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Introduction to Mechatronics

Prof.Dr. Fatih M. Botsal

What is Intelligence?
Intelligence is what we use when we dont know what to do.

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What is Intelligence?
The ability to learn and to cope. The ability to contemplate, think, and reason.

Intelligence is Difficult to Define


Every dictionary gives a different definition. What do you understand when somebody says that you are not very intelligent? People can recognise intelligence in other people and animals

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Features of Intelligence
It is assumed that intelligence requires abilities to
Perform complex tasks Recognise complex patterns Solve unseen problems Learn from experience Learn from instruction Use Natural Language Be aware of self (consciousness) Use tools

Some Questions
Many people assert that intelligence is a unique property of living things (i.e. man and animals) Are plants and micro-organisms intelligent? Can a system be intelligent if it is not organic? Can an intelligent system (e.g. man) design another system that is more intelligent than itself?

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More Questions
Are the Following Intelligent? Molecules, electrons, atoms, DNA molecules Viruses Bacteria Plants

What is Measure of Intelligence


Does response time affect our judgement of intelligence? Can a system be said to be intelligent if it takes a thousand years to respond to a "query"?

Can a system ever be judged to be intelligent if it cannot communicate with the outside world? (Are autistic people intelligent?)

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Definitions of AI
Science of making machines do things that would require intelligence if done by man. M. Minsky make computers more useful and to understand principles that make intelligence possible P. Winston

Definitions of AI
main tenet that there are common processes underlie thinking these can be understood and studied scientifically unimportant who is doing thinking man or computer. This is an implementation detail. N. Nilsson

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Intelligent Animals
Great Apes are able to communicate with people use a computer use tools Other intelligent animals: Monkeys and other primates Dolphins, whales, horses, dogs, octopus Rats Ants exhibit complex behaviour not as an individual but as a complete colony. Flat worms

Artificial Intelligence(AI)
A.I. is the study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better. Artificial Intelligence is the Science and Engineering that is concerned with the theory and practice of developing systems that exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence in human behavior: perception, natural language processing, reasoning, planning and problem solving, learning and adaptation, etc.

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PURPOSE OF AI
"AI can have two purposes. One is to use the power of computers to augment human thinking, just as we use motors to augment human or horse power. Robotics and expert systems are major branches of that. The other is to use a computer's artificial intelligence to understand how humans think. In a humanoid way. If you test your programs not merely by what they can accomplish, but how they accomplish it, they you're really doing cognitive science; you're using AI to understand the human mind." - Herb Simon

Characteristics of AI
think like a human being think like a human but better act like human being Turing test be a successful functioning entity

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Cognitive Science (Bilmeye/drake/Kavramaya ait)


Cognitive science is the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e.g. Luger 1994). It is an interdisciplinary study drawing from relevant fields including psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, anthropology, computer science, biology, and physics. The term cognitive science was first used by Christopher Longuet-Higgins in 1973.

HISTORY
5th Century B.C. Aristotelian logic 1642 Pascals adding machine 1694 Leibnitzs reckoning machine 1830-40's Joseph Faber's Amazing Talking Machine 1834 Charles Babbages Analytical Engine

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HISTORY
1848 George Boole The Calculus of Logic 1900 Hilberts program and the effort to formalize mathematics 1931 Kurt Gdels paper on Formally Undecidable Propositions 1936 Alan Turings paper on Computable Numbers with an application to the Entscheidungs problem

HISTORY
1945 ENIAC The first electronic digital computer 1949 EDVAC 1950, Claude Shannon published a paper describing how a computer could play chess. 1950 Alan Turings paper, Computing Machinery and Intelligence, described what is now called The Turing Test.

Turing predicted that in about fifty years "an average interrogator will not have more than a 70 percent chance of making the right identification after five minutes of questioning".

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HISTORY
1956 Dartmouth conference. J. McCarthy, M. L. Minsky, N. Rochester, and C.E. Shannon. August 31, 1955. "We propose that a 2 month, 10 man study of artificial intelligence be carried out during the summer of 1956 at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The study is to proceed on the basis of the conjecture that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it."

