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Basic Mathematics: CAL

Introduction to Microsoft Excel

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRO !CTION # ENTERIN$ ATA AN %AL!ES Tas& #'#: Enterin( ata into )or&sheet Tas& #'*: Enterin( %alues into a cell * FORMATTIN$ AN C!STOMISIN$ CELLS Tas& *'#: Ad,ustin( Column )idth - Ro. /ei(ht Tas& *'*: Formattin( Cell usin( tool0ars Tas& *'": Formattin( Cell usin( Menu O2tions " ENTERIN$ FORM!LA Tas& "'#: Enterin( a formula + CREATIN$ C/ART Tas& +'#: Creatin( chart usin( Chart)i5ard Tas& +'*: Resi5in( and mo6in( a chart Tas& +'": Chan(in( Chart O2tions E7ERCISE # 1 SCATTER 8LOTTIN$ ATA Tas&s 1'#: Creatin( an Initial Scatter 8lot of Titration ata Tas&s 1'*: Chan(in( the Scatter 8lot to a Line $ra2h 9 RE$RESSION LINE Tas&s 9'#: Introduction to Re(ression Line Tas&s 9'*: Creatin( Initial Scatter 8lot Tas&s 9'": Creatin( a Linear Re(ression Line :Trendline; Tas&s 9'+: !sin( Re(ression E<uation to Calculate Concentrations Tas&s 9'1: !sin( the R>s<uared coefficient calculation to estimate fit E7ERCISE * " " " " + + 1 3 #4 #4 #4 #4 #" #" #+ #3 #3 ** *" *" *" *1 *= "4 "#

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Introduction A 6er? effecti6e .a? to or(ani5e the information such that trends@ relationshi2s or extra2olation can 0e made 0? 2resentin( data ta&en from an ex2eriment in a .ell illustrated (ra2h' It is therefore 6er? im2ortant to &no. ho. to ta0ulate data and illustrate the information (ra2hicall?' Linear re(ression :linear anal?sis; or other mathematical anal?sis can 0e used to extract 2ertinent information@ i'e'@ slo2e of line and ?>interce2t' ata that is 0est re2resented (ra2hicall? are those in .hich one 6aria0le is controlled and the other measure' It is 0est to o0tain the data in ta0le form and then to (ra2h the measured 2ro2ert? on a set of 2er2endicular axes' The inde2endent 6aria0les are 2lotted alon( the hori5ontal x>axis or a0scissa .ith the de2endent 6aria0les 2lotted lon( the 6ertical ?>axis or the ordinate' 1 ENTERING DATA AND VALUES Task 1.1: Entering Data into Worksheet O0,ecti6e of Tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to enter an? data into the .or&sheet' Entering Te t !La"e#s$ into a ce## Select the cell ?ou .ant to contain the la0el' T?2e the la0el>Excel .ill reco(ni5e it as a la0el if it 0e(ins .ith a letter' T?2e an Aa2ostro2heB if ?our la0el 0e(ins .ith a num0er' Confirm the entr?' To con%ir& a ce## entr' Clic& the Enter Button on the Formula 0ar' (R 8ress either the )Enter* or )Ta"* &e?' (R 8ress an? of the arro. &e?s on the &e?0oard' To cance# a ce## entr' Clic& the +ance# 0utton on the Formula 0ar' (R 8ress the )Esc* &e?' Tutoria# 1: #' Select cell A# *' T?2e ASam2le 7 6s' CB as the title and 2ress )Enter* &e?'

Task 1.,: Entering Va#ues into a ce## O0,ecti6e of Tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to enter an? t?2e of numerical data' A 6alue can 0e an? t?2e of numerical data' Enterin( a 6alue in a .or&sheet is no different from enterin( la0elsD ?ou sim2l? t?2e the 6alue and confirm the entr? 0? clic&in( the )Enter* 0utton or 2ressin( )Enter*@ )Ta"*@ or an? of the arro. &e?s'
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Tutoria# ,: #' Select A" *' T?2e A7B as the column la0el@ 2ress EEnterF &e?' "' Select cell B"@ t?2e ACB as the column la0el@ 2ress EEnterF &e?' +' T?2e data into res2ecti6e cells as sho.n in Ta0le #'#' The out2ut is as in Fi(ure #'#' Ta"#e 1.1 4 # * " + 1 . 4'4#G4#3 4'4+++4* 4'4="*#+ 4'##3G#= 4'#+"3"* 4'#994G1

