Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

Intel International Science and Engineering Fair

Finalist Abstracts

Limited By:

Intel ISEF Year of Abstracts: 2012 Category to Limit to: ET Beginning Fair ID Number: 000001 Ending Fair ID Number: VNM002 Limit to Winning Projects ONLY Order by Category

Society for Science & The Public 1719 N Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20036 (202) 785-2255

2012 - ET002 THE SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS SUGAR-BASED POTASSIUM NITRATE ROCKET PROPELLANTS Parth Chetan Thakker South Mecklenburg High School, Charlotte, NC The primary purposes of this experiment were to identify, synthesize, and evaluate various sugar-based rocket propellants as viable alternatives to commercially made rocket propellants. Cost-effectiveness and ease-of-synthesis were examined in addition to the raw performance of each type of propellant. Other secondary purposes included the development and implementation of a reusable model rocket motor casing for these propellants, and a compact testing apparatus for the accurate quantitative analysis of such a motor. The three different fuels tested for performance were sucrose, dextrose, and sorbitol. These were synthesized into propellants using potassium nitrate (an oxidizer) and corn syrup (a binder), which were dissolved in water at an elevated temperature and then subsequently recrystallized to their pliable, anhydrous states. An aluminum-alloy external motor casing was used to test these propellants in a realistically pressurized environment. Calculated performance measures included density, linear burn-rate, average thrust and specific-impulse. The sets of specific-impulse data were analyzed using an ANOVA test, which concluded that there was a statistically significant difference between the performances of each propellant. The correlation analysis, which was conducted to determine the relationship between burn-rate and density, was inconclusive. Both the quantitative (specific-impulse) and qualitative results suggested that the sorbitol propellant had the highest performance and most potential for future development. Sucrose performed almost as well as the sorbitol propellant, while dextrose was found to be vastly inferior. Both the aluminum casing and the static test stand worked flawlessly, and will be continued to be developed for more uses in the future. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Fourth Award of $500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET005 PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL STACK CONFIGURATION OPTIMIZATION USING A NEW ALGORITHM Uttara Chakraborty Chakraborty Homeschool, Chesterfield, MO This project developed a new stochastic heuristic method for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack design optimization. The task -- an open problem in PEMFC research -- is to find optimal values of PEMFC stack parameters such that (i) the stack delivers the rated voltage at the maximum power point, (ii) the maximum power matches or exceeds the stipulated requirement, (iii) the cost of building it is minimized. This is a practical problem that is analytically intractable and computationally hard. The new heuristic is designed as a point-based search that starts out with a single trial vector in the state space and samples other vectors in a stochastically guided manner, to arrive, eventually, at an optimal or near-optimal solution vector. For transition from one vector to the next, a new transition probability function is introduced, involving the ratio of the observed difference and the expected difference in objective function values. Simulation results show that the new method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on two performance metrics: (i) solution quality, (ii) computational cost. Statistical tests of significance on multiple, independent executions (runs) show that the results produced by the new method are significantly better than the best-known solutions for this problem published in the fuel cell literature. The two original contributions of this project are: (i) a new solution to an engineering problem (a new approach to PEMFC stack design with demonstrated empirical success); (ii) a new, parameter-less algorithm that has the potential to be a general-purpose global optimizer in computer science. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** For the project that applies computer science to further inquiry in a in a field other than computer science; Google CS Connect Award - Google

2012 - ET009 ON THIN ICE: CONTROLLING, SLOWING, AND STOPPING THE MOTION OF A CAR SLIDING ON AN ICY ROAD AND OTHER SLICK SURFACES Kyle Scott Saleeby Niceville High School, Niceville, FL The purpose of my project is to design a device that can be attached to any car, that while sliding on ice, snow, or other slick surfaces (standing water), slows the cars motion or stops the car, and controls the direction of the motion to reduce or prevent injuries to the occupants and damage to the vehicle and potentially impacted objects. I designed and built a rudder/brake device that attaches to the underside of a car, with interchangeable foot plates, that when manually or automatically activated falls to the ground and creates friction. I built a small scale model car and tested the device on icy and other simulated slick surfaces. The rudder brake device was a complete success, controlling the orientation of the car in the direction of motion, so that the impact would be on the front of the car, which is safer to the occupants. It also quickly slowed the velocity of the car, and at times even stopped it completely. Since kinetic energy is directly proportional to velocity squared, any decrease in velocity dramatically decreases the force of impact, and is safer for the occupants. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Scholarship Award of $15,000 per year, renewable annually - Florida Institute of Technology

