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Disciplina Introducere n cercetare

APLICAII
(metode exploratorii)
I. Analiza diferenelor socio-economice ntre rile UE
Pentru a studia diferenele socio-economice dintre rile Uniunii Europene, n anul
2008, se nregistreaz urmtorii indicatori: investiiile totale (% din PIB), productivitatea muncii,
PIB/loc. (euro), rata omajului (%), rata inflaiei (%).
I.1. Analiza univariat (analiza PIB/loc. n cele 27 de ri ale UE)
Descriptives
PIB_capita

Mean
95% Confidence
Interval for Mean

Statistic
21359,26
16329,56

Lower Bound
Upper Bound

Std. Error
2446,914

26388,96

5% Trimmed Mean
Median
Variance
Std. Deviation
Minimum
Maximum
Range
Interquartile Range
Skewness
Kurtosis

20520,37
19900,00
2E+008
12714,54
3800,00
57700,00
53900,00
19300,00
,863
,905

PIB_capita

,448
,872

23

10.000

20.000

30.000

40.000

50.000

60.000

Fr Luxemburg

PIB_capita

10.000

20.000

30.000

40.000

II.2. Analiza bivariat (corelaia dintre PIB/loc. i productivitatea muncii)


Coefficientsa

Model
1

(Constant)
W

Unstandardized
Coefficients
B
Std. Error
-12580,5
3730,231
370,023
40,821

Standardized
Coefficients
Beta
,880

t
-3,373
9,064

Sig.
,003
,000

a. Dependent Variable: PIB_capita

Model Summary
Model
1

R
,880a

R Square
,774

Adjusted
R Square
,765

Std. Error of
the Estimate
5164,58955

a. Predictors: (Constant), W

II.3. Analiza multivariat

Correlation Matrixa
Correlation

Investitii
W
PIB_capita
Rata_somaj
Rata_inflatiei

Investitii
1,000
-,702
-,572
-,242
,601

W
-,702
1,000
,880
,113
-,637

PIB_capita
-,572
,880
1,000
-,119
-,560

Rata_somaj
-,242
,113
-,119
1,000
-,085

Rata_inflatiei
,601
-,637
-,560
-,085
1,000

a. Determinant = ,046

Total Variance Explained

Component
1
2
3
4
5

Total
2,998
1,090
,478
,350
,084

Initial Eigenvalues
% of Variance Cumulative %
59,961
59,961
21,796
81,757
9,562
91,319
6,997
98,316
1,684
100,000

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings


Total
% of Variance Cumulative %
2,998
59,961
59,961
1,090
21,796
81,757

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Component Plot
Rata_somaj

1,0

Component 2

0,5

Rata_inflatiei

0,0

Investitii
PIB_capita
-0,5

-1,0
-1,0

-0,5

0,0

0,5

1,0

Component 1

REGR factor score 2 for analysis 1

2,00000

Irlanda

Slovacia
Polonia

Portugalia
Grecia

1,00000
Ungaria
Belgia

Bulgaria

Spania Malta
Rep_ceha

Letonia

Franta

Germ

Romania

0,00000

Finlanda

Italia
Suedia

Estonia
-1,00000

Slovenia
Cipru

Lituania

Austria

Reg_Unit

Olanda
Danemarca
-2,00000
-2,00000

-1,00000

0,00000

1,00000

REGR factor score 1 for analysis 1

* * * * * * H I E R A R C H I C A L C L U S T E R
Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups)

A N A L Y S I S * * * * * *

Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine


C A S E
Label

Num

Olanda
Austria
Finlanda
Franta
Germ
Irlanda
Italia
Belgia
Spania
Reg_Unit
Suedia
Danemarca
Slovenia
Grecia
Cipru
Bulgaria
Romania
Rep_ceha
Portugalia
Malta
Polonia
Lituania
Letonia
Ungaria
Slovacia

23
24
26
2
3
21
12
20
8
1
10
9
16
22
19
5
6
11
25
15
7
14
13
4
17

0
5
10
15
20
25
+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+

Estonia

18

Final Cluster Centers

Rata_ocupare
Investitii
W
PIB_capita
Rata_somaj
Rata_inflatiei

1
65,20
23,16
81,00
14614,29
6,33
3,33

Cluster
2
3
66,97
61,24
20,93
27,33
110,43
57,29
28380,00
7842,86
7,22
7,39
2,80
5,83

