Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

Protozoan Taxonomy and Systematics

John O Corliss, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA

Taxonomy and systematics of major groups of the Protozoa, an assemblage of so-called lower eukaryotes, refer basically to the classification of such groups, that is, their arrangement into a hierarchy of evolutionary interrelated groups (taxa) of scientifically named phyla, classes, orders, etc.

Secondary article
Article Contents
. Introduction . Historical Considerations . Major Groups of Protozoa . The Old Phylum Protozoa . Modern Options Concerning the Place of Protozoa in the Biotic World . The New Kingdom Protozoa

The classication of protozoa and other microorganisms above the organizational level of the bacteria has always been dependent on microscopy because the body sizes involved generally range from only one micrometre to one or two millimetres in length. Any structures these species possess, useful in comparative studies of their morphology and thus their taxonomy and systematics, are at the cellular and subcellular levels, and invisible to the naked eye. The physiological properties of protozoa (and the neighbouring algae) have also played a role in the classication of these ubiquitous eukaryotic microorganisms; and of growing signicance are the ndings made possible by research using molecular biological approaches. Because we are continuing to learn more and more about such minute organisms, protozoan systematics that is, the taxonomy (classication) and the evolutionary interrelationships of major groups of protozoa remains a topic of debate and change, still today. Some of the rather large and unwieldy taxonomic groupings of past years are particularly subject to revision with expansion of and renement in our knowledge about the members of those and related assemblages. Paradoxically, the protozoa themselves are becoming more dicult to dene with precision as our information about them and other microbial assemblages increases. Thus, presenting a single satisfactory circumscribed denition for them is not an easy task. It is attempted towards the end of this article; but, for sake of clarity, further background information is rst supplied.

Historical Considerations
Until well beyond the middle of the twentieth century, protozoa were widely treated taxonomically as a (mere) subset of the kingdom Animalia, retaining their rstanimal denition dating from 150 years earlier. As a phylum of unicellular animals, they were thought to exhibit major characteristics typical of that kingdom: colourless (i.e. no photosynthetic pigments present; yet, incongru-

ently, a goodly number of chlorophyll-possessing algal groups were included in the phylum), phagotrophic, and capable of independent locomotion. It is now abundantly clear that this classical denition of protozoa is at best misleading and incomplete, and that it requires considerable renement. In former times, zoologists were the principal investigators and namers and claimers of such microorganisms; and they often worked with taxonomic disregard for studies of what might actually be the same group, sometimes even the same species, by the botanists (phycologists and mycologists). Thus, unfortunately, territoriality and authoritarianism also played major roles in determining the early systematic status of the protozoa, algae and lower fungi (Corliss, 1986). Advances in our knowledge of the protozoa in general have followed progress in microscopy, as mentioned above. As early as a century ago, novel improvements in methods of light microscopy and related techniques of xing and staining were already beginning to make possible the revelation of morphological cellular characteristics that would have remained totally unrecognized before the appearance of such technological advances. Then, at mid-twentieth century, the use of electron microscopical approaches in cell biology opened up a whole new epoch of exploration in protozoology and related elds. During the Age of Ultrastructure (as it has been called), a myriad of previously unknown subcellular structures were revealed that became of immense value in the comparative taxonomy of the lower eukaryotes (especially protozoa and algae). Even more recently, the exciting development of molecular biological approaches, particularly in study of genealogical and phylogenetic relationships within all groups of organisms, large and small, plant or animal, has oered a renement in taxonomic investigations that is without parallel in past decades. Here an attempt is made to review and understand the systematics of protozoa both from the more traditional point of view, keeping in mind that many biologists are still familiar mostly with older, conventional classications of these minute organisms, and from more modern ap1

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES / & 2001 Nature Publishing Group / www.els.net

Protozoan Taxonomy and Systematics

proaches. The latter are complicated by the relatively recent advent of the protistological perspective lumping protozoa, algae and some other eukaryotic microorganisms together as Protista and by their usage of more sophisticated data. For more detailed information concerning protozoanprotistan overlapping relationships, the reader is referred particularly to comprehensive papers by Cavalier-Smith (1993, 1998) and Corliss (1994, 1998) and to the insightful textbooks by Sleigh (1989) and Hausmann and Hu lsmann (1996).

