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Introduction Housekeeping

Cell Phones Who am I? Who are you? Service Provider Enterprise Studying for CCIE Advanced Class Assume BGP Operational Experience
Basic configuration Show commands

Understand BGP attributes

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Introduction Operating Systems


IOS vs. IOS-XR vs. NX-OS Troubleshooting concepts are the same Some variation in show command syntax and output Will use all three in this presentation

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Introduction Agenda
Generic Troubleshooting Advice Troubleshooting Peers Bestpath Algorithm Table Version Initial Convergence Periodic Convergence High Utilization Layer 3 VPNs Looking Glasses

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice

Generic Troubleshooting Advice


Narrow down the problem
Can you reproduce it? Which device(s) are the cause of the problem? Reduce your configs

Troubleshoot one thing at a time


100k routes flapping? Pick one route and focus on that one route

Have a co-worker take a look


Forces you to talk through the problem Different set of eyes may spot something

Sniffer capture, sniffer capture, sniffer capture

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Syslogs


Use NTP to sync timestamps on your routers
clock timezone EST -5 0 clock summer-time EDT recurring ntp server x.x.x.x

Use a syslog server


logging monitor informational logging host x.x.x.x service timestamps log datetime msec localtime

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Syslogs

Centralized/Timesynced syslogs are a great troubleshooting tool

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice log-neighbor-changes

bgp log-neighbor-changes
Generates a syslog message when a peer goes up or down Always configure this OSPF, ISIS, and EIGRP all have log-neighbor-changes too

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Define Normal


The CPU on this router is high
High compared to what? What is the CPU load normally at this time of day?

Things to keep track of


CPU load Free Memory Largest block of memory Input/Output load for interfaces Rate of BGP bestpath changes Etc, etc

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Define Normal


Cacti is a handy tool for polling and graphing data from various network devices
http://www.cacti.net/

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Sniffer Captures


Use SPAN to get traffic to your sniffer
monitor session 1 source interface Te2/4 rx monitor session 1 destination interface Te2/2

IOS-XR
Only supported on ASR-9000 Use ACLs to control what packets to SPAN

RSPAN
RSPAN has all the features of SPAN, plus support for source ports and destination ports that are distributed across multiple switches, allowing one to monitor any destination port located on the RSPAN VLAN. Hence, one can monitor the traffic on one switch using a device on another switch.

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Embedded Packet Capture


Ability to capture packets on the router Primarily for control-plane traffic
Difficult to capture transit traffic on distributed platforms Is supported on some platforms

Very handy if a dedicated sniffer is not available Available on IOS and NX-OS

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice IOS Embedded Packet Capture


Create a buffer
monitor capture buffer buf1 size 512 max-size 512 circular

Define which interface and direction to capture


monitor capture point ip cef dwalton-cap gig 0/0 in

Associate the buffer with the capture


monitor capture point associate dwalton-cap buf1

Start/Stop the capture


monitor capture point start dwalton-cap monitor capture point stop dwalton-cap

Export the capture to a .pcap file


monitor capture buffer buf1 export tftp://172.26.2.254/buf1.pcap

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Wireshark


You probably know this already but Wireshark is your best friend It is free You can get it here
http://www.wireshark.org/

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Wireshark

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Wireshark


Can do complex filters
ANDs, ORs, ()s, etc

If the filter is red, your syntax is busted If the filter is green, your syntax is correct

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Wireshark


Wireshark does a LOT Enough for someone to write an 800 page book on how to use it ISBN-13: 978-1893939998

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Debugs


Send output to the logging buffer, not the console
logging buffered <size> no logging console

Use milli-second timestamps Use ACLs to limit output


service timestamps debug datetime msec localtime service timestamps log datetime msec localtime brain1(config)#access-list 100 permit ip host 1.1.1.1 host 2.2.2.2 brain1#debug ip packet 100 IP packet debugging is on for access list 100 brain1#

If you need to enable a very chatty debug


reload in 10 Run your debug reload cancel

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Event Tracing


Collects event information for various protocols Runs in the background Events are stored in memory
Debug output is not generated Syslogs are not generated

Finite number of most recent events are stored Use show commands later to
Display an event in a debug like format Merge events from various protocols

Easier on the box than debugs

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Event Tracing


brain1(config)#monitor event-trace ? adjacency all-traces atom cef [snip] brain1(config)#monitor event-trace adjacency enable brain1(config)#end Adjacency Events Configure merged event traces AToM Event Trace CEF traces

