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Global Warming: Problem Identified and Need for

Solution
Anant S Chavan, Dilip K Mhaske
Government Engineering College,
Aurangabad.

Abstract dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons in the


atmosphere.
Heat-trapping pollution is collecting in the atmosphere like a
thickening blanket, trapping the sun’s heat and causing the planet In order to meet our daily energy requirements we burn a lot
to warm up. Burning gasoline, coal, and natural gas produces of fossil fuels like coal or petroleum, which cause a lot of
these heat-trapping greenhouse gases (GHGs), primarily carbon damage to our environment. We use coal to produce
dioxide (CO2). As the build-up of GHGs in the atmosphere electricity. We also use petrol or gasoline in our vehicles for
continues, global average temperatures continue to rise. The
travel. These uses release a lot of carbon dioxide and other
National Academies of Science in 11 countries, including the
United States, have concluded that “human activities are now harmful gases in our atmosphere. These activities have
causing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases…to rise reached such an extent that now it is influencing our climate.
well above pre-industrial levels. Carbon dioxide levels have
increased from 280 parts per million (ppm) in 1750 to over 375 Some of the examples of Global Warming round the globe
ppm today—higher than any previous levels that can be reliably include flooding and also shift in major climatic zones and
measured (i.e., in the last 420,000 years). Increasing greenhouse problems for agricultural productivity. Other examples would
gases are causing temperatures to rise; the Earth’s surface warmed
by approximately 0.6 centigrade degrees (approximately 1°F) over
be increased risk to human health, loss of mountain and
the twentieth century.” coastal-wetland habitats and the plants and animal that live
there, expansion of deserts, disruption of agriculture and
finally a rise in sea level of anywhere from 6 to 37.5 inches
above the current level.
Keywords— GHGs, global warming, environ-mental problems

INTRODUCTION I. PROBLEM

I. Global Warming is a very real phenomenon. Global warming can lead to increased flooding, sea level rise,
II. Global Warming is a very important topic as our actions more frequent and more serious storms, and dangerous heat
can have a serious impact on the future generations. What we waves, among other threats. Scientific studies have shown that
do today, can lead to a better or worse future for the coming even with aggressive measures to reduce greenhouse gases,
generations. the earth is committed to at least as much temperature change
III. Global Warming doesn’t necessarily mean that the world in the next 50 to 100 years.
gets warmer.
IV. Global Warming is something that is happening every day II. THEORETICAL DISCUSSION
and can have a huge impact on future generations and ours.
Global Warming is a big problem and if everyone takes in part
Global Warming is a major crisis that can have a major impact in it we can make a big difference. In fact, as individuals we
on our planet many years to come. Global Warming is a can cut back on our daily energy use and conserve energy by
problem that is going relatively unnoticed. The majority of our removing items that use unnecessary amounts of energy, buy
society regards it as merely an issue that has to be address, clean or hybrid vehicles that are environmentally friendly.
instead of attending to the situation as quickly as possible. Some other things that we can do together would be raise
This lack of concern among the general population regarding awareness of the need for action and working to create
their awareness about Global Warming can be blamed on both Congressional support for ratification of the Kyoto climate
media and politicians for not taking an active role in this treaty. We also can support stopping of clear-cutting of
problem. By definition, Global Warming is an increase in valuable forests and help new renewable energy technologies.
Earth's temperature due to an increased use of fossil fuels and
certain industrial wastes and agricultural process leading to a As the Earth continues to warm, there is a growing risk that
build-up of "green-house gases" mainly consisting of carbon the climate will change in ways that will seriously disrupt our
lives. If we do not change our lifestyles, we will
permanently alter Earth’s ecosystem. While on average The earth is about 60 degrees Fahrenheit (33 degrees Celsius)
the globe will get warmer and receive more precipitation, warmer than it would be if it did not have the atmospheric
individual regions will experience different climatic and blanket of greenhouse gases and clouds around it. Clouds and
environmental impacts. greenhouse gases keep the earth warm. Once warmed, their
molecules then radiate a portion of this heat energy back to
Because global warming will affect different regions in earth, creating more warming on the surface of our planet. It is
different ways, it is important for communities to develop this radiation which causes atmospheric gases to move back to
their own targeted climate adaptation plans. City, county, and earth that scientists call the "greenhouse effect".
state health departments, along with other local and federal
agencies.