2012 - ET010 OPTIMIZATION OF A DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL Savannah Elizabeth Est Wentzville High School, Wentzville, MO As the urgency for alternative renewable energy sources increases due to depletion of natural resources and fossil fuels, solar energy offers a renewable and sustainable substitute. Although silicon-based solar cells can be used to produce significant amounts of energy, they are expensive for mass production and their composite materials are not always readily accessible.. Alternatively, the next generation dye-sensitized solar cells, or Gratzel cells, use more efficient construction and utilization processes. In this study, the standard dye-sensitized solar cell fabrication design has been examined and tested using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from various plants and fruits as a substitute for the expensive, synthetic ruthenium complex dyes that are currently used in the commercial production of Gratzel cells. Many factors contribute to the usable energy production of the Gratzel cells, as measured in voltage and current. This project analyzes the chromatographic and spectral absorption properties of a select set of plant anthocyanins and their impact on the electrical current produced by a Gratzel cell. With this information in mind, an exploration was made using different modes of cell connection and cell dimensions to optimize the power efficiency of the Gratzel cell to better understand the capacity of anthocyanin-based dye-sensitized solar cells. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Third Award of $1,000 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET020 BIODIESEL SYNTHESIS USING WASTE ANIMAL ADIPOSE TISSUE WITH UNCONVENTIONAL CATALYSTS AND SMALL-DOSE UREA COLD FLOW IMPROVER Ying Xiong Century High School, Rochester, MN Current consumption of nonrenewable fuels threatens world sustainability. Biodiesel from waste animal adipose (fatty tissue), commonly placed in landfills, can mitigate damage from these fuels and provide a viable alternative to traditional plant materials. Adipose biodiesel has been synthesized industrially but does not presently use promising domestic (kitchen) wastes. Three aims and phases were conducted: I. biodiesel synthesis using waste adipose and sodium hydroxide catalyst; II. development of eggshell-derived calcium oxide and unconventional CaO-NaOH catalysts; and III. production of small-dose urea cold flow (cold temperature usability) improvers. Kitchen waste pork, beef, chicken, and turkey adipose tissues were used. In Phase I, 20.0% (v/v, methanol/adipose) methanol and 0.35% (w/v) NaOH reacted with 40 mL adipose. Average biodiesel yield was 108.82%. Adipose heat energy, measured by heating water, was 26.47 kJ/g while plants generated 24.12 kJ/g (p < 0.001). In Phase II, transesterification was conducted with methanol and 10% (w/v, CaO/adipose) CaO, obtained via thermal decomposition of chicken eggshells, as catalyst. Average biodiesel yield was 71.88%. A novel combination of 5.0% CaO and 0.15% NaOH had 92.81% yield. In Phase III, the cold flow improver was created by adding 2.0% (w/v) urea midway in a NaOH-catalyzed reaction. The gelation point decrease averaged 4.33 C (37.14%) from the original values. Ultimately, large-scale production models using adipose and regression models between properties of biodiesel were constructed. Overall, chicken biodiesel had particular potential. This study demonstrated feasibility of domestically-utilized waste adipose for biodiesel synthesis, developed a novel catalyst, and expanded usability through cold flow improvers. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Fourth Award of $500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET021 OPTIMIZING ALGAE BIOFUELS: ARTIFICIAL SELECTION AND NITROGEN STRESS AS METHODS TO INDUCE LIPID SYNTHESIS Sara Ellen Volz Cheyenne Mountain High School, Colorado Springs, CO Algae biofuels are a promising alternative to fossil fuels, but algal oil yields must improve to make this renewable option feasible. This study investigates nitrogen stress and artificial selection as methods to increase lipid synthesis.

Incremental nitrogen deficiency was implemented on three microalgal strains. Lipid analysis utilizing GC/MS was refined. Hemacytometry and flow cytometry measured growth.

Concurrently, artificial selection was investigated to heighten the activity or expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase), an enzyme active in lipid synthesis, by application of the ACCase-inhibiting herbicide sethoxydim to select for sethoxydim-tolerant cell lines. This novel approach to increasing algal oil yields required considerable development, including sethoxydim characterization in liquid culture. ACCase immunoblotting, a spectrophotometric ACCase enzymatic assay, and lipid and growth analyses were conducted to determine changes in lipid metabolism.

Results indicate heightened lipid synthesis and decreased growth with increasing nitrogen deprivation. Developed lipid analytic protocols show success, with NMR spectroscopy indicating efficient esterification. Cellular protein extractions were successful, though immunoblotting requires increased antibody specificity. Tests with the ACCase assay are underway to accomplish new protocols. Work on sethoxydim characterization has honed artificial selection techniques.

Artificial selection results demonstrate significant increases in lipid accumulation in sethoxydim-selected cultures, indicating possible success in selecting for algal cell lines with increased ACCase and lipid production. If such cell lines can be sustained, artificial selection could prove a novel method for increasing microalgal oil yields. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** First Award of $3,000 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET022 LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES FOR ELECTRIC CARS: A STUDY OF SOLID ELECTROLYTE INTERFACE USING ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY Rohan Bodh Gupta Auburn High School, Auburn, AL Lithium-ion batteries for electric cars degrade over time with cycles of charge and discharge. Engineers need to be able to measure this degradation in order to improve the batteries. Currently, there is no easy and non-invasive method to monitor the batterys health including its capacity. Prior to experimentation, it was believed that the impedance of the Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI) was related to the batterys capacity. In this project, the impedance of the SEI is examined using the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS can monitor ion transport within the battery in response to an alternating electric field. EIS testing was done, using four different batteries each at different stages of usage (0, 100, 200, 300 cycles of charge/discharge), to measure the impedances at varying frequencies. The temperature of each battery was kept at 25&#730;C. The data was converted into Nyquist curves (i.e., imaginary impedance versus real impedance) in order to examine the three components (i.e., ohmic resistance, impedance of SEI layer, and Warburg impedance) that affect the overall impedance of the battery. When impedances of the SEI layers were plotted versus the capacities of the batteries, a linear correlation was obtained. In conclusion, out of the three components that affect battery impedance, SEI layer impedance is the most correlated to capacity, which can be attributed to a decrease in lithium-ion diffusion. This experimentation proved the hypothesis correct and the resulting correlation can be used to improve the life of batteries and to obtain real-time information about the batterys health. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Fourth Award of $500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET024 IMPROVING BACKYARD WIND TURBINES WITH BLADE ADDITIONS Daniel James Dorminy Sola Fide Home School, McDonough, GA In order to create blade additions to make existing backyard wind turbines more efficient, Southwest Windpowers AIR 40 wind turbine was tested over 4600 times in homemade wind tunnels in turbulent and straighter wind. In stages 1-4, low profile aircraft wing innovations were compared to determine the best addition for backyard wind turbines. Stage 5 compared winglet style designs and stall strips to previously tested additions. Stage 6 compared these additions to the researchers winglet designed in 2009-10. Stages 1-6 found dual wing fences had the highest efficiency of any devices tested. Stage 7 tested 0.5 cm tall wing fences and found their optimal positions. A single wing fence stretching the width of the blade was tested in 51 positions starting 1/52 of the length of the blade away from the tip and proceeding every 1 cm. Once the optimal position of the first fence was found, a second wing fence was added using the same width and position criteria as the first. Two optimally placed wing fences produced 110% of the original output. The blade innovations improve efficiency in straight and turbulent wind conditions similarly, important for near ground and residential area backyard turbines. This project has proven the best blade addition for wind tunnel tests and in turbulent winds, potentially narrowing the gap between field performance and manufacturer claims. Wing fences offer the best opportunity for backyard wind turbine efficiency improvements. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Forth Award of $1,500 - King Abdul-Aziz & his Companions Foundation for Giftedness and Creativity Certificate of Honorable Mention - Society of Experimental Test Pilots