/igure 1.1 , /(R0ATTING AND +UST(0ISING +ELLS Task ,.1: Ad1usting +o#u&n Width2 Ro3 4eight O0,ecti6e of Tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to ad,ust column .idth or ro. hei(ht of an? desired cell' To ad,ust the .idth of a column@ do the follo.in(: ra( the column headerBs ri(ht 0order to the left or ri(ht' (R Ri(ht>clic& the column header:s;@ select Column )idth from the shortcut menu and enter the column .idth' (R Select the column header:s;@ select /or&at*+o#u&n*Width from the menu and enter the column .idth' To ad,ust the hei(ht of a ro.@ do the follo.in( ste2s:

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ra( the ro. headerBs 0ottom 0oarder u2 or do.n' (R Ri(ht>clic& the ro. header:s;@ select Ro3 4eight from the shortcut menu and enter the ro. hei(ht' (R Select the ro. header:s;@ select /or&at*Ro3*4eight from menu and enter the ro. hei(ht

To automaticall? ad,ust the .idth of a column or ro. :Auto>fit;: ou0le>clic& the ri(ht 0order of the column or 0ottom 0oarder of a ro.' (R Clic& the column headin( to select the column and select /or&at*+o#u&n*Auto5%it from the menu' Tutoria# 6: #' Select column A *' Ri(ht>clic& the column@ select Acolumn .idthB from the dro2>do.n menu'

"'

Enter A1B in the column .idth 2o2>u2 dialo( 0ox' Clic& )(7* 0utton'

Task ,.,: /or&atting +e## using too#"ars O0,ecti6e of Tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to chan(e the st?le set accordin( to the selected characteristics 0? usin( formattin( tool0ar' Once a st?le is a22lied@ the st?le can easil? 0e a22lied to .hole (rou2 of formats in one sim2le tas&'

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To Bold Text@ do the follo.in(: Clic& the Bold 0utton on the Formattin( tool0ar or 2ress )+tr#*8)9*. To Italic Text@ do the follo.in( ste2s: Clic& the Italics 0utton on the Formattin( tool0ar or 2ress )+tr#*8)I*. To !nderline Text@ do these ste2s: Clic& the !nderline 0utton on the Formattin( tool0ar or 2ress )+tr#*8)U*. To chan(e Font Si5e@ do the follo.in( ste2s: Select the 2t' si5e from the Font Si5e list on the Formattin( tool0ar' To chan(e Font T?2e@ follo. these ste2s: Select the font from the Font list on the Formattin( tool0ar' +e## A#ign&ent To chan(e cell ali(nment@ do the follo.in(: Select the cell or cell ran(e ?ou .ant to ali(n' Clic& the a22ro2riate ali(nment 0utton:s; on the Formattin( tool0ar' (R Select the cell or cell ran(e ?ou .ant to ali(n Either ri(ht>clic& the selection or select /or&at +e##s from the shortcut menu or select /or&at*+e##s from the menu' Clic& the ali(nment ta0 and select the desired ali(nment o2tion' Tutoria# :: #' Select cell ran(e from A" to B3 :clic& A"@ hold )Shi%t* and clic& B3;

*' Clic& the ACentreB ali(nment 0utton

'

0erging +e##s; Rotating te t and using Auto5%it To mer(e Cells@ do the follo.in(: Select the cells that ?ou .ant to mer(e' Select /or&at*+e##s from the menu@ clic& the A#ign&ent ta0@ select the 0erge ce##s chec&0ox and clic& (7.
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To Rotate Text in a Cell@ follo. these ste2s: Select the cell or the cell ran(e ?ou .ant to modif?' Select /or&at*+e##s from the menu and clic& the A#ign&ent ta0' Select on of the o2tions in the Orientation section or ad,ust the an(le 0? dra((in( the text rotation tool' Formattin( %alue To a22l? num0er formattin(@ do the follo.in(: Select the cell or cell ran(e ?ou .ant to format and clic& the a22ro2riate num0er formattin( 0utton:s; on the Formattin( tool0ar (R Select the cell or cell ran(e ?ou .ant to format@ select /or&at*+e##s from the menu@ clic& the Nu&"er ta0@ and s2ecif? the num0er formattin( ?ou .ant to a22l? (R Select the cell or cell ran(e ?ou .ant to format@ ri(ht>clic& the cell or cell ran(e and select /or&at +e##s from the shortcut menu@ clic& the Nu&"er ta" and s2ecif? the num0er formattin( ?ou .an to a22l?' Tutorial 1: #' Select cell ran(e from B+ to B3 :clic& B+@ hold )Shi%t* and clic& B3;