Major Groups of Protozoa

For many decades (commencing with the perceptive schemes of Otto Bu tschli, published in the 1880s), it has been convenient to assign species known as protozoa to just four major categories or assemblages, as has been done in numerous textbooks of biology and zoology as well as protozoology. Despite advances and improvements in our knowledge of eukaryotic microorganisms in general, it is still often rather helpful, for sake of discussion under diverse circumstances, to arrange protozoa taxonomically in such a way. The categories generally recognized are: (1) the amoeboid forms (the Sarcodina, in a broad sense); (2) the agellated forms (the Mastigophora, including groups of autotrophic or photosynthetic as well as heterotrophic species); (3) the ciliated forms (the Ciliophora, the most stable and perhaps most circumscribed of all protozoan assemblages); and (4) the various totally symbiotic or parasitic forms (primarily spore-forming species that are typically endoparasites, some highly pathogenic to their hosts, once assigned to a very broad group called the Sporozoa, a high-level taxon that subsequently became divided into the Sporozoa and the Cnidosporidia). One of the pedagogically oft-regretted but inevitable changes, especially during the busy second half of the twentieth century (even before the protist revolution: see Corliss, 1986), was the tremendous expansion in the total numbers of high-level taxonomic groups (subphyla, classes, orders) of protozoa, while generally still recognizing the four major top divisions mentioned above. The discovery of new and unique dierentiating characteristics useful in classication and in evolutionary and phylogenetic studies as well required such a multiplication and fragmentation of taxa even though it placed/places greater demands on (the memories of) teachers, students and researchers alike.

protozoa (Table 1). Although this popular arrangement in comparison with the long-followed classical one of Bu tschli of 80 years earlier contained nearly four times the number of taxonomic units above the level of family, it showed few novelties of great signicance. For an outstanding example of its conservatism, the classication still retained several major groups of algae, all treated as comprising a single class, the Phytomastigophorea, of agellated protozoa (the Mastigophora). A subsequent revision supported by the international Society of Protozoologists, the Levine Report of 1980, recognized seven separate phyla (in a subkingdom Protozoa) and increased the number of taxa above the familial level to 229 (Table 2). But, fundamentally, it followed the arrangement of its predecessor (Table 1). Five years later, the well-known and widely used Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa (Lee et al., 1985) appeared, with its classication scheme mainly that of the Levine Report. By then, the protist revolution had already been going strong for a full decade (see accounts in Corliss, 1986, 1998) and many ndings were indicating the pressing need for a fresh look at the old persisting problems of how to treat the systematics of the conventional/ traditional protozoan, algal and fungal assemblages of microorganisms. One reason for including the above discussion here, besides the fact that those classications of 2040 years ago are still accepted by many biologists, is to help bridge the gap between such neoclassical systems and the suggested recent arrangements of the 1990s (see below). The organisms involved, and often their common group names as well, have not changed over the decades, but our ideas concerning their most likely interrelationships at the higher taxonomic levels have done so, primarily by fresh analyses of the continuing accumulation of data of high phylogenetic and evolutionary signicance from precise ultrastructural and molecular biological investigations (Coombs et al., 1998).

Modern Options Concerning the Place of Protozoa in the Biotic World

There are a number of ways in which modern biologists are viewing the overall placement of the protozoa with respect to other major groups of organisms. Several of these are not truly taxonomic in their approach: for example, arrangement of species of protozoa based solely on their nutritional preferences or requirements, or considering protozoan groups as representing simply an evolutionary grade or level of cellular organization between the anucleate prokaryotes (essentially the bacteria) and the well-known higher (nucleated) eukaryotic forms of life (particularly the multicellular and multitissued plants and animals). And popular today, especially among workers employing cladistic approaches in their investigation of

The Old Phylum Protozoa

Basically, the classication scheme of the widely accepted Honigberg Report of 1964 may be used to illustrate the conventional situation concerning the systematics of the

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES / & 2001 Nature Publishing Group / www.els.net