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Event Tracing


brain1#show monitor event-trace adjacency all Feb 14 17:15:48.270: GLOBAL: adj mgr notified of fibidb state change int FastEthernet0/0 to down [OK] Feb 14 17:15:50.958: GLOBAL: adj mgr notified of fibidb state change int FastEthernet0/0 to up [OK] Feb 14 17:15:51.682: GLOBAL: adj ipv4 bundle changed to IPv4 no fixup adj oce [OK] Feb 14 17:15:51.682: ADJ: IP 172.26.38.1 FastEthernet0/0/0: update oce bundle, [OK] Feb 14 17:15:51.682: ADJ: IP 172.26.38.1 FastEthernet0/0/0: allocate [OK] Feb 14 17:15:51.686: ADJ: IP 172.26.38.1 FastEthernet0/0/0: request resolution [OK] Feb 14 17:15:51.734: ADJ: IP 172.26.38.1 FastEthernet0/0/0: request to add ARP [OK] Feb 14 17:15:51.734: ADJ: IP 172.26.38.1 FastEthernet0/0/0: allocate [Ignr] Feb 14 17:15:51.734: ADJ: IP 172.26.38.1 FastEthernet0/0/0: add source ARP [OK] Feb 14 17:15:51.734: ADJ: IP 172.26.38.1 FastEthernet0/0/0: request to update [OK] Feb 14 17:15:51.734: ADJ: IP 172.26.38.1 FastEthernet0/0/0: update oce bundle, Feb 14 17:15:51.734: ADJ: IP 172.26.38.1 FastEthernet0/0/0: update [OK] brain1# IPv4 no fixup adj oce [OK] IPv4 incomplete adj oce

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Generic Troubleshooting Advice Out Of Band Access


Dont be the person who has to drive 3 hours to console into a box If you dont have out of band access for every router and/or switch in your network.get it.please

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Troubleshooting Peers

Failed Peering Configurations


Check AS Numbers IP addresses for TCP eBGP Multihop?
interface Loop0 ip address 1.1.1.1/32 ! router bgp 100 neighbor 2.2.2.2 remote-as 100 neighbor 2.2.2.2 update-source Loop0

R1

R2

interface Loop0 ip address 2.2.2.2/32 ! router bgp 100 neighbor 1.1.1.1 remote-as 100 neighbor 1.1.1.1 update-source Loop0 (state) LISTEN

R1#sh tcp brief all TCB Local Address 64328548 *.179 R1#
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Failed Peering Connectivity


Check Extended ping between BGP peering addresses
interface Loop0 ip address 1.1.1.1/32 ! router bgp 100 neighbor 2.2.2.2 remote-as 100 neighbor 2.2.2.2 update-source Loop0

R1

R2

interface Loop0 ip address 2.2.2.2/32 ! router bgp 100 neighbor 1.1.1.1 remote-as 100 neighbor 1.1.1.1 update-source Loop0

R1#ping 2.2.2.2 source Loop0 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2.2.2.2 Packet sent with a source address of 1.1.1.1 ..... Success rate is 0 percent (0/5) R1#

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Failed Peering Connectivity


BGP runs on top of IP and can be affected by many things No connectivity?
IGP issues Access Lists TCP problems

Peers come up but flap, are slow, etc


MTU Issues extended ping and sweep address ranges, DF bit, etc Rate limiting Traffic shaping

Debugs may be needed

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Failed Peering Notifications


BGP NOTIFICATIONs consist of an error code, subcode and data
All Error Codes and Subcodes can be found here http://www.iana.org/assignments/bgp-parameters/bgp-parameters.xml http://tinyurl.com/bgp-notification-codes Data portion may contain what triggered the notification
Example: corrupt part of the UPDATE

Pay attention to who sent vs. received the NOTIFICATION


If Router X sent the NOTIFICATION, it means he noticed the issue Does not mean Router X is the cause of the issue

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Failed Peering Notifications


%BGP-3-NOTIFICATION: sent to neighbor 2.2.2.2 2/2 (peer in wrong AS) 2 bytes 00C8 FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF 002D 0104 00C8 00B4 0202 0202 1002 0601 0400 0100 0102 0280 0002 0202 00
Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name Message Header Error OPEN Message Error UPDATE Message Error Hold Timer Expired Finite State Machine Error Cease Reference RFC 4271 RFC 4271 RFC 4271 RFC 4271 RFC 4271 RFC 4271

The first 2 in 2/2 is the Error Code.so OPEN Message Error

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Failed Peering Notifications


Subcode # 1 2 3 4 6 7 Subcode Name Unsupported BGP version Bad Peer AS Bad BGP Identifier Unsupported Optional Parameter Unacceptable Hold Time Unsupported Capability Subcode Description The version of BGP the peer is running isnt compatible with the local version of BGP The AS this peer is locally configured for doesnt match the AS the peer is advertising The BGP router ID is the same as the local BGP router ID There is an option in the packet which the local BGP speaker doesnt recognize The remote BGP peer has requested a BGP hold time which is not allowed (too low) The peer has asked for support for a feature which the local router does not support

OPEN Message Subcodes shown above The second 2 in 2/2 is the Error Subcode.so Bad Peer AS

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Failed Peering Notifications