HISTORY
1957 Newell and Simon predicted that a computer will beat a human at chess within 10 years. 1967 Mac Hack was good enough to achieve a class-C rating in tournament chess. 1981 Japanese Fifth Generation project launched as the Expert Systems age blossoms in the US. 1988, AI revenues peak at $1 billion.

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HISTORY
1990 Loebner Prize established. Grand Prize of $100,000 and a Gold Medal for the first computer whose responses are indistinguishable from a human. 1997, Deep Blue beat Gary Kasparov.

Main Goal of A.I.


Main Goal : Artificial intelligence.

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Understand the principles that make intelligence possible in humans, animals, and artificial agents) Developing intelligent machines or agents (no matter whether they operate as humans or not) Formalizing knowledge and mechanizing reasoning in all areas of human endeavor Making the working with computers as easy as working with people Developing human-machine systems that exploit the complementariness of human and automated reasoning

Sub Goals of Artificial Intelligence

How AI Works
QUESTION: Sodium azide is used in air bags to rapidly produce gas to inflate the bag. The products of the decomposition reaction are: (a)Na and water. (c) N2 and O2 (b)(b) Ammonia and sodium metal. (d) Sodium and nitrogen gas.

(e)Sodium oxide and nitrogen gas.

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How AI Works
SYSTEM-GENERATED ANSWER: What are the products of the given decomposition reaction? By definition, oxidation-reduction reactions occur when electrons are transferred from the atom that is oxidized to the atom that is reduced. We need to look for changes in the oxidation states of the elements in the reaction.
In the reactants, the oxidation state(s) of the element Na is/are (1). In the product, the oxidation state(s) is/are (0). Therefore, the reaction causes a change in oxidation state. Therefore, this is an oxidation reduction reaction.

By definition, a Binary Ionic-Compound Decomposition Reaction occurs when a binary ionic compound is heated. Therefore, this reaction is a Binary-Ionic Compound Decomposition reaction. In general, a Binary Ionic-Compound Decomposition Reaction converts a binary ionic-compound into basic elements. In this reaction, NaN3 reacts to produce Na and N2. Therefore: The products of the decomposition reaction are: (d) Sodium and nitrogen gas

INTELLIGENT AGENT
An intelligent agent is a system that: perceives its environment reasons to interpret perceptions, draw inferences, solve problems, and determine actions; and acts upon that environment to realize a set of goals or tasks for which it was designed.

input/ sensors

user/ environment

output/ effectors

Intelligent Agent

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Characteristic features of intelligent agents


Knowledge representation and reasoning Transparency and explanations Ability to communicate Use of huge amounts of knowledge Use of heuristics Reasoning with incomplete or conflicting data Ability to learn and adapt Exploration of huge search spaces

What is different compared to conventional programming?


Can learn Can gain experience Can solve new problems Can solve problems with missing data Uses heuristics May reach to wrong results

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Some AI Tools
Expert Systems Artificial Neural Networks Fuzzy Logic Genetic Algorithms Tabu Search Simulated Annealing

Basic Problems of AI
Deduction, reasoning, problem solving Knowledge representation Planning Learning Natural language processing Perception Motion and manipulation Social intelligence General intelligence

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Trends in AI
Long term : Farming robots, Manufacturing, Medical, Household. Short term : Data mining, Scheduling, Risk Management Control, Agents.

Applications of AI
Expert Systems. Pattern Recognition Speech Language. Games Planning and Action. Theories of Knowledge Neural Networks Robotics Data mining Biometrics Theorem proving Web Search.

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AI Implementation Software
Expert systems to solve problems in particular domains Expert system shells to make it cheaper to build new systems in new domains Language applications
Text retrieval Machine Translation Text to speech and speech recognition

Data mining

AI Programming Languages
1958 Lisp a functional programming language with a simple syntax. 1972 PROLOG - a logic programming language whose primary control structure is depth-first search 1988 CLOS (Common Lisp Object Standard) published. Draws on ideas from Smalltalk and semantic nets

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Heuristics & Algorithms


AI is the study of heuristics, rather than algorithms.

