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Lecture No.

9
MEASUREMENT OF FLUID FLOW
9.1 General types o lo! "eters
Obstruction meter. Fluid meters that belong to this type indicate a flow
by a change in pressure.
Full bore meter (Venturi meter, orifice meter, flow nozzle)
Insertion meter (Pitot tube)
Variable area meter. An area meter is one in which the pressure drop is
constant and the reading is dependent upon a ariable flow area.
!otameter
Others" #agnetic field, orte$ shedding, turbine meter etc.
9.# $entur% "eter
Venturi meter is a full%bore obstruction meter with conerging and dierging
sections. It consists of a tube with a constricted throat which causes the
increase of fluid elocity at the e$pense of pressure. &he throat is followed
by a gradually dierging section where the elocity is decreased with an
increase in pressure and slight friction losses. A schematic of Venturi meter
is shown in Figure '.(.
Figure '.(. )chematic of a Venturi meter
*(
$eloc%ty at t&e t&roat 'u
#
()
( )
c
+ c
, ,
+ P g -. -.
u +g /
( (



('.()
Mass lo! rate 'm
0( an* +eloc%ty %n t&e "a%n l%ne 'u
1
()
( ( ( + + +
m u A u A
0
('.+)
For incompressible fluid flow"
+ +
( + +
(
A
u u
A

('.1)
where"
.

is the Venturi coefficient2


3
+
(
diameter of throat 4
diameter of main line 4

2
%P is the pressure drop, P
(
5 P
+
2
is the density of the fluid2
/ is the differential head, (
P
/

)2
- is a correction factor.
I"portant notes)
If 6 7.+8, then
,
( ( .
Values of .

"
.

3 7.'9 for a well%designed orifice


.

7.'9 for 4
(
3 + to 9 inches
.

7.'' for 4
(
: 9 inches
.

3 7.'9, for /erschel type with !e : +77,777


*+
Values of -"
For incompressible fluids (i.e., li;uids)" - 3 (
For compressible fluids (i.e., gases)"
( )
( )
(
, +
(
(
+
+
(
, + +
( (
P
( (
P
P
-
P
P P
( ( (
P P

1
_
1


1
,
_ 1
]


1
,
_ _
1


1
, ,
1
]
('.,)
where"
p

.
.
.

)ee also E,uat%on 1-.#1 and F%/ure 1-.10 of Perry<s .h= /andboo>
(*
th
ed.)
&he permanent pressure loss across Venturi meter is dependent on
and the discharge cone angle () in the dierging section"
3 8 5 *
o
(7 to (8? of %P
: (8
o
(7 to 17? of %P
4isadantage" e$pensie compared to the other head meters.
9.1 Or%%ce "eter
A sharp% or s;uare%edged orifice is a clean%cut s;uare%edged hole with
straight walls perpendicular to the flat upstream face of a thin plate faced
crosswise of a channel.&he stream issuing from such an orifice attains its
minimum cross section (vena contracta) at a distance downstream of the
orifice which aries with .
*1
Figure '.+. )chematic of a sharp%edged orifice
$eloc%ty at t&e or%%ce)
( )
c o o
+ c
, ,
+ P g -. -.
u +g /
( (



('.8)
where" .
o
is the orifice discharge coefficient
- is a correction factor.
@ther parameters are as defined in )ection '.+.
I"portant notes)
Values of .
o
3 f(!e, )"
+.8
7.+( 9
o 7.*8
. 7.8'8' 7.71(+ 7.(9, '(.*(
!e

+ + ('.A)
=;uation '.A has been plotted to gie F%/ure 9.1 below (or F%/ure
1-.#- of Perry<s .h= /andboo>, *
th
ed.)
*,
Figure '.1. .oefficient of discharge for s;uare%edged circular (Figure
(7%+7 of Perry<s .h= /andboo>, *
th
ed.)
Values of -"
For compressible fluid (i.e., gases)"
,
+
(
7.,( 7.18 P
- ( (
P

