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CCNA 1 Chapter 10 v5.

0 Exam Answers 2014


1 Which three layers of the O ! mo"el provi"e similar networ# services to those provi"e" $y the application layer of the %C&'!& mo"el( )Choose three.* physical layer session layer+ transport layer application layer+ presentation layer+ data link layer 2 Which two tas#s are f,nctions of the presentation layer( )Choose two.* compression+ addressing encryption+ session control authentication elect three protocols that operate at the Application .ayer of the O ! mo"el. )Choose three.* ARP TCP DSL /%&+ &O&-+ 01C&+ 4 A man,fact,rin2 company s,$scri$es to certain hoste" services from their ! &. %he services re3,ire" incl,"e hoste" worl" wi"e we$4 file transfer4 an" e5mail. Which protocols represent these three #ey applications( )Choose three.* /%&+ 1%%&+ DNS SNMP

DHCP 6%&+ 5 What are two characteristics of peer5to5peer networ#s( )Choose two.* scalable one way data low "ecentrali7e" reso,rces+ centrali!ed user accounts reso,rce sharin2 witho,t a "e"icate" server+ 8 What is an example of networ# comm,nication that ,ses the client5server mo"el( A user uses eMule to download a ile that is shared by a riend a ter the ile location is deter"ined# A workstation initiates an ARP to ind the MAC address o a recei$ing host# A user prints a docu"ent by using a printer that is attached to a workstation o a coworker# A wor#station initiates a 0N re3,est when the ,ser types www.cisco.com in the a""ress $ar of a we$ $rowser.+ 9 What is an a"vanta2e for small or2ani7ations of a"optin2 !6A& instea" of &O&( 6essa2es are #ept in the mail servers ,ntil the client man,ally "eletes them.+ %hen the user connects to a P&P ser$er' copies o the "essages are kept in the "ail ser$er or a short ti"e' but (MAP keeps the" or a long ti"e# (MAP sends and retrie$es e"ail' but P&P only retrie$es e"ail# P&P only allows the client to store "essages in a centrali!ed way' while (MAP allows distributed storage# : Which two actions are ta#en $y 6%& if the "estination email server is $,sy when email messa2es are sent( )Choose two.* SMTP sends an error "essage back to the sender and closes the connection# 6%& tries to sen" the messa2es at a later time.+ SMTP will discard the "essage i it is still not deli$ered a ter a predeter"ined e)piration ti"e# 6%& perio"ically chec#s the 3,e,e for messa2es an" attempts to sen" them a2ain.+ SMTP sends the "essages to another "ail ser$er or deli$ery#

; Which application layer protocol ,ses messa2e types s,ch as <E%4 &=%4 an" &O %( DNS DHCP SMTP 1%%&+ P&P* 10 A 01C&5ena$le" client &C has >,st $oote". 0,rin2 which two steps will the client &C ,se $roa"cast messa2es when comm,nicatin2 with a 01C& server( )Choose two.* 01C&0! CO?E@+ DHCPAC+ DHCP&,,-R 01C&@EA=E %+ DHCPNA+ 11 A ,ser accesse" the 2ame site www.no2amename.com last wee#. %he ni2ht $efore the ,ser accesses the 2ame site a2ain4 the site a"ministrator chan2es the site !& a""ress. What will $e the conse3,ence of that action for the ,ser( The user will not be able to access the site# %he ,ser will access the site witho,t pro$lems.+ The user will ha$e to "odi y the DNS ser$er address on the local PC in order to access the site# The user will ha$e to issue a ping to this new (P address to be sure that the do"ain na"e re"ained the sa"e# 12 Which 0N server in the 0N hierarchy wo,l" $e consi"ere" a,thoritative for the "omain name recor"s of a company name" netaca"( #co" netaca".com+ ")#netacad#co" www#netacad#co" 1Which three statements "escri$e a 01C& 0iscover messa2e( )Choose three.* The source MAC address is ./ ones 0,,1,,1,,1,,1,,1,,2# %he "estination !& a""ress is 255.255.255.255.+ The "essage co"es ro" a ser$er o ering an (P address#

%he messa2e comes from a client see#in2 an !& a""ress. + All hosts receive the messa2e4 $,t only a 01C& server replies.+ &nly the DHCP ser$er recei$es the "essage# 14 Which phrase "escri$es an /%& "aemon( a diagnostic ,TP progra" a pro2ram that is r,nnin2 on an /%& server+ a progra" that is running on an ,TP client an application that is used to re3uest data ro" an ,TP ser$er 15 What is tr,e a$o,t the erver 6essa2e Bloc# protocol( Di erent SM4 "essage types ha$e a di erent or"at# Clients esta$lish a lon2 term connection to servers.+ SM4 "essages cannot authenticate a session# SM4 uses the ,TP protocol or co""unication# 18 When wo,l" it $e more efficient to ,se 6B to transfer files instea" of /%&( when downloading large iles with a $ariety o or"ats ro" di erent ser$ers when a peer1to1peer application is re3uired when the host de$ices on the network use the %indows operating syste" when "ownloa"in2 lar2e n,m$ers of files from the same server+ when uploading the sa"e ile to "ultiple re"ote ser$ers 19 /ill in the $lan#. %hat is the acrony" or the protocol that is used when securely co""unicating with a web ser$er5 6 1%%& 6 Hyperte)t Trans er Protocol Secure 0HTTPS2 is the protocol that is used or accessing or posting web ser$er in or"ation using a secure co""unication channel# 1:

/ill in the $lan#. @efer to the exhi$it. %hat co""and was used to resol$e a gi$en host na"e by 3uerying the na"e ser$ers5 6 nsloo#,p 7 A user can "anually 3uery the na"e ser$ers to resol$e a gi$en host na"e using the nslookup co""and# Nslookup is both a co""and and a utility# 1; A,estion as presente"C

&lace the options in the followin2 or"erC en" "evice a""ress 1 not scored 1 a,thoritative name server

canonical name mail exchan2e recor" 20 A,estion as presente"C

&lace the options in the followin2 or"erC a messa2e that is ,se" to i"entify the explicit server an" lease offer to accept a messa2e that is ,se" to locate any availa$le 01C& server on a networ# 1 not scored 1 a messa2e that is ,se" to s,22est a lease to a client a messa2e that is ,se" to ac#nowle"2e that the lease is s,ccessf,l 21 A,estion as presente"C

&lace the options in the followin2 or"erC DEF no "e"icate" server is re3,ire" DEF client an" server roles are set on a per re3,est $asis DGF re3,ires a specific ,ser interface DGF a $ac#2ro,n" service is re3,ire" 89: &rder does not "atter within this group# 8;: &rder does not "atter within this group# 22 Open the &% Activity.