R2# show log | include NOTIFICATION %BGP-3-NOTIFICATION: sent to neighbor 10.1.2.1 2/2 (peer in wrong AS) 2 bytes 0064 FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF 002D 0104 R1 0064 00B4 0101 0101 1002 0601 0400 0100 0102 0280 0002 0202 00
10.1.2.1

x0064 = data of NOTIFICATION x0064 = decimal 100

R2

Sniff of BGP Notification Sent from R2 to R1


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10.1.2.2

Failed Peering Notifications


Question: What did R1 see?
R1#sh log | include NOTIFICATION %BGP-3-NOTIFICATION: received from neighbor 10.1.2.2 2/2 (peer in wrong AS) 2 bytes 0064 R1
10.1.2.1

router bgp 100 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes neighbor 10.1.2.2 remote-as 200 no auto-summary

10.1.2.2

R2

router bgp 200 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes neighbor 10.1.2.1 remote-as 10 no auto-summary

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Failed Peering Decoding Hex


What if a peer sends you a message that causes us to send a NOTIFICATION?
Corrupt UPDATE Bad OPEN message, etc

View the message that triggered the NOTIFICATION


show ip bgp neighbor 1.1.1.1 | begin Last reset
Last reset 5d12h, due to BGP Notification sent, invalid or corrupt AS path Message received that caused BGP to send a Notification: FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF 005C0200 00004140 01010040 0206065D 1CFC059F 400304D5 8C20F480 04040000 05054005 04000000 55C0081C 329C4844 329C6E28 329C6E29 58F50082 58F5EACE 58F5FA02 58F5FA6E 18D14E70

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Failed Peering Decoding Hex


You dont like reading hex? Nice write-up here on converting hex output to wireshark .pcap file
http://ccie-in-3-months.blogspot.com/2010/08/decoding-ripe-experiment.html http://tinyurl.com/bgp-hex-decode

In a nutshell, put the hex dump in this format

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Failed Peering Decoding Hex


Now use Wiresharks text2pcap.exe to add the needed headers

Open bgp_message.pcap with Wireshark

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Troubleshooting Peers eBGP TTL


BGP uses a TTL of 1 for eBGP peers
Also verifies if NEXTHOP is directly connected
R2 AS65001 Default TTL

For eBGP peers that are more than 1 hop away a larger TTL must be used
No longer verifies if NEXTHOP is directly connected

neighbor x.x.x.x ebgp-multihop [2-255]


R1

Configured TTL

AS65000

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Troubleshooting Peers eBGP TTL


Loopback peering to directly connected eBGP peer
Typically used to load-balance over multiple links Two options for configuring this

Option #1 The old way


Use ebgp-multihop Change the TTL to 2 Disables the is the NEXTHOP on a connected subnet check
R1# router bgp 100 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes neighbor 2.2.2.2 remote-as 200 neighbor 2.2.2.2 ebgp-multihop 2 neighbor 2.2.2.2 update-source Loopback0 no auto-summary

R1

Multihop eBGP session between loopbacks

R2

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Troubleshooting Peers eBGP TTL


Option #2 The new way
Use disable-connected-check Still uses a TTL of 1 Disables the is the NEXTHOP on a connected subnet check
R1# router bgp 100 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes neighbor 2.2.2.2 remote-as 200 neighbor 2.2.2.2 disable-connected-check neighbor 2.2.2.2 update-source Loopback0 no auto-summary R1

Multihop eBGP session between loopbacks

R2

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Failed Peering Notifications Hold Time Expired


Assume R1 sends hold time expired NOTIFICATION to R2
R1 did not receive a KA from R2 for holdtime seconds

One of two issues

R2 is not generating keepalives R2 is generating keepalives but R1 is not receiving them Is R2 out of memory or CPU? Output drops on the outbound interface towards R1? When did R2 last build a keepalive? R2#show ip bgp neighbors 1.1.1.1 Last read 00:00:15, last write 00:00:44, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds

First figure out if R2 is building keepalives

Is the TCP window open?

show ip bgp summary Watch R2s MsgSent counter for R1.does it increment?

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Failed Peering Notifications Hold Time Expired


Assuming R2 is sending keepalives, why isnt R1 receiving them?
Input drops on R1 Lost in transit?

Do R1 and R2 still have IP connectivity? MSS Max Segment Size

Ping using peering addresses (loopback to loopback) Ping with mss (max-segment-size) with df-bit set 536 bytes by default Path MTU Discovery finds smallest MTU between R1 and R2 Subtract 40 bytes for TCP/IP overhead R1#sh ip bgp neighbors BGP neighbor is 2.2.2.2, remote AS 2, external link Datagrams (max data segment is 1460 bytes): R1# ping 2.2.2.2 source loop0 size 1500 df-bit

Note the MSS and ping accordingly

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Failed Peering Notifications Hold Time Expired


show ip bgp summary
Watch R1s MsgRcvd counter for R2it should be incrementing

When did R1 last receive keepalive?


R1#show ip bgp neighbors 2.2.2.2 Last read 00:00:95, last write 00:00:44, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds

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Speaker Flap Case Study


R1 R2

NOTIFICATION
%BGP-5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 1.1.1.1 Down BGP Notification sent %BGP-3-NOTIFICATION: sent to neighbor 1.1.1.1 4/0 (hold time expired) R2#show ip bgp neighbor 1.1.1.1 | include last reset Last reset 00:01:02, due to BGP Notification sent, hold time expired

There are lots of possibilities here


Is R1 having a problem sending keepalives?
CPU at 100%? Out of memory?

