collections found in different locations within the IN ATTEMPTING TO GIVE an outline of Hittite literature we shall try to take the term "literature" Hittite capital, Bogazkoy. in its specific sense, considering as literary mainly Such a study is rendered difficult by the fact such compositions as myths, epics, prayers, and that unfortunately the tablets found before what little exists of poetry. We shall have to in- World War I in three different locations were clude historiography, because historical narrative hopelessly mixed after they had reached the was a field in which the Hittites excelled from museum. In contrast to this, the find spots of all early times on and because many historical texts tablets found after the First War have been carehave their merits also as literary compositions. fully recorded. Some notes of the first excavator, We are, however, aware of the fact that our defini- Hugo Winckler, were recently rediscovered by tion of "literature" is not that of the ancients. Professor Otten; they give the find spots of a little Professor Oppenheim in a recent article' pointed over one hundred texts2-out of 10,000 fragments out that the great majority of the texts forming found in those early excavations! Taken together what he calls "the main stream of tradition" of with what was later found in the same buildings Babylonia-others have called it the "canon" as well as in some others, and also taking into because of the standardization it underwent account what texts were absent in the places rearound 1000 B.C.-is scholarly literature in the cently excavated, one can get a rough, though sense that it consists of the material the scribes incomplete, picture of the contents of the various considered essential for their training, and that its collections. bulk is made up by word lists, omens, and preIt would seem that one building in particular scriptions for exorcistic rites. The preference given deserves the name "library." This is a building to these kinds of texts reflects an encyclopedic ap- situated on the slope of the acropolis, above the proach, as Professor Landsberger was the first to main temple of the city, partly excavated by point out, insofar as the word lists aim at covering Winckler in 1911 and re-investigated in recent the entire vocabulary, the omens consider all pos- years including the campaigns of 1960 and 1961.3 sible occurrences that could be taken as porten- Most of what may be called "scholarly" and tous, and the magic rites also aim at complete "literary" texts seem to have been kept there: coverage. vocabularies, omens, epics, and texts of the "hisAs far as the Hittites are concerned, we shall see torical tradition"-categories to which we shall that their scribes used this "main stream of return. On the other hand, the largest number of Babylonian tradition" as syllabus in their train- state treaties was found by Winckler in the temple ing, too. But they also produced other classes of precinct; this fits the statement contained in some texts that from our point of view are non-literary, treaties that they were deposited in the temple. while they themselves treated them as part of However, the majority of the texts found in each their literature. This last statement is based on an observation of the contents of the various tablet 2 Cf. H. Otten, MIOF 5 I am
* Presidential address, read at the 172nd meeting of the Society at Cambridge, Mass., on April 4, 1962. 1 Current Anthropology 1 (1960) 409-423. (1957) 26. indebted to Prof. Otten for a copy of his list of texts thus identified. 3 Tablets found in and near this building are published in vols. XII and XIII of Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazkbi (KBo).


containing the names of rulers and often written in the name of a certain king. so that we may assume that it was composed in both languages from the outset. detailed prescriptions. This is borne out by the colophons or scribal subscripts and by the Hittite catalogues of tablets. Yet." RHA 14-16 (1956-58). cf. Or. and historical texts. that is. must have been considered part of the literature deemed worthy of being kept in a library. I still think-despite other theories-that it was during the early part of the Old Kingdom. then.C. "The Akkado-Hittite Syllabary and the Problem of the Origin of the Hittite Script. '1 Cat.C. Otten. 6. That the language underwent a development over this long time span has long been seen.6 A literary composition about events taking place during the siege of the Syrian town of Urshu also is in Akkadian.) and that some old texts were copied in the New Kingdom. H.7 The step to writing Hittite was. that is. This assumption finds some support in the fact that the annals of Hattusili I were written in Akkadian and only centuries later. and E. were registered and catalogued in the same way. covering most of the 14th and all of the 13th century B. are rituals. for magic or exorcistic rites. translated into Hittite. Gamkrelidze. of the six or seven buildings that contained tablets. during the New Kingdom. Otten. beginning in the 17th century (according to the "middle" chronology).10 of which an Akkadian version exists although this king lived several generations later and although this regulation of the succession to the throne is a purely internal affair (in contrast to international treaties which were written in Akkadian because this was the language of diplomacy)-. 