth 4oint 4ress, *22F)3 'The New York Times). >ast week, the only thing I ate at school for lunch was tater tots and !rench fries and by the time I got on the bus, I was starving and had a headache. "ccording to the Cafeteria #irector at #avis Glementary, who I interviewed last week, for *2 cents more per student, they could make homemade !rench fries that are baked instead of fried in grease '9ones). /hough the Enited 5tates #epartment of "griculture is re uiring schools to serve healthier foods at lunch, !rench fries will remain on the menu because potato lobbyists persuaded Congressmen to keep them on the list of approved food. 'Dational 4ublic 7adioHnpr.org)

Evidence Types *ini.Tas$


DE)ATA)+E C+A/*3 )ullying is a problem at Dunc$el *iddle School7 E%/DE0CE 89
Anecdot al

E%/DE0CE 8:
Factual

E%/DE0CE 8;
Anecdot al

E%/DE0CE 8<
Factual

Research Articles to Create a Debatable Claim (TimeForKids.com) Search the following topics to find available evidence: Endangered Species Fast Food Helmets/Head Injuries Online Boo s

!"#" $lobal %arming School &unch Obesit' E(ercise Sugar )fter reading the articles on 'our topic* create a debatable claim statement that can be argued" +ebatable ,laim: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Argumentative Paragraph Evidence Chart (Factual) )fter reading the articles on 'our topic* create a debatable claim statement that can be argued" ie. um helps students learn.

+ebatable ,laim: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

%ebsite source of )rticles: -----------------------------------------

Factual

E%/DE0CE 89

Article Title Date5Auth or Factual

E%/DE0CE 8:

Article Title Date5Auth or Factual

E%/DE0CE 8;

Article Title Date5Auth or Factual

E%/DE0CE 8<

Article Title Date5Auth or

Argumentative Paragraph Evidence Chart (Anecdotal) )fter reading the articles on 'our topic* create a debatable claim statement that can be argued" ie. um helps students learn.

+ebatable ,laim: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Anecdotal

E%/DE0CE 89

0ame o" observer Year o" observatio n Anecdotal

E%/DE0CE 8:

0ame o" observer Year o" observatio n Anecdotal

E%/DE0CE 8;

0ame o" observer Year o" observatio n Anecdotal

E%/DE0CE 8<

0ame o" observer Year o" observatio n

Argument Paragraph Pre.=riting


Take Out Your Writers Notebook %. Cegin with evidence. In your -riter.s Dotebook, write down everything you know about your chosen topic. 'facts, statistics, reasons, details, anecdotes, experience, observations) a. 7e-read and examine any articles you have read on the topic in class. b. 4erform further research on the Internet and in the library as needed. *. Dotice which pieces of your evidence are factual and which are anecdotal. (ou might need to balance this out later in the drafting process. ,. Gxamine your evidence. a. -hat does the evidence tell you= b. -hat is your opinion about this topic based on the evidence you recorded= c. -rite a dra"t o" your debatable claim in your -riter.s Dotebook. I. Dow focus on the -B( of your argument. /his means you.ll be pre-writing for commentaryHan element of argument you.ll learn more about in a later lesson. "nswer these uestions in your -riter.s Dotebook. a. -hy is this topic&claim important= b. -hat does the evidence tell us= c. -hy do you feel this way about this topic= -hy does it concern you= d. -hy should your readers care about this argument=

Credible Sources on the /nternet


-hat does C(ED/)+E mean= convincing, able to be believed Bow do you determine if an Internet source is credible= Ask WHO? WHAT? WHERE? WHEN? WHY? =-' -ho is the author= If there is an 1about3 page, read it. o Is this person or organiAation an expert in their field= o -hat is their educational background= =-AT -hat kind of information is provided and how high is its uality= If the site provides a deep knowledge of your topic with references to studies and statistics, it is probably high uality. If the site provides only general facts, you should find better, more detailed information elsewhere. =-E(E -here is this site on the web= -hat is the web address= 7com hosted by a company, often a site for profit, advertisements on websites suggest the information will be biased, though online magaAines are often .com sites. Ce careful and explore further. 7org hosted by a non-profit organiAation, reliable information depending on the background and mission of the organiAation. Ce careful and explore further. 7edu hosted by an educational institution, typically reliable and expert information. 7gov hosted by a government institution, typically reliable and expert information. =-E0 -hen was it published= Is this the most up to date information= =-Y -hat is the author, organiAation, or company.s goal in publishing this information= Is the goal to o 4rovide excellent information to the public= +reatJ o 4ersuade the audience of an argument or opinion= Ce carefulJ o 5ell the readers a product= 0ove on fastJ

