collections found in different locations within the IN ATTEMPTING TO GIVE an outline of Hittite literature we shall try to take the term "literature" Hittite capital, Bogazkoy. in its specific sense, considering as literary mainly Such a study is rendered difficult by the fact such compositions as myths, epics, prayers, and that unfortunately the tablets found before what little exists of poetry. We shall have to in- World War I in three different locations were clude historiography, because historical narrative hopelessly mixed after they had reached the was a field in which the Hittites excelled from museum. In contrast to this, the find spots of all early times on and because many historical texts tablets found after the First War have been carehave their merits also as literary compositions. fully recorded. Some notes of the first excavator, We are, however, aware of the fact that our defini- Hugo Winckler, were recently rediscovered by tion of "literature" is not that of the ancients. Professor Otten; they give the find spots of a little Professor Oppenheim in a recent article' pointed over one hundred texts2-out of 10,000 fragments out that the great majority of the texts forming found in those early excavations! Taken together what he calls "the main stream of tradition" of with what was later found in the same buildings Babylonia-others have called it the "canon" as well as in some others, and also taking into because of the standardization it underwent account what texts were absent in the places rearound 1000 B.C.-is scholarly literature in the cently excavated, one can get a rough, though sense that it consists of the material the scribes incomplete, picture of the contents of the various considered essential for their training, and that its collections. bulk is made up by word lists, omens, and preIt would seem that one building in particular scriptions for exorcistic rites. The preference given deserves the name "library." This is a building to these kinds of texts reflects an encyclopedic ap- situated on the slope of the acropolis, above the proach, as Professor Landsberger was the first to main temple of the city, partly excavated by point out, insofar as the word lists aim at covering Winckler in 1911 and re-investigated in recent the entire vocabulary, the omens consider all pos- years including the campaigns of 1960 and 1961.3 sible occurrences that could be taken as porten- Most of what may be called "scholarly" and tous, and the magic rites also aim at complete "literary" texts seem to have been kept there: coverage. vocabularies, omens, epics, and texts of the "hisAs far as the Hittites are concerned, we shall see torical tradition"-categories to which we shall that their scribes used this "main stream of return. On the other hand, the largest number of Babylonian tradition" as syllabus in their train- state treaties was found by Winckler in the temple ing, too. But they also produced other classes of precinct; this fits the statement contained in some texts that from our point of view are non-literary, treaties that they were deposited in the temple. while they themselves treated them as part of However, the majority of the texts found in each their literature. This last statement is based on an observation of the contents of the various tablet 2 Cf. H. Otten, MIOF 5 I am
* Presidential address, read at the 172nd meeting of the Society at Cambridge, Mass., on April 4, 1962. 1 Current Anthropology 1 (1960) 409-423. (1957) 26. indebted to Prof. Otten for a copy of his list of texts thus identified. 3 Tablets found in and near this building are published in vols. XII and XIII of Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazkbi (KBo).