&erform the tas#s in the activity instr,ctions an" then answer the 3,estion. Which &C or &Cs are sen"in2 /%& pac#ets to the server( PC<* PC<= &CH2+ PC<= and PC<*

What wo,l" happen ifI

>our e"ployer has decided to ha$e (P telephones installed in your workplace resulting in the network being inoperable until ne)t week# >our work howe$er' "ust continue# >ou ha$e e"ails to send and 3uotes to write or your "anager?s appro$al# 4ecause o possible security issues' you are not allowed to use personal or e)ternal co"puter syste"s' e3uip"ent' or o 1site e3uip"ent and syste"s' to co"plete your corporate workload# >our instructor "ay ask you to co"plete the 3uestions ro" both scenarios below' or to choose one scenario 0A# -"ails' or 4# @uote or Manager?s Appro$al2# Answer the 3uestions ully or the scenario0s2# 4e prepared to discuss your answers in class# A. Emails

%hat "ethod0s2 can you use to send e"ail co""unication5 How could you send the sa"e e"ail to "ultiple recipients5 How would you get a large attach"ent to "ultiple recipients' i necessary5 Are these "ethods cost e ecti$e to your corporation5 Do they $iolate any security policies o your corporation5

B. A,ote for 6ana2erJs Approval

>ou ha$e a desktop application so tware package installed on your co"puter# %ill it be relati$ely easy to produce the 3uote your "anager needs or the new contract due by the end o the week5 %hat li"itations will be e)perienced while trying to co"plete the 3uote5 How will you present the 3uote to your "anager or appro$al5 How do you think he or she will send the 3uote to the client or their appro$al5 Are these "ethods cost e ecti$e to your corporation5 Austi y your answer#

s shown in the igure' networking pro essionals use the &S( and TCPB(P "odels to co""unicate both $erbally and in written technical docu"entation# As such' networking pro essional can use these "odels to describe the beha$ior o protocols and applications# (n the &S( "odel' data is passed ro" one layer to the ne)t' starting at the application layer on the trans"itting host' and proceeding down the hierarchy to the physical layer' and then passing o$er the co""unications channel to the destination host' where the data proceeds back up the hierarchy' ending at the application layer#

The application layer is the top layer o both the &S( and TCPB(P "odels# The TCPB(P application layer includes a nu"ber o protocols that pro$ide speci ic unctionality to a $ariety o end1user applications# The unctionality o the TCPB(P application layer protocols it roughly into the ra"ework o the top three layers o the &S( "odelC application' presentation and session layers# The &S( "odel Layers D' E' and F are used as re erences or application so tware de$elopers and $endors to produce products' such as web browsers that need to access networks# %he Application .ayer The application layer is closest to the end user# As shown in the igure' it is the layer that pro$ides the inter ace between the applications we use to co""unicate and the underlying network o$er which our "essages are trans"itted# Application layer protocols are used to e)change data between progra"s running on the source and destination hosts# There are "any application layer protocols and new protocols are always being de$eloped# So"e o the "ost widely known application layer protocols include Hyperte)t Trans er Protocol 0HTTP2' ,ile Trans er Protocol 0,TP2' Tri$ial ,ile Trans er Protocol 0T,TP2' (nternet Message Access Protocol 0(MAP2' and Do"ain Na"e Syste" 0DNS2 protocol#

%he &resentation .ayer The presentation layer has three pri"ary unctionsC

,or"ats' or presents' data ro" the source de$ice into a co"patible or" or receipt by the destination de$ice#

Co"pression o the data in a way that can be deco"pressed by the destination de$ice# -ncryption o the data or trans"ission and the decryption o data upon receipt by the destination#

As shown in the igure' the presentation layer or"ats data or the application layer and it sets standards or ile or"ats# So"e well1known standards or $ideo include @uickTi"e and Motion Picture -)perts Group 0MP-G2# @uickTi"e is an Apple co"puter speci ication or $ideo and audio' and MP-G is a standard or $ideo and audio co"pression and coding# A"ong the well1known graphic i"age or"ats that are used on networks are Graphics (nterchange ,or"at 0G(,2' Aoint Photographic -)perts Group 0AP-G2' and Portable Network Graphics 0PNG2 or"at# G(, and AP-G are co"pression and coding standards or graphic i"ages# PNG was designed to address so"e o the li"itations o the G(, or"at and to e$entually replace it# %he ession .ayer As the na"e i"plies' unctions at the session layer create and "aintain dialogs between source and destination applications# The session layer handles the e)change o in or"ation to initiate dialogs' keep the" acti$e' and to restart sessions that are disrupted or idle or a long period o ti"e# %hile the &S( "odel separates the indi$idual application' presentation' and session unction' "ost widely known and i"ple"ented TCPB(P applications incorporate the unctionality o all three layers# The TCPB(P application protocols speci y the or"at and control in or"ation necessary or "any co""on (nternet co""unication unctions# A"ong these TCPB(P protocols areC

0omain Name ystem )0N * 1 This protocol resol$es (nternet na"es to (P addresses# %elnet 1 This is used to pro$ide re"ote access to ser$ers and networking de$ices# imple 6ail %ransfer &rotocol ) 6%&* 1 This protocol trans ers "ail "essages and attach"ents# 0ynamic 1ost Confi2,ration &rotocol )01C&* 1 A protocol used to assign an (P address' subnet "ask' de ault gateway' and DNS ser$er addresses to a host# 1ypertext %ransfer &rotocol )1%%&* 1 This protocol trans ers iles that "ake up the web pages o the %orld %ide %eb#

/ile %ransfer &rotocol )/%&* 1 A protocol used or interacti$e ile trans er between syste"s# %rivial /ile %ransfer &rotocol )%/%&* 1 This protocol is used or connectionless acti$e ile trans er# Bootstrap &rotocol )BOO%&* 1 This protocol is a precursor to the DHCP protocol# 4&&TP is a network protocol used to obtain (P address in or"ation during bootup# &ost Office &rotocol )&O&* 1 A protocol used by e"ail clients to retrie$e e"ail ro" a re"ote ser$er# !nternet 6essa2e Access &rotocol )!6A&* 1 This is another protocol or e"ail retrie$al#

Application layer protocols are used by both the source and destination de$ices during a co""unication session# ,or the co""unications to be success ul the application layer protocols i"ple"ented on the source and destination host "ust be co"patible#

%hen accessing in or"ation on a networking de$ice' whether it is a PC' laptop' tablet' s"artphone' or so"e other de$ice connected to a network' the data "ay not be physically stored on the de$ice# (n this case' a re3uest to access that in or"ation "ust be "ade to the de$ice where the data resides# (n the peer1to1peer 0PHP2 networking "odel' the data is accessed ro" a peer de$ice without the use o a dedicated ser$er#