=ebsite Credibility Activity

Directions3 0ark each website below as C for credible for 0C for not credible, then give your reason for this determination. C50C =ebsite Bealthy 5chool >unches http$&&www.healthyschoollunches.org&index.cfm 0aschio.s !ood 5ervice http$&&www.maschiofood.com& /he >unch /ray http$&&www.thelunchtray.com& Gducation.com http$&&www.education.com&magaAine&article&schoollunch-nutrition& Enited 5tates #epartment of "griculture http$&&www.fns.usda.gov&cnd&lunch& The New York Times http$&&www.nytimes.com&*2%2&%%&2@&health&2@patient.ht ml -ikipedia http$&&en.wikipedia.org&wiki&5choolKmeal Gxplain what difficulties and uestions came up as you looked at these sites. -hat were you unsure about in terms of credibility= (eason

Citing Sources
=hat does it mean to cite a source&
"n in.te>t citation is a note in an essay that tells the reader where a piece of information or an idea came from. Citations always appear in 'parentheses). "t the end of an essay, a writer includes a list o" ,or$s cited that gives details about all the in-text citations.

=hy do ,riters cite sources&


/o avoid plagiarism--the practice of taking someone elseLs work or ideas and passing them off as oneLs own. /o prove that the evidence is real and credible. /o inform the reader about where to find more information on the topic.

=hat gets cited&


Muoted information from a secondary source. 4araphrased information from a secondary source. Information obtained in an interview. "ny idea that is not your own.

-o, do you cite a source&


Insert the in-text citation before the period at the end of the sentence in which the uotation or paraphrase appears. !or any in-text citation, include the first item that appears in the works cited entry that corresponds to the citation 'e.g. author name, article name, website name). 5ee the list below for examples concerning different types of sources.

Articles and Essays Include the following information in the works cited entry in this order$ "rticleLs author /itle of the article in uotations marks 0agaAine or newspaper.s title in italics #ate of publication 4age number 0edium n!Te"t #itation " new study has revealed that eating school lunches is a contributor to childhood obesity '0elnick). Works #ite$ Entr% 0elnick, 0eredith. 1Is 5chool >unch 0aking (our Nids !at=3 Time &aga'ine. F !eb *2%%$ *8. 4rint.

Websites & Webpages Include the following information in the works cited entry in this order$ "uthor and&or editor names 'if available) "rticle name in uotation marks 'if applicable) /itle of the website Dame of institution&organiAation publishing the site #ate of resource creation 'if available) #ate you accessed the material. OO!or websites and pages, remember to use n()( if no publisher name is available and n($( if no publishing date is given.OO n!Te"t #itation /he Dational 5chool >unch 4rogram has existed since %PI@ and 1provides nutritionally balanced, low-cost or free lunches to children each school day3 '1Dational 5chool >unch 4rogram3). Works #ite$ Entr% 1Dational 5chool >unch 4rogram.3 *oo$ an$ Nutrition +ervice. Enited 5tates #epartment of "griculture. *% !eb. *2%*. -eb. @ 0ay *2%%. Personal Interview !or any information you get in an interview with a family member, friend, ac uaintance or interviewee, including the following information in this order$ name of the interviewee the phrase 14ersonal interview3 the date of the interview. n!Te"t #itation 0y friend 0ichelle says, 1"t my school, french fries and piAAa are options in the cafeteria every single day of the week3 'Chen). Works #ite$ Entr% Chen, 0ichelle. 4ersonal interview. *2 9une *2%%.

ou !ry"
". Insert an in-text citation into one of the sentences in your paragraph that has information from a secondary source. C. Create a works cited entry for the in-text citation at the end of the paragraph.