has made possible the recognition of original Old Kingdom manuscripts as opposed to later copies of Old Kingdom texts." Das Altertum 1 (1955) 67-81.C. In recent years the observation of a special. and only secondarily proceeded to write their own language as well." Another observation also points in the same direction. for it seems more than accidental that the details of orthography have their 4A classified list of Hittite texts with bibliographical references was published by E. also H. for we have fragments of an elaborate account of his war against the town of Hassuwa and its ally. 9 Cat.8 The political testament of the same king9 is a bilingual. Akkadian. These texts.. On the analogy of later civilizations it may be assumed that the Hittites at first used the newly acquired script to write the language for which it had been used by their teachers. found only in texts that are old also on linguistic grounds. "The Akkado-Hittite Syllabary and the Problem of the Origin of the Hittite Script." Arch.10 of which an Akkadian version exists although this king lived several generations later and although this regulation of the succession to the throne is a purely internal affair (in contrast to international treaties which were written in Akkadian because this was the language of diplomacy)-. and many later treaties. Laroche. cf.) and that some old texts were copied in the New Kingdom. "Catalogue des textes hittites. MDOG 91 (1958) 75-84. I still think-despite other theories-that it was during the early part of the Old Kingdom.108 GtTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature closest analogies in Syria.7 The step to writing Hittite was. Or. This is borne out by the colophons or scribal subscripts and by the Hittite catalogues of tablets. beginning in the 17th century (according to the "middle" chronology). Akkadian and Hittite.C. around 1650 B. No. the king of Aleppo. 29 (1961) 406-18." Arch. are rituals. so that we may assume that it was composed in both languages from the outset. with number. Laroche. detailed prescriptions. 7Cat. Yet. covering most of the 14th and all of the 13th century B. The Old Hittite texts contain some 5 Th. Concerning the problem of when and where the Hittites learned the cuneiform system. whether they are for us "literary" or "non-literary. and E. already taken during Hattusili's own reign. the fact that it was also written in Akkadian seems to indicate that this was still regarded the proper means of written expression. "Bibliotheken im Alten Orient. 17/2 (1949) 7-23. 21. for magic or exorcistic rites. were registered and catalogued in the same way. For ancient tablet catalogues see there. and historical texts. which clearly show that all the categories so far mentioned. 28. and a New Kingdom or Empire period. there is the possibility of a diachronic study. translated into Hittite. are immediately dated. 6. V. containing the names of rulers and often written in the name of a certain king.4 Apart from this approach based on the local distribution of texts. and in Syria. in which the Hittite version shows the characteristics of the old language (although the preserved manuscript is late). who was also the first Hittite king to extend his activities into northern Syria." RHA 14-16 (1956-58). during the New Kingdom. must have been considered part of the literature deemed worthy of being kept in a library. Otten. . 10 Cat. a. "La bibliotheque de IJattusa. 20. written in the Old Hittite language and in the old handwriting. 7.6 A literary composition about events taking place during the siege of the Syrian town of Urshu also is in Akkadian. Gamkrelidze. photograph in MDOG 86 (1953) 60 Abb." as well as some others not enumerated here.5 and the oldest texts preserved date from the reign of king Hattusili I. '1 Cat. on the other. Thus we know that old manuscripts were kept until the end of the Empire (shortly after 1200 B. The same is true of the famous Proclamation of Telipinu. This assumption finds some support in the fact that the annals of Hattusili I were written in Akkadian and only centuries later. that is. for the performance of the cult festivals and. 188. 29. Or.C. hereafter Cat. 6 KBo X 1-3. That the language underwent a development over this long time span has long been seen. old form of handwriting. that is. however. Hittite history can be roughly divided into an Old Kingdom. Otten. H. then. of the six or seven buildings that contained tablets. by the same king. on the one hand. 8 Cat.