*'

Ri(ht>clic& in the cell ran(e@ choose AFormat cellsB from the dro2>do.n menu' Format cell dialo( 0ox a22ears'

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"' In the dialo( 0ox@ clic& on the ANum0erB ta0' Choose the ANum0erB cate(or?' T?2e A9B in the decimal 2laces'

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+' Clic& the EOHF 0utton'

Task ,.6: /or&atting +e## using 0enu (<tions O0,ecti6e of Tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to chan(e the st?le set accordin( to the selected characteristics 0? usin( menu o2tions' )hen ?ou a22l? a st?le@ (rou2 of formats can 0e a22lied in one sim2le tas&' Adding 9oarders To add 0oarders@ follo. these ste2s: #' Select Too#s*(<tions form the menu and clic& the Vie3 ta0' *' Clic& the Grid#ines chec&0ox to remo6e the chec&mar& and clic& (7' "' Select the cell ran(e@ clic& the Boarder 0utton arro. on the Formattin( tool0ar and select the 0oarder ?ou .ant' A<<#'ing +o#ors and =atterns To a22l? 0ac&(round colors and 2atterns@ do these ste2s: Select the cell or cell ran(e ?ou .ant to format' Clic& the Fill color list arro. on the formattin( tool0ar and select the color ?ou .ant' (R Ri(ht>clic&@ the selection and select Format Cells from the shortcut menu@ or select /or&at*+e##s from the menu' Clic& the =atterns ta0 and select the color or 2attern ?ou .ant to use'

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6 ENTERING /(R0ULA Task 6.1: Entering a %or&u#a O0,ecti6e of Tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to enter a formula@ .hich are e<uations that 2erform calculations on 6alues in ?our .or&sheet' To enter a formula@ use these ste2s: #' Clic& the cell .here ?ou .ant to insert the formula' *' 8ress I :e<uals si(n; to 0e(in an? formula' "' Enter the formula' +' 8ress )Enter*' Remem0er: All formulas in Excel must 0e(in .ith an e<ual si(n :I;' To reference a cell in a formula: #' T?2e the cell reference > for exam2le@ A"' (R *' Clic& the cell ?ou .ant to reference and clic& )Enter*.

: +REATING +4ART Task :.1: +reating chart using +hartWi>ard O0,ecti6e of Tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to create an? t?2e of chart 0? usin( Chart )i5ard' To create a chart .ith the Chart)i5ard@ do the follo.in( ste2s: Select the cell ran(e that contains the data ?ou .ant to chart and clic& the Chart)i5ard 0utton on the Standard tool0ar (R Select the cell ran(e and select Insert*+hart from the menu' :Ste2 # of +; Select the chart t?2e and clic& Ne t. :Ste2 * of +; %erif? :or chan(e; the cell ran(e used in the chart and clic& Ne t. :Ste2 " of +; Ad,ust the chart o2tions 0? clic&in( the cate(ori5ed ta0s and selectin( an? o2tions then clic& Ne t' :Ste2 + of +; S2ecif? .here ?ou .ant to 2lace the chart :as an em0edded o0,ect or on a ne. sheet; and clic& /inish.