%or s ,ited )uthor &ast name* First name" .)rticle !itle"/ TimeforKids.com" !ime Inc"* 00 +ec" 1000" %eb" 02 +ec" 1031" )uthor &ast name* First name" .)rticle !itle"/ TimeforKids.com" !ime Inc"* 00 +ec" 1000" %eb" 02 +ec" 1031" )uthor &ast name* First name" .)rticle !itle"/ TimeforKids.com" !ime Inc"* 00 +ec" 1000" %eb" 02 +ec" 1031"

Commentary Anchor Chart

2uestions "or =riting Commentary As$ Yoursel"3 =hat do I need to make sure the reader understands about this evidence= '7e-explain the evidence.) =hy is this evidence especially important= -o, does it prove and support the claim= The /mportance o" )ECA1SE
1Cecause3 is a word that tells a reader they are about to hear an explanation. It signals signi"icance and relationship. It.s an effective word to use when writing commentary. /ake a look$ /hese statistics are important because they point to the effects of poor nutrition and how serious the school lunch problem is. >eaders and decision-makers must pay attention to such experiences because they prove that there is a relationship between what we eat and how well we learn.

Strong Commentary %erbs


from Ru,es -or Writers by #iana Backer

Ese these verbs when writing commentary. Dote the two verbs underlined in the sentences above. acknowledges compares insists claims adds confirms notes underscores admits declares observes exemplifies agrees denies points outs implies argues emphasiAes re<ects proves asserts highlights reports exhibits believes illustrates responds suggests

Commentary E>amples ? Practice


Debatable Claim3 0y school lunch isn.t as healthy as it should be. 89
Factual Evidence$ " single serving of chicken nuggets '6 pieces) can contain up to 622 milligrams of sodium, the total amount of salt children should consume daily. 'www.webmd.com) Commentary3 /hese numbers are important because they point to the effects of poor nutrition and how serious the school lunch problem is. Chicken nuggets, commonly served to students in school lunchrooms, exemplify the poor nutritional uality of school food. If children eat that much sodium on a regular basis, they are headed for a life of weight gain and high blood pressure. 8: Anecdotal Evidence3 0y friends and I always feel sluggish after lunch. /anesha said, 1I can hardly stay awake in art class after rushing through our *2 minute lunch.3 Commentary$ /anesha.s statement about feeling tired after inhaling her lunch confirms the negative effects that foods high in carbohydrates and sugar can have on young minds that need protein and vegetables, brain food, to be more lively and active class participants. If she ate more nutritious food at lunch, she might be more awake for art class. >eaders and decision-makers must pay attention to such experiences because they prove that there is a relationship between what we eat and how well we learn.

ou !ry"
Debatable Claim3 5chool lunch isn.t as healthy as it should be. Factual Evidence3 1" study by the federal Centers for #isease Control and 4revention in *22@ found that *,.6 percent of high schools offered fast food from places like 4iAAa But and /aco Cell3 'The New York Times). Your Commentary3 $ont -orget to use those strong commentar% verbs. 're-explain the facts) 'tell what.s important about them) 'explain how this evidence proves and supports the claim)

Dra"ting Commentary Anchor Chart

Strong Commentary %erbs


from Ru,es -or Writers by #iana Backer

acknowledges adds admits agrees argues asserts believes

Ese these verbs when writing commentary. compares insists confirms notes declares observes denies points outs emphasiAes re<ects highlights reports illustrates responds

claims underscores exemplifies implies proves exhibits suggests

; Commentary 2uestions Bow would you re-explain this piece of evidence= -hat is important about this piece of evidence= Bow does this piece of evidence prove your claim=

E>cerpt "rom @Si>th Araders3 Aive 1s Time to Eat at SchoolB by Talia )radley and Antonia (itter http$&&www.startribune.com&opinion&commentaries&%IF8,,6F6.html >unch is an important social time. /eachers always tell us to socialiAe at lunch and recess, not in the classroom. Cut we cannot do that if we are scarfing down our lunches in %% minutes. "nd at recess nobody can socialiAe or run around if they are hungry or we feel sick. >ots of kids stay in classrooms during lunch so they have time to actually eat and socialiAe. 4retty soon nobody will be going to the lunchroom or recess. -e donLt have time to eat thereQ by staying in our teachersL classrooms, we do.
Enderline claim Clue - evidence (ellow commentary

>unch is an important social time. /eachers always tell us to socialiAe at lunch and recess, not in the classroom. Cut we cannot do that if we are scarfing down our lunches in %% minutes. "nd at recess nobody can socialiAe or run around if they are hungry or we feel sick. >ots of kids stay in classrooms during lunch so they have time to actually eat and socialiAe. 4retty soon nobody will be going to the lunchroom or recess. -e donLt have time to eat thereQ by staying in our teachersL classrooms, we do.