Letter of King Anum-hirbi (Ankara. although the list will contain genres that we would not call literary by our modern standards. both the language and the handwriting would point to the Old Kingdom. 3 and 4) are the oldest. A fragment found in 1960. and translated into Hittite in the early part of the Old Kingdom. Others.. 20 Cat. It seems to me that the most likely theory about the origin and age of this inscription still is that it was originally written by Anitta in Old Assyrian. like the above-mentioned text about the war against Hassuwa and others. "Gruppe II. 12. In addition. This text is in Old Hittite. 324. that is. In order to gain an impression of the scope of writing during the Old Kingdom we may briefly list other texts of which old manuscripts exist.GtTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature 109 Akkadograms (that is.21 Since they cannot as yet be understood I refrain from giving examples. some 150 years after the events. ZA 52 (1957) 216-23 (KUB XXXVI 106 and KBo IX 73 are parts of one tablet!).. The events told in the inscription of king Anitta of Kussar"5belong to a Cf. But it is significant that the 16 17 Cat. other historical compositions of the Old Kingdom are very elaborate and detailed. pre-IndoEuropean inhabitants of the land of Hatti. must have been written shortly after the events. Otten. can best be explained under the assumption that the stage at which writing Akkadian was considered natural was not yet forgotten. there are: An elaborate ritual for the purification of the royal couple" fragments of festival rituals"7 (it will be noticed that these belong to the two categories of ritual texts mentioned before as worthy of inclusion in the "libraries"). both copies are in the old handwriting. of cattle and a sack filled with chaff.." Saecutum 9 (1958) 136-55. too. that is in the language of the indigenous. in Old Assyrian. which still use Akkadian for their legal stipulations20 some texts in the Hattic language.C. was found in the city of Kanesh)14 and also speaks of the troops of Zalpa. Geschichtsschreibung. 531. While these annals are written in a rather dry. they are the oldest known example of annalistic writing. esp. antedating the Assyrian annals by about three centuries. 1 and 3 (Riemschneider Nos. Some of these Hattic texts are literary in the proper sense: they are even poems. there are other Old Hittite texts mixing history with myth. seems to belong in this category if the badly mutilated text is correctly understood. which mentions a certain Anum-herwal3(probably identical with king Anum-hIirbiof Ma'ama whose letter. a time that preceded the foundation of the Hittite kingdom. are the Old Hittite texts?12 We already mentioned the annals of Hattusili I written in Akkadian. Some of these. which contain motifs belonging to the realm of myth or fairytale. edited by K. The mention of a boy who grew up. 24 is in old handwriting. Balkan. that is. But in contrast to the partly legendary Anum-h1irwestory this is the translation of an authentic historical account. In addition to the historiographic texts already mentioned. copy A in old writing. The figure of Anum-hirwe takes us back to the latest phase of the age of the Assyrian merchant colonies. as well as the phrase "he notices [no thing" seem to point in this direction. "Die heth. Cat. Riemschneider. JCS 15 (1961) 64 f.. 156. 16 (1962) 17-23. the Laws"8and two treaties19 some land deeds. enumerative style. K. 136-44 on the Old Kingdom. 156. since they are written in stanzas of a fixed number of verses. of Mama 19 The ffapiru treaty. and one of the manuscripts is old. then. What. A. 154. iv f. 18 by king Zidanda. This phenomenon. words written syllabically in Akkadian in a Hittite context and read in Hittite) that later fell into disuse. 1957). one of them again dealing with the history of the Anatolian town of Zalpa.. 5. and Cat. KBo XII 3. p. 21 KUB XXVIII. 16 Cat. may reflect a popular tradition about the remote past. MIOF 6 (1958) 321-81. Since his reign can be dated to about 1630 B. 12 13 14 period slightly after Anum-hirwe but still earlier than the Hittite kingdom. . Cat." No. . 18 Cf. A Kammenhuber.

the texts of the "main stream of Babylonian tradition" mentioned earlier were written during the New Kingdom. put (them) on me.. whose gods they also took over. It would be wrong to judge the Hittite scribes only on the basis of their-admittedly not always very successful-Assyriological endeavors. at least its Akkadian version. to reconstruct a large part of the first tablet of the Hittite Gilgamesh Epic and to show that it is very much abridged. Such texts were copied in the schools in their original languages. And therein lies the value of the discovery of the Hittite tablets. B. Or.. and often provided with Hittite translations. the Hittites freely changed and adapted them. lines 13-15. on the basis of new fragments. the discovery. in contrast to contemporary Greece. hemerologies. and concentrating on his adventure 22a However. Apart from very few Akkadian texts in a kind of Old Babylonian writing Cat. partly historical Old Hittite texts mentioned before. hymns and prayers.22a The main categories of this learned Babylonian literature are: vocabularies. In the poetic passages we may very well have before us the first record of a poetry that was until then transmitted orally. leaving out some of the episodes