Tutoria# ?: #' Select cell ran(e of A" to B3' *' "' Clic& on chart 0utton@ ' The AChart )i5ardB dialo( 0ox a22ears' Choose the A7C scatterB in the chart t?2e' Clic& on the )Ne tF 0utton'

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+'

Clic& on the ASeriesB ta0'

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1' 9' G' ='

Clic& on the )Ne t* 0utton' T?2e ASam2le 7 6s' CB in the +hart tit#e: in2ut text column' T?2e A7 :a'u;B in the Va#ue !-$ a is: in2ut text column' T?2e AC :a'u;B in the Va#ue !.$ a is: in2ut text column'

3' Clic& on the )Ne t* 0utton' #4' Choose the 8lace chart: As o"1ect in 0utton'

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##' Clic& on the )/inish* 0utton' The (ra2h .ill 0e dis2la?ed as in Fi(ure +'#'

Fi(ure +'# Task :.,: Resi>ing and &o@ing a chart O0,ecti6e of Tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to chan(e the chart si5e and mo6e the chart to a22ro2riate location' To resi5e a chart@ do these ste2s: Clic& the chart to select it' ra( its si5in( handles until the chart is the si5e ?ou .ant' To mo6e a chart@ do these ste2s: Clic& and hold the mouse 0utton on the 0lan& area around the chart' ra( the 2icture to a ne. location in the .or&0oo&@ and then release the mouse 0utton' Task :.6: +hanging +hart (<tions O0,ecti6e of Tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to chan(e the chart t?2e .hich is offered in the chart t?2e menu' +hanging +hart T'<e To chan(e the chart t?2e@ do the follo.in( ste2s: Select the chart and select +hart*+hart T'<e from the menu@ (R Clic& the Chart T?2e list arro. on the Chart tool0ar' +hanging a +hartAs source data To chan(e a ChartBs ata Source@ do these ste2s: Select the chart@ select +hart*Source Data from the menu and clic& the Data Range ta0' Clic& the Data Range 0ox and select the cell ran(e ?ou .ant to 0ase the chart on :clic& the +o##a<se dialo( 0ox 0utton if necessar?;'

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Clic& (7. Adding and changing +hart tit#es To add and chan(e titles to a chart@ do the follo.in( ste2s: Select the chart@ select +hart*+hart (<tions from the menu@ and clic& the Tit#es ta0' Enter or modif? the text in the text 0oxes that corres2ond to the desired chart titles' Adding and Re&o@ing Grid#ines To add or remo6e $ridlines from a Chart@ do the follo.in( ste2s: Select the chart@ select +hart*+hart (<tions from the menu@ and clic& the Grid#ines ta0' Chec& or unchec& the a22ro2riate (ridline chec& 0oxes' Adding or re&o@ing a Data Ta"#e To add or remo6e a data ta0le@ follo. these ste2s: Clic& the ata Ta0le 0utton on the Chart tool0ar@ or Select the chart@ select +hart*+hart (<tions from the menu@ and clic& the Data Ta"#e ta0' Chec& or unchec& the a22ro2riate chec& 0oxes to hide or dis2la? a data ta0le' Select one of the 2lacement o2tions for the le(end' Adding or Re&o@ing +hart Data La"e#s. To add or remo6e chart data la0els' Follo. these ste2s: Select the chart@ select +hart*+hart (<tions from the menu@ and clic& the Data La"e#s ta0' Chec& or unchec& the a22ro2riate chec& 0oxes to dis2la? or hide data la0els'

E ercise 1
Scenario Descri<tion BeerBs La. states that there is a linear relationshi2 0et.een concentration of a colored com2ound in solution and the li(ht a0sor2tion of the solution' This fact can 0e used to calculate the concentration of un&no.n solutions@ (i6en their a0sor2tion readin(s' First@ a series of solutions of &no.n concentration are tested for their a0sor2tion le6el' Next@ a scatter 2lot is made of this em2irical data' Scenario Detai#s O2en Excel' Cour data .ill (o in the first t.o columns in the s2readsheet' T?2e ABeerBs La. 8lot ataB as the title in cell A1' T?2e AConcentration :M;B to la0el the &no.n solutions in cell A6. T?2e AA0sor0anceB to la0el the a0sor2tion readin(s for each of the solutions in cell 96 Format the s2readsheet cells so the a22ro2riate num0ers of decimal 2laces are dis2la?ed' +#ick and drag o6er the ran(e of cells that .ill hold the concentration data :A+ throu(h A#4 for the sam2le data; Choose /or&at*+e##sB Clic& on the Nu&"er ta0