Protozoan Taxonomy and Systematics

Table 1 Taxonomic classification of the single phylum Protozoa according to the Report published by Honigberg et al. (1964), but omitting ordinal and subordinal names. The total number of suprafamilial categories reached 140, nearly four times the number in vogue among earlier protozoologists well into the twentieth century. (Modified and abbreviated from Corliss, 1998.) Subphylum I. Sarcomastigophora Superclass 1. Mastigophora Class 1. Phytomastigophorea Class 2. Zoomastigophorea Superclass 2. Opalinata Superclass 3. Sarcodina Class 1. Rhizopodea Subclass (1) Lobosia (2) Filosia (3) Granuloreticulosia (4) Mycetozoia (5) Labyrinthulia Class 2. Piroplasmea Class 3. Actinopodea Subclass (1) Radiolaria (2) Acantharia (3) Heliozoia (4) Proteomyxidia Subphylum II. Sporozoa Class 1. Teleosporea Subclass (1) Gregarinia (2) Coccidia Class 2. Toxoplasmea Class 3. Haplosporea Subphylum III. Cnidospora Class 1. Myxosporidea Class 2. Microsporidea Subphylum IV. Ciliophora Class 1. Ciliatea Subclass (1) Holotrichia (2) Peritrichia (3) Suctoria (4) Spirotrichia

phylogenetic interrelationships of life forms, is the idea of clades, distinct evolutionary lines or lineages but ones often with unknown or nonpostulated possible taxonomic relationships with other lines of organisms (microorganisms or macroorganisms) (see Patterson, 1999). The only true taxonomic options today are the inclusion of the protozoa with other eukaryotic microorganisms in a single kingdom called Protista or the recognition of a number of kingdoms (one called the Protozoa) within the overall assemblage of the Eukaryota. These two approaches require further discussion. Recognition of a single kingdom to contain all eukaryotic microorganisms (and some of their larger but yet basically unicellular or single-tissued relatives) is a choice, rst voiced more than 120 years ago by E. Haeckel and others, still popular today among a number of biologists. In this option, a neoHaeckelian kingdom Protista (or Protoctista) contains commingled phyla, divisions and classes of organisms formerly representing the protozoa, the algae and taxa of lower fungi. It is given equal standing with the neighbouring kingdoms of the prokaryotic Bacteria, on the one hand, and of the (other) eukaryotic moieties known as the Fungi, Plantae and Animalia, on the other hand (Margulis et al., 1990; Margulis and Schwartz, 1998).

This ve-kingdom arrangement represents a pragmatic one that is quite attractive pedagogically (easy to teach at all levels in the educational hierarchy) and is convenient for general nonspecialist usage and for information retrieval systems. But it is becoming evident that, as our store of relevant data continues to expand, the single kingdom Protista hypothesis lumps together lines of microscopic organisms that are proving to be not very closely related evolutionarily and includes still other lines that are being shown to have closer anities with forms assigned to one of the other three eukaryotic kingdoms. And the protozoa are not suciently given their own identity as an independent high-level taxonomic assemblage. The second major alternative available to us today is to consider the protists, overall, as best assignable to a number of separate kingdoms, one of which has now been labelled with the familiar name Protozoa (Cavalier-Smith, 1993; Corliss, 1994). The composition of this protozoan assemblage distinctly separated from the four other eukaryotic assemblages or kingdoms recognized, the Chromista (taxonomic home for most lines of algae), Plantae, Fungi and Animalia (see Cavalier-Smith, 1998; Corliss, 1998, 2000) is considered below in further detail. Two points need emphasis here. (1) A formal high-level taxonomic category called Protista is no longer needed or

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES / & 2001 Nature Publishing Group / www.els.net

Protozoan Taxonomy and Systematics

Table 2 Taxonomic classification of the animal subkingdom Protozoa according to the Report published by Levine et al. (1980), but here omitting all categories below the rank of class. The total number of suprafamilial categories reached 229, nearly double the number endorsed in the preceding Honigberg Report of 1964 (see Table 1). (Modified and abbreviated from Corliss, 1998.) Phylum I. Sarcomastigophora Subphylum 1. Mastigophora Class (1) Phytomastigophorea (2) Zoomastigophorea Subphylum 2. Opalinata Class (1) Opalinatea Subphylum 3. Sarcodina Superclass 1. Rhizopoda Class (1) Lobosea (2) Acarpomyxea (3) Acrasea (4) Eumycetozoea (5) Plasmodiophorea (6) Filosea (7) Granuloreticulosea (8) Xenophyophorea Superclass 2. Actinopoda Class (1) Acantharea (2) Polycystinea (3) Phaeodarea (4) Heliozoea Phylum II. Labyrinthomorpha Class (1) Labyrinthulea Phylum III. Apicomplexa Class (1) Perkinsea (2) Sporozoea Phylum IV. Microspora Class (1) Rudimicrosporea (2) Microsporea Phylum V. Ascetospora Class (1) Stellatosporea (2) Paramyxea Phylum VI. Myxozoa Class (1) Myxosporea (2) Actinosporea Phylum VII. Ciliophora Class (1) Kinetofragminophorea (2) Oligohymenophorea (3) Polyhymenophorea