_ +


,
('.*)
)ee also F%/ure 1-.10 of Perry<s .h= /andboo> (*
th
ed.)
9.2 3%tot tu4e
A pitot tube is an insertion meter that measures local elocity (i.e., elocity at
a point). Applications include finding the elocity of a moing craft such as a
boat or an airplane. A similar deice, called Pitot static tube shown in Figure
'.,, is used to measure the elocity at different radial positions in a pipe.
*8
A
B
Figure '.,. Pitot tube with sidewall static tap (Fig. (7%8 Perry<s .h=
/andboo>, *
th
ed.)
$eloc%ty at A '%.e.5 !&ere t&e t%p %s locate*(5 u
o
)
o c
u . +g / ('.9)
where"
. is the correction coefficient
I"portant notes)
Values of ."
. 3 ( t 7.7( for simple Pitot tubes
. 3 7.'9 to ( for Pitot static tubes
For gases at elocities : +77 ft s
%(
"
(
B A
o c
B B
P P
u . +g (
( P

1
_
1


1

,
1
]
('.')
Cenerally, for compressible fluids"
( )
c A B
o
+
,
o
B
g P P
u
#a +
( #a ...
, +,

_
+ + +

,
('.(7)
For =;uations '.' and '.(7, P
A
and P
B
are impact and static pressures,
respectiely.
*A
If the Pitot static tube is inserted at the middle of a tube or pipe, the
elocity measured is ma$imum (u
o
3 u
ma$
). &o determine the aerage
elocity in the tube or pipe, we use Figure '.8.
Figure '.8. Velocity ratio ersus !eynolds number for smooth circular
pipes (Figure (7%* of Perry<s .h= /andboo>, *
th
ed.)
9.6 Rota"eter
&he rotameter (Figure '.A) consists of a solid float or plummet that is free to
moe inside a gradually tapered ertical glass tube. &he fluid flows upward
and the flow rate is indicated by the e;uilibrium position reached by the float
which can be read from the adDacent scale usually etched on the glass tube.
Balance of forces at e;uilibrium (i.e., steady%state)"
( )
4 C B f f f f f
c c c
g g g
F F F V V V
g g g

('.(()
where"
F
4
drag force resulting from form and s>in friction for flow around
the float
F
B
buoyant force acting so as to raise the float
F
C
graity force acting downward on a float
V
f
olume of the float
**

f
density of the float
density of the fluid

Figure '.A. )chematic representation of a rotameter
=nergy balance between ( and + (see Figure '.A)
+ +
+ ( + (
c
P P u u
F 7
+g

+ + ('.(+)
where"
F summation of drag or friction losses
.ontinuity e;uation
( ( + +
m u) u )
0
('.(1)
.ombining e;uations '.(+ and '.(1
+
+ (
( c +
+
) P
u ( +g F
)

_ _
+

, ,
('.(,)
( ( c +
(
+
+
P
u . +g
)
(
)

('.(8)
*9
(
F
B
F
4
F
C
+
+
(
Flow
4rag force (F
4
)
( ) ( )
+
4 f f f f
F P ) P . ) ('.(A)
where"
%P
f
pressure drop acting on the top of the float
+
f
. fraction of the ma$imum pressure drop (%P) that is not
recoered
.ombining e;uations '.((, '.(8 and '.(A
( )
f f
( !
+
(
f +
+
+V g
u .
)
) (
)


,
('.(*)
where"
(
!
f
.
.
.

rotameter coefficient
f ( +
) ) ) (rotameter tapers gradually)
( )
( )
f f
+
( !
f ( +
+gV
)
u .
) ) )

+
('.(9)
#ass flow rate
( )
f f
! +
f
+gV
m . )
)

0
('.(')
Important notes"
Proper design of rotameter float will ma>e .
!
constant oer wide range
of !e.
For a constant%density fluid in a single rotameter, the terms within the
s;uare root symbol of e;uation '.(9 are practically constant and
independent of flow rate2 hence,
*'
E
( ! +
u . ) ('.+7)
&he preceding e;uation shows that the elocity is e;ual to a constant
multiplied by the minimum cross section for flow ()
+
).
4isadantage" e$pensie in large installations.
9.0 Notc&es an* We%rs
Fotch An opening in the side of the tan> or reseroir which e$tends
aboe the surface of the fluid. It is used to measure discharge
flow rate.
Geir A notch on a lager scale, usually found in riers. It maybe
sharp%crested but may also hae a substantial depth in the
direction of flow. It can be used to measure flow rate or raise
water leels.
T&e General We%r E,uat%on
Gith reference to Figure '.*,
Velocity through the strip" u +gh ('.+()
4ischarge through the strip" H Au b h +gh
H /
7 7
H b +gh h

