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Getting Started with Flipped Instruction at Your Institution

March 25th, 2014

Kelly Walsh, CIO The College of Westchester

Founder and Author of EmergingEdTech.com

David Gannon Associate Director, Academic Computing Bryant University



a form of blended learning which encompasses the use of technology to deliver learning content outside of the physical classroom, so a teacher can spend more time interacting with students in the classroom (in place of lecturing extensively). This is most commonly done using teacher-created videos that students view outside of class, but there are many other ways to provide digital learning content. It is also known as flipped teaching, flipped instruction, reverse instruction, and other terms.

Flip your classroom through reverse instruction by John Sowash

Have you ever experienced the unique and rare moment when, after doing something the same way for year and years, you have an epiphany and wonder, why am I doing it this way? Most of the time the answer is tradition, that's the way we've always done it. I stumbled across an interesting article and had a moment like I described above. High School chemistry teachers Aaron Sams and Jonathan Bergman were having trouble with their students leaving class early due to sports events. missing lectures and important information, were unable to complete the assigned homework later that evening.

Flip your classroom through reverse instruction by John Sowash

they began to record their lectures and post them on iTunes. The students downloaded them to their computers and mobile devices and watched them at home, at their convenience. When in the classroom Sams and Bergmann spent their time interacting with the students individually on "homework" assignments. When a student got stuck, they were there to help. They flipped the classroom to make it more flexible and dynamic, matching it with the needs of the students.

Flip your classroom through reverse instruction by John Sowash

I began implementing reverse instruction into my high school Anatomy & Physiology class. It was the third time I had taught the class and I knew that I spent a lot of time lecturing. For most of my lectures I had already created PowerPoint presentations. I began the labor intensive process of putting them on the web for students to view. For some of them I created screencasts with voice narration. Others were simply Google Docs presentations shared on my classroom wiki. For each unit I provided a lecture note outline that I required students to fill out.

Flip your classroom through reverse instruction by John Sowash

With class time liberated from lectures I was able to incorporate more hands-on activities, projects, and helping students better understand confusing and challenging concepts. I would not say that my first year was a complete success. I have not mastered the art of reverse instruction, but I've made progress. Here are some of the lessons that I've learned: Make sure that you clearly and carefully explain the purpose of reverse instruction to students. This is a radical idea for students as well as teachers. I did this in a class "commercial" which I show at the beginning of the year. http://youtu.be/95UTqW8C2u4

Flip your classroom through reverse instruction by John Sowash

Stress the importance of the lectures. Students cannot "zone out" and simply copy down the notes in five minutes and be done. They must be actively engaged as they view the lecture notes, writing down questions and fitting in the new information with what they already know. Hold students accountable to the lectures. I did a credit/no credit lecture notes check at the beginning of each class period to ensure that students were actually viewing the lectures. Beware of technical problems. YouTube is a good way to share videos, but my school blocks YouTube. I ended up posting my screencasts as both YouTube videos and Google Docs presentations.

Flip your classroom through reverse instruction by John Sowash

If students don't have internet access at home, you will need to preload your lectures onto an iPod, print out your slides, or burn them to a CD. Consider creating a portal for students to go to watch your lectures, download lectures notes, and converse with one another. Google Sites and Wikispaces are both viable options for this. I've used them both.

This a great, and kind of classic example of the flipped teaching and learning, but is important to understand that you DO NOT have to jump in with both feet like this. You can ease in gradually. Consider Flipping just a lecture or two, a chapter, a week Using existing digital content on the Internet (if you are comfortable with that) Turning content you already have into better stand-alone content (voice over PowerPoint, or use a free Screencasting tool to voice of other digital content, for example)

The point is you can start small and try some flipped instruction tools and techniques and decide if you think it something you wish to pursue further.



One World School House: Education Reimagined by Salman Khan The old classroom model simply doesnt fit our changing needs. Its a fundamentally passive way of learning while the world requires more and more active processing of information. The old model is based on pushing students together in age-group batches with one-pacefits-all curricula and hoping they pick up something along the way."

Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day Jon Bergmann and Aaron Sams

Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day Jon Bergmann and Aaron Sams
Great Reasons to Flip Your Classroom Flipping helps busy students Todays students are busy, and being able to consume learning content on demand is a big help, especially when they miss class for extracurricular events. Colleges are looking for those extracurricular activities, and its a shame if a student has to choose between missing lectures or participating in activities that theyve committed to with the flip, they dont have to! Students can even work ahead when they know they will be losing class time.

Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day Jon Bergmann and Aaron Sams
Great Reasons to Flip Your Classroom Flipping helps struggling students Many students are absolutely thrilled to be able to pause, rewind, and replay lecture videos and absorb new content at a pace that works for them. Moreover, the time that is freed up in class can now be devoted more directly to each student as he or she needs it.

Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day Jon Bergmann and Aaron Sams
Great Reasons to Flip Your Classroom Flipping helps students of all abilities excel The flip delivers benefits to students across the full spectrum of abilities from the students who struggle to absorb material as they frantically copy down notes, to the student who is ahead of the curve and gets bored. Having access to consume and replay learning content on demand and increased access to teachers in the classroom can benefit everyone!

Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day Jon Bergmann and Aaron Sams
Great Reasons to Flip Your Classroom Flipping increases student-teacher interaction Many teachers who implement the flip will emphasize that the ultimate benefit is the time they get to spend with students in class, the nature of which changes greatly under this model. Now teachers can spend one-on-one time with students, or create groups that are struggling with the same content and give them a mini-lecture or demonstration. The bottom line is that you will have more time than ever to interact with our students, rather than just performing your lecture.

Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day Jon Bergmann and Aaron Sams
Flipping allows teachers to know their students better We have always believed that a good teacher builds relationships with students. If you are spending more time with your students, you are going to know them better and better understand who is struggling with what, and who is mastering learning outcomes quickly and can benefit from some extra challenging work. You are also more likely to get insights into these students lives that you wouldnt get otherwise, and this can create opportunities to recognize issues they may need help with, or to recognize and follow up on potential that you might otherwise not have the time to pick up on.

Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day Jon Bergmann and Aaron Sams
Great Reasons to Flip Your Classroom Flipping allows for real differentiation Students learn at different rates. While watching class lectures, students who get a topic can speed the video up, and those who are struggling can replay the challenging sections. In class, students who are having a hard time grasping a specific topic will have an opportunity to work closely with the teacher. An instructor can decrease the assigned work on a topic that the student has shown understanding of, to free up more time to get clear on the topics they find harder to grasp. Students who master the materials can move ahead.

Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day Jon Bergmann and Aaron Sams
4 of the Wrong Reasons to Flip Your Classroom! Because you think it will create a 21st Century classroom: Pedagogy should always drive technology, not vice-versa. Because you think you will become cutting edge: Flipping isnt about the newest tools. Because you think it exempts you from being a good teacher: Good teaching is much more than delivering good content. Because you hope it will make your job easier: Thats not going to happen and its not what the flip is about. The nature of the job changes, in many good ways, but it is not about making the work easier, and there are plenty of challenges along the way as the process is adopted and put to use.


University of North Carolina San Jose State University Vanderbilt University
these are just a few of the studies and stories out there supporting the efficacy of these techniques.

University of North Carolina

University of North Carolina

Over the course of several years, Russell Mumper, a Vice Dean at the University of North Carolinas Eshelman School of Pharmacy, conducted a flipped classroom study funded by Echo360, a vendor of Lecture Capture software. Two separate articles based on its findings have been published, including "The Flipped Classroom: A Course Redesign to Foster Learning and Engagement in a Health Professions School" in the journal Academic Medicine, and an article in The American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education.

University of North Carolina

The study focused on three consecutive years of a foundational pharmaceutics course. In 2011, Mumper taught the course in a traditional lecture format, using Powerpoint slides. In 2012 and 2013, he flipped the course. That model looked like this: "At home, before class, students watched brief lecture modules, which introduced them to the days content. They also read a textbook the same, introductory-level book as in 2011 before they arrived.

University of North Carolina

When they got to class, Mumper would begin by asking them audience response questions. Hed put a multiple-choice question about the previous nights lectures on a PowerPoint slide and ask all the students to respond via small, cheap clickers. Hed then look at their response, live, as they answered, and address any inconsistencies or incorrect beliefs revealed. Maybe 50 percent of the class got the wrong answer to one of these questions: This gave him an opportunity to lecture just enough so that students could understand what they got wrong."

University of North Carolina

Key Results Student performance on an identical final exam improved by 2.5 % between 2011 and 2012, and then by another 2.6 % in 2013, providing an overall performance improvement of 5.1 % between 2011 and 2013. Students also preferred the flipped model to the lecture model - 75 % of students in 2012 said, before Mumpers class, that they preferred lectures, whereas almost 90 % of students said they preferred the flipped model after the class.

Vanderbilt University

Two sections of a large-enrollment physics class were compared. For the first 11 weeks of the semester, the classes were both taught via interactive lecture methods for the majority of the semester and showed no significant differences prior to the experiment.

The flip came during the twelfth week of the semester, Vanderbilt University with one section being exposed to new material prior to class via reading assignments and quizzes, so that class time could be devoted to small group discussion and questions delivered through clickers and written responses. The control section was encouraged to read the same assignments prior to class and answered most of the same clicker questions for summative assessment but were not intentionally engaged in active learning exercises during class.