From the blog o" Karen +e )illon# author o" #rench $ids Eat Everything http$&&karenlebillon.com&*2%*&2I&%8&how-long-is-your-kids-lunch-break-in-france-they-get-*hours&=utmKsource?rssRutmKmedium?rssRutmKcampaign?how-long-is-your-kids-lunchbreak-in-france-they-get-*-hours >earning doesn.t stop in the lunchroom, in my opinion. If we are giving our children a short lunch break, we are teaching them that food is an inconvenience, and eating is an interruption in the day. -e encourage them to gobble their food, when the research shows that eating more slowly is healthier. In fact, the !rench spend longer eating, but eat lessin part because that Sfullness feeling. 'satiety signal) needs about *2 minutes to get from your stomach to your brain. Cut the !rench also spend longer eating because they believe that it.s important to teach kids to eat well it.s a life skill, like reading.
Enderline claim Clue - evidence (ellow commentary

>earning doesn.t stop in the lunchroom, in my opinion. If we are giving our children a short lunch break, we are teaching them that food is an inconvenience, and eating is an interruption in the day. -e encourage them to gobble their food, when the research shows that eating more slowly is healthier. In fact, the !rench spend longer eating, but eat lessin part because that Sfullness feeling. 'satiety signal) needs about *2 minutes to get from your stomach to your brain. Cut the !rench also spend longer eating because they believe that it.s important to teach kids to eat well it.s a life skill, like reading.

Evidence with ,ommentar'


Strong Commentary %erbs
Ese these verbs when writing commentary.
acknowledges adds admits agrees argues asserts believes compares confirms declares denies emphasiAes highlights illustrates insists notes observes points outs re<ects reports responds claims underscores exemplifies implies proves exhibits suggests

DE)ATA)+E C+A/*3

Factual Evidence

Commentary
(e.e>plain# prove importance# connect to claim

Factual Evidence

Commentary
(e.e>plain# prove importance# connect to claim

Anecdotal Evidence

Commentary
(e.e>plain# prove importance# connect to claim

Argument Paragraph 'rganiCation Anchor Chart


)+'CK '(AA0/DAT/'0 Enote3 either the evidence or the commentary can come "irstF

A+TE(0AT/0A '(AA0/DAT/'0 Enote3 either the evidence or the commentary can come "irstF

1nderstanding ? /denti"ying Argument Paragraph Components


"rom @/s Gun$ Food (eally Cheaper&B by *ar$ )itman !he %ew or& !i'es September :<# :H99 /he 1fact3 that <unk food is cheaper than real food has become a way we explain why so many "mericans are overweight, particularly those with lower incomes. /his is <ust plain wrong. I fre uently read confident statements like, 1when a bag of chips is cheaper than a head of broccoli...3 or 1it.s more affordable to feed a family of four at 0c#onald.s than to cook a healthy meal for them at home.3 In fact it isn.t cheaper to eat highly processed food$ a typical order for a family of four H for example, two Cig 0acs, a cheeseburger, six chicken 0cDuggets, two medium and two small fries, and two medium and two small sodas H costs, at the 0c#onald.s a hundred steps from where I write, about T*8. In general, despite extensive government subsidies, hyperprocessedO food remains more expensive than food cooked at home. (ou can serve a roasted chicken with vegetables along with a simple salad and milk for about T%I, and feed four or even six people. If that.s too much money, substitute a meal of rice and canned beans with bacon, green peppers and onionsQ it.s easily enough for four people and costs about TP.
-yperprocessed- extremely processed so that all the natural vitamins are sucked out of the food. Chicken 0cDuggets are an example. Chicken parts are chopped up and smushed together, then breaded and fried to form the nuggets.

%. -hy did the writer put the word 1fact3 in uotations in the first sentence of the paragraph=

*. 5ummariAe the paragraph.s debatable claim in your own words.