9 Cat. "Bibliotheken im Alten Orient. Laroche. written in the Old Hittite language and in the old handwriting.C. Concerning the problem of when and where the Hittites learned the cuneiform system. 7Cat. No. 29 (1961) 406-18. 8 Cat. Akkadian and Hittite. The Old Hittite texts contain some 5 Th. old form of handwriting. on the one hand. 6 KBo X 1-3. Akkadian. the fact that it was also written in Akkadian seems to indicate that this was still regarded the proper means of written expression. has made possible the recognition of original Old Kingdom manuscripts as opposed to later copies of Old Kingdom texts." Arch. 7. who was also the first Hittite king to extend his activities into northern Syria. hereafter Cat. . the king of Aleppo. also H. there is the possibility of a diachronic study.4 Apart from this approach based on the local distribution of texts." Arch. in which the Hittite version shows the characteristics of the old language (although the preserved manuscript is late). MDOG 91 (1958) 75-84. Thus we know that old manuscripts were kept until the end of the Empire (shortly after 1200 B. "Catalogue des textes hittites. already taken during Hattusili's own reign. on the other. 20. a. 188. are immediately dated." as well as some others not enumerated here. for we have fragments of an elaborate account of his war against the town of Hassuwa and its ally. Laroche. V. 10 Cat. photograph in MDOG 86 (1953) 60 Abb. around 1650 B. with number. however. 29. and a New Kingdom or Empire period. 17/2 (1949) 7-23. found only in texts that are old also on linguistic grounds. by the same king. On the analogy of later civilizations it may be assumed that the Hittites at first used the newly acquired script to write the language for which it had been used by their teachers. and only secondarily proceeded to write their own language as well. for it seems more than accidental that the details of orthography have their 4A classified list of Hittite texts with bibliographical references was published by E. The same is true of the famous Proclamation of Telipinu. These texts. Or." Das Altertum 1 (1955) 67-81. which clearly show that all the categories so far mentioned.. In recent years the observation of a special.108 GtTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature closest analogies in Syria. whether they are for us "literary" or "non-literary. and many later treaties.5 and the oldest texts preserved date from the reign of king Hattusili I. "La bibliotheque de IJattusa. Hittite history can be roughly divided into an Old Kingdom.8 The political testament of the same king9 is a bilingual. For ancient tablet catalogues see there. for the performance of the cult festivals and. and in Syria. 21. 28." Another observation also points in the same direction.

"Gruppe II. Riemschneider.GtTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature 109 Akkadograms (that is. In addition. 21 KUB XXVIII. as well as the phrase "he notices [no thing" seem to point in this direction. . A Kammenhuber. there are: An elaborate ritual for the purification of the royal couple" fragments of festival rituals"7 (it will be noticed that these belong to the two categories of ritual texts mentioned before as worthy of inclusion in the "libraries"). Cat. edited by K. 12 13 14 period slightly after Anum-hirwe but still earlier than the Hittite kingdom.21 Since they cannot as yet be understood I refrain from giving examples. 531. 20 Cat. Others.C. are the Old Hittite texts?12 We already mentioned the annals of Hattusili I written in Akkadian. and one of the manuscripts is old. 324. Otten. ZA 52 (1957) 216-23 (KUB XXXVI 106 and KBo IX 73 are parts of one tablet!). copy A in old writing. there are other Old Hittite texts mixing history with myth. KBo XII 3. While these annals are written in a rather dry. This phenomenon. Some of these Hattic texts are literary in the proper sense: they are even poems. the Laws"8and two treaties19 some land deeds. In addition to the historiographic texts already mentioned. In order to gain an impression of the scope of writing during the Old Kingdom we may briefly list other texts of which old manuscripts exist. too. esp. that is in the language of the indigenous. that is. was found in the city of Kanesh)14 and also speaks of the troops of Zalpa. It seems to me that the most likely theory about the origin and age of this inscription still is that it was originally written by Anitta in Old Assyrian." Saecutum 9 (1958) 136-55. Balkan. K. What. seems to belong in this category if the badly mutilated text is correctly understood. 12. 3 and 4) are the oldest. The figure of Anum-hirwe takes us back to the latest phase of the age of the Assyrian merchant colonies.. 16 Cat. 16 (1962) 17-23. Geschichtsschreibung. may reflect a popular tradition about the remote past. one of them again dealing with the history of the Anatolian town of Zalpa. enumerative style.. 154. 18 by king Zidanda. 