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!nder Cate(or? choose Nu&"er and set ecimal 2laces to C Clic& (7 Re2eat for the a0sor0ance data column :B+ throu(h B#4 for the sam2le data;@ settin( the decimal 2laces to :

Enter ?our data 0elo. the column titles as sho.n' Cou can also 2lace the a0sor2tion readin(s for the un&no.n solutions 0elo. the other data' The concentration data is 0etter ex2ressed in scientific notation' /i(hli(ht the concentration data and choose /or&at*+e##sB Choose the Scienti%ic Cate(or? and set the ecimal 2laces to ,'

The last ste2 0efore creatin( the (ra2h is to choose the data ?ou .ant to (ra2h' /i(hli(ht the data in 0oth the concentration and a0sor0ance columns :0ut not the un&no.n data;

)ith the data ?ou .ant (ra2hed high#ighted@ start the chart .i5ard Choose the +hart Wi>ard icon from the tool 0ar' If the Chart )i5ard is not 6isi0le@ ?ou can also choose Insert*+hartB

The first dialo(ue of the .i5ard comes u2 Choose -. !Scatter$ and the unconnected <ointsA icon for the Chart su0>t?2e'

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Clic& )Ne t*

The ata Ran(e 0ox should reflect the data ?ou hi(hli(hted in the s2readsheet' The Series o2tion should 0e set to Columns@ .hich is ho. ?our data is or(ani5ed'

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Clic& )Ne t*

The next dialo(ue in the .i5ard is .here ?ou la0el ?our chart Enter 9eerAs La3 for the Chart Title Enter +oncentration !0$ for the %alue 7 Axis Enter A"sor"ance for the %alue C Axis

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Clic& on the Legend ta0 Clic& o%% the Sho3 Legend o2tion

Clic& )Ne t* Hee2 the chart as an o0,ect in the current sheet' Note: Cour current sheet is 2ro0a0l? named .ith the default name of JSheet #K'

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Clic& )/inish*

Ti&e Esti&ated to +o&<#ete the E ercise The estimated time to com2lete this tas& is *4 minutes Exercise ifficult? Le6el: #

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C.

Scatter =#otting Data

Tasks C.1: +reating an initia# Scatter =#ot o% Titration Data O0,ecti6e of tas&s: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to create initial scatter 2lot for a set of titration data' Tutoria# 1: Cou are (i6en a set of data on a stron( acid>stron( 0ase titration as in Fi(ure 1'#' )ith this titration@ a stron( 0ase :NaO/; of &no.n concentration is added to a stron( acid :also of &no.n concentration;' As the stron( 0ase is added to solution@ its O/ > ions 0ind .ith the free /L ions of the acid' An e<ui6alence 2oint is reached .hen there is no free O/ > or /L ions in the solution' This e<ui6alence 2oint can 0e found .ith a colour indicator in the solution or throu(h a 2/ titration cur6e' #' Enter ?our titration data' If ?ou donBt ha6e ?our o.n data@ use the data sho.n in Fi(ure 1'#'

/igure C.1: Titration set of data *' There should 0e t.o columns of date in ?our s2read sheet:> i' Column A: mL of 4'#M NaO/ added ii' Column B: 2/ of the 4'#M /Cl - 4'#M NaO/ mixture "' Select the ran(e of data to 0e 2lotted :from A+ to B#+; as sho.n in Fi(ure 1'*'

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/igure C.,: Selectin( ran(e of data +' Clic& on Chart )i5ard 0utton' 1' Select the 7C :scatter; and the scatter Chart su0>t?2e as in Fi(ure 1'"'

/igure C.6: Chart )i5ard dialo( 0ox 9' Continue throu(h ste2s * throu(h + of the Chart )i5ard' i The defaults for the ste2 * should 0e fine if ?ou 2ro2erl? hi(hli(hted the data ii In ste2 " enter the chart title and x and ? axis la0els and turn off the le(end