,. Is the argument persuasive= -ere you persuaded to agree with the writer= -hy or why not=

I. #oes the writer provide enough evidence to prove the claim= 'Enderline the evidence.)

6. -hat other evidence would make this an even more persuasive paragraph=

@. #oes the writer provide commentary that explains the evidence, why it.s important and how it proves the claim= '4ut a star next to each commentary sentence.)

F. -hat method of organiCation does this paragraph use=

8. Challenge$ explain why the paragraph is organiAed in this way. Bow does this organiAation support the argument=

P. Challenge3 Bow else could the sentences have been arranged= Bow would this rearranging change or affect the argument=

0ame That Paragraph Structure4


Enderline the key claim in the paragraph. Bighlight the evidence in blue. Bighlight the commentary in yellow. In the box next to each paragraph, put a 1C3 for bloc$ organiCation or an 1"3 for alternating organiCation. Argument Paragraph From the blog o" Karen +e )illon# author o" #rench $ids Eat Everything >earning doesn.t stop in the lunchroom, in my opinion. If we are giving our children a short lunch break, we are teaching them that food is an inconvenience, and eating is an interruption in the day. -e encourage them to gobble their food, when the research shows that eating more slowly is healthier. In fact, the !rench spend longer eating, but eat lessin part because that Sfullness feeling. 'satiety signal) needs about *2 minutes to get from your stomach to your brain. Cut the !rench also spend longer eating because they believe that it.s important to teach kids to eat well it.s a life skill, like reading. "rom @'ur Schools6 S,eet Tooth#B by Emily %entura and *ichael Aoran The /os Ange,es Times 0arch *, *2%% " few straightforward changes to the :school lunch; menus would lead to considerable reductions in sugar intake. 7emoving the chocolate milk from breakfast and lunch could mean a reduction of I teaspoons per day per child, which adds up to nearly a gallon of sugar per child over the course of the school year. Bowever, politics related to federal funding make such seemingly simple changes more difficult. If the district took away chocolate milk and kids decided not to drink the plain milk, it could lead to reduced funding from the E5#". !or the district to receive federal reimbursement for meals, students may not decline more than one item at breakfast or more than two items at lunch. /hough technically students may skip the milk altogether and the district would still be reimbursed, chocolate milk is one of the most popular items and helps to ensure student participation H and hence funding.

'rganiCati on A or )&

Transition =ords ? Phrases Anchor Chart


=hat are transitions and ,hat do they do& /hey are words and phrases that form idea bridges for the reader to let them know how the information they <ust read is related to the information they are about to read. /ransitions show the reader how your ideas fit together so they are more likely to be persuaded by your argument. =here are they located& /ransitions are located within sentences, between sentences, and between paragraphs.

To prove

Cecause, since, for the same reason, obviously, furthermore, in fact, in addition

To provide an e>ample

for example, for instance, in other words, namely, specifically, to illustrate, to demonstrate, in particular

To sho, result

accordingly, as a result, conse uently, so, thereby, therefore, thus, finally,

To add more in"ormation

also, and, as well, besides, e ually important, finally, furthermore, in addition

To sho, cause

as, because, for, since, due to

To sho, seIuence

first, 'second, third, fourth, fifth), next, following this, subse uently, conse uently, finally, therefore

To sho, time

afterward, before, currently, eventually, finally, immediately, in the future, in the past, later, meanwhile, next, often, sometimes, soon, subse uently, then, today, when

To summariCe ideas

finally, in conclusion, in short, in summary, to sum up, therefore

To compare ideas

in the same way, likewise, similarly, similar to, also, again

To contrast ideas

at the same time, but, conversely, even so, even though, however, in contrast, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the one hand, on the other hand, still, yet, in

comparison, in contrast, on the contrary, as opposed to, despite, unlike, although, conversely

/denti"y the Transition


Circle or highlight all the transitions in the paragraph below. Enderneath the paragraph, record the transitions and indicate what type each one is. Dext, replace each transition with another transition that could also do the same work in the column titled 1new transition.3

/he Cenefits of Chocolate


4eople should feel free to eat chocolate on a regular basis, despite concerns about obesity in "merica, because consuming chocolate in moderation can have positive health effects. !or example, it is a food that improves one.s mood. 5pecifically, many people report experiencing a feeling of pleasure during and after eating chocolate. In addition, eating chocolate, especially dark chocolate, has been proven to be good for the heart because it acts as an antioxidant, meaning that it frees the body of toxins. Bowever, it.s important to pay attention to how much chocolate you consume. Gating large amounts will counteract the positive antioxidant effects this candy can have. Gating an entire bag of Bershey kisses in a single day, for instance, will only cause weight gain. /herefore, the next time you reach for a chocolate bar, you can feel good about it, as long as you don.t eat the whole thingJ

Dumber %. *. ,. I. 6. @.
F. 8.