2012 - ET026 POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE (PVDF) PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATOR: A NOVEL APPROACH TO HARVESTING VIBRATIONS FROM HUMAN RESPIRATION TO POWER BIOLOGICAL IMPLANT DEVICES Bridget Mary Oei East Catholic High School, Manchester, CT Traditional batteries used in biological implants require the patient to undergo invasive surgery during the replacement process. One promising solution is to directly harvest energy from the biological system itself to realize self-powered biomedical devices. This research explores the development of a practical micro-scale device for harvesting energy from a regular human activityrespiration. The energy harvesting relies on the resonant oscillation of a piezoelectric generator whose prime component is a PVDF thin film shaped in a flapper, reed or wind sock configuration. Piezoelectric Generators with PVDF thin film thickness of 28, 52 and 110 microns were tested to investigate their capability of converting low-speed air flow energy into electricity. Experiments indicated that the peak power generated increased as a function of the cubic power of the peak airflow velocity and with decreasing PVDF thickness. The wind sock configuration produced the greatest power for a given PVDF thickness throughout the range of peak airflow velocity. This was followed by the flapper configuration and then the reed configuration. The best configuration tested was the 28 micron thick PVDF film in the wind sock configuration. PVDF oscillations and power was produced with airflow velocity as low as 3.4 ft/sec. In the range of human breathing velocity (10 ft/sec to 25 ft./sec), this configuration produced between 10 to 110 microwatts. At a peak of 10 microwatts, a pacemaker is the largest consumer of electricity of any biomedical device. The PVDF Piezoelectric Generator tested produced more than sufficient power to operate this device. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Certificate of Honorable Mention - Acoustical Society of America Second Award of $1,500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel First Award of $250 - Patent and Trademark Office Society Award of three $1,000 U.S. Savings Bonds, a certificate of achievement and a gold medallion. - United States Army Each winning project will receive $3,000 in shares of UTC common stock. - United Technologies Corporation