4
75,65
20,60
107,15
39000,00
4,95
1,70

Distances between Final Cluster Centers


Cluster
1
2
3
4

1
13765,746
6771,473
24385,731

2
13765,746
20537,214
10620,004

3
6771,473
20537,214

4
24385,731
10620,004
31157,187

31157,187

II. Analiza statistic a structurii populaiei pe domenii de activitate i pe regiuni ale


Romniei
II.1 Analiza univariat
domenii_act

Valid

agr
ind
constr
com
transp
fin
invat
sanat
Total

Frequency
3523
2004
353
776
326
74
421
341
7818

Percent
45,1
25,6
4,5
9,9
4,2
,9
5,4
4,4
100,0

Valid Percent
45,1
25,6
4,5
9,9
4,2
,9
5,4
4,4
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
45,1
70,7
75,2
85,1
89,3
90,2
95,6
100,0

domenii_act
agr
ind
constr
5,39%
0,94%
4,17%

4,36%

com
transp
fin
invat
sanat

9,93%
45,06%
4,52%

25,63%

Cases weighted by efectiv

II.2 Analiza bivariat


Chi-Square Tests

Pearson Chi-Square
Likelihood Ratio
Linear-by-Linear
Association
N of Valid Cases

Value
597,648a
643,417
108,433

49
49

Asymp. Sig.
(2-sided)
,000
,000

,000

df

7820

a. 0 cells (,0%) have expected count less than 5. The


minimum expected count is 6,05.

Correspondence Table

regiuni
n-e
s-e
s
s-v
v
n-v
centru
bucur
Active Margin

agr
710,300
480,200
621,500
484,000
288,400
530,600
353,500
54,000
3522,500

ind
269,700
224,400
294,800
183,800
218,900
259,700
326,900
225,900
2004,100

constr
47,000
51,000
43,000
39,300
33,200
39,400
38,000
62,400
353,300

com
110,400
89,700
98,900
67,500
85,900
93,000
104,400
126,300
776,100

domenii_act
transp
33,900
57,300
40,100
28,700
30,000
37,300
40,900
57,700
325,900

fin
7,700
7,900
7,200
5,300
6,400
9,100
9,600
20,500
73,700

invat
72,500
46,900
50,700
41,500
40,600
60,400
56,000
52,800
421,400

sanat
54,100
44,000
40,800
33,500
36,000
49,100
44,400
39,300
341,200

Active Margin
1305,600
1001,400
1197,000
883,600
739,400
1078,600
973,700
638,900
7818,200

II.3. Analiza multivariat


a) Studiul asocierilor dintre domeniul de activitate si regiunile Romniei
Summary
Proportion of Inertia

Dimension
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Total

Singular
Value
,263
,071
,037
,019
,013
,008
,004

Inertia
,069
,005
,001
,000
,000
,000
,000
,076

Chi Square

596,727

Sig.

,000a

Accounted for
,907
,067
,018
,005
,002
,001
,000
1,000

Cumulative
,907
,974
,992
,997
,999
1,000
1,000
1,000

Confidence Singular
Value
Standard
Deviation
,009
,012

Correlation
2
,135

a. 49 degrees of freedom

Row and Column Points


Symmetrical Normalization
domenii_act
regiuni

Dimension 2

0,8

constr

0,6
0,4
0,2
0,0
-0,2

fin

s-e

transp
s-v
n-e sanat
bucur
s
com
agr
v invat
n-v

-0,4

centru

-0,6
-0,5

0,0

ind
0,5

1,0

1,5

Dimension 1

b) Studiul repartiiei numrului de salariai pe domenii de activitate n Romnia, n perioada


1990-2007

Tabelul profilelor linie

Row Profiles

Domaines
Agric
Industrie
Construct
Comm
Hotels_rest
Transp
Act_fin
Transac_immob
Adm_publ
Enseign
Sante
Autres
Mass