5. which still use Akkadian for their legal stipulations20 some texts in the Hattic language. in Old Assyrian. and Cat. But in contrast to the partly legendary Anum-h1irwestory this is the translation of an authentic historical account. Some of these. although the list will contain genres that we would not call literary by our modern standards. other historical compositions of the Old Kingdom are very elaborate and detailed. and translated into Hittite in the early part of the Old Kingdom." No. 1957). p. 1 and 3 (Riemschneider Nos. they are the oldest known example of annalistic writing. then. since they are written in stanzas of a fixed number of verses. But it is significant that the 16 17 Cat. 156. Cat. 156. must have been written shortly after the events. Letter of King Anum-hirbi (Ankara. A fragment found in 1960. like the above-mentioned text about the war against Hassuwa and others.. of cattle and a sack filled with chaff. The mention of a boy who grew up. both the language and the handwriting would point to the Old Kingdom. JCS 15 (1961) 64 f. which contain motifs belonging to the realm of myth or fairytale. pre-IndoEuropean inhabitants of the land of Hatti. 136-44 on the Old Kingdom. MIOF 6 (1958) 321-81. iv f. both copies are in the old handwriting. . some 150 years after the events. can best be explained under the assumption that the stage at which writing Akkadian was considered natural was not yet forgotten. a time that preceded the foundation of the Hittite kingdom. A. "Die heth. antedating the Assyrian annals by about three centuries. The events told in the inscription of king Anitta of Kussar"5belong to a Cf. Since his reign can be dated to about 1630 B. 18 Cf. 24 is in old handwriting. This text is in Old Hittite.. of Mama 19 The ffapiru treaty.. which mentions a certain Anum-herwal3(probably identical with king Anum-hIirbiof Ma'ama whose letter. that is. words written syllabically in Akkadian in a Hittite context and read in Hittite) that later fell into disuse.

and concentrating on his adventure 22a However. It is contained in one of the partly legendary. Or. Nesas waspas tiya-mu tiya nu-mu annas-mas katta arnut tiya-mu tiya nu-mu uwas-mas katta arnut tiya-mu tiya A tentative translation may be offered although some details remain problematic: Clothes of Nesa. partly historical Old Hittite texts mentioned before. This has been shown for two categories of texts: hymns and the Gilgamesh Epic.110 GUTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature of which it is hard to tell whether it is genuinely old or merely archaizing. put! Bring down to me those of my . at least its Akkadian version. leaving out some of the episodes taking place in Uruk. cf. hymns and prayers. Even in some fields in which Babylonian models were used.22a The main categories of this learned Babylonian literature are: vocabularies. 27. Indo-European-speaking Hittites began already in the old Kingdom to write down the religious litanies of their predecessors. rituals and incantations. the Hittites freely changed and adapted them. omens. from where so far only administrative documents are known but no literary texts. The Gilgamesh Epic may also be included.. in contrast to contemporary Greece. put! Bring down to me those of my motherput (them) on me. the Sumerian town of the hero. Such texts were copied in the schools in their original languages. unique in its period (sixteenth century). Professor Otten was able. 1 (1929) 297. The great majority of all Hittite texts belong to this period. To the still unintelligible Hattic poems may be added the only example of a Hittite poem discovered so far. After a dark period from which texts are lacking there follows the New Kingdom or Empire which lasted from shortly after 1400 to shortly after 1200 B. referring to Nesa. clothes of Nesa put on me. 22 . lines 13-15. this king tells the entire history of the Old Kingdom under the motto that unity makes strong while disunity leads to disaster. The main reason for this activity must have been that this was the way in which learning was organized in Babylonia and that the knowledge of Akkadian was necessary not only for those scribes who were to serve in the foreign office but even for the writing of Hittite. put! Before leaving the Old Kingdom we should mention the historical introduction to the Proclamation of Telipinu.. and proverbs. the texts of the "main stream of Babylonian tradition" mentioned earlier were written during the New Kingdom. In order to justify his regulation of the succession to the throne and of jurisdiction over the royal house.22 In this story someone sings as follows. It would be wrong to judge the Hittite scribes only on the basis of their-admittedly not always very successful-Assyriological endeavors. whose gods they also took over. in 1964. hemerologies. of a fragment of Hittite omens in the old writing now pushes the date back at least for this class of texts. a. The achievement of the Hittites is just this: that they learned the Babylonian writing and put it to good use in writing down their own literature. the old capital: Nesas waspas. Already what we have said about the Old Kingdom shows that this people developed a literature of its own. put (them) on me. a text already alluded to. since it is historiography from a definite viewpoint. Apart from very few Akkadian texts in a kind of Old Babylonian writing Cat. This is a remarkable achievement. HroznyV. Arch. the discovery. Sumerian and Akkadian. or to regard the literature of the Hittites as an offshoot of that of Babylonia. medical texts. either on the same tablet or on separate tablets. on the basis of new fragments. to reconstruct a large part of the first tablet of the Hittite Gilgamesh Epic and to show that it is very much abridged. and often provided with Hittite translations. In the poetic passages we may very well have before us the first record of a poetry that was until then transmitted orally. B.C. And therein lies the value of the discovery of the Hittite tablets.