Are the keepalives being lost in the cloud? Is R2 having a problem receiving the keepalive?

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Speaker Flap Case Study


Did R1 build and transmit a keepalive for R2?
debug ip bgp keepalive show ip bgp neighbor

When did we last send or receive data with the peer?


R2#show ip bgp neighbors 1.1.1.1 BGP neighbor is 1.1.1.1, remote AS 100, external link BGP version 4, remote router ID 1.1.1.1 BGP state = Established, up for 00:12:49 Last read 00:01:15, last write 00:00:44, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds

R2 hasnt received a Keepalive in more than keepalive interval seconds Time to check R1
How is R1 on memory? What is the R1s CPU load? Is R2s TCP window open?

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Speaker Flap Case Study


R1#show ip bgp sum | begin Neighbor Neighbor MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer 2.2.2.2 53 284 10167 InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd 0 97 00:01:20 0

The number of packets transmitted is not increasing

The number of packets generated is increasing

At least one BGP keepalive interval apart

R1#show ip bgp sum | begin Neighbor Neighbor MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer 2.2.2.2 53 284 10167

InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd 0 98 00:02:24 0

OutQ is incrementing due to Keepalives MsgSent is not incrementing Something is stuck in the OutQ The keepalives arent leaving R1!
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Speaker Flap Case Study


This is a layer 2 or 3 transport issue, etc.
BGP OPENs and Keepalives are small UPDATEs can be much larger So maybe small packets work but larger packets do not?
R1#ping 2.2.2.2 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2.2.2.2, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 16/21/24 ms R1#ping 2.2.2.2 size 1500 df-bit Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 1500-byte ICMP Echos to 2.2.2.2, timeout is 2 seconds: Packet sent with the DF bit set . . . . . Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms
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Bestpath Algorithm

Best Path Algorithm


Quick bestpath review Remember BGP only advertises one path per prefixthe bestpath Cannot advertise path from one iBGP peer to another Bestpath selection process is a little lengthy First eliminate paths that are ineligible for bestpath
1 2 3 Not synchronized Inaccessible NEXTHOP Received-only paths Only happens if sync is configured AND the route isnt in your IGP IGP does not have a route to the BGP NEXTHOP Happens if soft-reconfig inbound is applied. A path will be received-only if it was denied/modified by inbound policy.

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Best Path Algorithm


1 2 3 4 Weight LOCAL_PREFERENCE Locally Originated AS_PATH Shortest wins Highest wins Highest wins Scope is router only Scope is AS only Redistribution or network statement favored over aggregateaddress Skipped if bgp bestpath as-path ignore configured AS_SET counts as 1 CONFED parts do not count IGP < EGP < Incomplete MEDs are compared only if the first AS in the AS_SEQUENCE is the same IGP cost to the BGP NEXTHOP Flag path as multipath is max-paths is configured Unless BGP best path compare router-id configured Lowest Smallest Lowest Shorter CLUSTER_LIST wins Lowest neighbor address
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5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

ORIGIN MED eBGP over iBGP Metric to Next Hop Multiple Paths in RIB Oldest External Wins BGP Router ID CLUSTER_LIST Neighbor Address

Lowest wins Lowest wins

Lowest wins

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Best Path Algorithm


show ip bgp x.x.x.x bestpath
Will show you only the bestpath for x.x.x.x

Handy if you have lots of paths for a prefix


R2#sh ip bgp 7.4.4.0/24 bestpath BGP routing table entry for 7.4.4.0/24, version 2 Paths: (20 available, best #13, table Default-IP-Routing-Table) Flag: 0x820 Not advertised to any peer 100 192.150.6.11 from 192.150.6.11 (192.150.6.11) Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, external, best R2#

show ip bgp x.x.x.x multipath

Same concept but will show you all of the multipaths for x.x.x.x

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Best Path Algorithm


IOS-XR has
sh ip bgp x.x.x.x bestpath-compare

Explains why the bestpath is the best

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BGP Table Version

BGP Table Version


Lots of things must happen when bestpaths change
RIB must be notified Peers must be informed Must have a way to track who has been informed of which bestpath changes

Prefix Table Version


Each prefix has a 32 bit number that is its table version A prefixs table version is bumped for every bestpath change Bumped means the table version changes from the current version to the next available version #. Assume 10.0.0.0/8 has a table version of #27 and the highest table version used by any prefix is #30. If 10.0.0.0/8 has a bestpath change his table version will be bumped to #31.