taking place in Uruk. HroznyV. from where so far only administrative documents are known but no literary texts. the old capital: Nesas waspas. a. a text already alluded to.C. Sumerian and Akkadian. put! Bring down to me those of my . This has been shown for two categories of texts: hymns and the Gilgamesh Epic. This is a remarkable achievement. Nesas waspas tiya-mu tiya nu-mu annas-mas katta arnut tiya-mu tiya nu-mu uwas-mas katta arnut tiya-mu tiya A tentative translation may be offered although some details remain problematic: Clothes of Nesa. medical texts. The great majority of all Hittite texts belong to this period. put! Before leaving the Old Kingdom we should mention the historical introduction to the Proclamation of Telipinu. 1 (1929) 297. this king tells the entire history of the Old Kingdom under the motto that unity makes strong while disunity leads to disaster. cf. clothes of Nesa put on me. Indo-European-speaking Hittites began already in the old Kingdom to write down the religious litanies of their predecessors.22 In this story someone sings as follows. either on the same tablet or on separate tablets. To the still unintelligible Hattic poems may be added the only example of a Hittite poem discovered so far. The main reason for this activity must have been that this was the way in which learning was organized in Babylonia and that the knowledge of Akkadian was necessary not only for those scribes who were to serve in the foreign office but even for the writing of Hittite. of a fragment of Hittite omens in the old writing now pushes the date back at least for this class of texts. since it is historiography from a definite viewpoint. 22 . in 1964. referring to Nesa. Already what we have said about the Old Kingdom shows that this people developed a literature of its own. 27. unique in its period (sixteenth century). Even in some fields in which Babylonian models were used. rituals and incantations. Professor Otten was able. After a dark period from which texts are lacking there follows the New Kingdom or Empire which lasted from shortly after 1400 to shortly after 1200 B. omens. and proverbs.110 GUTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature of which it is hard to tell whether it is genuinely old or merely archaizing. It is contained in one of the partly legendary. In order to justify his regulation of the succession to the throne and of jurisdiction over the royal house. put! Bring down to me those of my motherput (them) on me. or to regard the literature of the Hittites as an offshoot of that of Babylonia. The achievement of the Hittites is just this: that they learned the Babylonian writing and put it to good use in writing down their own literature. the Sumerian town of the hero. The Gilgamesh Epic may also be included. Arch.

when I. my lady. 27 Cat. there was trouble at home. reverse. situated in a region in which the Hittites were more interested. he tarried on that sojourn. and adding some details of his own. Cat.GUTERBOCK: A Viewof HittiteLiterature 111 in the Cedar Mountain. My Majesty. and smote them. And when the enemy countries heard of the illness of my brother Arnuwanda. the great conqueror Suppiluliuma. But sometimes we are told by the scribes that they took down one or the other text "from the mouth of the king. so that the festivals of the Sungoddess of Arinna. 283. The most famous episode is also the one told with the greatest skill. too. E. he was a mighty king and kept the enemy countries subdued. whom he therefore banished. his stepmother. who reigned around 1330 B. The piety expressed in the introduction is not an empty phrase. When the latter died. they began hostilities. o Sungoddess of Arinna. JAOS 78 (1958) 244 n. who was king of Hatti. we shall see more of this king's religious feelings. Apart from the constant wars in which he had to face many difficult situations. who was a Babylonian princess.. I defeated those neighboring enemy countries within ten years." JCS 10 (1956). my brother Arnuwanda ascended to the throne of his father. When I call a king an author I am aware of the fact that kings in general were illiterate and had to rely on the services of the learned scribes. The dowager queen. my lady! Those neighboring enemy countries that called me a child and belittled me and tried to take thy territory away--thou. while may father sojourned in Mitanni-land. and prayed thus: "O Sun-goddess of Arinna. When my father became god. and he addressed several prayers to the gods in order to justify this harsh treatment of the old queen. Gilgameg et sa 16gende (1960) 139-43. As an example I read the introduction to one of Therefore.27 The request of the Egyptian queen had led to the assassination of the Hittite prince by those 26 Gilterbock. Garelli." And although none of these statements refers specifically to Mursili. them:25 Even before I sat down on the throne of my father.26 Mursili had no easy life. Mursili wrote his own annals in two versions. this is the story of the request of the widow oi Tutankhamon for a son of Suppiluliuma whom she wanted to become her husband and king of Egypt. And from the time when I ascended to my father's throne. if he did not actually dictate them. Mursili also wrote a detailed work about the deeds of his father. he. For lack of time I refrain from quotations.23About hymns to the Sun-god I published a paper some years ago in the Journal of this Society. And they said.C. my lady. caused trouble in the palace by introducing foreign mores and by her hostility toward Mursili's wife. This act weighed on his conscience. formerly was a hero. And I lifted my hands to the Sungoddess of Arinna. 