But when my brother Arnuwanda became god. But sometimes we are told by the scribes that they took down one or the other text "from the mouth of the king. ascended to the throne of my father. 23 H. E. Gilgameg et sa 16gende (1960) 139-43. Cat. formerly was a hero. his personality speaks so vividly from the texts that go under his name that it is obvious that he must at least have given directions for their formulation. and prayed thus: "O Sun-goddess of Arinna." JCS 10 (1956). the great conqueror Suppiluliuma. And when the enemy countries heard of the illness of my brother Arnuwanda. he tarried on that sojourn. Otten. 27 Cat. in P. For lack of time I refrain from quotations. This act weighed on his conscience. were neglected. we shall see more of this king's religious feelings. And they said. Apart from the constant wars in which he had to face many difficult situations. "His father. I first took care of the regular festivals of the Sun-goddess of Arinna. The piety expressed in the introduction is not an empty phrase. his stepmother. this episode on pp. 94-98. When the latter died. And I lifted my hands to the Sungoddess of Arinna. The so-called Ten-year Annals. stand by me and smite those neighboring enemy countries for me!" And the Sun-goddess of Arinna listened to my word and stood by me. then even those enemy countries that had not been hostile before began hostilities. there was trouble at home..GUTERBOCK: A Viewof HittiteLiterature 111 in the Cedar Mountain. this is the story of the request of the widow oi Tutankhamon for a son of Suppiluliuma whom she wanted to become her husband and king of Egypt. And from the time when I ascended to my father's throne. when I. who reigned around 1330 B. but he fell ill and became god. and adding some details of his own. even before I went against any of those neighboring enemy countries that had opened hostilities against me." And although none of these statements refers specifically to Mursili. situated in a region in which the Hittites were more interested. 56. ed. Mursili wrote his own annals in two versions. he was a mighty king and kept the enemy countries subdued. 48. 93-125. but afterwards he fell ill.27 The request of the Egyptian queen had led to the assassination of the Hittite prince by those 26 Gilterbock. all the neighboring enemy countries began hostilities against me. my lady! Those neighboring enemy countries that called me a child and belittled me and tried to take thy territory away--thou. if he did not actually dictate them. my lady. the king ascribed her death to the curses of the old lady. The most famous episode is also the one told with the greatest skill.23About hymns to the Sun-god I published a paper some years ago in the Journal of this Society. them:25 Even before I sat down on the throne of my father. too! "But he who now sat down on his father's throne is a child and will not be able to save Hatti-land and the frontiers of Hatti!" Now. My Majesty. 283. "The Deeds of Suppiluliuma. he. but he became god! "His son who ascended to the throne. showing how the author had made free use of Babylonian motifs without following a Babylonian model as a whole. so that the festivals of the Sungoddess of Arinna. while may father sojourned in Mitanni-land. and performed them. Garelli. I defeated those neighboring enemy countries within ten years. When my father became god. who was king of Hatti.24 One of the most prolific authors of the Hittites was king Mursili II.C.26 Mursili had no easy life. reverse. 24 26 JAOS 78 (1958) 237-45. my lady. I. caused trouble in the palace by introducing foreign mores and by her hostility toward Mursili's wife. As an example I read the introduction to one of Therefore. my brother Arnuwanda ascended to the throne of his father. 284. Cat. JAOS 78 (1958) 244 n. they began hostilities. my lady. whom he therefore banished. in which he repeatedly stresses his father's personal courage. and he addressed several prayers to the gods in order to justify this harsh treatment of the old queen. o Sungoddess of Arinna. my lady. too. The dowager queen. . and in Istanbuler Mitteilungen 8 (1958) The text then gives the detailed account of the campaigns of these first ten years of Mursili's reign. and smote them. who was a Babylonian princess. When I call a king an author I am aware of the fact that kings in general were illiterate and had to rely on the services of the learned scribes. Mursili also wrote a detailed work about the deeds of his father.