2012 - ET027 A NOVEL METHOD TO INCREASE THE LIPID YIELD OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS: AN EXPLORATION OF THE ROLE OF COFACTORS ON THE INHIBITION OF STARCH SYNTHASE (E.C. 2.4.1.21) Arrush Choudhary Chantilly High School, Chantilly, VA The energy crisis is an issue of growing importance as natural gas and oil based energy are projected to be completely depleted within the next 35 years. This project seeks to aid scientists in their quest to determine the next generation of alternative fuels by studying algae-based oils. During the early research stages, the researcher found that a small segment of current algae research focused on nutrient-induced stress as a means of improving lipid yields. The researcher found that this occurs due to the fact that when algae are deprived of essential nutrients, they are forced to stop undergoing certain biological pathways and as a result concentrate on the pathway that produces lipids more heavily. Upon research in other algae like systems, the researcher found that two main enzymes are involved in the algal growth cycle: ACCase and Starch Synthase, both of which compete with each other for a common source of CO2. The researcher thought that nutrient-induced stress on algae was a very indirect means of inhibiting Starch Synthase and as a result decided to inhibit Starch Synthase more directly by using metal cofactors. He hoped that in the presence of these cofactors, the Starch Synthase enzyme would be completely inhibited resulting in a greater fixation of CO2 on the ACCase pathway and subsequently greater lipid production. In order to test his hypothesis, the researcher grew algae for a 2 week period and then quantified lipid production by staining the algal samples with Nile Red and measuring fluorescence via a plate reader. He ultimately found that in the presence of Zn and Co, algal lipid yields, in comparison to the control, increased by 19%. As a result, with the use of cofactors like Zn and Co, algal biofuels can become more economically viable. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Fourth Award of $500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET029 ALGAL BIOFUELS, PHASE THREE: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ALGAL LIPID EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES AND AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN STARVATION ON LIPID YIELDS AND ACETYL COENZYME A CARBOXYLASE LEVELS IN SCENEDESMUS SP. Yanqi Chen Central York High School, York, PA Optimal growing conditions were found for Scenedesmus sp. in previous year's research. This year's research analyzed the effectiveness of lipid extraction methods in terms of both cost and lipid efficiency for Scenedesmus sp. (phase 1) and investigated the effect of nitrogen starvation on lipid yields and levels of the protein Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) in Scenedesmus sp. (phase 2). ACCase catalyzes a critical step in the lipid synthesis pathway. Lipid extraction methods consist of a membrane disruption technique combined with a nonpolar solvent. Quantitative data for lipid evaluation in phase 1 was collected through gravimetric means. Quantitative data for phase 2 was collected through fluorometric and gravimetric means. For gravimetric lipid evaluation, lipids were extracted with a cyclohexane-isopropyl alcohol solvent facilitated by ultrasonication. In addition, poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyze ACCase levels in algal samples. This project determined that the optimal lipid extraction method for Scenedesmus sp. is DMSO-methanol solvent lipid extraction facilitated by ultrasonication. On average, this method produced a lipid yield of 54.8% (almost double the yield of the other methods). It was also determined that to meet the 25% relative lipid yield mark only 12.5% cyclohexane was necessary in a cyclohexane-isopropyl alcohol solvent. This has tremendous potential for cutting down costs because isopropyl alcohol is significantly less expensive than cyclohexane. Regarding nitrogen starvation, no conclusions were made regarding its impact on ACCase levels, however, it was discovered that nitrogen starvation plays a significant role in influencing chlorophyll "A" to chlorophyll "B" ratios, which in turn might have an effect on lipid yields. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Third Award of $1,000 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET030 THE EFFECT OF ELECTRIC FIELDS ON SOLAR POWER: EXPLORING A NEW MECHANISM FOR SOLAR CELLS Kinga Janina Malkinska Benjamin Franklin High School, New Orleans, LA Solar power is an alternative source of green energy competing with hydropower, wind power and conventional energy resources (nuclear power and coal or crude oil combustion-based power). Success of future applications of solar cells strongly depends on their efficiency and affordability. Therefore, researchers and engineers are looking for new solutions which increase the efficiency and/or lower the cost of solar cells. All existing solid state solar cells use p-n junction between two semiconductors to generate solar power. The electric field present in the depletion zone prevents recombination of electrons and holes generated in the p-n junction by photons of the sunlight. This project proposes entirely new principle for generation of the photocurrent. The idea of replacing the field from the depletion zone by alternative sources of electric field in wide-gap semiconductor has been put into a test. These fields can be produced by pyroelectric films or by ferroelectric nanoparticles. Pyroelectric cadmium sulfide film with the thickness of 400 nm was deposited using magnetron sputtering method and it was coated by a conductive and transparent thin film electrode on both sides. The effects of the external electric field and intrinsic field in the pyroelectric CdS were investigated. The results confirmed hypothesis that external electric field can replace the field in the depletion zone. The lack of p-n junction in novel type solar cells with a single semiconductor will significantly simplify their technology and lower their cost. It is also expected that they will be capable of operating at higher voltage. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Award of $1,500 - ProConn Power, Inc. Fourth Award of $500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET035 DESIGN OF A HOME-SCALE BIOGAS DIGESTER/MICROBIAL FUEL CELL SYSTEM: COMBINING ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR ENERGY INDEPENDENCE Katherine Rose Picchione Academy of the Holy Names, Albany, NY Energy is an incresingly necessary commodity in today's world. Two developing alternative energy sources are biogas and microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Biogas is methane gas (CH4) produced when organic matter decomposes in the absence of oxygen. MFC technology utilizes organic wastes to create electricity by harnessing electrons freed during microbial metabolic processes. Since biogas system infrastructure exists worldwide, and both technologies utilize organic waste, it is possible that MFCs can be implemented in the same settings. The purpose of this project was to assess the viability of a combined biogas/microbial fuel cell system created from consumer materials that can be used to generate small-scale energy. The system was built with a 55-gallon plastic drum, a steel stirring mechanism, and PVC fittings. A DataStudio data collection system was used to measure voltage and temperature throughout system use. The gas was analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and bacteria in the slurry were inoculated and identified. Findings confirmed the hypothesis that it is possible to create both biogas and MFC current in the same system. The DataStudio system verified that small amounts of electric current were generated. GC/MS results documented the presence of methane in the biogas produced. Bacterial analyses identified Bacillus spp. saprophytes, which produce organic acids in initial decay that are essential to methanogenesis. The biogas and small amounts of current generated by this prototype system propose an option for alternative energy. Further research will lead to improvements to increase the energy output. This exploration into biogas and MFC compatibility opens doors to promote further energy independence and availability worldwide. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Fourth Award of $500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET036 OPTIMIZATION OF NANOSCALE MORPHOLOGY OF ELECTRON DONOR-ACCEPTOR CHANNELS IN ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS Eric Mario Metodiev West Islip High School, West Islip, NY Organic photovoltaic cells are a thin film technology that offers a more flexible and cost effective alternative to conventional silicon-based solar cells. The photoactive thin film layer of typical organic solar cells relies solely on randomly dispersed regions of the electron-donor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and electron-acceptor nanoparticles of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). This randomness leads to many inefficiencies associated with random dispersal, such as lack of pathway to the electrode and dead zones in the active layer. Polystyrene (PS) was explored as a means to order and structure the active layer components of organic photovoltaic cells through polymer self-assembly. With the addition of PS, nanoscale column formations of P3HT formed throughout the thin film layer. It was found that the PCBM nanoparticles migrated to the PS:P3HT polymer interface, forming shells around the P3HT columns. The two components formed electron donor-acceptor channels in the thin film. The formation of ordered electron donor-acceptor channels allows for the controlled nanoscale structuring of the active layer of organic solar cells. This nanoscale ordering of the active layer significantly reduces the inefficiency due to dead zones that plagued standard organic solar cells, reduces the materials cost by 33.3%, and increases the overall efficiency of the solar cell by 35%. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Fifth Award of $1,000 - King Abdul-Aziz & his Companions Foundation for Giftedness and Creativity

2012 - ET037 THE REVOLUTION OF SUPERSONIC TECHNOLOGY: IMPLEMENTING DIHEDRAL WINGLETS FOR PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION IN SUPERSONIC FLOW Sumukh S. Bharadwaj Capital High School, Olympia, WA Living in a fast-paced society, the need for fast travel is becoming ubiquitous and this has been made possible through the implementation of supersonic airfoils in modern-day fighter jets. By improving the lift-to-drag ratio, it is possible to reduce the amount of energy needed to propel the aircraft, thus improving the efficiency and minimizing the fuel consumption. Until now the benefits of winglets, vertical protrusions at the tip of wings, have been observed to nullify the effects of vortices in subsonic flow, subsequently improving the efficiency. This project focuses on the implementation of winglets in supersonic airfoils. Using a 3D modeling software, 15 airfoils with varying toe and cant angles were designed. A Computational Fluid Dynamics program was used to simulate supersonic flow conditions upon these various airfoils while simultaneously varying the angles of attack, with each trial being about an hour long depending on the configuration. The average lift and drag outputs of the iterational results for each airfoil configuration provided quantitative results about the efficiency of the airfoils implemented with winglets. The results showed that the implementation of winglets in supersonic flow did in fact improve the efficiency, thus showing that they can be used to reduce fuel consumption. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** First Award of $1,000 - Society of Experimental Test Pilots Second Award of $1,500 - Air Force Research Laboratory on behalf of the United States Air Force