/ransition

/ype of /ransition

Dew /ransition

Transition *adlibs
Directions Insert the best transition for the sentence in each blank. !or a hint about the kind of transition to choose, pay careful attention to the transition type indicated after each blank. #o not repeat any transitions in the paragraph.

/he #angers of #rinking 5oda


-ho doesn.t en<oy the bubbly, sugary taste of Coke or 5prite on a hot summer day= KKKKKKKKKKKKK, 0to contrast i$eas1 drinking soda regularly can have harmful effects on your body. #octors and experts refer to soda as 1li uid candy3 KKKKKKKKKKK 0to )rove1 it is so sweet and high in calories. KKKKKKKKKKKKKK, 0to show resu,t1 this sugary li uid can cause cavities and enamel erosion according to the "merican "cademy of 4ediatrics 'webmd.com). KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK 0to )rove1 some studies have linked regular soda consumption to an increased risk of childhood obesity 'everydayhealth.com). KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK, 0to
contrast i$eas1 0aureen

5torey, "ssociate #irector of the +eorgetown Center, says$ U4ortion

siAes have expanded dramatically and it is simply wrong to blame increases in obesity on food or beverages that contain carbohydratesU 'abc.com). KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK, 0to contrast i$eas1 soda does suppress the appetite, making eating healthy foods, KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK 0to
)rovi$e an e"am),e1

fruits and vegetables, less appealing. KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK, 0to )rove or have discovered that the more caffeinated soda kids drink, the

a$$ more in-ormation1 researchers

less sleep they get, which can affect school work and sports participation 'msnbc.com). If you must drink soda, KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK 0to show resu,t1, drink it in moderation and try to cut back to only one or two cans per week.

'rganiCe the Paragraph Parts ? /mprove Flo,


Directions3 /hese sentences are in the wrong order. OrganiAe them so they form the most persuasive argument. Insert additional transitional words and phrases to improve the paragraph.s flow and logic.

0ake 4iAAa a Bealthier Vegetable


%. "nd making the crust with whole grain rather than white flour is a perfect way to introduce more whole grains into children.s diets. *. /he new nutrition standards for school lunch call for more whole grains and produce, as well as less sodium and fat 'Buffington4ost.com). ,. "ccording to the nutrition standards for school lunch, the tomato paste on piAAa ualifies it as a vegetable 'New York Times). I. Cut how much nutrients does tomato paste really have= -hile it does contain some vitamin ", C, and #, as well as iron, it.s packed with sodium 'nutrietfacts.com). 6. "ccording to a study by the Eniversity of 0innesota, students don.t mind and will actually eat whole grain piAAa crust, since it.s disguised by the sauce, cheese, and toppings 'Institute of 0edicine). @. 5o let.s keep piAAa on the school lunch menu and boost its nutritional content. It.s easy to make piAAa with nutritious and delicious ingredients. Our students deserve that and much more. F. 4iAAa served at school could and should be healthier. 8. /his Italian food can be made with low-fat cheese, vegetable toppings, and whole grain crust to provide kids with a desirable choice that supplies maximum nutrition. P. Veggie piAAa should be served to give students an additional serving of daily vegetables. %2. 5o cafeterias should make their piAAa a better representative of the 1vegetable3 the standards label it as. %%. 5chools can and should do better for their students who are growing and need to fuel their bodies each day so they can learn during class time.

Argument Paragraph Topic Sentence Anchor Chart

=hat is a summary& " brief statement that distills a large amount of information down to its most important parts. =hat should you include in your summary o" evidence& /he main idea of your evidence. Sample Argument Paragraph Topic Sentence 4eople should not eat fast food because it causes health problems. SE0TE0CE D/SSECT/'0 (ebatable )lai' 4eople should not eat fast food Con unctions Ese words like because and since to <oin the claim with the summary of evidence. *u''ary o+ Evidence because it causes health problems.