the Storm-god. Cat. RHA 18/66 (1960) 57-63. 279. but I did in no way sin. (which was) Egyptian territory. as well as to other deities.32Then in the final prayer he assumes the responsibility as his own. I have confessed it to the Storm-god of Hatti and to the gods. There follows the well-known story of the Egyptian request for a prince. 279.112 GUTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature them (i. p. 32 Cat. And behold. . the Egyptians) and the Hittites and they took an oath by the Storm-god. My father dispatched troops and chariots.28 The concept underlying these prayers is that the epidemic is the punishment for some transgression. G6tze. But the Hittites proceeded to desregard the fact that the Hittites and the Egyptians had been taken under oath by the Storm-god. 31 Cat. The prayers which Mursili wrote on that occasion are among the most outstanding works of Hittite writing because of the personal piety expressed in them. how the Storm-god made a treaty between 28 Cat. 29 And so on. thus it happens: people always sin! My father sinned and transgressed the command of the Storm-god. Forsch. we did it! Now since I have confessed the sin of my father. I asked the gods through the oracles. The gist of this prayer" is: "All those responsible have died. Mursili then says: "Behold. but I together with my family shall make amends. Plague Prayer "a. Suppiluliuma's punitive expedition." Still later he mentions the fact that the epidemic came in the wake of his father's Egyptian campaign. which was. And again he dispatched. .29In another prayer. ANET 394-6. Kleinas. his assassination upon arrival. but he stresses his own ignorance of these happenings of the past generation. 279. Prayers exist of many rulers and members of the royal family. (However. Kleinas. . (It tells) how the Storm-god of Hatti led the people of Kurustamma into Egypt. It is so.34the son and successor of Mursili II." Apart from the true religious feeling that speaks out of this prayer." 30 Cat. 396." In it the king confesses the sins of the people to Teshub. and they attacked Amka. and Suppiluliuma had to take revenge by a campaign into Egyptian territory from which his troops brought home an epidemic that lasted long into Mursili's reign. 1 (1930) 206-19. according to the colophon. he sees in the pestilence the result of a transgression of his father. 283. In Mursili's prayers one may discern a development of his approach. we did it!" Later he says: "O gods. but rather to punish the culprit alone. and again they attacked. . 34KBo XI 1. taken down "from the mouth of His Majesty. Gurney's Section III. first version: A. but complains that its real cause was not found out by the oracles. Forsch. One tablet about the offerings to the river Euphrates (neglected since the time of his father). who broke the oath he had sworn to his older brother and even killed that brother. second version. Egyptians who opposed the marriage plan. Let me only mention a recently published prayer of Muwatalli. Goetze in ANET. I have confessed my sin in front of the Storm-god. my lords: it is so. it is also interesting because it shows that historical records kept in the archives were read and used by later generations." The gods answered that indeed this breach of an oath was the cause of their anger. have mercy upon me!" 279. The occasion for this prayer seems to be the calamity that befell the Hittite kingdom at his time: the loss of the capital which forced the king to take the gods to Kummanni (as this new text puts it). and the beginning of the epidemic. Gtiterbock.. "b. and so my father's sin came upon me. and the Hittites suddenly broke the oath. one house.3' In the next prayer he states that he learned from an old tablet that a treaty had existed between Hatti and Egypt and that in spite of it Suppiluliuma had attacked Egyptian territory. A. The second tablet about Kurustamma. or one person.e. fourth version: ibid. In an early prayer he asks the gods to reveal the cause of their anger and not to let the good perish with the evil. 1 (1930) 164-77. whether he be one town. 242-51. 281.33 I found two old tablets. 33 Cat.) thus it happens: The father's sin comes upon his son. but there is no time to follow this one type of religious literature here. After this we read: "When I had found this tablet about Egypt.