2012 - ET039 REDUCING RISKS FROM THE LEFT-TURNING TENDENCY BY COMPUTING AND MEASURING P-FACTOR TORQUE, AND BY FLIGHT CONTROL TESTING TO INVENT THE AUTO-COMPENSATOR Sehyun Hwang Posung High School, Seoul, SOUTH KOREA P-factor deviates an average propeller-driven airplane to the left without a pilots command. The P-Factor Torque Calculator(PTC) software was for mathematical interpretation of P-factor and the wind tunnel test was to measure it experimentally.] I measured the rudder deflection requirement in the flight control tests, and based on that, the P-factor Auto-Compensator(PAC) was designed. Regarding P-factor as a quantitative torque, I programed the PTC to compute P-factor through a model. To validate this model, the wind tunnel was installed with the propeller-and-motor unit, where the P-factor was generated, acted on, and measured. The similar trends found through 1-to-1-comparing the data from both proved themselves valid. The 114 propeller spun at 10000 RPM at the sea level with the 50 degrees of an angle of attack produced 164 ounce-force inch of P-factor torque. The flight control tests were to examine the manipulations of an airplane required to compensate the P-factor in the Flight Simulator. They could complement limits caused from the fact that rudder-produced aerodynamical torque compensates P-factor torque. The relationship between the P-factor torque and the rudder control was confirmed as a result. The Cessna 172 at 50 knots with the full power required 78% of rudder deflection. P-factor can result in a dangerous spin, and had the airplane tail-numbered N960JB crashed, for example. Therefore, the errorless compensation must be made without delay not manually as today but by an automated system. I suggested the mechanical design of the PAC be utilized to prevent accidents induced from the left-turn-inducing P-factor. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Second Award of $150 - Patent and Trademark Office Society Certificate of Honorable Mention - Society of Experimental Test Pilots

2012 - ET040 DIRECTING AND ACCELERATING NATURAL AIRFLOWS TO INCREASE AIRFOIL CIRCULATION AND GENERATE MORE LIFT Lauren Heather Reid O'Neill Collegiate & Vocational Institute, Oshawa, Ontario, CANADA An airfoil causes circulation, or a circular flow of air, as it generates lift. As circulation increases, more lift is generated which can reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gases, and noise levels with steeper departures. This research designed airfoil modifications to increase circulation in low-speed air without compromising performance in high-speed air. The modifications were intended to direct and accelerate the natural airflows to improve the pressure differential, and create a stronger down-wash, generating more lift. Tests were conducted on GOE 478 airfoils mounted at a 12-degree angle of attack. A boundary layer wind tunnel was adapted to laminar flow for the tests and observations. The airflow velocity and direction were precisely measured at 112 measurement volumes (locations) in low-speed (4 m/s) and high-speed (9 m/s) airflows. The leading edge venturi (LEV) test airfoil improved the dynamic pressure at 91% of the measurement volumes in low-speed (77% high-speed) compared to the unmodified Standard (STD) airfoil. All other airfoils ranged between 30% and 68%. The LEV increased the pressure differential change by 7.87% compared to the unmodified STD while the Blunt leading edge test airfoil improved it by 3.69%. The differential worsened with all other airfoils. Surprisingly, the LEV airfoil did not compromise the pressure differential in hi-speed airflow. Instead, it increased it significantly. Therefore, the LEV airfoil would improve lift in both low and high-speed airflows. Commercial passenger planes burn 35 billion gallons of fuel each year and generate 345 billion kilograms of carbon. A reduction of 7.87% is important. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Fourth Award of $500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET041 IRRADIATION BASED SINGLE STAGE ELECTRO-OXIDATION FOR NOVEL ENHANCEMENT OF DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS Dheevesh Arulmani Gordon Graydon Memorial Secondary School, Mississauga, Ontario, CANADA The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) exhibits future environmental and economic feasibility as an alternative energy source; however, low power densities presently limit its practicality. This poor performance can be attributed to the high activation energy caused by the complexity of the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in the DMFC anode. The innovative concept developed in this research utilizes irradiation to create a novel single stage oxidation that circumvents these complex MOR mechanisms. To facilitate this reaction, an irradiation sensitive titanium dioxide anatase was alloyed with the catalyst to produce transient hydroxyl radicals upon illumination. The electronegativity differences then split the methanols intramolecular bonds and directly yielded the final products of the MOR in a single stage reaction. This substantially decreased the activation energy and exponentially enhanced DMFC power density outputs. Performance was electrochemically characterized utilizing a three electrode half-cell and a bipotentiostat. Analysis of oxidation kinetics indicated remarkable enhancements in current densities of up to 2,457% with the platinum ruthenium catalyst while the onset potential was favourably reduced by up to 347.8 mV with a platinum titanium dioxide catalyst. Experimentation with various methanol concentrations and flux rates demonstrated further enhancements in system efficiency, higher catalyst durability, higher fuel utilization efficiencies, and lower operating costs. A 25-fold enhancement in power output exemplifies the large-scale feasibility of these novel irradiation sensitive DMFCs with sunlight as the irradiation source. These innovative DMFCs can lead to the universal acceptance of the environmentally sustainable fuel cell energy infrastructure. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Third Award of $1,000 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET045 BEYOND THE NANOSTRUCTURE IN SOLAR CELLS Shyamal Buch Vista del Lago High School, Folsom, CA Optimizing nanostructure morphology is key to improving solar cell efficiency. However, nanostructure film thickness remains limited by electron diffusion. Recently, there has been significant interest in plasmonic solar cells. In this work, metal nanoparticles were integrated with a semiconductor and resulting solar cell performance characteristics were analyzed. Charge recombination is a leading cause of efficiency loss. A study was performed on the impact of metal nanoparticles on recombination. The facile synthesis process was shown to work with direct substitution of additional reactants. An alternate growth method was developed and shown to be a viable approach with the advantage of considerably shorter synthesis time. Charge-carrier lifetime measurements were performed by D-SCOPEn+ with novel recombination analysis software. Improved performance with integration of metal nanoparticles could potentially be explained by effects such as surface plasmon resonance. The synthesis process is low-cost, uses environmentally benign materials, and no specialized equipment, and is therefore well-suited for sustainable solar cell production. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Intel ISEF Best of Category Award of $5,000 for Top First Place Winner - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel Second Award of $1,500 - SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering Tuition Scholarship Award in the amount of $8,000 - Office of Naval Research on behalf of the United States Navy and Marine Corps