The PHP network "odel in$ol$es two partsC PHP networks and PHP applications# 4oth parts ha$e si"ilar eatures' but in practice work 3uite di erently# &2& Networ#s (n a PHP network' two or "ore co"puters are connected $ia a network and can share resources 0such as printers and iles2 without ha$ing a dedicated ser$er# -$ery connected end de$ice 0known as a peer2 can unction as both a ser$er and a client# &ne co"puter "ight assu"e the role o ser$er or one transaction while si"ultaneously ser$ing as a client or another# The roles o client and ser$er are set on a per re3uest basis# An e)a"ple is a si"ple ho"e network with two co"puters' as shown in the igure# (n this e)a"ple' PeerH has a printer attached to it directly by IS4' and is setup to share the printer on the network so that Peer= can print to it# Peer= is set up to share a dri$e or older on the network# This allows PeerH to access and sa$e iles to the shared older# (n addition to sharing iles' a network such as this one would allow users to enable networked ga"es' or share an (nternet connection# PHP networks decentrali!e the resources on a network# (nstead o locating data to be shared on dedicated ser$ers' data can be located anywhere and on any connected de$ice# Most o the current operating syste"s support ile and print sharing without re3uiring additional ser$er so tware# Howe$er' PHP networks do not use centrali!ed user accounts or access ser$ers to "aintain per"issions# There ore' it is di icult to en orce security and access policies in networks containing "ore than Just a ew co"puters# Iser accounts and access rights "ust be set indi$idually on each peer de$ice# A peer1to1peer 0PHP2 application allows a de$ice to act as both a client and a ser$er within the sa"e co""unication' as shown in the igure# (n this "odel' e$ery client is a ser$er and e$ery ser$er a client# 4oth can initiate a co""unication and are considered e3ual in the co""unication process# Howe$er' PHP applications re3uire that each end de$ice pro$ide a user inter ace and run a background ser$ice# %hen you launch a speci ic PHP application' it loads the re3uired user inter ace and background ser$icesK a terward' the de$ices can co""unicate directly# So"e PHP applications use a hybrid syste" where resource sharing is decentrali!ed' but the inde)es that point to resource locations are stored in a centrali!ed directory# (n a hybrid syste"' each peer accesses an inde) ser$er to get the location o a resource stored on another peer# The inde) ser$er can also help connect two peers' but a ter connected' the co""unication takes place between the two peers without additional co""unication to the inde) ser$er# PHP applications can be used on PHP networks' clientBser$er networks' and across the (nternet#

%ith PHP applications' each co"puter in the network running the application can act as a client or a ser$er or the other co"puters in the network running the application# Co""on PHP applications includeC

eDonkey eMule Sharea!a 4itTorrent 4itcoin LionShare

So"e PHP applications are based on the Gnutella protocol# They enable people to share iles on their hard disks with others# As shown in the igure' Gnutella1co"patible client so tware allows users to connect to Gnutella ser$ices o$er the (nternet and to locate and access resources shared by other Gnutella peers# Many client applications are a$ailable or accessing the Gnutella network' including 4earShare' Gnucleus' Li"e%ire' Morpheus' %inML' and LoloL# %hile the Gnutella De$eloper ,oru" "aintains the basic protocol' application $endors o ten de$elop e)tensions to "ake the protocol work better with their application# Many PHP applications do not use a central database to record all the iles a$ailable on the peers# (nstead' the de$ices on the network each tell the others what iles are a$ailable when 3ueried' and use the ile sharing protocol and ser$ices to support locating resources# n the client1ser$er "odel' the de$ice re3uesting the in or"ation is called a client and the de$ice responding to the re3uest is called a ser$er# Client and ser$er processes are considered to be in the application layer# The client begins the e)change by re3uesting data ro" the ser$er' which responds by sending one or "ore strea"s o data to the client# Application layer protocols describe the or"at o the re3uests and responses between clients and ser$ers# (n addition to the actual data trans er' this e)change "ay also re3uire user authentication and the identi ication o a data ile to be trans erred# &ne e)a"ple o a client1ser$er network is using an (SP?s e"ail ser$ice to send' recei$e and store e"ail# The e"ail client on a ho"e co"puter issues a re3uest to the (SP?s e"ail ser$er or any unread "ail# The ser$er responds by sending the re3uested e"ail to the client# Although data is typically described as lowing ro" the ser$er to the client' so"e data always lows ro" the client to the ser$er# Data low "ay be e3ual in both directions' or "ay e$en be greater in the direction going ro" the client to the ser$er# ,or e)a"ple' a

client "ay trans er a ile to the ser$er or storage purposes# As shown in the igure' data trans er ro" a client to a ser$er is re erred to as an upload and data ro" a ser$er to a client as a download# There are do!ens o application layer protocols' but on a typical day you probably use only i$e or si)# Three application layer protocols that are in$ol$ed in e$eryday work or play areC

Hyperte)t Trans er Protocol 0HTTP2 Si"ple Mail Trans er Protocol 0SMTP2 Post & ice Protocol 0P&P2

These application layer protocols "ake it possible to browse the web and send and recei$e e"ail# HTTP is used to enable users to connect to web sites across the (nternet# SMTP is used to enable users to send e"ail# And P&P is used to enable users to recei$e e"ail# The ne)t ew pages ocus on these three application layer protocols# %hen a web address or uni or" resource locator 0IRL2 is typed into a web browser' the web browser establishes a connection to the web ser$ice running on the ser$er using the HTTP protocol# IRLs and Ini or" Resource (denti ier 0IR(s2 are the na"es "ost people associate with web addresses# The httpCBBwww#cisco#co"Binde)#ht"l IRL is an e)a"ple o a IRL that re ers to a speci ic resourceK a web page na"ed in"ex.html on a ser$er identi ied as cisco.com# Click each igure to see the steps used by HTTP# %eb browsers are the type o client application a co"puter uses to connect to the %orld %ide %eb and access resources stored on a web ser$er# As with "ost ser$er processes' the web ser$er runs as a background ser$ice and "akes di erent types o iles a$ailable# To access the content' web clients "ake connections to the ser$er and re3uest the desired resources# The ser$er replies with the resources and' upon receipt' the browser interprets the data and presents it to the user# 4rowsers can interpret and present "any data types 0such as plain te)t or Hyperte)t Markup Language' the language in which web pages are constructed2# &ther types o data' howe$er' "ay re3uire another ser$ice or progra"' typically re erred to as plug1ins or add1ons# To help the browser deter"ine what type o ile it is recei$ing' the ser$er speci ies what kind o data the ile contains#

