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Ikhwan Muhammad.

Safety Management System: Analysis of Standards Adherence to Occupational Health & Safety Management System Standard The adherence to Occupational Health & Safety Management System (OHSMS) standard is proven to bring numerous benefits for the company. This essay will discuss about the benefit of OHSMS standard (in health & safety area and in other related areas) and review the effectiveness of OHSMS standard from three literatures. Benefits in enhancing safety To begin with, OHSMS standards apparent benefit is as a constant protection measures to prevent work-related accident and ill health. As an example, by using the ANSI/AIHA Z102005 as a benchmark, health & safety in a company will be continually assessed and measured (Manuele, 2006). While OHSAS 18001, according to O'Connell (2004), provide umbrella protection, which extensively approach accident prevention, health and safety plan maintenance, and emergency responses the three essential areas of OHSMS. He further outlines that these extensive approaches can only be designed by a committee of industry experts behind the standards design. OHSMS standard not only works as a protective wall but will eventually increase health & safety awareness among employee and employer by improving everyones perceptions of the physical-psychosocial environment (Robson et al., 2007). This awareness will keep people staying behind the safety line and protect them from work-related accident and ill health. In practice, the implementation of OHSMS standard will be followed by subsequent frequent hazard reports which is a sign of increased awareness (Robson et al., 2007). As highlighted by Reason (1997), a reporting culture is one of the essential components of safety culture. Adherence to OHSMS standard will also be beneficial by establishing safety culture in the company in a wider point of view (Robson et al., 2007). Considering the broad area to cover, it is impossible for OHSMS managers to directly inspect and monitor every work practice at the same time. Therefore, standard is needed to replace the managers sole role by giving everyone the same responsibility. As mentioned by Seabrook (2001), the OHSMS standard will provide a tool for everyone in the company to proactively take part in enhancing health & safety; instead of being the duty of the managers only. By the involvement of everyone, organizational accidents can be prevented in each of its stages (i.e. unsafe act, local workplace factor, organizational factors) (Reason, 1997). Health & safety will eventually be established as an integrated part of the company system; where business process and planning activities will take them into account. Other benefit that a company will gain by adhering to OHSMS standard is the support from third party companies. By being registered to the standard, the implementation of OHSMS, will be audited, monitored and evaluated by third party registrar (e.g. BSI management system) (O'Connell, 2004). The assessment will be done by experts of health & safety who will independently have a thorough inspection and outline the areas that can be improved; ensuring

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Ikhwan Muhammad. Safety Management System: Analysis of Standards that the requirements of the standard are satisfied. Therefore, this involvement of an independent outsider will maintain a good practice of OHSMS, bring continuous improvement to the company, and further prevent work-related accident and ill health in the workplace. Benefits from other areas Apart from the apparent benefit in health & safety areas, OHSMS standard also offer numerous benefits in other related areas. One of the most appealing benefits is in the savings that can be generated by adhering to the standard. The investment that a company put to adhere to OHSMS standard will be returned, either by preventing unnecessary expenses or by generating more income. Firstly, it is clear that by adhering to the standard, numbers of work-related accident and ill health will be lowered and the costs it demands will be reduced. Furthermore, OHSMS standard also prevents unnecessary expenses from indirect costs of time and man power caused by delays in production or disruption of organizational aspects. These financial losses are prevented by controlling occupational risks (Fernndez-Muiz, Montes-Pen, & Vzquez-Ords, 2011). In addition, Abrams (2006) outlines the possibility to generate savings from insurance, in this case by adhering to ANSI/AIHA Z10-2005. Secondly, the adherence to OHSMS standard will also generate more income by increasing employees performances (O'Connell, 2004). By adherence to policies and procedures provided by OHSMS standard, employees and employers will gain improvement in performances and increased productivity. Other benefit of OHSMS standard is the reputation that the company will gain among customers, stakeholders and communities. According to O'Connell (2004), by being registered to OHSMS standard companies can attract more customers that are aware of OHSMS. Moreover, he believes that it will also open more opportunities to gain cooperation with other company that require their supplier to adhere to such standard (e.g. industry manufacturer). He further elaborates that it is because the standard shows the companies commitment to provide a safe working environment for their employee, which is an advantage for both their customer and their stakeholders. In relation to other management system standard, OHSMS standard brings benefits by its compatibility. Matias and Coelho (2002) outline that there are commonalities shared between the OHSMS, Quality Management System (QMS), and Environmental Management System (EMS) standard which ensure that the implementation of OHSMS standard will also satisfy the aims of other management system. The integration of OHSMS, QMS, and EMS has been proven in supporting the competitiveness of a company (e.g. Tervonen, Haapasalo, & Pkkil, 2011; Zeng, Tam, & Tam, 2008). Lastly, the recent globalization even brings more benefit from adhering to the standard. Being designed by international experts, OHSMS standard (especially OHSAS 18001) put into