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BGP Table Version


show ip bgp x.x.x.x will show you a prefixs table version
R1#sh ip bgp 10.0.0.0 BGP routing table entry for 10.0.0.0/8, version 31 Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table) Flag: 0x820 Not advertised to any peer 200 2.2.2.2 from 2.2.2.2 (2.2.2.2) Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, external, best R1#

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BGP Table Version


RIB & Peer Table Versions
We have a table version for the RIB Also have a table version for each peer Used to keep track of which bestpath changes have been propagated to whom

If peer 1.1.1.1 has a table version of #60 this tells us we have informed 1.1.1.1 of all bestpath changes for prefixes with a table version of <= #60 If any prefix has a table version > #60 then we need to inform 1.1.1.1 of that prefixs bestpath Once 1.1.1.1 has been updated his table version will be updated accordingly Same concept for the RIB and its table version

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BGP Table Version


show ip bgp summary is best for viewing RIB and peer version #s
R2#show ip bgp summ BGP router identifier 2.2.2.2, local AS number 200 BGP table version is 13, main routing table version 13 3 network entries using 351 bytes of memory 3 path entries using 156 bytes of memory Neighbor 1.1.1.1 R2# V 4 AS MsgRcvd MsgSent 100 4386 4388 TblVer 13 InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd 0 0 01:20:24 1

Highest table version of any prefix = main routing table version RIB is converged 1.1.1.1 is converged

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BGP Table Version


Example Assume the highest table version of any prefix is #10 The RIB has a table version of #10
The RIB is up to date for all prefixes

All peers have a table version of #10


Our peers are currently converged

5 prefixes experience a bestpath change Highest table version is now #15 Inform the RIB of these 5 changes
Do RIB adds, deletes, and/or modifies When complete, set the RIB table version to #15

Inform our peers of these 5 changes


Build updates and/or withdraws for each peer When complete, set our peers table versions to #15

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BGP Table Version


Why am I babbling about this? Gives you a way to know who has been informed about what Provides a way to tell how many bestpath changes your network is experiencing
You have 150k routes and see the table version increase by 150k every minutesomething is wrong!! You have 150k routes and see the table version increase by 300 every minutesounds like normal network churn

You should monitor the table version in your network to determine what is normal for you If the table version is increasing rapidly then that could explain why BGP Router and BGP IO are busy

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Initial Convergence

BGP Convergence
HeyWho are you calling slow? Two general convergence situations
Initial startup Periodic route changes

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Convergence Initial Startup


Initial convergence happens when:
A router boots RP failover clear ip bgp *

How long initial convergence takes is a factor of the amount of work to be done and the router/networks ability to do this fast and efficiently

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Convergence Initial Startup


Initial convergence can be stressfulif you are approaching BGP scalability limits this is when you will see issues.

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Convergence Initial Startup


What work needs to be done? 1) Accept routes from all peers
Not too difficult This is easy Also fairly easy This can be difficult and may take several minutes depending on the following variables

2) Calculate bestpaths 3) Install bestpaths in the RIB 4) Advertise bestpaths to all peers

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Convergence Key Variables


BGP Variables
The number of routes The number of peers The number of update-groups The ability to advertise routes to each update-group efficiently

Router Variables
CPU horsepower Code version Outbound Interface Bandwidth

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Convergence UPDATE Packing


An UPDATE contains a set of Attributes and a list of prefixes (NLRI)
BGP starts an UPDATE by building an attribute set BGP then packs as many destinations (NLRIs) as it can into the UPDATE
NLRI = Network Layer Reachability Information Only NLRI with a matching attribute set can be placed in the UPDATE NLRI are added to the UPDATE until it is full (4096 bytes max)

UPDATE Packing refers to how efficiently an implementation packs NLRIs into UPDATEs
Least efficient: BGP only puts one NLRI per UPDATE Most efficient: BGP puts all NLRI with a certain Attribute set in one UPDATE Least Efficient
MED 50 Origin IGP MED 50 Origin IGP 10.1.1.0/24 10.1.2.0/24 MED 50 Origin IGP 10.1.3.0/24 MED 50 Origin IGP

Most Efficient

10.1.1.0/24 10.1.2.0/24 10.1.3.0/24

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Convergence UPDATE Packing


The fewer attribute sets you have the better
More NLRI will share an attribute set Fewer UPDATEs to converge

Things you can do to reduce attribute sets


next-hop-self for all iBGP sessions Dont accept/send communities you dont need Use cluster-id to put RRs in the same POP in a cluster

To see how many attribute sets you have


show ip bgp summary 190844 network entries using 21565372 bytes of memory 302705 path entries using 15740660 bytes of memory 57469/31045 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 6206652 bytes of memory

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Convergence TCP MSS Max Segment Size


TCP MSS (max segment size) is also a factor in convergence times. The larger the MSS the fewer TCP packets it takes to transport the BGP updates. Fewer packets means less overhead and faster convergence. BGP UPDATE Default MSS
BGP UDPATE is split into two TCP packets Attribute NLRI ..NLRIs.. NLRI ..NLRIs.. NLRI

IP Header IP Header

TCP Header TCP Header

Attribute NLRI

NLRI ..NLRIs..

..NLRIs.. NLRI

Increased MSS

IP Header

TCP Header

Attribute

NLRI

..NLRIs..

NLRI

..NLRIs..