To better understand how the web browser and web client interact' we can e)a"ine how a web page is opened in a browser# ,or this e)a"ple' use the httpCBBwww#cisco#co"Binde)#ht"l IRL# ,irst' as shown in ,igure =' the browser interprets the three parts o the IRLC =# http 0the protocol or sche"e2 H# www.cisco.com 0the ser$er na"e2 *# in"ex.html 0the speci ic ilena"e re3uested2 As shown in ,igure H' the browser then checks with a na"e ser$er to con$ert www#cisco#co" into a nu"eric address' which it uses to connect to the ser$er# Ising HTTP re3uire"ents' the browser sends a G-T re3uest to the ser$er and asks or the in"ex.html ile# The ser$er' as shown in ,igure *' sends the HTML code or this web page to the browser# ,inally' as shown in ,igure .' the browser deciphers the HTML code and or"ats the page or the browser window# HTTP is used across the %orld %ide %eb or data trans er and is one o the "ost used application protocols today# (t was originally de$eloped to si"ply publish and retrie$e HTML pagesK howe$er the le)ibility o HTTP has "ade it a $ital application within distributed' collaborati$e in or"ation syste"s# HTTP is a re3uestBresponse protocol# %hen a client' typically a web browser' sends a re3uest to a web ser$er' HTTP speci ied the "essage types used or that co""unication# The three co""on "essage types are G-T' P&ST' and PIT 0see the igure2# G-T is a client re3uest or data# A client 0web browser2 sends the G-T "essage to the web ser$er to re3uest HTML pages# %hen the ser$er recei$es the G-T re3uest' it responds with a status line' such as HTTPB=#= HMM &+' and a "essage o its own# The "essage ro" the ser$er "ay include the re3uested HTML ile' i a$ailable' or it "ay contain an error or in or"ation "essage' such as 6The location o the re3uested ile has changed#7 P&ST and PIT are used to upload data iles to the web ser$er# ,or e)a"ple' when the user enters data into a or" that is e"bedded within a web page 0such as when co"pleting an order re3uest2' the P&ST "essage is sent to the web ser$er# (ncluded within the P&ST "essage is the data that the user sub"itted in the or"# PIT uploads resources or content to the web ser$er# ,or e)a"ple' i a user atte"pts to upload a ile or i"age to a website' a PIT "essage is sent ro" the client to the ser$er with the attached ile or i"age#

Although HTTP is re"arkably le)ible' it is not a secure protocol# The re3uest "essages send in or"ation to the ser$er in plain te)t that can be intercepted and read# Si"ilarly' the ser$er responses' typically HTML pages' are also unencrypted# ,or secure co""unication across the (nternet' the HTTP Secure 0HTTPS2 protocol is used or accessing or posting web ser$er in or"ation# HTTPS can use authentication and encryption to secure data as it tra$els between the client and ser$er# HTTPS speci ies additional rules or passing data between the application layer and the transport layer# HTTPS uses the sa"e client re3uest1ser$er response process as HTTP' but the data strea" is encrypted with Secure Socket Layer 0SSL2 be ore being transported across the network# HTTPS creates additional load and processing ti"e on the ser$er due to the encryption and decryption o tra ic#

&ne o the pri"ary ser$ices o ered by an (SP is e"ail hosting# -"ail has re$olutioni!ed how people co""unicate through its si"plicity and speed# >et to run on a co"puter or other end de$ice' e"ail re3uires se$eral applications and ser$ices# -"ail is a store1and1 orward "ethod o sending' storing' and retrie$ing electronic "essages across a network# -"ail "essages are stored in databases on "ail ser$ers# (SPs o ten "aintain "ail ser$ers that support "any di erent custo"er accounts# -"ail clients co""unicate with "ail ser$ers to send and recei$e e"ail# Mail ser$ers co""unicate with other "ail ser$ers to transport "essages ro" one do"ain to another# An e"ail client does not co""unicate directly with another e"ail client when sending e"ail# (nstead' both clients rely on the "ail ser$er to transport "essages# This is true e$en when both users are in the sa"e do"ain#

-"ail clients send "essages to the e"ail ser$er con igured in the application settings# %hen the ser$er recei$es the "essage' it checks to see i the recipient do"ain is located on its local database# ( it is not' it sends a DNS re3uest to deter"ine the (P address o the "ail ser$er or the destination do"ain# The e"ail is then orwarded to the appropriate ser$er# -"ail supports three separate protocols or operationC Si"ple Mail Trans er Protocol 0SMTP2' Post & ice Protocol 0P&P2' and (nternet Message Access Protocol 0(MAP2# The application layer process that sends "ail' uses SMTP# This is the case i sending ro" a client to a ser$er' as well as when sending ro" one ser$er to another# A client retrie$es e"ail' howe$er' using one o two application layer protocolsC P&P or (MAP#

Si"ple Mail Trans er Protocol 0SMTP2 trans ers "ail reliably and e iciently# ,or SMTP applications to work properly' the "ail "essage "ust be or"atted properly and SMTP processes "ust be running on both the client and ser$er# SMTP "essage or"ats re3uire a "essage header and a "essage body# %hile the "essage body can contain any a"ount o te)t' the "essage header "ust ha$e a properly or"atted recipient e"ail address and a sender address# Any other header in or"ation is optional# %hen a client sends e"ail' the client SMTP process connects with a ser$er SMTP process on well1known port HD# A ter the connection is "ade' the client atte"pts to send the e"ail to the ser$er across the connection# %hen the ser$er recei$es the "essage' it either places the "essage in a local account' i the recipient is local' or orwards the "essage using the sa"e SMTP connection process to another "ail ser$er or deli$ery#

The destination e"ail ser$er "ay not be online or "ay be busy when e"ail "essages are sent# There ore' SMTP spools "essages to be sent at a later ti"e# Periodically' the ser$er checks the 3ueue or "essages and atte"pts to send the" again# ( the "essage is still not deli$ered a ter a predeter"ined e)piration ti"e' it is returned to the sender as undeli$erable#