94-98. even before I went against any of those neighboring enemy countries that had opened hostilities against me. . in P. But when my brother Arnuwanda became god. in which he repeatedly stresses his father's personal courage. and in Istanbuler Mitteilungen 8 (1958) The text then gives the detailed account of the campaigns of these first ten years of Mursili's reign. and performed them. but afterwards he fell ill. but he became god! "His son who ascended to the throne. stand by me and smite those neighboring enemy countries for me!" And the Sun-goddess of Arinna listened to my word and stood by me.24 One of the most prolific authors of the Hittites was king Mursili II. all the neighboring enemy countries began hostilities against me. "His father. this episode on pp. "The Deeds of Suppiluliuma. were neglected. Otten. 284. ed. too! "But he who now sat down on his father's throne is a child and will not be able to save Hatti-land and the frontiers of Hatti!" Now. I. ascended to the throne of my father. my lady. 93-125. then even those enemy countries that had not been hostile before began hostilities. The so-called Ten-year Annals. my lady. 24 26 JAOS 78 (1958) 237-45. his personality speaks so vividly from the texts that go under his name that it is obvious that he must at least have given directions for their formulation. showing how the author had made free use of Babylonian motifs without following a Babylonian model as a whole. 56. but he fell ill and became god. I first took care of the regular festivals of the Sun-goddess of Arinna. 48. the king ascribed her death to the curses of the old lady. 23 H. Cat.

Forsch. Let me only mention a recently published prayer of Muwatalli. In an early prayer he asks the gods to reveal the cause of their anger and not to let the good perish with the evil. as well as to other deities.e. first version: A. whether he be one town.32Then in the final prayer he assumes the responsibility as his own. Cat.28 The concept underlying these prayers is that the epidemic is the punishment for some transgression. In Mursili's prayers one may discern a development of his approach. 32 Cat. After this we read: "When I had found this tablet about Egypt..112 GUTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature them (i. (which was) Egyptian territory. p. one house. A. 283. I have confessed it to the Storm-god of Hatti and to the gods.29In another prayer. Gurney's Section III. Prayers exist of many rulers and members of the royal family. There follows the well-known story of the Egyptian request for a prince. his assassination upon arrival. 279.) thus it happens: The father's sin comes upon his son.34the son and successor of Mursili II. "b. I asked the gods through the oracles. One tablet about the offerings to the river Euphrates (neglected since the time of his father). 281. 29 And so on." 30 Cat. (It tells) how the Storm-god of Hatti led the people of Kurustamma into Egypt." Apart from the true religious feeling that speaks out of this prayer. we did it!" Later he says: "O gods. Suppiluliuma's punitive expedition. 1 (1930) 164-77. The prayers which Mursili wrote on that occasion are among the most outstanding works of Hittite writing because of the personal piety expressed in them. (However. . according to the colophon. And again he dispatched. and the Hittites suddenly broke the oath. thus it happens: people always sin! My father sinned and transgressed the command of the Storm-god. 396. 31 Cat. . it is also interesting because it shows that historical records kept in the archives were read and used by later generations. Kleinas. My father dispatched troops and chariots. 279. 