recognized; all former protists (spelled with a lower case p) can be reassigned to various of the ve kingdoms mentioned immediately above. (2) The (new) kingdom Protozoa, while containing many conventional groups of protozoa, is purged of others and thus is not identical in overall taxonomic composition to the old phylum Protozoa embraced in very popular classications of both distant and more recent past years (for example, see preceding sections of this article; see also Honigberg et al., 1964, and Levine et al., 1980; and contrast the contents of Table 1 and Table 2 with that of Table 3).

The New Kingdom Protozoa

Of the two options briey described above, many biologists now favour the second one, the concept of dividing up major taxa of former protozoa (and of algae and lower fungi, too), with new assignments to several dierent kingdoms, one of which is identied as the kingdom

Protozoa. The rst person to do this systematically and in some detail was T. Cavalier-Smith, starting in the 1980s (see full discussions in Cavalier-Smith, 1993, 1998). The kingdom Protozoa may be briey described (after Corliss, 1994, 2000) as follows. The kingdom comprises predominantly unicellular, plasmodial or colonial protists (eukaryotic microorganisms) that are mostly phagotrophic or osmotrophic, colourless, lacking cellulosic cell walls, and microscopic in body size. Included species that are capable of photosynthesis (but some are nutritionally mixotrophic) typically possess unique cytosolic plastids with stacked thylakoids, no stored starch, and surrounded by three membranes. Nearly universally present are tubular mitochondrial cristae; when mitochondria are absent, they are typically replaced by hydrogenosomes. Golgi bodies and peroxisomes are widely present. Flagellar mastigonemes, if present, are never rigid or tubular. Free-living (typically independently motile via pseudopodia, agella, or cilia) and symbiotic species are numerous from a great variety of habitats. As one of the two (of ve) eukaryotic kingdoms

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES / & 2001 Nature Publishing Group / www.els.net

Protozoan Taxonomy and Systematics

Table 3 The 14 phyla, including authorships and dates of their names, comprising the kingdom Protozoa Goldfuss, 1818, with an indication of the kinds and numbers of protists included in each phyletic taxon (based on abbreviated characterization data from Corliss, 1994, 1998, 2000) Archamoebae Cavalier-Smith, 1983 Large, benthic, microaerobic amoebae, amitochondriate, allegedly primitive forms, with endosymbiotic bacteria; species few in number, all free-living in fresh water Often small, free-living, marine heterotrophic agellates and amoeboagellates; small group, still ill-dened Typically amoeboid, with diering kinds of pseudopodia, some agellated forms; naked or with tests or thecae; 4 5000 species found in soil, fresh- or saltwater habitats Plasmodial slime moulds (cellular and acellular), some very large; aerial (stalked) fruiting bodies produce spores; c. 850 species, mostly in decaying vegetation; a few symbiotic forms Amoeboid forms in tests (usually calcareous), with alternation of haploid sexual and diploid asexual generations; shells of extinct species reach 15 cm in diameter; reticulate pseudopodia for feeding and locomotion; mostly marine, with some 45 000 species (largest phylum in the kingdom) of which c. 90% are fossil forms Mostly freshwater group of the classical actinopod sarcodinids, with slender radiating axopodial type of pseudopodia used in food capture; c. 100 species, many stalked Marine, spherical forms, typically planktonic, often with elaborate symmetrical shell pierced by sti axopodia; three major subgroups, with total of nearly 12 000 species (c. 65% fossil forms), second largest phylum in the kingdom Small heterotrophic agellates or amoeboagellates, c. 100 species, some poorly known The old Euglenophyta, mainly free-living, freshwater phytoagellates, 4 1000 species, plus Kinetoplastidea (parasitic trypanosomes plus free-living bodonids), 4 600 species; commonly with discoidal mitochondrial cristae and a paraxial rod in their main agellum Dinoagellates, unique biagellated protists, mostly marine planktonic, one-half pigmented forms; some thecate; a few colonial; cortical alveoli; about half found as fossils; total species c. 4500, with some 100 described as parasites; many orders Biagellated to multiagellated forms, typically digestive tract parasites (insects to humans); c. 300 species; hydrogenosomes in place of mitochondria Parasitic multiagellated forms, amitochondriate and with prominent parabasal (Golgi) apparatus; 4 400 species, in intestines of woodroaches to humans Essentially the Sporozoa of old; unique complex of apical organelles; all symbiotic, with many minute species as harmful endoparasites (e.g. in birds, livestock, humans: outstandingly, malaria); cortical alveoli; 4 5000 species in three major classes All heterokaryotic (micro- and macronuclei); usually multiciliate, phagotrophic, relatively large protists found mostly free-living in diverse fresh-/saltwater/soil habitats; others symbiotic or epibiotic, mostly in or on invertebrate hosts; often complex oral ciliature; cortical alveoli; many exhibit sexual phenomenon of conjugation; asexual reproduction by transverse ssion; third largest protozoan phylum: c. 8000 species in 810 classes, many orders