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In ste2 +@ lea6e as an o0,ect in the current 2a(e G' The resultin( 2lot should loo& li&e Fi(ure 1'+'

iii

Titration o% CD&L o% D.10 4+# #+'44 #*'44 #4'44 ='44 9'44 +'44 *'44 4'44 4'44

<4

2/

#4'44

*4'44

"4'44

+4'44

14'44

94'44

G4'44

D.10 Na(4 Added !&L$


/igure C.:: Resultin( scatter 2lot (ra2h

Tasks C.,: +hanging the Scatter =#ot to a Line Gra<h O0,ecti6e of tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to chan(e the scatter 2lot to a line (ra2h' All of the 2oints of the titration data can 0e connected to form a smooth cur6e' )ith this a22roach@ the cur6e is (uaranteed to (o throu(h all of the data 2oints' This is 0oth (ood and 0ad' This o2tion can 0e used if ?ou ha6e on#' one <4 reading <er a&ount o% Na(4 added. If ?ou ha6e multi2le readin(s for each amount added on the scatter 2lot@ ?ou .ill end u2 .ith a smooth cur6e' To chan(e the scatter 2lot is a :smoothed; line (ra2h: #' Choose +hart * +hart T'<eB

*' Select the Scatter +onnected "' s&ooth #ines Chart su0t?2e

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"' The resultin( 2lot should li&e Fi(ure 1'1'

/igure C.C: Resultin( (ra2h line This smooth@ connected cur6e hel2s locate .here the stee2 2art of the cur6e 2asses throu(h 2/ G'

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?. Regression Line Task ?.1: Introduction to Regression Line O0,ecti6e of tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to create initial scatter 2lot' Re(ression lines can 0e used as a .a? of 6isuall? de2ictin( the relationshi2 0et.een the inde2endent :x; and de2endent :?; 6aria0les in the (ra2h' A strai(ht line de2icts a linear trend in the data :i'e'@ the e<uation descri0in( the line is of first order' For exam2le@ ? I "x L +' There are no s<uared or cu0ed 6aria0les in this e<uation;' A cur6ed line re2resents a trend descri0ed 0? a hi(her order e<uation :e'('@ ? I *x* L 1x M =;' It is im2ortant that ?ou are a0le to defend ?our use of either a strai(ht or cur6ed re(ression line' That is@ the theor? underl?in( ?our la0 should indicate .hether the relationshi2 of the inde2endent and de2endent 6aria0les should 0e linear or non>linear' In addition to 6isuall? de2ictin( the trend in the data .ith a re(ression line@ ?ou can also calculate the e<uation of the re(ression line' This e<uation can either 0e seen in a dialo(ue 0ox and-or sho.n on ?our (ra2h' /o. .ell this e<uation descri0es the data :the AfitB;@ is ex2ressed as a correlation coefficient@ R* :R>s<uared;' The closer R* is to #'44@ the 0etter the fit' This too can 0e calculated and dis2la?ed in the (ra2h' The data 0elo. .as first introduced in the Exercise # and is from a chemistr? la0 in6esti(atin( li(ht a0sor2tion 0? solutions' BeerBs La. states that there is a linear relationshi2 0et.een concentration of a coloured com2ound in solution and the li(ht a0sor2tion of the solutions@ (i6en their a0sor2tion readin(s' This is done 0? fittin( linear re(ression line to the collected data' Task ?.,: +reating Initia# Scatter =#ot O0,ecti6e of tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to create initial scatter 2lot' #' *' O2en the Excel file created in Exercise #' Clic& an?.here in the Chart area as sho.n in Fi(ure 9'#'

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/igure ?.1: The BeerBs La. $ra2h file

Task ?.6: +reating a Linear Regression Line !Trend#ine$ O0,ecti6e of tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to add a re(ression line to the chart' #' *' Ma&e sure that the chart is hi(hli(hted 0? clic&in( in the chart area' Clic& on +hart * Add trend#ine from the menu 0ar'

"'

The Add Trendline dialo( 0ox a22ears' Select the Linear Trend2Regression t'<e:

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+'

Select the AO2tionsB ta0' Chec& on the Dis<#a' eEuation on chart 0ox'

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1' 9'

Clic& )(7* 0utton' The chart no. dis2la?s the re(ression line as sho.n in Fi(ure 9'*'

/igure ?.,: BeerBs La. (ra2h .ith a re(ression line G' =' Format the trendline 0? ri(ht>clic&in( on the line@ and choose the format trendline menu' In the Format Trendline dialo( 0ox@ clic& on the 8attern ta0 and chan(e the .ei(ht of line as sho.n in Fi(ure' Clic& )(7* 0utton to close the dialo( 0ox'

