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11. Silos and tanks

Loading, steel structure of walls and supports. Design is governed by EN 1993-4.

Silos

- for storing granular solids

Tanks

- for storing liquid products

silos bunkers
silos
bunkers

low-pressure (< 2 kPa)
high-pressure (part. spherical)

Gasholders - for storing gas

of steady volume
of variable volume

11. Silos and tanks Loading, steel structure of walls and supports. Design is governed by EN
dry gasholder (piston ceiling)
dry gasholder
(piston ceiling)

water gasholder (telescopic)

11. Silos and tanks Loading, steel structure of walls and supports. Design is governed by EN

OK3

1

© 11

Prof. Ing. Josef Macháček, DrSc.

Helical water gasholder (without supporting stanchions)

filled discharged
filled
discharged

OK3

2

© 11

Prof. Ing. Josef Macháček, DrSc.

Water gasholders with supporting stanchions

Water gasholders with supporting stanchions OK3 3

OK3

3

© 11

Prof. Ing. Josef Macháček, DrSc.

Silos

Serve for storing granular solids. They are divided into:

Bunkers

Silos

> ϕ
> ϕ
plan area is A A h < 1,5
plan area is A
A
h < 1,5

h > 1,5

φ (angle of internal friction)

A
A

Actions on silos (EN 1991-4)

p w γ Zω μ γ Zω γ Z p v p v p h p
p w
γ Zω μ
γ Zω
γ Z
p v
p v
p h
p
p
z
w
h

γ

unit weight F k

φ

angle of internal friction

μ

internal friction factor

γ F loading factor exponential decrement: see Eurocode

Another: wind, snow, discharge loadings,

local loading, temperature, settling of supports ...

Coefficient of active earth pressure:

ω

=

OK3

tg ⎜ ⎛ 45

2

φ

2

4

© 11

Prof. Ing. Josef Macháček, DrSc.

Analysis and design of silos (EN 1993-4-1)

3 consequence classes: Class 1, 2, 3

Class 1:

Simple structures, up to capacity 100 t, simplified actions.

  • - membrane theory may be used, with simple formulas for boundary disturbance and asymetric loading.

Checks for:

  • - global stability and static equilibrium,

  • - strength of the structure and joints,

  • - stability (global and local – formulas given in Eurocode),

  • - cyclic plastification,

  • - fatigue,

Analysis and design of silos (EN 1993-4-1) 3 consequence classes: Class 1, 2, 3 Class 1:

for Class 1 may be ignored

  • - SLS (deflections and vibrations ).

Design allowance for corrosion and abrasion min. 2 mm is recommended!

Cylindrical silos (shell):

= p r ≤ t f yd t = f i.e. p from equilibrium (membrane theory)
= p r ≤ t f
yd
t =
f
i.e.
p
from equilibrium (membrane theory)
p r dϕ dx
n dϕ dx
• wall of unstiffened cylinder:
θ,Ed
r dϕ
θ
n
θ
n
t
p h
D = 2r
5
OK3
⇒ membrane circumferential tension force in cylinder wall:
cylinder
ring
hopper
θ
θ
r
n
n
p h
x
=
h
h
θ
θ
h
n
yd
r
n

© 11

Prof. Ing. Josef Macháček, DrSc.

- meridional force (vertical, from weight and friction):

n

x,Ed

Strength check (Ilyushin yield criterion):

2 n n θ,Ed x,Ed x,Ed θ,Ed + n 2 − n
2
n
n
θ,Ed
x,Ed
x,Ed
θ,Ed
+ n
2 − n

t f

yd

wall of conical hopper:

from equilibrium of vertical forces in ring the meridional force:

n

pressure from cyllinder content V 1 V 2 β n φ φ
pressure from
cyllinder content V 1
V 2
β
n
φ
φ

n

φ, Εd

=

V

Ed

- meridional force (vertical, from weight and friction): n x,Ed Strength check (Ilyushin yield criterion): 2