esp.C.37 text. in Hittite but full of Hurrian elements. was worshipped even in the Hittite capital already under Muwatalli. For example. Having thus reached such literary compositions in the narrowest sense as epics and myths. The text describes purification rites for Teshub of Kizzuwatna initiated by Palliya. Relations with Kizzuwatna. dealing with El and Ashertu or with a Syrian deified mountain. 6. and a large description of a purification rite. They are religious in nature. is ascribed to king Palliya of Kizzuwatna. 125-6. a Hittite vasal kingdom. ZA 54 (1961) 114-57. There are other literary works that can be traced to the same source. Otten. The same role can also be seen in literature. and during his reign his brother. ad Cat. Cat. 4. the victory of Hadad over Yam."36 a rite known from Babylonia. was close to Kizzuwatna. Among them there is a ritual for the "Mouth Washing. growth. were strengthened in the thirteenth century. 227256 (of south-eastern origin) and 257-271 (Anatolian). and before entering into their contents. under Muwatalli may have been a factor in this development. Guterbock. H. written in Hittite but containing Hurrian terms. Cf. not all epics have a MesopotamianHurrian background. 0 Storm-god. Later on. for duplicates see KBo XIV. 389. 381. under Nos.38 probably to be identified with king Pilliya of about 1500 B. let the Anunnaki reconcile the Storm-god with that god! Thou. 389 f. that is. South-east Anatolia including the Cilician plain. the wife of Suppiluliuma. One Ugaritic myth. 42 Myths and epics are listed in Cat. which is another name of the same region. It is well known that Hurrian texts were found in Bowazk6y. Cat.39The 36 36 37 Storm-god of Aleppo. we should stress a few points. but very little can be said about their contents.40 In connection with Babylonian gods we already mentioned the r6le of the Hurrians as intermediaries between Mesopotamia and Anatolia. Second.GttTERBOCK: A View of HittiteLiterature 113 A great part of the prayer consists of sections of the following type: If any god of the country has enraged the Storm-god. and the essentially Babylonian concepts underlying the Kumarbi myth are well known. There is a Hurrian version of the Gilgamesh Epic and a Hurrian composition about the kings of Akkad. Thus they must have been written by scribes of Luwian background but familiar with Hurrian and other foreign stories. Ugarit. 426. Introd.42 First. 40 Cf. the action of the Gurparanzah epic is located in Akkad. . Hattusili. as queen. The above-mentioned transfer of the gods to Kummanni. 6. well-being. There are also some that come from Canaan. Mythologiesof the Ancient World (1961)141-79. would be a likely place of origin for the authors of these Hittite versions. and strength to be in the country! Anunnaki is the Babylonian term for the gods of the Netherworld.. in this period a Hurrian Teshub. 433 with bibliography. Cf. the Hittite versions of the epics in question contain a great amount of Luwian words. N. of WorldHistory 2 (1954)390 with notes 61-63. "Hittite Mythology. married Puduljepa. the daughter of a priest of Lawazzantiya. Ghterbock. 390. Journ. the Sea. 41 Cat. Cat. for which both the Hurrian and Luwian languages are attested. is at least alluded to in one of these Hittite fragments. 38 39 Nos. one of the earliest names mentioned in Hurrian texts One ritual is Tadubepa. look again at the country with a peaceful eye and cause good peace. was written as a result. The region of Kizzuwatna. The majority of the Hurrian texts belongs to the New Kingdom. a town in Kizzuwatna." in S. ed. regardless of the origin of the stories.35 At this point we may turn to the Hurrian elements in Hittite literature.4' Thus it is a fair assumption that these Babylonian literary works came to the Hittites through the Hurrians. 230. either because fragments of Hurrian versions exist or because of the names of gods and heroes contained in them. Kramer. 115. Like other Mesopotamian names of deities it came to the Hittites through the Hurrians. Puduhepa sent a mission to Kizzuwatna to collect tablets. prosperity.