33 Cat." The gods answered that indeed this breach of an oath was the cause of their anger. . Forsch. But the Hittites proceeded to desregard the fact that the Hittites and the Egyptians had been taken under oath by the Storm-god. but he stresses his own ignorance of these happenings of the past generation. he sees in the pestilence the result of a transgression of his father. the Storm-god. I have confessed my sin in front of the Storm-god.3' In the next prayer he states that he learned from an old tablet that a treaty had existed between Hatti and Egypt and that in spite of it Suppiluliuma had attacked Egyptian territory. we did it! Now since I have confessed the sin of my father. but I did in no way sin. and they attacked Amka. The gist of this prayer" is: "All those responsible have died. Goetze in ANET. 1 (1930) 206-19. . taken down "from the mouth of His Majesty. who broke the oath he had sworn to his older brother and even killed that brother. and the beginning of the epidemic. The second tablet about Kurustamma. but rather to punish the culprit alone.33 I found two old tablets. but complains that its real cause was not found out by the oracles. The occasion for this prayer seems to be the calamity that befell the Hittite kingdom at his time: the loss of the capital which forced the king to take the gods to Kummanni (as this new text puts it). Kleinas. have mercy upon me!" 279. Plague Prayer "a. fourth version: ibid. Egyptians who opposed the marriage plan. Gtiterbock. G6tze. RHA 18/66 (1960) 57-63. 279. and Suppiluliuma had to take revenge by a campaign into Egyptian territory from which his troops brought home an epidemic that lasted long into Mursili's reign. And behold. second version. how the Storm-god made a treaty between 28 Cat." In it the king confesses the sins of the people to Teshub." Still later he mentions the fact that the epidemic came in the wake of his father's Egyptian campaign. Mursili then says: "Behold. but there is no time to follow this one type of religious literature here. and so my father's sin came upon me. and again they attacked. but I together with my family shall make amends. It is so. 242-51. or one person. my lords: it is so. the Egyptians) and the Hittites and they took an oath by the Storm-god. 34KBo XI 1. ANET 394-6. which was.

426. the wife of Suppiluliuma. the victory of Hadad over Yam.42 First. The text describes purification rites for Teshub of Kizzuwatna initiated by Palliya. was close to Kizzuwatna. 389 f. 41 Cat. a town in Kizzuwatna. N. 125-6. The majority of the Hurrian texts belongs to the New Kingdom. The same role can also be seen in literature. 390.38 probably to be identified with king Pilliya of about 1500 B.GttTERBOCK: A View of HittiteLiterature 113 A great part of the prayer consists of sections of the following type: If any god of the country has enraged the Storm-god. Guterbock. Cat.C. and during his reign his brother. for which both the Hurrian and Luwian languages are attested. 4."36 a rite known from Babylonia. were strengthened in the thirteenth century. Like other Mesopotamian names of deities it came to the Hittites through the Hurrians. Cf. Having thus reached such literary compositions in the narrowest sense as epics and myths.. ad Cat. growth. Later on. 6. Mythologiesof the Ancient World (1961)141-79. a Hittite vasal kingdom. Relations with Kizzuwatna. under Muwatalli may have been a factor in this development. prosperity. . for duplicates see KBo XIV. the action of the Gurparanzah epic is located in Akkad.39The 36 36 37 Storm-god of Aleppo. 6. Among them there is a ritual for the "Mouth Washing. married Puduljepa. was written as a result. Thus they must have been written by scribes of Luwian background but familiar with Hurrian and other foreign stories. 38 39 Nos. and strength to be in the country! Anunnaki is the Babylonian term for the gods of the Netherworld. 115. Ugarit. Otten. 0 Storm-god. There are also some that come from Canaan. which is another name of the same region. the Sea. Cat. The above-mentioned transfer of the gods to Kummanni. South-east Anatolia including the Cilician plain. There is a Hurrian version of the Gilgamesh Epic and a Hurrian composition about the kings of Akkad. For example. the Hittite versions of the epics in question contain a great amount of Luwian words. under Nos. 42 Myths and epics are listed in Cat. that is. Kramer. written in Hittite but containing Hurrian terms. in Hittite but full of Hurrian elements. Second. One Ugaritic myth. as queen. 389. Puduhepa sent a mission to Kizzuwatna to collect tablets. we should stress a few points. and before entering into their contents. The region of Kizzuwatna. Introd.37 text. H.4' Thus it is a fair assumption that these Babylonian literary works came to the Hittites through the Hurrians. but very little can be said about their contents. was worshipped even in the Hittite capital already under Muwatalli. is ascribed to king Palliya of Kizzuwatna. 40 Cf. They are religious in nature. ZA 54 (1961) 114-57. in this period a Hurrian Teshub. and a large description of a purification rite. 230. of WorldHistory 2 (1954)390 with notes 61-63. Cat. one of the earliest names mentioned in Hurrian texts One ritual is Tadubepa. dealing with El and Ashertu or with a Syrian deified mountain. Cf. 227256 (of south-eastern origin) and 257-271 (Anatolian). and the essentially Babylonian concepts underlying the Kumarbi myth are well known. 