/
(I +
7
H +g bh dh

('.++)
Figure '.*. =lemental strip of flow through a notch
97
Rectan/ular !e%r
Figure '.9. !ectangular weir
b 3 B
( 1
/
+ +
theo
7
+
H B +g h dh B +g/
1

('.+1)
1
+
actual d
+
H . +g/
1
('.+,)
$.notc& !e%r
Figure '.'. V%notch or triangular weir geometry
( ) b + / h tan
+

('.+8)
( )
(
/
+
theo
7
H + +gtan / h h dh
+

9(
/
1 8
+ +
theo
7
+
H + +gtan /h h
+ 8

1 _

1
,
]
8
+
theo
9
H +gtan /
(8 +

('.+A)
8
+
actual d
9
H . +gtan /
(8 +

('.+*)
7UESTIONS 8 3RO9LEMS)
(. =$plain how a Pitot tube measures the speed of a boat.
+. =$plain the principle of ariable area meters.
1. A Pitot tube is inserted into the center of an air duct 7.9 m in diameter.
A pressure gage attached to the Pitot tube reads %P 3 ' FIm
+
. &he
Pitot tube coefficient is 7.'9+. .alculate the mass flow rate of air, at a
temperature of 18
o
. and a pressure of (7( >Pa.
,. A Venturi meter with an entrance diameter of 7.1m and a throat
diameter of 7.+m is used to measure the olume of gas flowing
through a pipe. &he discharge coefficient of the meter is 7.'A.
Assuming the specific weight of the gas to be constant at ('.A+ FIm
1
,
calculate the olume flowing when the pressure difference between
the entrance and the throat is measured as 7.7A m on a water J%tube
manometer.
8. A Venturi meter is used for measuring flow of water along a pipe. &he
diameter of the Venturi throat is two%fifths the diameter of the pipe.
&he inlet and throat are connected by water%filled tubes to a mercury
J%tube manometer. &he elocity of flow along the pipe is found to be
+.8 /
mIs, where / is the manometer reading in m of mercury.
4etermine the loss of head between inlet and throat of the Venturi
when / is 7.,' m. &he relatie density of mercury is (1.A.
A. Brine (specific graity (.(9) is flowing though a 97%mm pipe at a
ma$imum rate of 7.7(8 m
1
Is. In order to measure the flow rate, a
9+
sharp%edged orifice, connected to simple J%tube manometer is to be
1'7 mm /g. Ghat size orifice should be installedK
*. A closed tan> has a 7.7+8%m diameter orifice in one of its ertical
sides. &he tan> contains oil to a depth of 7.A( m aboe the centre of
the orifice and the pressure in the air space aboe the oil is maintained
at (1*97 FIm
+
aboe atmospheric. 4etermine the discharge from the
orifice. &he coefficient of discharge of the orifice is 7.A( and the
relatie density of oil is 7.'.
9. A Venturi meter is fitted in a horizontal pipe of 7.(8 m diameter to
measure the flow of water which may be anything up to +,7 m
1
Ih. &he
pressure head at the inlet for this flow is (9 m aboe atmospheric and
the pressure head at the throat must not be less than * m below
atmospheric. Between the inlet and the throat there is an estimated
frictional loss of (7? of the difference in pressure head between these
points. .alculate the minimum allowable diameter for the throat.
'. 4educe an e$pression for the discharge of water oer a right%angled
sharp edged V%notch, gien that the coefficient of discharge is 7.A(.
A rectangular tan> (A m by Am has the same notch in one of its
short ertical sides. 4etermine the time ta>en for the head, measured
from the bottom of the notch, to fall from (8 cm to *.8 cm.
(7.4eelop a formula for the discharge oer a '7%degree V%notch weir in
terms of head aboe the bottom of the V.
A channel coneys 177 litersIsec of water. At the outlet end
there is a '7%degree V%notch weir for which the coefficient of discharge
is 7.89. At what distance aboe the bottom of the channel should the
weir be placed in order to ma>e the depth in the channel (.17 mK Gith
the weir in this position what is the depth of water in the channel when
the flow is +77 litersIsecK
91