Algorithm
Algorithm: A recipe (set of instructions) which when followed always gives the correct solution. Feasible Algorithm : An algorithm which can in fact be implemented in such a way that the solution can be found in a reasonable time.

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Heuristic
Heuristic: a set of instructions which one has reason to believe will often give reasonably correct answers.

Heuristic vs. Algorithmic


Heuristic : Rules of the thumb. No guarantee. Algorithmic :

Guarantee correct results.

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Why use heuristic ?


Many problems either : Can be proven to have no algorithm : Theorem proving. Halting problem. Can be proven to have no feasible algorithm : NP-complete. Traveling salesman. Scheduler. Packing. No algorithm is known although one exists : Chess.

Examples of heuristics functions


Chess : No. of my pieces No. of opponents. Weighted values of pieces. Positional ideas. Traveling Salesman : Comparison with neighbors.

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Travelling Salesman Problem


The (TSP) is a problem in discrete or combinatorial optimization. It is an illustration of a class of problems in computational complexity theory which are classified as NP-hard. Mathematical problems related to the travelling salesman problem were treated by many mathematicians. Statement of TSM: Given a number of cities and the costs of travelling from any city to any other city, what is the least-cost round-trip route that visits each city exactly once and then returns to the starting city?

Travelling Salesman Problem

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Travelling Salesman Problem


It is impossible to solve the Travelling Sales-man Problem by any faster method than exhaustive search (i.e. trying all possible routes) Computation time rises in proportion to N! N! = N.(N-1)(N-2)3.2.1. N is the number of cities to be visited. Some values for N! 10! = 3.6x106 100! = 9.3x10157 2567 1000! = 4.0x10 1750! = 2.1x104917

Weather Forecasting
Precise weather forecasting is impossible because we do not have enough information about the atmosphere. To do so would require pressure, temperature, humidity and wind-speed sensors no more than 10m apart, over the whole surface of the world. (We also need to sample every 10m in the vertical direction, up to 50Km) We would also need a model of ocean currents every field, tree, rock, building and elephant!

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Optimality & Sufficiency


In many real life problems, there may be no possibility of our ever finding an optimal solution, or even proving that a provisional solution is optimal. It may be more appropriate to seek and accept a sufficient solution (Heuristic search) to a given problem, rather than an optimal solution (algorithmic search).

Impossibility
A study of tasks that neither people nor computers can do - and never will!

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Mistake!!!
Given enough time and money, science / mathematics can solve any problem.

Types of Impossibility
Limitations of the human mind Limitations of present-day technology Limits due to the finite age / size of the Universe Problems fundamental to Nature Fundamental limits

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Limitations of the Human Mind


Naming of colours. Based on learning, not on absolute standards. Face recognition. Cannot be passed on to another person by explanation. Object recognition. People cannot properly explain how they recognise objects.

Face Recognition
Select the names associated with the four faces opposite: Karl Eric Philip William Stuart Gordon

Fred

Peter Mark

David

Stephen Paul

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Face Recognition
David Stephen
Answer

Fred Karl

Easy to do, impossible to explain Probability of guessing correctly at random is less than 10-4 (1 in 10000)

How do we recognise images?


We cannot reliably explain how we see things. Introspection does not work! We cannot design a machine to recognise even simple objects / patterns simply by telling it how to do so. However, we can build machines that learn. We teach the machine by example, in the same way that we teach a child.

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How to recognise printed characters


Represent the characters by an array of black and white squares (pixels).

Recognising printed characters by using a look-up table

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The number of patterns that can be drawn on even a low-resolution grid (e.g. 100*100 pixels) is far too large allow us to recognise printed letters by using a look up table. Remember: The Universe has only 1081 particles and is 4.1x1017 seconds old.

Impossible to use a look-up table to recognise printed characters

(Gordon Moore, Co-founder of Intel)

Moores Law

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Computers Capability
Computers need sensors and actuators to perform useful tasks in the physical world. Todays sensors and actuators are very clumsy compared to their human counterparts.