433 with bibliography.35 At this point we may turn to the Hurrian elements in Hittite literature. regardless of the origin of the stories. Ghterbock. let the Anunnaki reconcile the Storm-god with that god! Thou. Journ. look again at the country with a peaceful eye and cause good peace. 381. Hattusili. esp. There are other literary works that can be traced to the same source. "Hittite Mythology." in S.40 In connection with Babylonian gods we already mentioned the r6le of the Hurrians as intermediaries between Mesopotamia and Anatolia. ed. either because fragments of Hurrian versions exist or because of the names of gods and heroes contained in them. not all epics have a MesopotamianHurrian background. It is well known that Hurrian texts were found in Bowazk6y. is at least alluded to in one of these Hittite fragments. the daughter of a priest of Lawazzantiya. would be a likely place of origin for the authors of these Hittite versions. well-being.

from which the authors of the individual rituals could freely draw. let them lay a table for him to eat!" While thus they were speaking. Even rituals dealing with one single god contain different versions of his story. the king of the lands? The matter about which he comes. of course. Ullikummi is a stone monster.114 GtTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature Is the cupbearer bad who gave thee the cup. As example of an Anatolian myth I choose an episode from the Vanishing God type of stories. the Hittite versions of these foreign myths and epics are the only ones that have a fixed literary form and are-to some extent at least-written in bound language or verse. The Sun-god is the first to see the monster as it grows in the sea. We find a similar situation with regard to the other two Indo-European languages of Anatolia. And there are many gods in the role of the Vanishing or Hiding God: the great Stormgod. as a rival to Teshub. which is of Hurrian background. is lost in translation. adding a detail here. They set up a chair for him to sit. The meter. or Mesopotamian. I choose one from the Ullikummi Epic. appear in the same role. so that thou atest not? As a common feature of these foreign myths it can be said that they belong into the great tradition of Near Eastern epic literature. but inserted in the spells some mythological tales are found which. many consist of litanies or magic spells. The stories are relatively simple: the fight of the Storm-god with the Dragon. the new ruler. which are simpler both in plot and style. as far as they can be understood. Thus it seems that we are here dealing with "oral literature" in the sense of myths living in the oral tradition of Hatti since pre-Indo-European times. Both are recognizable as nature myths. Teshub began to speak to the Sun-god: "Is the chamberlain bad who set up the chair. and the myth of the Hiding God in a ritual aimed at bringing him back and reconciling him with the person afflicted by his anger. so that thou drankest not?" Third. that matter is grave. so we can limit ourselves to short samples. Also goddesses: Inara and Anzili. it is not to be cast aside! Strong is it. which lack standardization and metric form. they gave him a cup. This is in contrast to the Anatolian myths. These myths were not transmitted as literary works in their own right but rather as stories told in the course of a ritual: the Dragon Fight on the occasion of the spring festival. We shall try to illustrate the difference between the foreign and the Anatolian myths by a few examples. and the local Storm-god of the town of Kuliwisna. strong is it. Nor do these myths have a fixed form. they laid a table for him to eat. In contrast. leaving one out or changing one there. but he did not put his lip to it. no Mesopotamian motifs are found in the Anatolian myths. Hurrian. the struggle. When he saw the Sun-god coming Tashmishu began to speak to his brother Teshub: "Why does he come. All texts written wholly or partly in these languages are rituals. the Sun-god arrived at their house. broken in most ver- . the dethroned king of the gods. Luwian and Palaic. whether the motifs are Canaanite. so that thou sattest not down? Is the steward bad who laid the table. The stories themselves are well known and available in translations. begotten and raised by Kumarbi. who also belongs to the type of Storm-gods. He approaches the house of Teshub to break the news to him. the battle! Heaven's uproar it is. and the God Who Hides. But there is also a difference in the sophistication and the involved plots of the foreign myths as compared to the Anatolian ones. Telipinu. The beginning of the story. but he did not sit down. but he did not reach out. the Sun-god of Heaven. the land's hunger and thirst it is!" Teshub began to speak to Tashmishu: "Let them set up a chair for him to sit. The Dragon Fight is told in two different versions in the same ritual text. Most of the deities have Hattic names. are close in content and form to Anatolian stories written in Hittite.