2012 - ET048 A NOVEL SOLAR CELL COMBINING COORDINATED METAL ION SUBSTITUTION AND SELF-ASSEMBLY TO BROADEN THE ABSORPTION SPECTRUM AND EFFICIENTLY TRANSFORM LIGHT ENERGY INTO ELECTRICITY Nathan Sai Kondamuri Munster High School, Munster, IN In a time when depletion of fossil fuels is a major threat to our planet, I am researching a solution to Earths energy crisis that entails bio-mimicry and the possibility of copying plants to harvest solar energy through photosynthesis. Observing how plants transform light energy into electrons with 99% efficiency, I asked the question, why cant photosynthesis be mimicked in a biofuel cell to efficiently create electricity? Instead of using synthetic chemicals, which merely mimic a pigments absorption properties (used in past artificial photosynthesis research), my novel approach uses the porphyrin rings from natural pigments themselves for a plant's light absorption, charge separation, and electron transfer properties. In Phase 1 of my research, I have extracted the porphyrin rings present in pigment molecules. I have broadened the range of absorbance for this system by varied metalation (inserting different metals into the center) of these porphyrinic compounds under heterogeneous insertion procedures. In phase 2, I achieved the self-assembly of these porphyrin molecules. I then combined the various metalloporphyrins and coated all of them onto one silicon wafer cell to take advantage of the broadened absorption spectrum. In phase 3, of my research I improved the electron transfer properties of the cell by attaching phenol groups to the porphyrin ring, which repelled electrons. This was done in order to inhibit electrons from jumping in between porphyrin rings. This cells increased efficiency of 56% and its more affordable price compared to existing solar cells make it a viable option to the world. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Second Award of $500 U.S. savings bond - Ashtavadhani Vidwan Ambati Subbaraya Chetty Foundation Second Award of $1,500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET049 EFFECT OF CHEMICAL INDUCTION ON THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CELLULOSE TO AVIATION BIOFUELS BY FUNGI GLIOCLADIUM SPECIES Sathvik Ramanan Hanford High School, Richland, WA Considerable focus is being directed towards the development of sustainable and carbon neutral energy sources to meet the increasing demand in world energy consumption. Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Gliocladium are able to degrade plant cellulose and synthesize directly complex hydrocarbons (C7-C12) under microaerophilic conditions. These fungi could thus be used to produce aviation biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks without the need for hydrolytic pretreatments. In this study Gliocladium roseum (1165) is co-cultivated with Escherichia coli on oatmeal substrate using different amino acids as hydrocarbon inducers under microaerophilic conditions. The fungus efficiently produced different hydrocarbons which were analyzed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-solid-phase micro-extraction (GC-MS-SPME). Identification of the fungal products was based on observed mass spectral data of NIST database library. Hydrocarbon production varied from each culture conditions but was found to be higher in amino acids fortified condition. Concentration of hydrocarbons was calculated using authentic standards. Increase in concentration of hydrocarbons ranged from 85 to 4145 percent in amino acids fortified condition. Cellulose represents an attractive feedstock for biofuels production because of its abundance, cost and ability to be converted directly by fungus gliocladium to hydrocarbons. This research is uniquely poised to deliver nations aviation biofuel demand in a cost effective timeline. Identifying metabolic pathways and improving fermentation technology will open doors to advanced biofuels that can power everything from fighter jets to commercial airliners. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** First Award of $3,000 - Air Force Research Laboratory on behalf of the United States Air Force Tuition Scholarship Award of $4,000 for original research in an important Naval-relevant scientific area. Trip to attend the London International Youth Forum - Office of Naval Research on behalf of the United States Navy and Marine Corps

2012 - ET053 A STUDY OF THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF NON-EQUILIBRIUM PLASMA IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES TO ENHANCE COMBUSTION Felipe Gomez del Campo Cypress Bay High School, Weston, FL Annually Jet powered aircraft burn over 80 million gallons of aviation fuel at a cost of $5 per gallon in order to generate thrust. The efficiency of this process is dependent on the speed of the combustion reaction. By increasing the rate of combustion, leaner mixtures can be combusted at higher flow rates, which results in liberating more energy per unit of fuel, therefore increasing the efficiency of combustion as well as flame stability. A jet engine combustor was constructed with a 17 KHz plasma at an amplitude of 15Kv generated in the fuel flow. Industry standard parameters used to measure the performance of jet engines, such as Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT), dynamic exhaust gas pressure and the heat released in combustion were monitored, while the power delivered to the plasma exciter circuit, the flow rate, and the amount of fuel in the mixture were varied. Recording EGT as a function of time, it was experimentally determined that in a cold air flow of 5 m/s, a lean flame without the injection of plasma extinguished immediately (manifested as a rapid drop in EGT), but when plasma was injected into the combustion chamber, no flow rate achievable with the experimental set-up was able to extinguish the flame. Moreover, at the maximum plasma discharge power, a flame was stabilized at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 as compared to 0.6 for the control without the addition of plasma; this represents a 10% fuel savings at the lean flammability limit. It was additionally shown that with a plasma energy less than 3% of the heat released in the combustion chamber, a 62.5% increase in heat evolved at the highest flow rates, and a 5% increase in heat evolved at the flow rate where the maximum value of heat evolved occurred was observed. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Fourth Award of $500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel Third Award of $300 - Society of Experimental Test Pilots