III. GREEN HOUSE EFFECT

It is important to understand and discuss the significance of


global warming. Global warming is also known as the
"Greenhouse effect". The "Greenhouse Earth" is surrounded
by a shield of atmospheric gases, rather than a glass or a
plastic cover. The air that makes up our atmosphere consists
primarily of nitrogen and oxygen molecules (N2 at 78% and
O2 at 21%). A large number of "trace gases" make up the
remainder of air's composition. Many of these, including
carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the so called
"greenhouse" gases. If you have ever felt the piercing cold of
the clear winter night sky and wondered why you feel warmer
on a cloudy winter night, you have experienced the
atmospheric greenhouse effect firsthand. Physics tell us that
any object warmer than absolute zero will radiate energy.
Cooler objects emit longer waves (in the infrared region)
while hotter ones radiate shorter wavelengths. Our sun, Fig. GHG Emissions By Source in 2004
powered by its hot, nuclear fusion reaction, produces radiant
energy in the visible and ultraviolet regions with relatively Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas generated by man's burning of
short wavelengths. Of the sunlight that strikes the earth, about fossil fuels and the forests is responsible for about half the
70% is absorbed by the planet and its atmosphere, while the greenhouse gas warming. Other gases (CFCs, methane,
other 30% is immediately reflected. If the earth did not re- nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone) are responsible for the rest.
radiate most of this newly absorbed energy back into space the Increases in all these gases are due to mankind's explosive
world would continue to get warmer. Instead, an energy population growth over the last century, and increased
balance is maintained. industrial expansion. Approximately 80% of atmospheric CO2
increases are due to man's use of fossil fuels: oil, coal, and
gas. These petroleum-based energy sources first came into use
with the burning of coal during Since 1945 petroleum
consumption has increased dramatically, due in large part to
increased usage of automobiles worldwide, and the
substitution of mechanized farm machinery for animal power.
"Mankind is in the process of conducting a major,
unintentional experiment, that of feeding back into the
atmosphere in a short space of geological time the fossils fuels
that have slowly accumulated over the past 500 million
years."

IV. THE EARTH HEATING UP


Much debate in the last five years about the greenhouse
effect has cantered on interpreting temperature numbers
generated at weather stations all over the world. The data from
these thermometers are averaged and plotted in attempts to
Fig.Carbon Dioxide traps heat like Greenhouse determine just how fast the earth has heated up since the
measurements began. There is now no doubt the world is
getting warmer. The thermometers show that the world is VI. REAL CAUSES
warmer now than at any time since the measurements started.
The year 1990 was the hottest year in the last century. A. Forest destruction creates more heat:
Together with 1991, the years of 1983, 1987, 1988, and 1989, Trees are able to store a large amount of CO2 in their
have been measured to be the warmest 6 years in the last structures. An acre of forest will absorb about 10 times the
hundred years. 1991 was the second warmest year of the past CO2 amount absorbed by an acre of crop land or grassland.
century, perhaps due to the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo during One tree absorbs about 13 pounds of CO2 per year, and each
that year. The ash from the volcano in the upper atmosphere one acre of forest absorbs about 2.8 tons of CO2. However,
blocks some sunlight to earth, and is expected to generate a when trees are burned, the carbon locked in the structure is
temporary two or three year cooling effect. After that time, released into the air in the form of CO2. Today, the shrinking
most ash particles will have settled back to earth, and most world forests are not able to absorb all the CO2 created by
scientists expect to see the global warming trend continue. human beings while burning fossil fuels. Everyday over 5500
acres of rain forest are destroyed, and over 50 million acres
are destroyed every year. Global CO2 levels rise
approximately 0.4 percent each year, to levels not experienced
on this planet for millions of years. Planting more trees and
reducing timber cuts world-wide will help restore the
imbalance, and perhaps buy time as ways are found to reduce
world greenhouse gas emissions.