Neomonada Cavalier-Smith, 1997 Rhizopoda von Siebold, 1845

Mycetozoa de Bary, 1859

Foraminifera dOrbigny, 1826

Heliozoa Haeckel, 1866

Radiozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1987

Percolozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1991 Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1981

Dinozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1981

, 1952 Metamonada Grasse Parabasala Honigberg, 1973 Apicomplexa Levine, 1970

Ciliophora Doein, 1901

composed purely of protistan forms, the Protozoa counting fossil as well as extant species embrace nearly 40% of all protists (numbering some 213 000 species) described to date.

As characterized above, the rened kingdom Protozoa, large though it is, is considerably more discriminating and more restricted in its boundaries than was the old phylum Protozoa. The latter, traditionally, contained a number of

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES / & 2001 Nature Publishing Group / www.els.net

Protozoan Taxonomy and Systematics

major taxa (e.g. at class and ordinal levels) that have now been eliminated. For example, purged from the new kingdom have been half a dozen algal groups, the curious labyrinthomorphids, the choanozoa, the opalinids, the myxozoa, and most recently, the microsporidia. All species of these taxa fail to possess major distinguishing features of the kingdom Protozoa listed above and/or have unique morphological, physiological or molecular characteristics of their own beyond discussion here. Supported by recent molecular (e.g. rRNA sequencing information) as well as morphological and biochemical ndings, these other protists have been placed in one or another of the neighbouring kingdoms Chromista, Fungi, Plantae or Animalia (Corliss, 1998, 2000). The 14 phyla (containing nearly 83 000 species, about 60% of which are fossil and 12% symbiotic forms) that then remain in the rened kingdom Protozoa are listed, with abbreviated descriptions, in Table 3. Representative genera are not mentioned, for sake of brevity within the table, but names of many such genera are included in the long papers by Cavalier-Smith (1993) and Corliss (1994). Several additional observations might be helpful concerning some of the major dierences between this new classication of the Protozoa and the older, more conventional ones discussed on preceding pages. Two distinctive eukaryotic algal lines the euglenids and the dinoagellates are retained as Protozoa, but they have strikingly dierent characteristics (including presence of three, not two, plastidic membranes and frequent exhibition of nonphotosynthetic modes of nutrition, among others) from other major assemblages of algae now appearing in the separate kingdoms Chromista (e.g. the chrysophytes, phaeophytes, haptomonads, cryptomonads and lesser heterokontic groups) and Plantae (e.g. the prasinophytes, chlorophytes (with such long-claimed protozoa genera as Volvox and Chlamydomonas), ulvophytes, charophytes, rhodophytes and glaucophytes). In fact, the euglenophytes of old are phylogenetically closely related to the colourless kinetoplastideans (bodonids and parasitic trypanosomatids), the combining single phyletic name now being the Euglenozoa. The dinoagellates (Dinozoa), furthermore, are linked with the ciliates (Ciliophora) and the sporozoa (Apicomplexa) in a supraphyletic assemblage often designated as the Alveolata because of their common possession of cortical alveoli in their pellicles, a character not particularly known in other phyla of protists. Mostly on the basis of very recent rRNA data, but also supported by other dierentiating characteristics, the longlinked protozoan-cnidosporidian groups, the enigmatic microsporidia and myxosporidia, turn out to be not only not closely related to each other but also not members of the kingdom Protozoa. The rst, the Microspora, along with chytrids (but not with oomycetes and hyphochytriomycetes, which are now in the Chromista), are probably primitive or degenerate protistan members of the kingdom