2012 - ET054 ALGAE TO OIL IN A THREE STEP WET PROCESS Evie Sobczak Shorecrest Preparatory School, St. Petersburg, FL Manufacturing algae biofuel is plagued with obstacles preventing it from being a viable fuel source. The objective was to produce an environmentally-friendly, cost-competitive biofuel by engineering equipment and designing methods that refine all three phases of algae oil production. To enhance Spirogyras growth, a red light spectrum photo-bioreactor(RLS-PBR)was designed using dispersive prisms. A closed loop CO2 injection chamber was built for monitoring consumption. Fe+2 was added as a growth elixir, aggregate facilitator and CO2 absorber. Chemically-free ionic flocculation was developed for dewatering, and an ultrasonic vacuum chamber was engineered to extract lipids in a single wet-step process. For comparison, Spirogyra was cultivated in two fabricated vessels; one encased in RLS-PBR, engineered to separate and focus the red light spectrum, another in a visible light spectrum photo-bioreactor(VLS-PBR). Both were air agitated and infused with 650 ppms of CO2 and 3 grams of Fe+2 for increased proliferation. After cultivation, the solution was ionicly flocculated by exploiting Fe+2, a cation, to attract algae, in an electrostatic polymeric bond. This ionic interaction produced Fe3O2 which bridged the algae's cell walls producing a floc with an efficiency rating of 72% without solvents or carbon energy. Hemacytometer results showed algae cultivated in RLS-PBR grew 32% more than algae in VLS-PBR. CO2 airborne monitoring confirmed algae in RLS-PBR consumed 16% more CO2 than VLS-PBR. Ionic flocculation revealed RLS-PBR floc had a volume of 33.9cm versus VLS-PBR floc of 23.9cm, a 29% growth rate difference confirming the hemacytometer results. The ultrasonic vacuum chamber produced cavitation that shredded the cell membrane,while the vacuum eased the release of lipids. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Second Award of $1,500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET055 THE IMPACT OF FUNGICIDES ON CORN GROWTH AND ETHANOL PRODUCTION Dre Erik Howard Steinwehr Hankinson High School, Hankinson, ND Purpose: To see the growth promoting and plant health boosting aspects of natural and chemical fungicides on Zea mays cultivars. Secondly, to determine the fungal fighting components of the fungicides on corn fungi toxins. Next, to examine the effects the solutions have on the amount of ethanol production. Procedure: Collected two natural fungicides along with two agricultural fungicides. Prepared solution by mixing according to field application rates. Test Plot: The test plot was performed to see how natural and chemical fungicide effected the growth and yields of corn, as compared to a control solution. Plant Tissue Analysis: This method was completed to see what influence the fungicide applications had on tissue nutrient levels. Mycotoxin Quantitative Test: This method was used to determine the amount of various mycotoxins present on the corn samples. Ethanol Fermentation Analysis: This procedure was performed to see if the chemical or natural fungicides had any differentiation in the amount of ethanol produced from corn. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA was used to statistically analyze the results from this research. Conclusion: Throughout the testing, I found that Headline and Neem were the best products. Overall, I feel that Neem and Rosemary would be great alternatives to chemical fungicides, and would also provide beneficial aspects to the corn yields and fermentability of corn starch for ethanol production. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Third Award of $1,000 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET058 WIND: A NEW SPIN ON THINGS Caleb Kyle Meyer Hope-Page Public School, Hope, ND The purpose of my experiment was to determine if a tri-blade design is the best design for small wind turbines, or if there is a more powerful design that is available. I went about this task by constructing different combinations of blade type, count, and hub size to cover many possibilities. I built three different sizes of hubs, two, eight, and eleven inch radius hubs. The two inch size had three, five, and twelve blade variations. The eight and eleven inch hubs each had a five, twelve, twenty-four, and forty-eight side variation. All blade designs were equipped with the same wing cross section, but it was scaled to fit each hub. Also, all blades were tested with a leading edge similar to the flipper of a humpback whale to try to increase performance. All designs were tested inside a two-foot diameter foam cowling, which was mounted inside a four-foot square wind tunnel. This tunnel was mounted with two different fans to achieve two different wind speeds for testing and all blades were tested at three different angles. The designs and hubs were mounted on a threaded rod, which was then attached to a generator. Output was read in volts and amps, which were multiplied by one another to find power in watts. Hubs were rated by the amount of power they produced. The results showed that the five blade two inch hub design with a whale edge was the best for my setup, as it generated the most power. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Third Award of $1,000 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel Third Award of $1000 - National Aeronautics and Space Administration Certificate of Honorable Mention - Society of Experimental Test Pilots

2012 - ET304 A STUDY OF SOLAR PAINT Toluwani Temiloluwa Soares, Allison Martin, Shyamsunder Raghavan The Academy of Science and Technology, The Woodlands, TX The purpose of this study was to develop paint capable of harvesting solar energy. Three paints were fabricated in correspondence with the structure of a thin-film solar cell. The layers of the solar cell are: the back lead, p-type, n-type, and front lead. To create a circuit, a wire connected the back lead to the front lead. Aluminum formed the back lead, the semiconductor CIGS formed the p-type, and ZnO:Al formed both the n-type and front lead. The procedure was subdivided into the following categories: preliminary trials, glass trials and concrete trials. The preliminary trials were conducted on a glass substrate and determined the optimal concentration of ZnO:Al. The glass trials, also conducted on a glass substrate, determined the optimal concentration of CIGS. When the optimal concentrations of both ZnO:Al and CIGS were resolved, the superior paint was applied to a concrete substrate. A sensor was used to measure the voltage, current, and power output of each concentration. For the preliminary trials, the least concentration of ZnO:Al yielded the greatest power due to the formation of undesirable ligands. The greatest concentration of CIGS yielded the greatest power, but the second highest concentration was deemed optimal due to financial concerns. When applied to a concrete substrate, the power output of the superior paint decreased by 18%. To enhance these results, the paints durability was evaluated. Exposure to hostile environments significantly reduced its power output. If financially viable, a successful solar energy-harvesting paint could coat roadways across the nation. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** First Award of $1,000 - American Intellectual Property Law Association Second Award of $1,500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET308 AU- AND PD-NANOPARTICLE CATALYSTS IN NOVEL NAFION COMPOSITES FOR PEM FUEL CELL POWER ENHANCEMENT Yon Kyu Jang, Hansen Qian, Matthew Rudin Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, Alexandria, VA The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM)known also by its commercial name Nafionholds unexplored catalytic potential for power output enhancement. In this study, Nafion layers were modified with non-platinum nanoparticle catalysts to make affordable composites with improved electron generation capacity. Topographically, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers of gold, palladium, and gold-palladium nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of the Nafion. The surface pressure was optimized through a proxy oxygen reduction reaction in a cyclic voltammetry analysis, and was visually characterized through transmission electron microscopy. Internally, the nanoparticles were embedded inside the Nafion via a customized solution recasting technique; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy affirmed the chemical unalteration of the Nafion at each stage of recasting. Power output results at room temperature showed that embedded membranes outperformed both the control (p < 0.05) and the LB membranes (p < 0.05). A hydrogen gas heater-humidifier was then created to emulate high temperature environments for the fuel cell. Power output results at 80C showed that embedded membranes were again superior (p < 0.05), but with LB membranes also showing gains over control (p < 0.05). More specifically, the embedded membranes of gold and palladium nanoparticles displayed power output increases of 58% and 47%, respectively, suggesting a novel means to significantly augment power generation in PEM fuel cells. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Third Award of $1,000 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel Each winning project will receive $3,000 in shares of UTC common stock. - United Technologies Corporation

