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Velocity of Sound in Various Media - RF Cafe


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Velocity of Sound in Various Media

The speed of sound in air is around 768 mi/hr (1,125 ft/sec, 343m/sec), or about 5 seconds per mile, or 3 seconds per kilometer. That is the reason for the rule of thumb where when you see a flash of lightning, count the number of seconds until you hear the thunder clap, then divide by five. That gives you the approximate distance (in miles) away of the lightning. Divide by three for kilometers. The speed of sound in any medium is dependent upon the coefficient of stiffness (modulus of bulk elasticity for gas mediums). Density and/or compressibility alone does not determine the speed of sound. Vl = Velocity of plane longitudinal wave in bulk material. Vs = Velocity of plane transverse (shear) wave. Ve x t = Velocity of longitudinal wave (extensional wave) in thin rods.
Solids Substance Density (g/cm 3) Vl (m /s) Vs (m /s) V ext (m /s)

Metals Aluminum, rolled Berylium Brass (70 Cu, 30 Zn) Copper, annealed Copper, rolled Gold, hard-drawn Iron, Armco Lead, annealed Lead, rolled Molybdenum Monel metal Nickel (unmagnetized) Nickel Platinum Silver Steel, mild Steel, 347 Stainless Tin, rolled Titaninum Tungsten, annealed Tungsten Carbide Zinc, rolled

2.7 1.87 8.6 8.93 8.93 19.7 7.85 11.4 11.4 10.1 8.90 8.85 8.9 21.4 10.4 7.85 7.9 7.3 4.5 19.3 13.8 7.1 2.2 2.32 3.88 1.18 1.11 0.90 1.06 1.07 0.95 1.33 1.8 2.2 0.25 2.6 0.9

6420 12890 4700 4760 5010 3240 5960 2160 1960 6250 5350 5480 6040 3260 3650 5960 5790 3320 6070 5220 6655 4210 5968 5640 3980 2680 2620 1950 2350 1830 1550 1600

3040 8880 2110 2325 2270 1200 3240 700 690 3350 2720 2990 3000 1730 1610 3235 3100 1670 3125 2890 3980 2440 3764 3280 2380 1100 1070 540 1120

5000 12870 3480 3810 3750 2030 5200 1190 1210 5400 4400 4800 4900 2800 2680 5200 5000 2730 5080 4620 6220 3850 5760 5170 3720 1840 1800 920 2240

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Various Fused silica Glass, pyrex Glass, heavy silicate flint Lucite Nylon 6-6 Polyethylene Polystyrene Rubber, butyl Rubber, gum Rubber neoprene Brick Clay rock Cork Marble Paraffin Tallow Woods Ash, along the fiber Beech, along the fiber Elm, along the fiber Maple, along the fiber Oak, along the fiber Human Body Tissues Soft Tissue

3650 3480 500 3810 1300 390 4670 3340 4120 4110 3850

Liquids

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Acetone

Substance

Form ula

Density (g/cm 3)

Velocity at 25C (m /s)

-v/t (m /sec C)

C 3 H6 0 C 6 H6 CCl4 C 11 H10 O 10 CHCl3

0.79 0.870 1.595 0.969 1.49

1174 1295 926 1477 987

4.5 4.65 2.7 3.6 3.4

Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Castor oil


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Chloroform

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Velocity of Sound in Various Media - RF Cafe


Chloroform Ethanol amide Ethyl ether Ethylene glycol Glycerol Kerosene Mercury Methanol Turpentine Water (distilled) H2 O CHCl3 C 2 H7 NO C 4 H10 O C 2 H6 O 2 C 3 H8 O 3 Hg CH4 O 1.49 1.018 0.713 1.113 1.26 0.81 13.5 0.791 0.88 0.998 987 1724 985 1658 1904 1324 1450 1103 1255 1496.7 -2.4 3.4 3.4 4.87 2.1 2.2 3.6 3.2

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Gases and Vapors Substance Form ula Density (g/l) Velocity (m /s) v/t (m /sec C)

Gases Air, dry Ammonia Argon Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Chlorine Deuterium Ethane (10C) Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Hydrogen chloride Methane Neon Nitric oxide (10C) Nitrogen Nitrous oxide Oxygen Sulfur dioxide Vapors Acetone Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Ethanol Ethyl ether Methanol Water vapor (134C) NH3 Ar CO CO 2 CL2 D2 C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 HCl CH4 Ne NO N2 N2 O O2 SO 2 C 3 H6 O C 6 H6 CCl4 CHCl3 C 2 H6 O C 4 H10 O CH4 O H2 O

1.293 0.771 1.783 1.25 1.977 3.214 1.356 1.260 0.178 0.0899 1.639 0.7168 0.900 1.34 1.251 1.977 1.429 2.927

331.45 415 319 (at 20C) 338 259 206 890 308 317 965 1284 296 430 435 324 334 263 316 213 239 202 145 171 269 206 335 494

0.59 0.56 0.6 0.4

1.6

0.8 2.2

0.8 0.6 0.5 0.56 0.47 0.32 0.3

0.24 0.4 0.3 0.46 0.46

Inf ormation f rom CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Phy sics, 7f irst Edition, 1990-1991, Dav id R. Lide

Hum an Body Tissues Substance Velocity at 25C (m /s)

Soft Tissues Brain Liver Kidney Blood Muscle Lens of Eye Skull Bone Water Source

1540 1541 1549 1561 1570 1585 1620 4080 1540

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