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3'

The (ra2h should loo& as in Fi(ure 9'"'

/igure ?.6: BeerBs La. (ra2h .ith formatted re(ression line

Task ?.:: Using Regression EEuation to +a#cu#ate +oncentrations O0,ecti6e of tas&: B? com2letin( this tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to calculate concentrations usin( the re(ression e<uation' The linear e<uation sho.n on the chart re2resents the relationshi2 0et.een Concentration :x; and A0sor0ance :?; for the com2ound in solution' The re(ression line can 0e considered an acce2ta0le estimation of the true relationshi2 0et.een concentration and a0sor0ance' )e ha6e 0een (i6en the a0sor0ance readin(s for t.o solutions of un&no.n concentration' !sin( the linear e<uation@ a s2readsheet cell can ha6e an e<uation associated .ith it to do the calculation for us' )e ha6e a 6alue for ? :A0sor0ance; and need to sol6e for x :Concentration;' Belo. are the al(e0raic e<uations .or&in( out this calculation:> ? I *4G#'3x L 4'4### ? M 4'4### I *4G#'3x :? M 4'4###; - *4G#'3 I x This final e<uation has to 0e con6erted into an e<uation in a s2readsheet cell' AB#*B in the e<uation re2resents ? :the a0sor0ance of the un&no.n;' The solution for x :Concentration; is then dis2la?ed in cell AC#*B' #' Select a cell to hold AxB@ the result of final e<uation as in Fi(ure 9'+'

8a(e *= of +*

/igure ?.: *' Clic& in the e<uation area and t?2e an e<ual si(n :I;@ then a 2arentheses : !;' "' Select the cell re2resentin( A?B in ?our e<uation :cell B#* as in Fi(ure 9'1;'

/igure ?.C +' Finish t?2in( ?our e<uation' Cour e<uation should no. 0e as I:B#*>4'4###;-*4G#'3 1' u2licate the formula-e<uation for the other un&no.n 0? selectin( the C#* cell@ co2? it and 2aste it to cell C#"'

8a(e *3 of +*

Task ?.C: Using the R5sEuared coe%%icient ca#cu#ation to esti&ate %it O0,ecti6e of tas&: B? com2letin( the tas&@ ?ou .ill 0e a0le to estimate line fit usin( the R> s<uared coefficient calculation' #' ou0le>clic& on the trendline' *' Clic& on the AO2tionB ta0 in the Format Trendline dialo( 0ox' Chec& the 6alue on chart 0ox' is2la? R>s<uared

8a(e "4 of +*

"' Cour (ra2h should loo& as in Fi(ure 9'9

/igure ?.?: BeerBs $ra2h La. .ith R>s<uared coefficient calculation Note: The closer the 6alue of R>s<uared to #'4@ the 0etter the fit of the re(ression line' That is@ the closer the line 2asses throu(h all of the 2oints'

8a(e "# of +*

E ercise , i; Calculate the acti6ation ener(? for the acid h?drol?sis of sucrose from an Arrhenius 2lot of the follo.in( data:> Ta"#e 1 Te&<erature !F+$ k; LG&o#51Gs51 *+ +'= x #4>" *= G'= x #4>" "* #'" x #4>* "9 *'4 x #4>* +4 "'* x #4>* ii; Calculate the rate constant at "GNC :0od? tem2erature; 9ackground In%or&ation: The relationshi2 0et.een the acti6ation ener(? as a function of tem2erature is esta0lished 0? the Arrhenius e<uation .hich has the form k H Ae <!Ea2RT$ :E<n #; .here@ & is the rate constant for the reaction A is the 2re>ex2onential factor R is the uni6ersal $as La. constant I ='"#+O-molPH T is the tem2erature in Hel6in Ea is the acti6ation ener(? for the reaction considered Ta&in( the natural lo( of e<uation # and ex2andin( the Arrhenius e<uation to Ink H InA I Ea2RT :E<n *; (i6es a familiar form of a line: ' I 0 L mx :E<n "; .here ? I In& 0 I InA m I >Ea-R x I #-T i; Therefore for the 2ro0lem a0o6e@ a 2lot of In& 6s #-T .ill ?ield a slo2e e<ual to MEa-R .hich is used to calculate the acti6ation ener(? for the reaction'

ii; !sin( the acti6ation ener(? determine from 2art I@ the 6alues of Ea and T :"GNC L *G"; into E<n # to determine the rate constant' # T?2e the data (i6en in Ta"#e 1 into the Excel s2read sheet 2ro(ram in cells' !se cell A1 and 91 as the headin(s' Cells A,5A? are the tem2erature in NC and 9,59? are the rate constant 6alues@ &'