2012 - ET310 THE DEVELOPMENT AND MAXIMIZATION OF A NOVEL PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROBIAL FUEL CELL USING RHODOSPIRILLUM RUBRUM Gavin Mai, Marcus Gomez, Century High School, Rochester, MN This study attempts to pursue a novel alternative source of energy--the microbial fuel cell, a device that harnesses the metabolic processes of bacteria during cellular respiration to produce electricity. In particular, the goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the bacteria Rhodospirilum rubrum (a purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria) in producing electricity, as it is both a fairly common bacteria in the real world (actively used in wastewater treatment) and also as it has never before been shown to perform well in a microbial fuel cell. A prototype for a photoMFC was developed using clear PVC and a commercially available cation exchange membrane. Tests were then conducted measuring potential over a 10kOhm resistor as wavelength of light exposed (R. rubrum) was modified. In addition, bacterial growth was monitored under the fuel cell conditions. Results showed that R. rubrum had a significant capacity to perform in a microbial fuel cell, with peak voltage occurring under a fluorescent light at approximately 920mV, and with no limitations in growth being observed. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the differences in power outputs under varied wavelengths were statistically significant (p<0.01); the peak in measured power output occurred under the wavelength &#955;=525. Best fit regression analysis of the wavelength data revealed an r^2=.99 for a cubic model (p<0.05), indicating that 99% of the variation in power output during the tests could be explained by the relationship between wavelength and power output; using this model, the optimal wavelength for maximum power output was estimated to occur at approximately &#955;=470. Power curves were calculated to determine optimal resistance by means of a quadratic regression analysis (r^2=0.88, p<0.05). Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** First Team Award of $1,500 for each member - Air Force Research Laboratory on behalf of the United States Air Force

2012 - ET314 PAPER-LIKE PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROBIAL PAPER FUEL CELL Yiu Tak Wong, Pun Chun Sang, Tsui Yung Kin Samuel The Chinese Foundation Secondary School, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, HONG KONG There is currently a strong interest in the development of thin, flexible, lightweight, and environmental-friendly batteries to meet the needs for applications such as interactive packaging and consumer products. In this research, two novel designs of thin-layered photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (PMFC) were studied. Firstly, polypyrrole-ITO glass with either algae or yeast coating was used as bioelectrode in the rigid thin-layered PMFC model, which shows superior higher power density (619 mW m^2) with the corresponding current density of 1733 mA m^2. Superior performance of rigid-thin-layered PMFC can be achieved through the use of three-dimensional structure of polymeric electrodes. In this research, we propose a 3D electrode configuration design that combines an open macroporous structure for internal microbial colonization and an affinitive electrode surface for improved electrons transfer. Not only the non-flexible thin-layered PMFC was designed, but a new structure of thin, flexible PMFC using free-standing polypyrrole-agar composite thin films as both electrodes was also successfully constructed. Over 90% of the materials used in this design are biodegradable and green, which can be extracted from plants. Both agar-based conductive polymeric electrodes and biocatalysts are integrated through a lamination process. The flexible-agar-based thin-layered PMFC exhibits moderate power density (135 mW m^2) with the corresponding current density of 437 mA m^2, opening up new possibilities for the production of environmental-friendly, cost-effective, up-scalable and lightweight energy storage system. It is believed that this is the first report on the design and development of the green, biodegradable flexible thin-layered PMFC. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Second Award of $1,500 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel

2012 - ET315 MICROFLUIDIC BIODIESEL EFFECTUATOR Andy Law, David Larkin, West High School, Salt Lake City, UT Traditional biodiesel processors are stationary, require the heating of reactants (usually to 55.0 60.0 C), and necessitate grid electricity. The purpose of the continuation project, Biodiesel Microfluidic Effectuator, is to create a low-cost, portable, off-grid processor that incorporates novel microfluidic reaction technology and a new method for separating biodiesel from glycerol with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). The processors objective is to execute the biodiesel reaction at ambient temperatures (such as 22.0 C) to limit energy input, hence maximizing energy output. Additionally, it is designed to be a continuous flow process with minimal manual involvement in generating biodiesel from vegetable oil, methanol, and potassium hydroxide. In conclusion, Biodiesel Microfluidic Effectuator (Bio-ME) is a plausible, tangible biodiesel processor. It produces biodiesel from either new or used vegetable oil and filters the generated hydrophobic biodiesel from the hydrophilic glycerol by-product using porous ePTFE tubing. The biodiesel reaction can occur at ambient temperatures due to the hydrophobic microfluidic tubing causing the biodiesel to be attracted to the wall of the tube while the hydrophilic glycerol is repelled to the center. Since biodiesel is produced in a equilibrium reaction, heat is traditionally used to catalyze the forward reaction and thus, preventing its reversal. Hydrophobic silicone tubing can replace the heat catalyst, as it attracts the reacted biodiesel away from the glycerol. This separation prevents the reverse reaction from occurring. Furthermore, Bio-ME is a continuous flow process in biodiesel generation and is powered by a 15-watt solar panel attached to the top of the processor, allowing it to be used off-grid. Awards won at the 2012 ISEF*************** Third Award of $1,000 - Energy and Transportation - Presented by Intel