Fungi, while the complex Myxozoa are better classied in the Animalia (perhaps close to the cnidarians). Until rather recently, the Archamoebae (with genus Pelomyxa and possibly others such as the important parasite of humans, Entamoeba) were considered as very primitive protists in a kingdom of their own. Latest studies (see references in Cavalier-Smith, 1998; Corliss, 2000) suggest that, while probably composed of very ancient species (now without mitochondria or hydrogenosomes), the phylum belongs more appropriately in the revised kingdom Protozoa, as seen in Table 3. The unique Choanozoa, collar-celled, loricate, colourless agellates with attened mitochondrial cristae, presumably at the crossroads of origins of both kingdoms Animalia and Fungi, have been removed from the Protozoa and tentatively placed in the Animalia (Corliss, 2000), where another protistan group and former protozoan phylum, the Myxozoa, is also now located (see above).

Cavalier-Smith T (1993) Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla. Microbiological Reviews 57: 953994. Cavalier-Smith T (1998) A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203266. Coombs GH, Vickerman K, Sleigh MA and Warren A (eds) (1998) Evolutionary Relationships Among Protozoa. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Corliss JO (1986) Progress in protistology during the rst decade following reemergence of the eld as a respectable interdisciplinary area in modern biological research. Progress in Protistology 1: 1163. Corliss JO (1994) An interim utilitarian (user-friendly) hierarchical classication and characterization of the protists. Acta Protozoologica 33: 151. Corliss JO (1998) Classication of protozoa and protists: the current status. In: Coombs GH, Vickerman K, Sleigh MA and Warren A (eds) Evolutionary Relationships Among Protozoa, pp. 409447. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Corliss JO (2000) Biodiversity, classication, and numbers of species of protists. In: Raven P and Williams T (eds) Nature and Human Society: the Quest for a Sustainable World, pp. 130155. Washington DC: National Academy Press. Hausmann K and Hu lsmann N (1996) Protozoology, 2nd edn. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme. Honigberg BM, Balamuth W, Bovee EC et al. (1964) A revised classication of the phylum Protozoa. Journal of Protozoology 11: 720. Lee JJ, Hutner SH and Bovee EC (eds) (1985) An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Lawrence, KS: Society of Protozoologists. Levine ND, Corliss JO, Cox FEG et al. (1980) A newly revised classication of the Protozoa. Journal of Protozoology 27: 3758. Margulis L and Schwartz KV (1998) Five Kingdoms: an Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth, 3rd edn. New York: WH Freeman. Margulis L, Corliss JO, Melkonian M and Chapman DJ (eds) (1990) Handbook of Protoctista. Boston: Jones and Bartlett. Patterson DJ (1999) The diversity of eukaryotes. American Naturalist 154 (Supplement): 96124. Sleigh MA (1989) Protozoa and Other Protists, 2nd edn. London: Arnold.

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES / & 2001 Nature Publishing Group / www.els.net

Protozoan Taxonomy and Systematics

Further Reading
Andersen RA (1992) Diversity of eukaryotic algae. Biodiversity and Conservation 1: 267292. Cavalier-Smith T (1989) The kingdom Chromista. In: Green JC, Leadbeater BSC and Diver WL (eds) The Chromophyte Algae: Problems and Perspectives, pp. 381407. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Cavalier-Smith T (1995) Evolutionary protistology comes of age: biodiversity and molecular cell biology. Archiv fur Protistenkunde 145: 145154. Corliss JO (1998) Haeckels kingdom Protista and current concepts in systematic protistology. Stapa 56: 85104. Grell KG (1973) Protozoology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Kudo RR (1966) Protozoology, 5th edn. Springeld, IL: Charles C Thomas. Margulis L (1996) Archaealeubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classication of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 93: 10711076. Patterson DJ (1994) Protozoa: evolution and systematics. In: Hausmann K and Hu lsmann N (eds) Progress in Protistology (Proceedings of the IX International Congress of Protozoology, Berlin, July August 1993), pp. 114. Stuttgart: G Fischer. Vickerman K (1998) Revolution among the Protozoa. In: Coombs GH, Vickerman K, Sleigh MA and Warren A (eds) Evolutionary Relationships Among Protozoa, pp. 124. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES / & 2001 Nature Publishing Group / www.els.net