Post & ice Protocol 0P&P2 enables a workstation to retrie$e "ail ro" a "ail ser$er# %ith P&P' "ail is downloaded ro" the ser$er to the client and then deleted on the ser$er# The ser$er starts the P&P ser$ice by passi$ely listening on TCP port ==M or client connection re3uests# %hen a client wants to "ake use o the ser$ice' it sends a re3uest to establish a TCP connection with the ser$er# %hen the connection is established' the P&P ser$er sends a greeting# The client and P&P ser$er then e)change co""ands and responses until the connection is closed or aborted# 4ecause e"ail "essages are downloaded to the client and re"o$ed ro" the ser$er' there is not a centrali!ed location where e"ail "essages are kept# 4ecause P&P does not store "essages' it is undesirable or a s"all business that needs a centrali!ed backup solution# P&P* is desirable or an (SP' because it alle$iates their responsibility or "anaging large a"ounts o storage or their e"ail ser$ers (nternet Message Access Protocol 0(MAP2 is another protocol that describes a "ethod to retrie$e e"ail "essages# Howe$er' unlike P&P' when the user connects to an (MAP1 capable ser$er' copies o the "essages are downloaded to the client application# The

original "essages are kept on the ser$er until "anually deleted# Isers $iew copies o the "essages in their e"ail client so tware# Isers can create a ile hierarchy on the ser$er to organi!e and store "ail# That ile structure is duplicated on the e"ail client as well# %hen a user decides to delete a "essage' the ser$er synchroni!es that action and deletes the "essage ro" the ser$er# ,or s"all1 to "ediu"1si!ed businesses' there are "any ad$antages to using (MAP# (MAP can pro$ide long1ter" storage o e"ail "essages on "ail ser$ers and allows or centrali!ed backup# (t also enables e"ployees to access e"ail "essages ro" "ultiple locations' using di erent de$ices or client so tware# The "ailbo) older structure that a user e)pects to see is a$ailable or $iewing regardless o how the user accesses the "ailbo)# ,or an (SP' (MAP "ay not be the protocol o choice# (t can be e)pensi$e to purchase and "aintain the disk space to support the large nu"ber o stored e"ails# Additionally' i custo"ers e)pect their "ailbo)es to be backed up routinely' that can urther increase the costs to the (SP#

(n data networks' de$ices are labeled with nu"eric (P addresses to send and recei$e data o$er networks# Most people cannot re"e"ber this nu"eric address# Do"ain na"es were created to con$ert the nu"eric address into a si"ple' recogni!able na"e# &n the (nternet' these do"ain na"es' such as httpCBBwww#cisco#co"' are "uch easier or people to re"e"ber than =N/#=**#H=N#HD' which is the actual nu"eric address or this ser$er# ( Cisco decides to change the nu"eric address o www#cisco#co"' it is transparent to the user' because the do"ain na"e re"ains the sa"e# The new address is

si"ply linked to the e)isting do"ain na"e and connecti$ity is "aintained# %hen networks were s"all' it was a si"ple task to "aintain the "apping between do"ain na"es and the addresses they represented# As networks ha$e grown and the nu"ber o de$ices increased' this "anual syste" beca"e unworkable# The Do"ain Na"e Syste" 0DNS2 was created or do"ain na"e to address resolution or these networks# DNS uses a distributed set o ser$ers to resol$e the na"es associated with these nu"bered addresses# Click the buttons in the igure to see the steps to resol$e DNS addresses# The DNS protocol de ines an auto"ated ser$ice that "atches resource na"es with the re3uired nu"eric network address# (t includes the or"at or 3ueries' responses' and data# The DNS protocol co""unications use a single or"at called a "essage# This "essage or"at is used or all types o client 3ueries and ser$er responses' error "essages' and the trans er o resource record in or"ation between ser$ers# ,igures = through D display the steps in$ol$ed in DNS resolution#

A DNS ser$er pro$ides the na"e resolution using the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (4(ND2' or the na"e dae"on' which is o ten called na"ed 0pronounced na"e1dee2# 4(ND was originally de$eloped by our students at the Ini$ersity o Cali ornia 4erkley in the early =N/Ms# As shown in the igure' the DNS "essage or"at used by 4(ND is the "ost widely used DNS or"at on the (nternet# The DNS ser$er stores di erent types o resource records used to resol$e na"es# These records contain the na"e' address' and type o record#

So"e o these record types areC


A 1 An end de$ice address N 1 An authoritati$e na"e ser$er CNA6E 1 The canonical na"e 0or ,ully @uali ied Do"ain Na"e2 or an aliasK used when "ultiple ser$ices ha$e the single network address' but each ser$ice has its own entry in DNS 6K 1 Mail e)change recordK "aps a do"ain na"e to a list o "ail e)change ser$ers or that do"ain

%hen a client "akes a 3uery' the ser$er?s 4(ND process irst looks at its own records to resol$e the na"e# ( it is unable to resol$e the na"e using its stored records' it contacts other ser$ers to resol$e the na"e# The re3uest "ay be passed along to a nu"ber o ser$ers' which can take e)tra ti"e and consu"e bandwidth# A ter a "atch is ound and returned to the original re3uesting ser$er' the ser$er te"porarily stores the nu"bered address that "atches the na"e in cache "e"ory# ( that sa"e na"e is re3uested again' the irst ser$er can return the address by using the $alue stored in its na"e cache# Caching reduces both the DNS 3uery data network tra ic and the workloads o ser$ers higher up the hierarchy# The DNS Client ser$ice on %indows PCs opti"i!es the per or"ance o DNS na"e resolution by also storing pre$iously resol$ed na"es in "e"ory# The ipconfi2 '"isplay"ns co""and displays all o the cached DNS entries on a %indows co"puter syste"#

The DNS protocol uses a hierarchical syste" to create a database to pro$ide na"e resolution# The hierarchy looks like an in$erted tree with the root at the top and branches below 0see the igure2# DNS uses do"ain na"es to or" the hierarchy# The na"ing structure is broken down into s"all' "anageable !ones# -ach DNS ser$er "aintains a speci ic database ile and is only responsible or "anaging na"e1to1(P "appings or that s"all portion o the entire DNS structure# %hen a DNS ser$er recei$es a re3uest or a na"e translation that is not within its DNS !one' the DNS ser$er orwards the re3uest to another DNS ser$er within the proper !one or translation# NoteC DNS is scalable because hostna"e resolution is spread across "ultiple ser$ers# The di erent top1le$el do"ains represent either the type o organi!ation or the country o origin# -)a"ples o top1le$el do"ains areC

.a, 5 Australia .co 5 Colo"bia .com 5 a business or industry .>p 5 Aapan .or2 5 a non1pro it organi!ation

A ter top1le$el do"ains are second1le$el do"ain na"es' and below the" are other lower le$el do"ains# -ach do"ain na"e is a path down this in$erted tree starting ro" the root# ,or e)a"ple' as shown in the igure' the root DNS ser$er "ay not know e)actly where the record or the e"ail ser$er' "ail#cisco#co"' is located' but it "aintains a record or the #co" do"ain within the top1le$el do"ain# Likewise' the ser$ers within the #co" do"ain "ay not ha$e a record or "ail#cisco#co"' but they do ha$e a record or the do"ain# The ser$ers within the cisco#co" do"ain ha$e a record 0a ML record to be precise2 or "ail#cisco#co"# DNS relies on this hierarchy o decentrali!ed ser$ers to store and "aintain these resource records# The resource records list do"ain na"es that the ser$er can resol$e and alternati$e ser$ers that can also process re3uests# ( a gi$en ser$er has resource records that correspond to its le$el in the do"ain hierarchy' it is said to be authoritati$e or those records# ,or e)a"ple' a na"e ser$er in the cisco#netacad#net do"ain would not be authoritati$e or the "ail#cisco#co" record' because that record is held at a higher do"ain le$el ser$erK speci ically the na"e ser$er in the cisco#co" do"ain#