V. CURRENT EFFECTS
A. Global warming has great effect on crops and weather
conditions around the world. The northern hemisphere
contains more land area than the southern hemisphere, and
conversely, a lower percentage of the world's oceans. Since Fig. Causes of global warming
oceans absorb more heat than land areas, it is not surprising
that most climate models predict faster heating over the
northern hemisphere than the global average. In addition,
models predict faster temperature increases at higher latitudes.
If global warming trends continue, high temperatures
everywhere in the US may reduce US agricultural
productivity. Northern continental areas are projected to have
drier summer soils, due in part to earlier snow melts in the
spring, and hotter, more cloudless summers, causing extensive
evaporation of ground moisture.

B. Due to global warming concern is the possible rise of sea


levels. With a large number of the world's cities in coastal
areas, this is a significant problem. There are two major
causes of rising sea levels. First, extra water is produced when
ice melts. Secondly, the natural expansion of sea water as it B. Population growth contributes to global warming.
becomes warmer. The range of sea ice around both poles The intellectual powers that we enjoy has enabled us to make
continues to shrink, as it melts. Even with the level of effective use of technology and thereby changed the
greenhouse gases present today, the earth may warm enough environment. Technology is partly responsible for explosive
in the next 50 years or so to completely melt the sea ice population growth and responsible for the resulting damage to
located on the poles Earth's resources. The industrial revolution caused a rapid
increase in the Population growth, as oil and gas fuels were
exploited for our use. There is a clear link between the
problems of global warming and overpopulation, as increases
in CO2 levels follows growth in population. Presently, we
have too many people on Earth, who are using technologies B. What we can do to decrease global warming:
that are destructive for the Earth. We cannot continue to grow,
and make use of limited natural resources. There are several things which you can do directly after
reading this paper.

VII. SOLUTIONS 1. Replace a regular incandescent light bulb with a


compact fluorescent light bulb (cfl)
2. Clean or replace filters on your furnace and air
A. Technical Solutions conditioner
3. Choose energy efficient appliances when making
Renewable Energy new purchases
Renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar, offer 4. Defrost old fridges and freezers regularly
abundant opportunities to generate clean electricity. Currently, 5. Wrap your water heater in an insulation blanket
renewable energy supplies about 11% of the state’s electricity 6. Don't let heat escape from your house over a long
needs. Each year, renewable power reduces state-wide NOx period
emissions by almost 3,400 tons, avoiding emissions equal to 7. Recycle your organic waste and Be sure you’re
more than 350,000 cars. recycling at home
8. Switch to green power, Do not leave appliances on
Cleaner Cars standby
Cars and trucks are the largest source of global warming 9. Reduce the number of miles you drive by walking,
pollution in the world, and also offer the greatest opportunities biking, carpooling or taking mass transit wherever
to cut the world’s pollution. Passenger vehicles should be possible and Fly less
subject to tailpipe emission standards, which provide 10. Encourage your school or business to reduce
significant air pollution reductions. Even so, strategies to cut emissions, encourage the switch to renewable energy
global warming pollution from vehicles will further reduce air 11. Protect and conserve forest worldwide
pollution. 12. Make your city cool,
13. Try telecommuting from home
Alternative Fuels 14. Drive carefully and do not waste fuel, Check your
Alternative fuel vehicles can also provide reductions in air tires weekly to make sure they’re properly inflated,
pollution. In particular, electric and hydrogen powered When it is time for a new car, choose a more fuel
vehicles do not have any tailpipe emissions, and if their fuel is efficient vehicle.
produced from clean energy sources, then they can be 15. Reuse your shopping bag
powered without producing global warming pollution or air 16. “Plant a Tree”, and be sure it is growing properly.
pollution. Renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel can
also reduce global warming pollution. High blend ethanol (E-
85) can avoid the air quality problems associated with low
blends and maximize global warming pollution reductions. VIII. CONCLUSIONS

Diesel Emission Reduction Strategies A. Global Warming is real.


Reducing diesel emissions can provide multiple benefits –
reducing global warming pollution, air toxics, and smog- B. It is a serious problem that has to be addressed.
forming pollutants. In particular, reducing emissions of diesel
particulate matter (PM) can provide significant health C. Education of the mainstream society regarding the
benefits, because diesel PM is responsible for 70% of the consequences of global warming is the first step in curbing the
cancer risk associated with air toxics. problem
Transit systems reduce pollution while providing a convenient
alternative for commuters. Public transit generally requires D. There are solutions that can help reduce Global Warming,
only half the energy of cars and SUVs for every passenger and we can be a part of it.
mile travelled.