Practice ,ith Topic Sentences


Dissect These Sample Topic Sentences #irections$ Circle the debatable claim. Enderline the summary of evidence. %. Chocolate milk should not be served in school lunches because of its high sugar content. *. 0y school lunch isn.t as healthy as it should be since it leaves me feeling sick and tired after I eat it. ,. 4eople should feel free to eat chocolate on a regular basis, despite concerns about obesity in "merica, because consuming chocolate in moderation can have positive health effects.

ou !ry" %. Dow, return to your argument paragraph and summariAe your evidence. *. "dd your claim to this summary of evidence using a con<unction such as 1because3 or 1since.3 "nd that.s a topic sentenceJ

ou !ry Again" 7ewrite your topic sentence so the summary of evidence is worded differently. "nd try a different con<unction.

Argument Paragraph (evision


COD/GD/
Topic Sentence Enderline your claim. 0ake sure it.s debatable 'not a factQ a statement that that can be argued about) o #oes you claim reflect what you.re actually arguing for in your paragraph= 7e-read the summary of evidence. o #oes it refer to all the evidence you discuss= o Is it worded clearly and in an interesting fashion=

Evidence "sk yourself$ is this the best evidence to use to prove your argument= Is there a variety of evidenceHboth factual and anecdotal= #id you cite all your factual evidence correctly= Commentary #id you explain each piece of evidence= #id you tell the reader how this evidence proves your claim= #id you explain why your claim is so important=

O7+"DIW"/IOD
Structure and Flo, o" Argument "sk youselfHis this the best order for my evidence and commentary= Gxperiment with re-organiAing your evidence and commentary. -hat does this do to the flow and logic of your argument= #oes it make more sense now=

Post (evision (e"lection Anchor Chart


In your -riter.s Dotebook, reflect on these uestions$ %. -hat was the most exciting part of writing your argument paragraph= Bow come= *. -hat was the most difficult part of writing your argument paragraph= Bow come= ,. If you still had more time to revise your piece, what would you work on&change= I. -hat did you learn about yourself and your process as a writer= 6. -hat will you do differently the next time you tackle a writing pro<ect=

Argument Paragraph (ubric Prove Your Point


Elemen t
Content

Advanced
/he paragraph$ Creates a unified and persuasive argumentQ every sentence supports the key claim. Contains a topic sentence with a debatable claim and summary of the evidence. Gmploys multiple evidence types, including a secondary source. "ll sources are credible and properly cited. Includes commentary that intricately and complexly explains how the evidence proves the claim.

'n.Target
/he paragraph$ Creates a fairly unified and persuasive argumentQ almost all sentences support the key claim. Contains a topic sentence with a debatable claim and summary of the evidence. Gmploys a variety of evidence types, including a secondary source. 0ost sources are credible and properly cited. Includes commentary that explains how the evidence proves the claim.

0ovice
/he paragraph$ 5truggles to create a unified and persuasive argumentQ multiple sentences do not directly support the key claim. Contains a topic sentence with either a debatable claim or summary of the evidence, but not both. Gmploys only one evidence type. 5ources are not credibleQ citations are missing or incorrect. Commentary missing or does not fully explain how the evidence proves the claim. /he paragraph$ 5truggles to organiAe evidence and commentary in a logical manner. /he paragraph$ Contains multiple fragments or run-ons. Is written in an informal voice. Occasionally employs diction specific to the chosen topic.

'rganiCatio n

/he paragraph$ 5hifts seamlessly back and forth between evidence and commentary.

/he paragraph$ >ogically flows between evidence and commentary.

Style ? *echanics

Process Chec$lis t

/he paragraph$ /he paragraph$ Contains no fragments or run-onsQ engages Contains minimal fragments or run-ons. complex sentence structures. 0aintains a formal voice throughout with only Consistently maintains a formal voice. occasional lapses. 7eadily employs diction specific to the chosen Gmploys diction specific to the chosen topic. topic. /he writer$ o 4re-wrote to discover ideas for a debatable claim. o #rafted to organiAe and analyAe evidence and devise commentary. o 7evised his&her draft to achieve greater coherency and clarity. o Gdited for sentence-level clarity and an error-free essay.