2π

r

sin β

V 1 + V 2

Approximate check of hopper wall:

1,2 n

φ, Ed

0 ,90 t f

ud

(for γ M2 =1,25)

- meridional force (vertical, from weight and friction): n x,Ed Strength check (Ilyushin yield criterion): 2

recommended for asymmetrical loading

• Transition junction stiffening ring (N, M)
• Transition junction
stiffening ring
(N, M)

supports

OK3

loading of the ring:

- meridional force (vertical, from weight and friction): n x,Ed Strength check (Ilyushin yield criterion): 2
n φ β
n
φ
β

6

© 11

Prof. Ing. Josef Macháček, DrSc.

Approximate circumferential compressive force in the junction (effective area of the ring A et is given in Eurocode):

N

Ed

N

Ed

=

n

φ ,Ed

r sin β

and

f

yd

A Except strength checks the stability (buckling) of the shell need to be assessed:

et

in vertical direction, in horizontal direction (due to wind and possible depression at discharge).

Approximate circumferential compressive fo rce in the junction (effective area of the ring A is given

Check formulas (critical values of internal forces, stresses) are given in Eurocode. Complex checks require FE analysis for all kinds of loadings.

Planar-sided silos

det.
det.
t
t

stiffeners

unstiffened web plates webs with stiffeners

(considers own cross-section + effective width of plate 30 t)

For Class 1 silos: 1 st order analysis is possible. Resulting internal forces need to be checked for strength and stability.

OK3

7

© 11

Prof. Ing. Josef Macháček, DrSc.

Analysis of supports

• frame support columns (needed for free passage):

h L cr = 2h can be considered with infinite (∞) rigidity.
h
L cr = 2h
can be considered with infinite (∞) rigidity.

• truss structure:

Analysis of supports • frame support columns (needed for free passage): h L cr = 2h

1 st order analysis may be used, no sway.

L cr = h

OK3

8

© 11

Prof. Ing. Josef Macháček, DrSc.

Tanks

Acc. shape: cylindrical vertical, cylindrical horizontal, spherical, rectangular, other. Acc. internal pressure: low-pressure (up to 20 mbar = 2kPa), high-pressure.

Cylindrical tanks

roof structure with circumferential (primary) ring or

floating sealed piston (for oil), primary ring, possibly with roof

Tanks Acc. shape: cylindrical vertical, cylindri cal horizontal, spherical, rectangular, other. Acc. internal pressure: low-pressure (up

Horizontally placed cylinders

saddles rings
saddles
rings

OK3

Spherical tank

Tanks Acc. shape: cylindrical vertical, cylindri cal horizontal, spherical, rectangular, other. Acc. internal pressure: low-pressure (up

9

© 11

Prof. Ing. Josef Macháček, DrSc.

Design (EN 1993-4-2)

3 consequence Classes: Class 1, 2, 3

Class 1:

Simple structures for agriculture or tanks containing water.

  • - membrane theory may be used, with simple formulas for boundary disturbance and asymetric loading.

Checks for (roof, webs, for bottom use FEM):

  • - global stability and static equilibrium,

  • - strength of the structure and joints,

  • - stability (global and local – formulas given in Eurocode),

  • - cyclic plastification,

  • - fatigue,

  • - SLS (deflections and vibrations ).

Simplified relations

Required thickness of cylindrical tank web:

t

D = 2r
D = 2r

H

For spherical tanks:

t =

p

d

r

f

yd

t =

p r

2 f

yd

- where design loading by liquid and overpressure:

p = γ γ H + q

d

F

d

p = γ γ H + q d F d

design overpressure

Design (EN 1993-4-2) 3 consequence Classes: Class 1, 2, 3 Class 1: Simple structures for agricu

above liquid level unit weight

(one half in comparison to the above)

OK3

10

© 11

Prof. Ing. Josef Macháček, DrSc.