Limitations
Computers are too slow and too weak to model the nervous system of even a simple animal, let alone a human being. We can model protein folding but with considerable difficulty. We cannot model flames in a fire We cannot explain how a handkerchief falls to the ground.

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I, me, this screen etc. are examples of self-reference Recursion is widely used in mathematics & AI Viral ideas (memes)
E.g defining: ancestor, calculating change, route planning Copy me Copy everything on this screen Do the same for somebody else. Chain letters Missionary outreach

Self Reference,Recursion, Viral Ideas

Recursion
Many ideas are expressed recursively. Examples:
Ancestor / descendent Factorial N! = Nx(N-1)! Calculating change in a shop Packing shopping in a bag Route finding Education (Teachers gradually refine ideas) Many computer programs use recursion.

Used properly, recursion is a very powerful tool but we cannot allow infinite recursion in practice.

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All Cretans are liars. (Epimenides, The Cretan) All sentences written in blue are false. This sentence cannot be translated into Welsh. Murphys Law was not invented by Murphy but by somebody else with the same name.

Fundamental Problems: Paradoxes of Recursion

Kurt Gdel (1906-1978)


Major work: On Formally Undecidable Propositions in Principia Mathematica and Related Systems, 1931. Widely considered to be one of the most important results of human thinking ever achieved.

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Gdels Incompleteness Theorem


Unprovable Provable

Untrue True

Gdels Incompleteness Theorem (Kurt Gdel, 1931)


In any consistent axiomatic system, there exist theorems that are impossible to prove or disprove. There is no constructive procedure that will prove or disprove that a set of axioms is consistent.

GIT is proved - it is not a theory.

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Current State of AI
The best AI systems of today have the intelligence of a frog only

Alan M. Turing, (1912 - 1954)


Major contributor to the code-breaking work at Bletchley Park (Enigma), during World War II. Major contributor to the early development of computers. Foresaw Artificial Intelligence & devised the Turing Test.

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Turing test is a proposal for a test of a machine's capability to demonstrate intelligence. Described by Alan Turing in the 1950 in his paper "Computing machinery and intelligence,

Turing Test

Turing Test
A human judge engages in a natural language conversation with one human and one machine, each of which try to appear human; if the judge cannot reliably tell which is which, then the machine is said to pass the test. The judge communicates with the man and the machine through a computer. If the human cant tell whether he is talking to a computer or another human, the machine passes the test.

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Turing Test
The Test requires abilities for natural language processing knowledge representation automated reasoning machine learning In order to keep the test setting simple and universal (to explicitly test the linguistic capability of the machine instead of its ability to render words into audio), the conversation is usually limited to a text-only channel such as a teletype machine as Turing suggested or, more recently, IRC or instant messaging.

Turing Test
machine

man

judge

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Was Turing Right?


A conversation with Jabberwacky, 2003 Jabberwacky: Have you been to the Moon? User: No. Few have. Have you? Jabberwacky: Many a time my dear chap! User: What was the most interesting thing you saw? Jabberwacky: Fred. User: Why did you find him interesting? Jabberwacky: It just came into my head. User: What sorts of things do you generally find interesting? Jabberwacky: Nothing but smelly socks.

Degrees of AI
Weak AI: Strong AI:
Machines can be made to act as if they were intelligent. a term used by futurists, science fiction writers and forward looking researchers to describe artificial intelligence that matches or exceeds human intelligence. Strong AI is a term used by futurists, science fiction writers and forward looking researchers to describe artificial intelligence that matches or exceeds human intelligence. Machines that act intelligently have real, conscious minds.

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The Chinese Room Argument

? !

The Chinese Room Argument

Chinese

English speaking man Chinese Books

Chinese

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The Chinese Room Argument


The Chinese Room argument is a thought experiment and associated arguments designed by John Searle 1980. Searle asks us to imagine that many years from now, we have constructed a computer that behaves as if it understands Chinese. The computer takes Chinese characters as input and, following a program, produces other Chinese characters, which it presents as output. Suppose that this computer performs this task so convincingly that it easily passes the Turing test. In other words, it convinces a human Chinese speaker that the program is itself a human Chinese speaker. All the questions the human asks are responded to appropriately, such that the Chinese speaker is convinced that he or she is talking to another Chinesespeaking human. The conclusion that proponents of strong AI would like to draw is that the computer understands Chinese, just as the person does.