DNS is a clientBser$er ser$iceK howe$er' it di ers ro" the other clientBser$er ser$ices# %hile other ser$ices use a client that is an application 0such as web browser' e"ail client2' the DNS client runs as a ser$ice itsel # The DNS client' so"eti"es called the DNS resol$er' supports na"e resolution or other network applications and other ser$ices that need it# %hen con iguring a network de$ice' we generally pro$ide one or "ore DNS Ser$er addresses that the DNS client can use or na"e resolution# Isually the (nternet ser$ice pro$ider 0(SP2 pro$ides the addresses to use or the DNS ser$ers# %hen a user?s application re3uests to connect to a re"ote de$ice by na"e' the re3uesting DNS client 3ueries one o these na"e ser$ers to resol$e the na"e to a nu"eric address# Co"puter operating syste"s also ha$e a utility called nslookup that allows the user to "anually 3uery the na"e ser$ers to resol$e a gi$en hostna"e# This utility can also be used to troubleshoot na"e resolution issues and to $eri y the current status o the na"e ser$ers# (n the igure' when the nsloo#,p co""and is issued' the de ault DNS ser$er con igured or your host is displayed# (n this e)a"ple' the DNS ser$er is dns1sJ#cisco#co" which has an address o =F=#FM#=E/#=/*# The na"e o a host or do"ain can be entered at the nsloo#,p pro"pt# (n the irst 3uery in the igure' a 3uery is "ade or www#cisco#co"# The responding na"e ser$er pro$ides the address o =N/#=**#H=N#HD#

The 3ueries shown in the igure are only si"ple tests# The nslookup utility has "any options a$ailable or e)tensi$e testing and $eri ication o the DNS process# %hen inished' type exit to lea$e the nslookup utility#

The Dyna"ic Host Con iguration Protocol 0DHCP2 ser$ice enables de$ices on a network to obtain (P addresses and other in or"ation ro" a DHCP ser$er# This ser$ice auto"ates the assign"ent o (P addresses' subnet "asks' gateway' and other (P networking para"eters# This is re erred to as dyna"ic addressing# The alternati$e to dyna"ic addressing is static addressing# %hen using static addressing' the network ad"inistrator "anually enters (P address in or"ation on network hosts# DHCP allows a host to obtain an (P address dyna"ically when it connects to the network# The DHCP ser$er is contacted and an address re3uested# The DHCP ser$er chooses an address ro" a con igured range o addresses called a pool and assigns 0leases2 it to the host or a set period# &n larger local networks' or where the user population changes re3uently' DHCP is pre erred or address assign"ent# New users "ay arri$e with laptops and need a connectionK others "ay ha$e new workstations that "ust be connected# Rather than ha$e the network ad"inistrator assign (P addresses or each workstation' it is "ore e icient to ha$e (P addresses assigned auto"atically using DHCP# DHCP1distributed addresses are not per"anently assigned to hosts' but are only leased or a period o ti"e# ( the host is powered down or taken o the network' the address is returned to the pool or reuse# This is especially help ul with "obile users that co"e and go on a network# Isers can reely "o$e ro" location to location and re1establish

network connections# The host can obtain an (P address a ter the hardware connection is "ade' either $ia a wired or wireless LAN# DHCP "akes it possible to access the (nternet using wireless hotspots at airports or co ee shops# %hen a wireless de$ice enters a hotspot' the de$ice DHCP client contacts the local DHCP ser$er $ia a wireless connection' and the DHCP ser$er assigns an (P address to the de$ice# As the igure shows' $arious types o de$ices can be DHCP ser$ers when running DHCP ser$ice so tware# The DHCP ser$er in "ost "ediu"1to1large networks is usually a local dedicated PC1based ser$er# %ith ho"e networks' the DHCP ser$er is usually located on the local router that connects the ho"e network to the (SP# Local hosts recei$e (P address in or"ation directly ro" the local router# The local router recei$es an (P address ro" the DHCP ser$er at the (SP# DHCP can pose a security risk because any de$ice connected to the network can recei$e an address# This risk "akes physical security a deter"ining actor o whether to use dyna"ic or "anual addressing# 4oth dyna"ic and static addressing ha$e a place in network design# Many networks use both DHCP and static addressing# DHCP is used or general purpose hosts' such as end user de$icesK static addressing is used or network de$ices' such as gateways' switches' ser$ers' and printers#

%ithout DHCP' users ha$e to "anually input the (P address' subnet "ask' and other network settings to Join the network# The DHCP ser$er "aintains a pool o (P addresses and leases an address to any DHCP1enabled client when the client is powered on# 4ecause the (P addresses are dyna"ic 0leased2' rather than static 0per"anently assigned2' addresses no longer in use are auto"atically returned to the pool or reallocation# As

shown in the igure' when a DHCP1con igured de$ice boots up or connects to the network' the client broadcasts a DHCP disco$er 0DHCPD(SC&O-R2 "essage to identi y any a$ailable DHCP ser$ers on the network# A DHCP ser$er replies with a DHCP o er 0DHCP&,,-R2 "essage' which o ers a lease to the client# The o er "essage contains the (P address and subnet "ask to be assigned' the (P address o the DNS ser$er' and the (P address o the de ault gateway# The lease o er also includes the duration o the lease# The client "ay recei$e "ultiple DHCP&,,-R "essages i there is "ore than one DHCP ser$er on the local networkK there ore' it "ust choose between the"' and sends a DHCP re3uest 0DHCPR-@I-ST2 "essage that identi ies the e)plicit ser$er and lease o er that the client is accepting# A client "ay also choose to re3uest an address that it had pre$iously been allocated by the ser$er# Assu"ing that the (P address re3uested by the client' or o ered by the ser$er' is still a$ailable' the ser$er returns a DHCP acknowledge"ent 0DHCPAC+2 "essage that acknowledges to the client that the lease is inali!ed# ( the o er is no longer $alid' perhaps due to a ti"eout or another client taking the lease' then the selected ser$er responds with a DHCP negati$e acknowledge"ent 0DHCPNA+2 "essage# ( a DHCPNA+ "essage is returned' then the selection process "ust begin again with a new DHCPD(SC&O-R "essage being trans"itted# A ter the client has the lease' it "ust be renewed prior to the lease e)piration through another DHCPR-@I-ST "essage# The DHCP ser$er ensures that all (P addresses are uni3ue 0the sa"e (P address cannot be assigned to two di erent network de$ices si"ultaneously2# Ising DHCP enables network ad"inistrators to easily recon igure client (P addresses without ha$ing to "anually "ake changes to the clients# Most (nternet pro$iders use DHCP to allocate addresses to their custo"ers that do not re3uire a static address#

