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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

February 13, 2009

Educational Psychology

Studies how people learn in educational settings. Tends to focus on the classroom. May often focus on specific groups such as gifted students or those with disabilities.

An analogy perhaps?

Educational Psychology : Psychology :: Medicine : Biology :: Engineering : Physics

Aspects We Wont Address Today


Individual differences (too much!) Social, moral, or cognitive development (weve touched on this!) Research methodology (well talk about this later)

Four Important Ideas


Behavioral Cognitive Social cognitive Constructivist Connectivist (a bonus!)

Behaviorism

Ivan Pavlovs classical conditioning (late 1890s) BF Skinners radical behaviorism (1930-1950s)

Behaviorism

Focus on behavior outcomes Systematic rewards Operant Conditioning

Behaviorism

How do you use this? When might it be useful?

Cognitivism

The idea that traits, beliefs, memories, motivations, and emotions can determine how information in perceived, processed, stored, retrieved, and forgotten. Dual coding theory Cognitive load Spaced Learning Effect Mnemonics Problem solving as fundamental to learning

Involves long term memory, mapping between problem and pre-existing schema

Cognitivism

Allan Paivos Dual-Coding Theory (1970s-80s) John Swellers Cognitive Load Theory

Cognitivism

How do you use this? When might it be useful?

Social Cognitivism (Social Learning Theory)


Blends behavioral, cognitive, and social thinking Observational learning: watching others and change own behavior as a result of observation Last few decades: self-regulated learning and metacognition

These both hypothesize effective learners are active agents who construct knowledge by setting goals, analyzing tasks, planning strategies, and monitoring understanding

Those who are better at goal setting and selfmonitoring have a greater intrinsic task interest and self-efficacy

Social Cognitivism (Social Learning Theory)


NE Miller and J Dollards Social Learning Theory (1941) Albert Bandura (1977)

Social Cognitivism

How do you use this? When might it be useful?

Constructivism

Lev Vygotskys sociocultural learning focuses on internalization based on interaction with adults, more capable peers, and cognitive tools.

Constructivism

Places emphasis on agency and prior knowledge of the learner and often on social/cultural determinants of the learning process Related to Piagets individual/psychological constructivism from social constructivism Learners socialized through social interactions within community of practice

Constructivism

How do you use this? When might it be useful?

Connectivism

George Siemens (2000s!) Learning in a digital age Builds on previous models Community of Learning

Connectivism

How do you use this? When might it be useful?

Four Important Ideas


Behavioral Cognitive Social cognitive Constructivist Connectivist (a bonus!)

MOTIVATION!

Motivation

Internal state that activates, guides, and sustains behavior. Will, interest, intrinsic motivation, personal goals, belief about the causes of their success or failure

Motivation

Bernard Weiners Attribution Theory:


Focuses

on students beliefs about their success level

Motivation

Goals:
Mastery

goals increase ability and knowledge

Performance

approach goals strive for high grades and seek opportunities to demonstrate their abilities avoidance goals driven by fear of failure and where abilities are exposed

Performance

Motivation

Issues in motivation?