Now, Searle asks us to suppose that he is in a room in which he receives Chinese characters, consults a book containing an English version of the computer program, and processes the Chinese characters according to the instructions in the book. Searle notes that he doesn't, of course, understand a word of Chinese. He simply manipulates what to him are meaningless squiggles, using the book and whatever other equipment is provided in the room, such as paper, pencils, erasers, and filing cabinets. After manipulating the symbols, Searle will produce the answer in Chinese. Since the computer passed the Turing test, so does Searle running its program by hand: "Nobody just looking at my answers can tell that I don't speak a word of Chinese," Searle writes. Searle argues that his lack of understanding goes to show that computers don't understand Chinese either, because they are in the same situation as he is. They are mindless manipulators of symbols and they don't understand what they're 'saying', just as he doesn't.

The Chinese Room Argument

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Approaches to AI
Searching Learning From Natural to Artificial Systems Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Expert Systems and Planning Communication, Perception, Action

A search algorithm, is an algorithm that takes a problem as input and returns a solution to the problem, usually after evaluating a number of possible solutions. The set of all possible solutions to a problem is called the search space. Uninformed search algorithms use the simplest method of searching through the whole search space, whereas informed search algorithms use heuristic methods in order to reduce the time spent for searching.

Searching

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Searching
All AI is search Game theory Problem spaces Every problem is a feature space of all possible (successful or unsuccessful) solutions. The trick is to find an efficient search strategy.

Solving hard problems requires search in a large space.

Searching

To play master-level chess requires searching about 8 ply deep. So about 358 or 21012 nodes must be examined.

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Searching

Learning
Explanation Discovery Data Mining No Explanation Neural Nets Case Based Reasoning

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From Natural to Artificial Systems

Knowledge Representation and Reasoning


Rule Based Systems Logic Languages Prolog, Lisp Knowledge bases Inference engines

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Expert Systems and Planning


An expert system, also known as a knowledge based system, is a computer program that contains the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts, related to a specific subject. Expert systems were first developed by researchers in artificial intelligence during the 1960s and 1970s and applied commercially throughout the 1980s.

Components of an Expert System


Knowledge representation: how people store and process information. There are representation techniques such as frames, rules and semantic networks which have originated from theories of human information processing. The fundamental goal of knowledge representation is to represent knowledge in a manner as to facilitate inferencing i.e. drawing conclusions from knowledge.

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Components of an Expert System


Knowledge Base:
A special kind of database for knowledge management which It provides the means for the computerized collection, organization, and retrieval of knowledge.

Components of an Expert System


Inference Rule/Inference Engine:
An inference rule is a statement that has two parts, an if-clause and a then-clause. This rule is what gives expert systems the ability to find solutions to diagnostic and prescriptive problems. An expert system's rulebase is made up of many such inference rules. They are entered as separate rules and it is the inference engine that uses them together to draw conclusions. Because each rule is a unit, rules may be deleted or added without affecting other rules (though it should affect which conclusions are reached). An advantage of inference rules over traditional programming is that inference rules use reasoning which more closely resemble human reasoning.

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Components of an Expert System


User interface The function of the user interface is to present questions and information to the user and supply the user's responses to the inference engine.

Individuals of an Expert System


Knowledge engineer:
Knowledge engineers are concerned with the representation chosen for the expert's knowledge declarations and with the inference engine used to process that knowledge. He / she can use the knowledge acquisition component of the expert system to input the several characteristics known to be appropriate to a good inference technique.

Domain expert or subject matter expert (SME):


person with special knowledge or skills in a particular area. Domain experts are individuals who are both knowledgeable and extremely experienced with application domains .