The ,ile Trans er Protocol 0,TP2 is another co""only used application layer protocol# ,TP was de$eloped to allow or data trans ers between a client and a ser$er# An ,TP client is an application that runs on a co"puter that is used to push and pull data ro" a ser$er running an ,TP dae"on 0,TPd2# As the igure illustrates' to success ully trans er data' ,TP re3uires two connections between the client and the ser$er' one or co""ands and replies' the other or the actual ile trans erC

The client establishes the irst connection to the ser$er or control tra ic' consisting o client co""ands and ser$er replies# The client establishes the second connection to the ser$er or the actual data trans er# This connection is created e$ery ti"e there is data to be trans erred#

The data trans er can happen in either direction# The client can download 0pull2 data ro" the ser$er or' the client can upload 0push2 data to the ser$er# The Ser$er Message 4lock 0SM42 is a clientBser$er ile sharing protocol' de$eloped by (4M in the late =N/Ms' to describe the structure o shared network resources' such as directories' iles' printers' and serial ports# (t is a re3uest1response protocol# The SM4 protocol describes ile syste" access and how clients can "ake re3uests or iles# (t also describes the SM4 protocol interprocess co""unication# All SM4 "essages share a co""on or"at# This or"at uses a i)ed1si!ed header' ollowed by a $ariable1 si!ed para"eter and data co"ponent# SM4 "essages canC

Start' authenticate' and ter"inate sessions Control ile and printer access Allow an application to send or recei$e "essages to or ro" another de$ice

SM4 ile1sharing and print ser$ices ha$e beco"e the "ainstay o Microso t networking# %ith the introduction o the %indows HMMM so tware series' Microso t changed the underlying structure or using SM4# (n pre$ious $ersions o Microso t products' the SM4 ser$ices used a non1TCPB(P protocol to i"ple"ent na"e resolution# 4eginning with %indowsHMMM' all subse3uent Microso t products use DNS na"ing' which allows TCPB(P protocols to directly support SM4 resource sharing' as shown in ,igure =# The SM4 ile e)change process between %indows PCs is shown in ,igure H# Inlike the ile sharing supported by ,ile Trans er Protocol 0,TP2' clients establish a long1ter" connection to ser$ers# A ter the connection is established' the user o the client can access the resources on the ser$er as i the resource is local to the client host#

The L(NIL and IN(L operating syste"s also pro$ide a "ethod o sharing resources with Microso t networks using a $ersion o SM4 called SAM4A# The Apple Macintosh operating syste"s also support resource sharing using the SM4 protocol#

The application layer is responsible or directly accessing the underlying processes that "anage and deli$er co""unication through the network# This layer ser$es as the source and destination o co""unications across data networks' regardless o the type o data network being used# (n act' ad$ances in how we network are ha$ing a direct e ect on the type o applications that are being de$eloped#

Trends like bring your own de$ice 04>&D2' access anywhere' $irtuali!ation' and "achine1to1"achine 0"H"2 connections ha$e "ade way to a new breed o applications# (t is esti"ated that appro)i"ately DM billion de$ices will be connected by HMHM# (n HM=M alone' "ore than *DM'MMM applications were de$eloped with "ore than three "illion downloads# All o this leads to a world o intuiti$e connections between people' processes' data and things on the network# Ising s"art1tagging and ad$anced connecti$ity to digiti!e unintelligent products 1 ro" bikes and bottles' to re rigerators and cars 1 and connect the" to the (nternet' will allow people and co"panies to interact in new and al"ost uni"aginable ways# &bJects will be able to collect' recei$e and send in or"ation to users and other connected obJects# As shown in the igure' this new wa$e in (nternet de$elop"ent is known as the (nternet o ThingsP &$er =MM "illion $ending "achines' $ehicles' s"oke alar"s' and other de$ices are already sharing in or"ation auto"atically today' a igure which "arket analysts at 4erg (nsight e)pect to rise to *EM "illion by HM=E# Today' photocopiers with an MHM "odule can order resh toner and paper auto"atically' or alert technicians to a ault 1 e$en telling the" which parts to bring# The "assi$e e)plosion o applications is due in large part to the genius o the layered approach or processing data through a network# Speci ically' keeping the unctionality o the application layer separate ro" the unctionality o transporting the data' allows the application layer protocols to be changed and new applications to be de$eloped' without the de$eloper ha$ing to worry about the "echanics o getting the data across the network# That is the unctionality o other layers and there ore' other de$elopers# As shown in the igure' when an application sends a re3uest to a ser$er application' the "essage is built by the application layer' but is then passed down through all the $arious layer unctionalities on the client or deli$ery# As it "o$es through the stack each lower layer encapsulates the data with a header that contains the protocols o co""unication or that layer# These protocols' which are i"ple"ented on both the sending and recei$ing hosts' interact to pro$ide end1to1end deli$ery o applications o$er the network# Protocols like HTTP' or e)a"ple' support the deli$ery o web pages to end de$ices# Now that we ha$e learned all the $arious layers and their unctionalities' we can ollow a client re3uest o a web page ro" the web ser$er to see how each o these independent unctionalities work ully' together# Ising the TCPB(P "odel' a co"plete co""unication process includes si) stepsC Creation of the 0ata The irst step is the creation o data at the application layer o the originating source end de$ice# (n this case' a ter building the web client?s re3uest' known as an HTTP G-T' that data will then be encoded' co"pressed' and encrypted i necessary# This is the Job o the

application layer protocol within the TCPB(P "odel Q but this includes the unctionality described by the application' presentation' and session layers o the &S( "odel# The application layer sends this data as a strea" to the transport layer# e2mentation an" !nitial Encaps,lation The ne)t step is seg"entation and encapsulation o the data as it passes down the protocol stack# At the transport layer' the HTTP G-T "essage will be broken down into s"aller "ore "anageable pieces and each part o the "essage will ha$e a transport layer header added to it# (nside the transport layer header are indicators on how to rebuild the "essage# Also included is an identi ier' port nu"ber /M# This is used to tell the destination ser$er that the "essage is destined or its web ser$er application# A rando"ly generated source port is added as well' to ensure that the client can track return co""unication and orward it up to the correct client application# A""ressin2 Ne)t' address identi iers are added to the seg"ents' as shown in the igure# Aust as there are "ultiple layers o protocols that prepare the data or trans"ission to its destination' there are "ultiple layers o addressing to ensure its deli$ery# The role o the network layer is to add addressing that allows trans er o the data ro" the host that originates the data' to the host that uses it# The network layer acco"plishes this by encapsulating each seg"ent within an (P packet header# The (P packet header contains the (P addresses o the source and destination de$ices# 0The (P address o the destination de$ice is usually deter"ined through an earlier application process known as do"ain na"e ser$ice#2 The co"bination o the source and destination (P address' with the source and destination port nu"ber' is known as a socket# The socket is used to identi y the ser$er and ser$ice being re3uested by the client#