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Ikhwan Muhammad. Safety Management System: Analysis of Standards consideration different aspects from different countries thus provide an open path for business across national borders. Literatures with respect to the effectiveness of systematic safety management processes There are numerous studies attempt to discuss the effectiveness of systematic safety management processes. This essay will review three literatures: 1.) Safety management systems: performance differences between adopters and non-adopters, 2.) The effectiveness of occupational health and safety management system: a systematic review, and 3.) Occupational health and safety management systems: a review of their effectiveness in securing healthy and safe workplace 1. Safety management systems: performance differences between adopters and nonadopters In this paper, Bottani, Monica, and Vignali (2009) aim to conduct an assessment to determine the performance difference resulted from adopting Safety Management Systems (SMSs). Bottani et al. (2009) collect data sample from 116 companies perform hypotheses testing and determine their performance level. As a conclusion, Bottani et al. (2009) outline that against four identified topics (definition of safety and security goals and their communication to employees, risk data updating and risk analysis, identification of risks and definition of corrective actions, and employees training), companies adopting SMSs are proven to have higher performance compared to non-adopters. 2. The effectiveness of occupational health and safety management system: a systematic review In this study, Robson et al. (2007) attempt to draw a conclusion in regards to the effectiveness of OHSMS interventions on establishing healthy and safe working environment by systematically reviewing relevant articles. For this purpose, they search through eight bibliographical databases and collect thirteen original studies that suffice the studys relevant criteria and the methodological quality criteria. Result show positive findings in general and no negative findings. However, Robson et al. (2007) suggest that these evidences are not sufficient to give a definite answer in respect to OHSMS interventions. They argue that the several differences between the studies make it hard to generalize the findings.

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Ikhwan Muhammad. Safety Management System: Analysis of Standards 3. Occupational health and safety management systems: a review of their effectiveness in securing healthy and safe workplace In this report prepared for the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC), Gallagher, Rimmer, and Underhill (2001) attempt to review the effectiveness and the barriers of OHSMS in Australia. From the reviews of research and consultation, they suggest that OHSMS success is conditional and certain appropriate circumstances are required to achieve healthy and safe workplace (Gallagher et al., 2001). The report further outlines several barriers to OHSMS success, including failure to meet necessary conditions for OHSMS success, the inappropriate use of audit tools, and application in hostile contexts (Gallagher et al., 2001). According to Gallagher et al. (2001), these barriers relate to actual implementation practice of OHSMS in Australian companies.

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Ikhwan Muhammad. Safety Management System: Analysis of Standards References Abrams, A. L. (2006). Legal Perspectives on ANSI Z1O-2005: Significant implications for SH&E practitioners and employers. [Article]. Professional Safety, 51(6), 41-43. Bottani, E., Monica, L., & Vignali, G. (2009). Safety management systems: performance differences between adopters and non-adopters. Safety Science, 47(2), 155-162. Fernndez-Muiz, B., Montes-Pen, J. M., & Vzquez-Ords, C. J. (2011). Occupational risk management under the OHSAS 18001 standard: analysis of perceptions and attitudes of certified firms. Journal of Cleaner Production. Gallagher, C., Rimmer, M., & Underhill, E. (2001). Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems [electronic Resource]: A Review of Their Effectiveness in Securing Healthy and Safe Workplaces: National Occupational Health and Safety Commission. Manuele, F. A. (2006). ANSI/AIHA Z10-2005. (Cover story). [Article]. Professional Safety, 51(2), 25-33. Matias, J. C. D. O., & Coelho, D. A. (2002). The integration of the standards systems of quality management, environmental management and occupational health and safety management. International Journal of Production Research, 40(15), 3857-3866. O'Connell, R. (2004, June 2004). Making the case for OHSAS 18001: a leading registrar argues that OHSAS 18001 is emerging as the standard of choice for companies seeking to implement a comprehensive safety management system. Here's why. Occupational Hazards, 66, 32-33. Reason, J. T. (1997). Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. Robson, L. S., Clarke, J. A., Cullen, K., Bielecky, A., Severin, C., Bigelow, P. L., . . . Mahood, Q. (2007). The effectiveness of occupational health and safety management system interventions: a systematic review. Safety Science, 45(3), 329-353. Seabrook, K. A. (2001, 10 - 13 June 2001). International Standards Update: Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems. Paper presented at the ASSE Professional Development Conference and Exposition, Anaheim, California. Tervonen, P., Haapasalo, H., & Pkkil, J. (2011). Contribution of integrated environment, safety, security and quality management to business excellence. [Article]. Integruotos aplinkos apsaugos, saugos, saugumo irkokybs vadybos sistem poveikis verslo tobulumui., 6(1), 53-68. doi: 10.5200/1822-9530.2011.03 Zeng, S., Tam, V. W. Y., & Tam, C. (2008). Towards occupational health and safety systems in the construction industry of China. Safety Science, 46(8), 1155-1168.

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