NLRI

The entire BGP update can fit in one TCP packet

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Convergence TCP MSS Max Segment Size


MSS Max Segment Size
Limit on packet size for a TCP socket 536 bytes by default

Path MTU Discovery


Finds smallest MTU between R1 and R2 Subtract 40 bytes for TCP/IP overhead Enabled by default for BGP neighbor 2.2.2.2 transport path-mtu-discovery disable

To find the MSS


R1#sh ip bgp neighbors BGP neighbor is 2.2.2.2, remote AS 3, external link Datagrams (max data segment is 1460 bytes):

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Convergence Update Groups


BGP must create updates based on the policies towards each peer Peers with a common outbound policy are members of the same updategroup
iBGP vs. eBGP Outbound route-map, prefix-lists, etc
Less Efficient Two peers in different update-groups Attribute Attribute NLRI NLRI NLRI NLRI

UPDATEs are generated for one member of an update-group and then replicated to the other members

More Efficient Two peers in the same update-group Attribute NLRI NLRI

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Convergence Dropping TCP Acks


Primarily an issue on RRs (Route Reflectors) with
One or two interfaces connecting to the core Hundreds of RRCs (Route Reflector Clients)
RR BGP UPDATEs

RR sends out tons of UPDATES to RRCs RRCs send TCP ACKs RR core facing interface(s) receive huge wave of TCP ACKs

TCP ACKs

RRCs

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Convergence Dropping TCP Acks


Interface input queue fills upTCP ACKs are dropped
Each time a TCP packet is dropped, the session goes into slow start It takes a good deal of time for a TCP session to come out of slow start

Increase the input queue


hold-queue 1000 in

If you still see drops increase to 4096

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Convergence
How do you know if BGP has converged? Watch the global table version
Increases by 1 for every bestpath change In the lab: Table version stabilizes In the real world: Reaches your normal rate of change

Watch peer InQ and OutQs


Wait for all InQ and OutQs to be empty To list peers with non-empty queues show ip bgp summ | e 0 0

Watch peer table versions


show ip bgp summ If peer table version == global table version and InQ/OutQ empty, BGP has converged that peer
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Convergence Initial Convergence Summary


Initial convergence time is a factor of the amount of work that needs to be done and the router/networks ability to do this fast and efficiently Reduce the number of attributes sets in BGP
Use next-hop-self, dont send communities you dont need, etc.

Reduce the number of unique outbound policies towards all peers


Try to find a small set of common policies, rather than individualizing policies per peer The fewer update-groups the better

MSS/PMTU
Efficient packaging of BGP messages in TCP

Stop TCP ACK drops


Increase interface input queues on RRs

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Periodic Convergence

Convergence Route Changes


There are 2 elements to route change convergence for BGP Failure Detection
How long does it take to see the failure? (t0 to t1)

Convergence
How long does it take to process and propagate information about the failure? (t1 to t2)
t0 t1 t2

Failure

Process Propagate

Recovery

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Convergence Route Changes


Time to Detect Failure
Address Tracking Feature Nexthop Tracking Peer Down Detection

Time to Respond to Failure


MRAI Min Route Advertisement Interval Advertising the new information

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Convergence Address Tracking Filter


Quick ATF review
ATF = Address Tracking Filter

ATF is a middle man between the RIB and RIB clients


BGP, OSPF, EIGRP, etc are clients of the RIB

A client tells ATF what prefixes he is interested in ATF tracks each prefix
Notify the client when the route to a registered prefix changes Client is responsible for taking action based on ATF notification Provides a scalable event driven model for dealing with RIB changes

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Convergence Nexthop Tracking


BGP nexthop tracking
Relies on ATF Event driven convergence model

BGP

Register NEXTHOPs with ATF


10.1.1.3 10.1.1.5

BGP NEXTHOPs 10.1.1.3 10.1.1.5

ATF filters out changes for 10.1.1.1/32, 10.1.1.2/32, and 10.1.1.4/32


BGP has not registered for these

ATF

Changes to 10.1.1.3/32 and 10.1.1.5/32 are passed along to BGP


Recompute bestpath for prefixes that use these NEXTHOPs No need to wait for BGP Scanner

RIB 10.1.1.1/32 10.1.1.2/32 10.1.1.3/32 10.1.1.4/32 10.1.1.5/32


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Convergence Nexthop Tracking


Enabled by default
[no] bgp nexthop trigger enable

BGP registers all nexthops with ATF


show ip bgp attr next-hop ribfilter

Trigger delay is configurable


bgp nexthop trigger delay <0-100> 5 seconds by default

Debugs
debug ip bgp events nexthop debug ip bgp rib-filter

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Convergence Peer Down Detection


BGP must learn that the peer is down
Default keepalive/holdtime values are 60 seconds and 180 seconds My 2c.use 3 second KA with 9 second holdtime Tune your IGP to converge in under 9 seconds Use BFD (bidirectional forwarding detection) if you need to be more aggressive

eBGP directly connected


bgp fast-external-fallover If the interface goes down so does the eBGP peer Reduce carrier-delay settings 0 msec for down 100 msec for up

eBGP multihop
Relies on holdtime or BFD
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Convergence Peer Down Detection


iBGP peers
Relies on holdtime or BFD

BFD on iBGP peers


Know how fast your IGP converges! Your BFD dead timer must be greater than that amount

iBGP peer down detection isnt as critical as eBGP. Why?