&reparin2 for %ransportation A ter (P addressing is added' the packet is passed to the network access layer or generation o the data onto the "edia' as shown in the igure# (n order or this to occur' the network access layer "ust irst prepare the packet or trans"ission by placing it into a ra"e with a header and trailer# This ra"e includes the host physical address o the source' as well as the physical address o the ne)t hop on the path to the inal destination# This is e3ui$alent to the Layer H' or data link layer' unctionality o the &S( "odel# Layer H is concerned with the deli$ery o "essages on a single local network# The Layer H address is uni3ue on the local network and represents the address o the end de$ice on the physical "edia# (n a LAN using -thernet' this address is called the Media Access Control 0MAC2 address# &nce the network access layer has prepared the ra"e with source and destination addresses' it then encodes the ra"e into bits' and then into electrical pulses or lashes o light that are sent across the network "edia# %ransportin2 the 0ata The data is transported through the internetwork' which consists o "edia and any inter"ediate de$ices# As the encapsulated "essage is trans"itted across the network it "ay tra$el across se$eral di erent "edia and network types# The network access layer speci ies the techni3ues or getting the ra"e on and o each "ediu"' otherwise known as the "edia access control "ethod# ( the destination host is in the sa"e network as the source host' the packet is deli$ered between the two hosts on the local "edia without the need or a router# Howe$er' i the destination host and source host are not in the sa"e network' the packet "ay be carried across "any networks' on "any di erent "edia types' and through "any routers# As it passes along the network' the in or"ation contained within the ra"e is not altered# At the boundary o each local network' an inter"ediate network de$ice' usually a router' de1encapsulate the ra"e to read the destination host address contained in the header o the packet# Routers use the network identi ier portion o this address to deter"ine which path to use to reach the destination host# &nce the path is deter"ined' the router encapsulates the packet in a new ra"e and sends it to the ne)t hop on its way toward the destination end de$ice

0eliverin2 the 0ata to the Correct 0estination Application ,inally' at the destination end de$ice' the ra"e is recei$ed# De1encapsulate and reasse"bly o the data occurs' as the data is passed up the stack in the destination de$ice# The data is continually passed up the layers' ro" the network access layer to the network layer' to the transport layer' until it inally reaches the application layer and can then be processed# 4ut how can the de$ice be sure the correct application process is identi ied5 As shown in the igure' recall that at the transport layer' in or"ation contained in the PDI header identi ies the speci ic process or ser$ice running on the destination host de$ice that will act on the data# Hosts' whether they are clients or ser$ers on the (nternet' can run "ultiple network applications si"ultaneously# People using PCs o ten ha$e an e"ail client running at the sa"e ti"e as a web browser' an instant "essaging progra"' so"e strea"ing "edia' and perhaps e$en a ga"e# All these separately running progra"s are e)a"ples o indi$idual processes# Oiewing a web page in$okes at least one network process# Clicking a hyperlink causes a web browser to co""unicate with a web ser$er# At the sa"e ti"e' in the background' an e"ail client "ay be sending and recei$ing e"ail' and a colleague or riend "ay be sending an instant "essage# Think about a co"puter that has only one network inter ace on it# All the data strea"s created by the applications that are running on the PC enter and lea$e through that one inter ace' yet instant "essages do not suddenly appear in the "iddle o word processor docu"ents' nor do e"ails show up in the inter ace o a ga"e#

This is because the indi$idual processes running on the source and destination hosts co""unicate with each other# -ach application or ser$ice is represented at Layer . by a port nu"ber# A uni3ue dialogue between de$ices is identi ied with a pair o Layer . source and destination port nu"bers that are representati$e o the two co""unicating applications# %hen the data is recei$ed at the host' the port nu"ber is e)a"ined to deter"ine which application or process is the correct destination or the data#

An entertaining resource to help you $isuali!e networking concepts is the ani"ated "o$ie R%arriors o the NetR by TNG Media Lab# 4e ore $iewing the $ideo' there are a ew things to consider# ,irst' in ter"s o concepts you ha$e learned in this chapter' think about when in the $ideo you are on the LAN' on %AN' on intranet' on (nternetK and what are end de$ices $ersus inter"ediate de$icesK how the &S( and TCPB(P "odels applyK what protocols are in$ol$ed# Second' while port nu"bers H=' H*' HD' D*' and /M are re erred to e)plicitly in the $ideo' (P addresses are re erred to only i"plicitly 1 can you see where5 %here in the $ideo "ight MAC addresses ha$e been in$ol$ed5 ,inally' though all ani"ations o ten ha$e si"pli ications in the"' there is one outright error in the $ideo# About D "inutes in' the state"ent is "ade R%hat happens when Mr# (P doesnSt recei$e an acknowledge"ent' he si"ply sends a replace"ent packet#R This is not a unction o the Layer * (nternet Protocol' which is an RunreliableR' best e ort deli$ery protocol' but rather a unction o the transport layer TCP protocol# 6a#e it happenL Re er to the "odeling acti$ity ro" the beginning o this chapter as the basis or this acti$ity# >our (P telephones were installed in a hal day $s# the ull week originally anticipated# >our network has been restored to ull capacity and network applications are a$ailable or your use# >ou ha$e the sa"e e"ails to answer and 3uotes to write or your "anager?s appro$al# Ise the sa"e scenario you co"pleted in the introduction "odeling acti$ity to answer the ollowing 3uestionsC A. Emails

%hat "ethod0s2 can you use to send e"ail correspondence now that the network is working5 %hat or"at will your e"ails be sent o$er the network5 How can you now send the sa"e "essage to "ultiple recipients5

How can you send the large attach"ents to "ultiple recipients using network applications5 %ould using network applications pro$e to be a cost1e ecti$e co""unication "ethod or your corporation5

B. A,ote for 6ana2erJs Approval

4ecause you ha$e desktop application progra"s installed on your co"puter' will it be relati$ely easy to produce the 3uote your "anager needs or the new contract due by the end o the week5 -)plain your answer# %hen you inish writing the 3uote' how will you present it to your "anager or appro$al5 How will he or she send the 3uote to the client or their appro$al5 (s using network applications a cost1e ecti$e way to co"plete business transactions5 Austi y your answer#

Sa$e a hard copy or an electronic copy o your answers# 4e prepared to discuss your answers in class#