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Individuals of an Expert System


End-user: User which needs to use the expert system

Advantages and disadvantages


Advantages: Provides consistent answers for repetitive decisions, processes and tasks Holds and maintains significant levels of information Encourages organizations to clarify the logic of their decisionmaking Never "forgets" to ask a question, as a human might Disadvantages: Lacks common sense needed in some decision making Cannot make creative responses as human expert would in unusual circumstances Domain experts not always able to explain their logic and reasoning Errors may occur in the knowledge base, and lead to wrong decisions Cannot adapt to changing environments, unless knowledge base is changed

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FUZZY LOGIC
The concept of Fuzzy Logic (FL) was conceived by Lotfi Zadeh, a professor at the University of California at Berkley, and presented not as a control methodology, but as a way of processing data by allowing partial set membership rather than crisp set membership or non-membership. This approach to set theory was not applied to control systems until the 70's due to insufficient small-computer capability prior to that time.

FUZZY LOGIC
Professor Zadeh reasoned that people do not require precise, numerical information input, and yet they are capable of highly adaptive control. If feedback controllers could be programmed to accept noisy, imprecise input, they would be much more effective and perhaps easier to implement.

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FUZZY LOGIC
U.S. manufacturers have not been so quick to embrace this technology while the Europeans and Japanese have been aggressively building real products around it.

APPLICATIONS OF FL
ABS Brakes Expert Systems Control Units Bullet train between Tokyo and Osaka Video Cameras Automatic Transmissions

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CONTROLLER STRUCTURE
Fuzzification
Scales and maps input variables to fuzzy sets Approximate reasoning Deduces the control action Convert fuzzy output values to control signals

Inference Mechanism Defuzzification

OPERATIONS

AB

AB

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WHAT IS FUZZY LOGIC?


FL was conceived as a better method for sorting and handling data but has proven to be a excellent choice for many control system applications since it mimics human control logic. FL is a commonly used control system methodology FL provides a simple way to arrive at a definite conclusion based upon vague, ambiguous, imprecise, noisy, or missing input information.

WHAT IS FUZZY LOGIC?


It can be built into anything from small, handheld products to large computerized process control systems. It uses an imprecise but very descriptive language to deal with input data more like a human operator. It is very robust and forgiving of operator and data input and often works when first implemented with little or no tuning.

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HOW IS FL DIFFERENT FROM CONVENTIONAL CONTROL METHODS?


FL incorporates a simple, rule-based IF X AND Y THEN Z approach to a solving control problem rather than attempting to model a system mathematically. The FL model is empirically-based, relying on an operator's experience rather than their technical understanding of the system. For example, rather than dealing with temperature control in terms such as "SP =500F", "T <1000F", or "210C <TEMP <220C", terms like "IF (process is too cool) AND (process is getting colder) THEN (add heat to the process)" or "IF (process is too hot) AND (process is heating rapidly) THEN (cool the process quickly)" are used.

HOW IS FL DIFFERENT FROM CONVENTIONAL CONTROL METHODS?


These terms are imprecise and yet very descriptive of what must actually happen. Consider what you do in the shower if the temperature is too cold: you will make the water comfortable very quickly with little trouble. FL is capable of mimicking this type of behavior but at very high rate.

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FUZZIFICATION
Fuzzification (creating a fuzzy set)

MEMBERSHIP FUNCTION

u a ba

aub
buc
ua

( u ) =

cu cb

u c

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FUZZIFICATION
Air Temperature Set cold {50, 0, 0} Set cool {65, 55, 45} Set just right {70, 65, 60} Set warm {85, 75, 65} Set hot {, 90, 80} Fan Speed Set stop {0, 0, 0} Set slow {50, 30, 10} Set medium {60, 50, 40} Set fast {90, 70, 50} Set blast {, 100, 80}

INFERENCE MECHANISM
Air Conditioning Controller Example: IF Cold then Stop If Cool then Slow If OK then Medium If Warm then Fast IF Hot then Blast

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INFERENCE MECHANISM
Mamdani Inference

u = AB =

V Y

(u ) B (u ) /(V, Y )