An_90
,118
,090
,096
,048
,101
,090
,032
,094
,033
,050
,056
,089
,081

An_91
,109
,085
,066
,047
,089
,084
,034
,072
,038
,060
,055
,082
,075

An_92
,101
,076
,063
,044
,063
,076
,043
,062
,043
,058
,054
,073
,069

An_93
,100
,071
,073
,044
,058
,071
,052
,056
,045
,058
,054
,072
,066

An_94
,089
,067
,070
,047
,064
,067
,047
,056
,050
,058
,058
,064
,064

An_95
,078
,061
,060
,062
,059
,064
,056
,047
,053
,058
,058
,064
,061

An_96
,068
,061
,059
,055
,056
,050
,058
,045
,051
,059
,059
,056
,058

An_97
,055
,057
,053
,058
,061
,057
,062
,035
,053
,058
,057
,049
,056

An_98
,049
,053
,052
,061
,048
,055
,063
,040
,055
,056
,055
,046
,053

Annees
An_99
,038
,047
,042
,054
,047
,047
,058
,040
,057
,057
,050
,039
,047

An_00
,031
,044
,043
,053
,043
,046
,059
,043
,060
,056
,054
,041
,046

An_01
,030
,045
,042
,055
,035
,045
,053
,045
,058
,055
,054
,043
,046

An_02
,025
,044
,041
,053
,039
,043
,055
,051
,060
,053
,055
,040
,045

An_03
,024
,043
,044
,055
,042
,043
,057
,053
,062
,053
,055
,042
,046

An_04
,022
,041
,044
,056
,046
,040
,057
,055
,063
,052
,054
,045
,044

An_05
,023
,039
,047
,064
,046
,040
,064
,058
,068
,052
,057
,047
,045

An_06
,021
,038
,048
,069
,048
,041
,071
,069
,071
,052
,058
,052
,046

An_07 Active Margin


,020
1,000
,038
1,000
,055
1,000
,075
1,000
,055
1,000
,042
1,000
,081
1,000
,079
1,000
,081
1,000
,054
1,000
,060
1,000
,055
1,000
,049

Tabelul valorilor proprii

Summary
Confidence Singular
Value

Proportion of Inertia

Dimension
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Total

Singular
Value
,182
,053
,030
,019
,017
,012
,009
,006
,005
,004
,002

Inertia
,033
,003
,001
,000
,000
,000
,000
,000
,000
,000
,000
,038

Chi Square

Sig.

,000a

3788,129

Accounted for
,876
,075
,023
,010
,007
,004
,002
,001
,001
,000
,000
1,000

Cumulative
,876
,951
,975
,984
,992
,996
,998
,999
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000

Standard
Deviation
,003
,003

Correlation
2
-,023

a. 187 degrees of freedom

Tabelul coordonatelor profilelor linie


Overview Row Pointsa
Score in Dimension

Domaines
Agric
Industrie
Construct
Comm
Hotels_rest
Transp
Act_fin
Transac_immob
Adm_publ
Enseign
Sante
Autres
Active Total

Mass
,064
,425
,073
,106
,019
,080
,012
,041
,024
,073
,057
,025
1,000

1
-,941
-,212
-,023
,696
-,069
-,179
,823
,323
,879
,358
,439
-,057

2
,021
-,080
,285
-,029
,320
-,018
-,173
,866
-,054
-,324
-,116
,327

Contribution

Inertia
,011
,004
,001
,010
,000
,001
,002
,003
,003
,002
,002
,000
,038

Of Point to Inertia of
Dimension
1
2
,314
,001
,105
,052
,000
,111
,283
,002
,001
,037
,014
,000
,045
,007
,024
,581
,104
,001
,051
,144
,060
,014
,000
,050
1,000
1,000

Of Dimension to Inertia of Point


1
2
Total
,967
,000
,967
,910
,038
,948
,011
,507
,518
,975
,000
,975
,059
,374
,433
,756
,002
,758
,942
,012
,954
,305
,643
,947
,984
,001
,985
,778
,187
,965
,954
,020
,974
,070
,673
,743

a. Symmetrical normalization

10

Row and Column Points

Symmetrical Normalization
Annees
Domaines

1,0

Transac_immob

Dimension 2

0,8
0,6

An_07

An_90
Autres

0,4

Hotels_rest

0,2

Agric An_93 An_94


0,0

An_91
An_92

-0,2

An_06
Construct

An_96
An_95

-1,0

-0,5

Comm
Adm_publ
An_03

An_00
An_99

An_97

-0,4

An_05

An_04
Transp
Industrie

An_02
Sante
An_01

An_98 Enseign
0,0

0,5

Act_fin
1,0

Dimension 1

11