IGP should be tuned to converge quickly Fast IGP + BGP Nexthop Tracking = BGP reacts quickly to nexthop changes BGP can route around a change in the core prior to bringing down iBGP peer(s)

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Convergence Fast Session Deactivation


Fast Session Deactivation
neighbor x.x.x.x fall-over Register peer's address with ATF ATF informs BGP of routing changes to the peer When we lose our route to the peer, bring the peer down. No need to wait for holdtime to expire

Primary use case is eBGP multihop

Multihop eBGP #1 Link 1 fails #2 Link 2 fails #3 FSD takes down peer

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Convergence Fast Session Deactivation


Very dangerous for iBGP peers
IGP may not have a route to a peer for a split second FSD would tear down the BGP session Imagine if you lose your IGP route to your RR (Route Reflector) for just 100ms Every RR to RRC session would flap

Off by default
neighbor x.x.x.x fall-over

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Convergence FSD vs. BFD


Why do we have both?
FSD was developed first BFD came later
Goal was fast BGP neighbor detection without expense of fast keepalives Goal was fast neighbor detection for multiple protocols Fast keepalives not as much of a concern BFD KAs are generated by linecards CPUs are also much faster today

FSD
Relies on control plane (absence of a route in the RIB) to tear down the peer We could have a route but not have connectivity

BFD
Relies on forwarding plane to detect down peer If we loose connectivity, the peer comes down
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Convergence MRAI (minimum route advertisement interval)


How is the timer enforced for peer X?
Timer starts when all routes have been advertised to X For the next MRAI (seconds) we will not propagate any bestpath changes to peer X Once Xs MRAI timer expires, send him updates and withdraws Restart the timer and the process repeats

User may see a wave of updates and withdraws to peer X every MRAI seconds User will NOT see a delay of MRAI between each individual update and/or withdraw
BGP would never converge if this were the case

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Convergence MRAI
MRAI timeline for BGP peer w/ MRAI of 5 seconds T0
The big bang
Bestpath Change #2 Bestpath Change #1

T7
Bestpath Change #1 UPDATE sent immediately MRAI timer starts, will expire at T12

T10
Bestpath Change #2 Must wait until T12 for MRAI to expire

t0

t5

t10

t15

t20

t2 5

T12
MRAI expires Bestpath Change #2 is Txed MRAI timer starts, will expire at T17

TX update #1 Start MRAI

MRAI Expires

MRAI Expires TX update #2 Start MRAI

T17
MRAI expires No pending UPDATEs
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Convergence MRAI
BGP is not a link state protocol, it is path vector May take several rounds/cycles of exchanging updates and withdraws for the network to converge MRAI must expire between each round! The more fully meshed the network and the more tiers of ASes, the more rounds required for convergence Think about
How many tiers of ASes there are in the Internet How meshy peering can be in the Internet

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Convergence MRAI
Internet churn means we are constantly setting and waiting on MRAI timers
One flapping prefix slows convergence for all prefixes Internet table sees roughly 6 bestpath changes per second

For iBGP and PE-CE eBGP peers


neighbor x.x.x.x advertisement-interval 0 Has been the default since 12.0(32)S

For regular eBGP peers


Lowering to 0 may get you dampened OK to lower for eBGP peers if they are not using dampening

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High CPU Utilization

High Utilization
Router#show process cpu CPU utilization for five seconds: 100%/0%; one minute: 99%; five minutes: 81% .... 139 6795740 1020252 6660 88.34% 91.63% 74.01% 0 BGP Router

Define High
Know what normal CPU utilization is for the router in question Is the CPU spiking due to BGP Scanner or is it constant?

Look at the scenario


Is BGP going through Initial Convergence?

If not then route churn is the usual culprit


Illegal recursive lookup or some other factor causes bestpath changes for the entire table

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High Utilization
How to identify route churn?
Do sh ip bgp summary, note the table version Wait 60 seconds Do sh ip bgp summary, compare the table version from 60 seconds ago

You have 150k routes and see the table version increase by 300
This is probably normal route churn Know how many bestpath changes you normally see per minute

You have 150k routes and see the table version increase by 150k
This is bad and is the cause of your high CPU

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High Utilization
What causes massive table version changes? Flapping peers
Hold-timer expiring? Corrupt UPDATE?