FUZZY AIR CONDITIONER


0 100 90 80 70 60
Med iu
st Bla

If Hot then Blast If Warm then Fast

Fa st

50 40 30 20 10 0

If Just Right then Medium IF Cool then Slow if Cold then Stop

Sl ow

ar m

Co ol

0 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

Jus Rig t ht

Ho t

op St

Co ld

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MAPPING INPUTS TO OUTPUTS


1 0 100 90 80 70 60
Med
st Bla

Fa st

50 40 30 20 10 0

ium

Sl

ow

ar m

Co ol

0 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

DEFUZZIFICATION

(u ).u du = (u )

Vk = Vk + du

Jus Rig t ht

Ho t

op St

ld Co

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Communication, Perception, Action


Computer vision Natural language recognition Natural language generation Speech recognition Speech generation Robotics

In the early days: substantial focus on planning (e.g., GPS) 1979 in Fast, Cheap and Out of Control, Rodney Brooks argued for a very different approach. (No, Im not talking about the 1997 movie.) The Ant, has 17 sensors. They are designed to work in colonies.

Planning vs. Reacting

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Robotics - Tortoise
1950 W. Grey Walters light seeking tortoises. In this picture, there are two, each with a light source and a light sensor. Thus they appear to dance around each other.

Robotics Hopkins Beast


1964 Two versions of the Hopkins beast, which used sonar to guide it in the halls.

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Robotics - Shakey
1970 Shakey (SRI) was driven by a remotecontrolled computer, which formulated plans for moving and acting. It took about half an hour to move Shakey one meter.

Robotics Stanford Cart


1971-9 Stanford cart. Remote controlled by person or computer.

1971 follow the white line 1975 drive in a straight line by tracking skyline

1979 get through obstacle courses. Cross 30 meters in five hours, getting lost one time out of four

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1994 Dante II (CMU) explored the Mt. Spurr (Aleutian Range, Alaska) volcano. High-temperature, fumarole gas samples are prized by volcanic science, yet their sampling poses significant challenge. In 1993, eight volcanologists were killed in two separate events while sampling and monitoring volcanoes. Using its tether cable anchored at the crater rim, Dante II is able to descend down sheer crater walls in a rappelling-like manner to gather and analyze high temperature gasses from the crater floor.

Robotics - Dante

Robotics - Sojourner

Oct. 30, 1999 Sojourner on Mars. Powered by a 1.9 square foot solar array, Sojourner can negotiate obstacles tilted at a 45 degree angle. It travels at less than half an inch per second.

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Sandstorm

March 13, 2004 - A DARPA Grand Challenge: an unmanned offroad race, 142 miles from Barstow to Las Vegas.

Robotics - Aibo
1999 Sonys Aibo pet dog 1997 First official Rob-Cup soccer match

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Robotics - Cog
1998 now Cog Humanoid intelligence requires humanoid interactions with the world.

Natural Language Processing


STUDENT solves algebra word problems The distance from New York to Los Angeles is 3000 miles. If the average speed of a jet plane is 600 miles per hour, find the time it takes to travel from New York to Los Angeles by jet.

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Natural Language Processing


ELIZA models a Rogerian therapist young woman: Men are all alike. eliza: In what way? young woman: They're always bugging us about something specific or other. eliza: Can you think of a specific example? young woman: Well, my boyfriend made me come here. eliza: Your boyfriend made you come here?

Natural Language Processing


Grammar and spelling checkers Chatbots Spelling: http://www.spellcheck.net/ See the list at: http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/html/natlang.html #chat/ Synthesis: The IBM system: http://www.research.ibm.com/tts/coredem o.html

Speech systems

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MT Today
Austin Police are trying to find the person responsible for robbing a bank in Downtown Austin. El polica de Austin est intentando encontrar a la persona responsable de robar un banco en Austin cntrica. The police of Austin is trying to find the responsible person to rob a bank in centric Austin.

Emotions
The robot Kismet shows emotions

sad
http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics-group/kismet/

surprised

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Today: Computer as Artist


Two paintings done by Harold Cohens Aaron program:

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