Vanderbilt University
At the end of the experimental week, students completed a multiple choice test, resulting in an average score of 41 +/- 1% in the control classroom versus 74 +/- 1% in the flipped classroom, with an effect size of 2.5 standard deviations. During the experiment, student engagement increased in the experimental section (from 45 +/- 5% to 85 +/- 5% as assessed by four trained observers) but did not change in the control section.

San Jose State University

Keep in mind that a key reason to flip is to free up class time to be used for Active and Differentiated Learning, and the body of evidence supporting the effectiveness of those techniques is significant.

Additional Use Cases

Pre-lecture/lab preparatory material Tutorial information/training Class makeup due to missed class Content review Reusable learning objects Extra material

When Considering Resources

Questions to Ask
o o o o Media type Content source Lecture capture vs. Personal capture Synchronous vs. Asynchronous

Tools & Resources

Curating: Using Existing Resources
o A variety of existing resources are available via the Internet. o Use of these resources will take a bit of planning, searching and fitting.

Tools & Resources Existing Content

The Khan Academy (http://www.khanacademy.org/) Academic Earth (http://academicearth.org) Brightstorm (http://brightstorm.com//)
o Freemium

iTunes & iTunesU


(http://www.apple.com/education/itunes-u//) Hundreds of free video lectures and courses.

Phoenix College Math Videos

Mathispower4u (http://mathispower4u.yolasite.com//)
o o

Videos by James Sousa

Tools & Resources Existing Content

OpenCourseWare Consortium (http://www.ocwconsortium.org) o Worldwide courses Discussions on real-world topics Allows building lessons around TED talks and YouTube videos Example: (http://ed.ted.com/on/gLQQGUcj) K-12 TED (http://www.ted.com) o TED-Ed (http://ed.ted.com) o o

WatchKnowLearn (http://www.watchknowlearn.org) o MindShift Guide to Videos o Teachers Ultimate Guide to Using Videos by Catlin Tucker o http://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/files/2013/03/MindShift-Guideto-Videos.pdf

When existing sources wont do

Creating: Creating & Using Your Own Content
o Searching and compiling may take more time and energy than creating your own material o Better for reuse o Can make changes as required

Tools & Resources Creating Content

o Hardware o Software o Storage

Tools & Resources Basic Requirements

Computer Capture software Presentation software Microphone Camera Tablet device Storage

Capture Tools
In room or studio
o Full lecture capture

Screencasting Software Specialized Capture Software

o Whiteboard/Smartboard o Tablet

Free Screencasting Tools

o http://www.screenr.com/

o http://camstudio.org/

o http://www.screencast-o-matic.com/

Audacity (Audio)
o http://audacity.sourceforge.net/

Website: http://www.techsmith.com/ Products
o o o o o Jing Camtasia Relay Camtasia Studio Screencast.com Coachs Eye

iPad Tools
Ask3 http://goo.gl/gEWSGo (free) Doceri http://doceri.com (free app/Desktop $) Educreations http://goo.gl/PuZIU (free) Explain Everything http://goo.gl/qBH7x ($2.99) Knowmia Teach http://goo.gl/kzBIq (free) ScreenChomp http://goo.gl/tXh8h (free) Showme http://goo.gl/QSBcz (free)

Storage Options
Self-storage Screencast.com
o Designed for Jing, Camtasia, others o Free Account:
2 GB storage 2 GB monthly bandwidth

o Paid account: $9.95/month or $99.95 year

25 GB storage 200 GB monthly bandwidth Highly customizable

Storage Options
Microsoft OneDrive
o 7 GB o Can Edit/Share MS Office Documents online

Google Drive
o 5 GB o Can Edit/Share Google Doc documents

YouTube (
o Private videos (up to 25 viewers) o Create class channel

YouTube EDU (http://www.youtube.com/education)

Vimeo: (http://www.vimeo.com/)Free and Plus versions TeacherTube (http://teachertube.com/) and SchoolTube (http://www.schooltube.com/) Dropbox Google Sites

Publishing Online Videos

Select the right tool
o o o o Content control and rights Closed captions and accessibility Audience characteristics and number Video quality, editing options, storage

Vimeo Video School


LearningMoreAbout theFlippedClassroom


LearningMoreAbout theFlippedClassroom

Available on Amazon.com & EmergingEdTech.com

Common Criticisms
o Lecture o Resources and Digital Divide o Time amount/overload, justification, quality o Assessment multiple methods o Students as consumers of information o Outcomes/ performance o constant refinement / revision