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COAL MINING- WORKSHEET 1. How long does it take to get to the core of the mine? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

9. CONTINUOUS MINER What does a continuous miner do? Why is it important? How much of the total coal production is done using continuous miner? How much can they produce in one minute? How much can they produce in one day? How are continuous miners managed? What three different machines are necessary to remove the coal out of the surface? LONGHAUL MINING How is it different to the continuous miner? How much it can produce in a day? What happens with the roof? DESCRIBING THE MINE Why are the walls white? Why are ventilating fans necessary? Why is ventilation important? COAL USEFULNESS Why do we use coal to produce steam? How does coal drive the turbines of powerplant generators? How do we heat energy from coal? How much of the electricity that people use in the States is made of burning coal? Which companies use most of the coal mined in the US? What are the two most important minerals to create the modern world? COAL HISTORY How was coal formed? When is the first record of coal being used? Was coal the main source of fuel in history? What was it? Where were the first records of mining coal? Why did London start to use coal? Why is more expensive or cheaper that coal?

MINING COAL METHODS a) The belt-pit method What was the first method of extracting coal? Who used it? Was it dangerous? How deep were they? Did they use explosives? What tools did they use? How it was hauled? What did children and women do?

a) b) c) d) e) f)

The drift-pit method Why did it start? What are the rules of roof and pillar mining? Can you make an opening too wide? Why? Why do you have to leave pillar of coal behind you? What was the most common cause of death? What happened when they go deeper?

1. What technique did England introduce in the mid 17th century? -Carts drove by animals - Railways into the mines - A reliable system to drain water 2. What did they need to drain water? 3. What problem did the steam engine resolve?

COAL ARRIVES TO AMERICA 1. In America, was coal used by native Americans? 2. When was coal more important in America? A) For the Revolutionary war B) For the civil war 3. Why did they need coal for the war? a) To make weapons b) To make fire Did Americans import coal from England? Did Britain want Americans mine their own coal? When did the Americans start to mine coal?

g) h) i) j)

DANGEROUS HAZARDOUS PROBLEMS How were mines ventilated originally? What was the problem in the mines? Drain water Ventilate the mine Push metane out All of them What was the problem with methane? Where was the first working fan running? -In Europe - In the States

k) What was another oxygen efficiency or black out? What did they use to avoid it? Why did they stop it? l) What was the rate of growth of mining industries in America in late 1800? m) Could mine workers own a house? n) Why was coal mining the most hazardous occupation? o) How many people died in the worst explosion in the States? Why was that? When was that? p) Why did flame lamps replace the arcade canary in a cage? How does it work? q) What disease did coal dust produce? r) What improvement did government demand to avoid injuries and accidents?

s) THE ADVENT OF ELECTRICITY What was the first tool to use electricity in the mine? -hammers and shovels coal cutting machines 1. how old was Joy when he first went into a mine? 2. how old was Joy when he first invented the shuttle car? 3. How many different patterns did Joy invent? 4. What did the gathering arm- loader do? 5. When were roof-bolts introduced? 6. Imagine a coal miner was slept for 40 years, and woke up nowdays, what would he think of coal mining today?

t) THE EQUIPMENT AND ATTIRE 1. What was used before as a light? How long did it last? 2. Did they take into account air protection?

3. What is part of the safety protection equipment today? 4. Steel boots / methane monitor/ a self-rescuer 5. What does a self- rescuer do?

u) What are the types of underground mining? v) How do you carry out the equipment and the workers in a shaft mine? w) How has technology (automated machines, computerized controls) help mining industry? x) It has lead to greater productivity y) It has improver miner health conditions z) What happened in 2002? What happened a year earlier?


SURFACE MINE -COAL MINES 1 . Do surface coal mines produce more or less than underground coal mines? 2. Where is the largest coal mine in the world? 3. What is the percentage of surface mining out of the total coal mines? 4. When did surface mining appear in the States? 5. When did surface mining become popular? Why? 6. When did the size of the machines increase? 7. What machine is considered the largest land base machine in surface mining? 8. How heavy can be the bucket? 9. What do they do with the overburden in the restoration work? 10. When was it necessary to do restoration works in the mines in the States? 11. Why do American people complain about surface and strip mining method? 12. How long do you need to start the process of creating a coal mine? 12. What is the first process of the processing plant? 13. What is the size after crushing? 14. How long does it take to load a train?