8a(e "* of +*

* T?2e the e<uation into cell C* the formula I#-:*G"LA*;' 8ress the )Enter* &e? to ta0ulate the 6alue'

" Select cell +, result and dra( do.n the corner of the cell to ta0ulate the rest of the 6alues' + ra( do.n the corner of cell +, to+? and release the 2ointer'

8a(e "" of +*

1 The resultin( 6alues are ta0ulated for cell +6 to +?'

9 Enter the e<uation Iln :B*; for the In H in cell D,'

G Re2eat ste<s 6 to C to ta0ulate resultin( 6alues for D, to D?'

8a(e "+ of +*

= /i(hli(ht the 6alues in cell +,5+? and D,5D? and select the Chart )i5ard 0utton ' The Chart )i5ard dialo( 0ox a22ears' Choose the -. !scatter$ chart t?2e and Scatter chart su0> t?2e'

8a(e "1 of +*

3 $o throu(h the Chart )i5ard to o0tain the (ra2h for the data' The resultin( (ra2h is sho.n 0elo..

#4 The scale can 0e ad,usted 0? Jclic&in(K on the ?>axis'

8a(e "9 of +*

## Ad,ust the scale for the (ra2h so that the 0a i&u& range is 56'

#* The result is a (ra2h that maximi5es the (ra2h to the data 2oint' Next@ select the data 2oints on the (ra2h'

8a(e "G of +*

#" )hile the data 2oints are hi(hli(hted@ ri(ht>clic& and choose the Add Trend#ine o2tion from the 2o2>u2 dialo( 0ox'

#+ The Add Trendline dialo( 0ox a22ears'

8a(e "= of +*

#1 Clic& on the O2tion ta0 and select the Dis<#a' eEuation on chart and Dis<#a' R5sEuared @a#ue on the chart chec& 0oxes' Then clic& the (7 0utton'

#9 The result is sho.n 0elo..

8a(e "3 of +*

#G The trendline ma? 0e formatted to a thinner line 0? selectin( the line and ri(ht>clic& on the line' Select the Se#ected ("1ect o2tion' The /or&at Trend#ine dialo( 0ox a22ears'

#= Clic& on the )ei(ht o2tion and choose a thinner line' Clic& the (7 0utton'

8a(e +4 of +*

#3 The result is sho.n 0elo..

From the e<uation of the line: ? I >##44=x L "#'G*G determine the 6alues of the constants as follo.s: For ?>interce2t@ In A can 0e determined as follo.s: Enter In A 6alue :"#'G*G; in one cell@ deri6e A 6alue 0? a22l?in( the a22ro2riate function in the next cell as sho.n' This (i6es the 6alue for factor A I 9'443=# x #4#"

To determine Ea@ the 6alue for the slo2e m I >##44= .ould 0e used' m I >##44= I >Ea-R Enter m in one cellD deri6e Ea 6alue 0? a22l?in( the a22ro2riate function in the next cell as sho.n'

To determine the rate constant :&; at "GNC@ use the (i6en formula & I A ex2 :Ea-RT; He? in the 6alues for A and Ea as determined a0o6e' Calculate the RT 6alue as follo.s:

8a(e +# of +*

Calculate Ea-RT usin( the a22ro2riate function

Next ste2 in6ol6e determination of ex2 :Ea-RT; as sho.n 0elo.

Finall?@ & can 0e o0tained 0? multi2l?in( A ex2 :Ea-RT; ie 6alues of cells B# and B1'

So the rate constant@ & at "GNC .ould 0e #'1=9GG x #4*3 Lnmol>#ns>#

8a(e +* of +*