Route churn
Dont try to troubleshoot the entire BGP table at once Identify one prefix that is churning and troubleshoot that one prefix Will likely fix the problem with the rest of the BGP table churn

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High Utilization
Table Version Changing Rapidly: A Little Lab Fun
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:XR#sh route | include 00:00: Wed Apr 27 13:53:40.201 EDT O 1.0.0.0/30 [110/3] via 10.1.2.1, 00:00:00, GigabitEthernet0/0/0/1 O 1.0.0.4/30 [110/3] via 10.1.2.1, 00:00:00, GigabitEthernet0/0/0/1 O 1.0.0.8/30 [110/3] via 10.1.2.1, 00:00:00, GigabitEthernet0/0/0/1 O 1.0.0.12/30 [110/3] via 10.1.2.1, 00:00:00, GigabitEthernet0/0/0/1 ... RP/0/RP0/CPU0:XR#sh route | include 00:00: Wed Apr 27 13:53:44.162 EDT B 1.0.0.0/30 [20/2] via 1.1.1.1, 00:00:01 < 4 seconds later B 1.0.0.4/30 [20/2] via 1.1.1.1, 00:00:01 B 1.0.0.8/30 [20/2] via 1.1.1.1, 00:00:01 B 1.0.0.12/30 [20/2] via 1.1.1.1, 00:00:01 ...

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High Utilization
Table Version Changing Rapidly: A Little Lab Fun
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:aggies#sh ip bgp 1.0.0.4 Wed Apr 27 14:00:36.066 EDT ... Last Modified: Apr 27 14:00:35.387 for 00:00:00 Paths: (1 available, no best path) ... 100 1.1.1.1 (inaccessible) from 1.1.1.1 (1.1.1.1) ...

3 seconds later 1.1.1.1 (NH) flapping


RP/0/RP0/CPU0:aggies#sh ip bgp 1.0.0.4 Wed Apr 27 14:00:38.710 EDT ... Last Modified: Apr 27 14:00:38.387 for 00:00:00 Paths: (1 available, no best path) ... 1.1.1.1 (metric 2) from 1.1.1.1 (1.1.1.1) ...
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High Utilization
Something is wrong with NEXTHOP 1.1.1.1 Flip flops between inaccessible and accessible with an IGP cost of 2 Troubleshoot 1.1.1.1 and the churning will stop

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Layer 3 VPNs

Layer 3 VPNs
#1

Troubleshooting Checklist #1 PE1 PE2 core connectivity


Verify you can ping from loopback to loopback Verify you can mpls ping from loopback to loopback PE loopbacks must be /32 Check IGP Check LDP

PE1

PE2

#2

#2

CE1

CE2

#2 PE1 CE1 and PE2 CE2 connectivity


Can each PE ping their directly connected CE? Remember to do ping vrf FOO x.x.x.x

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Layer 3 VPNs
#3 PE PE vrf connectivity
Can PEs ping the vrf interface of the other PE? If not double check your import/export Route Targets
PE1

#3

PE2

#4 PE CE connectivity
Verify each PE can ping the CE connected to the other PE
#4 #5
CE1 CE2

#4

#5 CE CE connectivity
At this point you should be able to ping CE to CE

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Looking Glasses

The Internet BGP Looking Glasses


You are advertising your address space to your ISPs Q: How can you verify they are receiving it? Q: How can you verify the rest of the Internet is receiving it? A: BGP Looking Glasses

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BGP Looking Glass servers are computers on the Internet running one of a variety of publicly available Looking Glass software implementations. A Looking Glass server (or LG server) is accessed remotely for the purpose of viewing routing info. Essentially, the server acts as a limited, read-only portal to routers of whatever organization is running the Looking Glass server. Typically, publicly accessible looking glass servers are run by ISPs or NOCs. http://www.bgp4.as/looking-glasses

The Internet BGP Looking Glasses


https://www.sprint.net/lg/

Show bgp route 72.163.4.161 72.163.0.0/20

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The Internet BGP Looking Glasses

host$ nslookup www.cisco.com ... Address: 72.163.4.161 host$

http://whois.arin.net/ui
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The Internet BGP Looking Glasses


Huge list of looking glasses here
http://www.bgp4.as/looking-glasses

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The Internet BGP Looking Glasses


The Level3 looking glass will translate AS #s to company names
AS-PATH: 3549 6327 AS-PATH Translation: GBLX SHAWFIBER

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The Internet Whose AS is that anyway?


Long list here
http://bgp.potaroo.net/cidr/autnums.html

Or lookup a specific AS
http://whois.arin.net/rest/asn/AS1239/pft

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The University's Route Views project was originally conceived as a tool for Internet operators to obtain real-time information about the global routing system from the perspectives of several different backbones and locations around the Internet. Although other tools handle related tasks, such as the various Looking Glass Collections (see e.g. NANOG, or the DTI NSPIXP-2 Looking Glass), they typically either provide only a constrained view of the routing system (e.g., either a single provider, or the route server) or they do not provide real-time access to routing data. While the Route Views project was originally motivated by interest on the part of operators in determining how the global routing system viewed their prefixes and/or AS space, there have been many other interesting uses of this Route Views data. For example, NLANR has used Route Views data for AS path visualization (see also NLANR), and to study IPv4 address space utilization (archive). Others have used Route Views data to map IP addresses to origin AS for various topological studies. CAIDA has used it in conjunction with theNetGeo database in generating geographic locations for hosts, functionality that both CoralReef and the Skitter project support.

University of Oregon Route Views Project http://www.routeviews.org/

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