Leslau. has recently been reconstructed by Professor Laroche for the version concerning the goddess Anzili. Luwian and Palaic liturgies and tales..II. SOUTHEAST SEMITIC COGNATES TO THE AKKADIAN VOCABULARY.. Hurrian epics. = Hebrew. in the fold the sheep were afflicted. 2For Southeast Semitic. = Geez. Lexicon linguae aethiopicae. were afflictied. (first line not clear. Lo s ANGELES IN A PREVIOUS I suggested some ARTICLE' Southeast Semitic2 cognates to the Akkadian vocabulary published by Wolfram von Soden. Languages: Amh. in the corral the cows were afflicted. we may safely say that in this case the ritual for appeasing the angry goddess was performed for a woman who had difficulties in giving birth. perhaps referring to an offering) Anzili was enraged.. and other religious compositions. 4-Historiography was highly developed. smoke seized the window. also beginning in the Old Kingdom. Hattic.. was afflicted. Soq.GtTERBOCK: A Viewof HittiteLiterature 115 sions.. Tna. 7-All these diverse elements were controlled by a class of learned men who wrote in the language which we call Hittite. 1.3 The 3 The books and languages are abbreviated as follows. Mh. since it is new here. Hebr. Te. = Amharic.fascicles 1-3. . = Tigrinya. Her dress [she.. begin in the Old Kingdom. If I may briefly sum up the points that seem essential. 5-The personality of individual rulers vividly speaks from their historical accounts and particularly from prayers. 2-Most categories of texts are found in all tablet collections with a preference for scholarly and truly literary works in the "House on the Slope.. her right shoe she put on her left foot." 3-The most common types of texts." The mention of the wife-presumably the wife of the man for whom the ritual was performed-is of interest. She pinned her pectoral on the back of her dress. = Soqotri. his wife [. It is to these ancient scholars that we owe our knowledge of Hittite literature. in the fireplace the logs were afflicted. Ar.. We have tried to give a picture of the scope of Hittite literature. some Cannanite myths. myths.43 The midwife speaks as follows: .. G. = Sbauri. Dillmann.. [the . She rose and left the bed-chamber. of her veil she let the rear part come down in front and the front part in back. On the pedestal the gods were afflicted. 6-Hittite literature contained many different elements: The "main stream of Babylonian tradition" in the school. WOLF LESLAU UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. but there is no hint at any connection with the seasons. (one sentence lost again)] Her left shoe she put on her right foot. = Mehri.. see W. Other versions of the Vanishing God myth 43 RHA 19/68 (1961) 25 f. Fog seized the house. In view of the fact that the person reciting this particular story is a midwife. 'JAOS 82 (1962) 1-4. [. I would repeat the following: 1-What the Hittites considered literature includes categories that for us are non-literary. Akkadisches Handw6rterbuch. including rituals. = Tigre.. = Arabic. JAOS 63 (1943) 4-14.. S9. Dillmann = A... were probably used for other occasions.

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