The stories themselves are well known and available in translations. which are simpler both in plot and style. They set up a chair for him to sit. that matter is grave. As example of an Anatolian myth I choose an episode from the Vanishing God type of stories. but he did not sit down. Even rituals dealing with one single god contain different versions of his story. who also belongs to the type of Storm-gods. But there is also a difference in the sophistication and the involved plots of the foreign myths as compared to the Anatolian ones. the Sun-god of Heaven. adding a detail here. so that thou sattest not down? Is the steward bad who laid the table. and the myth of the Hiding God in a ritual aimed at bringing him back and reconciling him with the person afflicted by his anger. but he did not put his lip to it. The beginning of the story. no Mesopotamian motifs are found in the Anatolian myths. The meter. or Mesopotamian. the Hittite versions of these foreign myths and epics are the only ones that have a fixed literary form and are-to some extent at least-written in bound language or verse. it is not to be cast aside! Strong is it. the Sun-god arrived at their house. Telipinu. Hurrian. of course. leaving one out or changing one there. Both are recognizable as nature myths. but he did not reach out. I choose one from the Ullikummi Epic. so that thou atest not? As a common feature of these foreign myths it can be said that they belong into the great tradition of Near Eastern epic literature. which lack standardization and metric form. and the God Who Hides. strong is it. they gave him a cup. from which the authors of the individual rituals could freely draw. And there are many gods in the role of the Vanishing or Hiding God: the great Stormgod. the king of the lands? The matter about which he comes. The Dragon Fight is told in two different versions in the same ritual text. Most of the deities have Hattic names. the land's hunger and thirst it is!" Teshub began to speak to Tashmishu: "Let them set up a chair for him to sit. but inserted in the spells some mythological tales are found which. is lost in translation. as a rival to Teshub. Luwian and Palaic. begotten and raised by Kumarbi. All texts written wholly or partly in these languages are rituals. Thus it seems that we are here dealing with "oral literature" in the sense of myths living in the oral tradition of Hatti since pre-Indo-European times.114 GtTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature Is the cupbearer bad who gave thee the cup. are close in content and form to Anatolian stories written in Hittite. many consist of litanies or magic spells. broken in most ver- . Ullikummi is a stone monster. The stories are relatively simple: the fight of the Storm-god with the Dragon. We shall try to illustrate the difference between the foreign and the Anatolian myths by a few examples. so that thou drankest not?" Third. the battle! Heaven's uproar it is. as far as they can be understood. whether the motifs are Canaanite. the new ruler. so we can limit ourselves to short samples. We find a similar situation with regard to the other two Indo-European languages of Anatolia. These myths were not transmitted as literary works in their own right but rather as stories told in the course of a ritual: the Dragon Fight on the occasion of the spring festival. In contrast. Also goddesses: Inara and Anzili. When he saw the Sun-god coming Tashmishu began to speak to his brother Teshub: "Why does he come. Nor do these myths have a fixed form. the struggle. the dethroned king of the gods. The Sun-god is the first to see the monster as it grows in the sea. appear in the same role. Teshub began to speak to the Sun-god: "Is the chamberlain bad who set up the chair. This is in contrast to the Anatolian myths. let them lay a table for him to eat!" While thus they were speaking. which is of Hurrian background. they laid a table for him to eat. He approaches the house of Teshub to break the news to him. and the local Storm-god of the town of Kuliwisna.

G. Luwian and Palaic liturgies and tales. 7-All these diverse elements were controlled by a class of learned men who wrote in the language which we call Hittite. (first line not clear. 5-The personality of individual rulers vividly speaks from their historical accounts and particularly from prayers. Ar. since it is new here. S9. 2-Most categories of texts are found in all tablet collections with a preference for scholarly and truly literary works in the "House on the Slope. JAOS 63 (1943) 4-14. begin in the Old Kingdom. Soq." 3-The most common types of texts. Her dress [she. Lexicon linguae aethiopicae. On the pedestal the gods were afflicted. = Tigre. 'JAOS 82 (1962) 1-4. Fog seized the house. . 2For Southeast Semitic. some Cannanite myths. = Geez.. her right shoe she put on her left foot.. = Hebrew.. Hurrian epics. = Soqotri.II. [the .. = Sbauri. = Arabic. 6-Hittite literature contained many different elements: The "main stream of Babylonian tradition" in the school. I would repeat the following: 1-What the Hittites considered literature includes categories that for us are non-literary. myths. She pinned her pectoral on the back of her dress. Te. see W. in the fold the sheep were afflicted. 4-Historiography was highly developed.. was afflicted. Tna..3 The 3 The books and languages are abbreviated as follows. smoke seized the window.. in the corral the cows were afflicted. were probably used for other occasions. In view of the fact that the person reciting this particular story is a midwife. Leslau. (one sentence lost again)] Her left shoe she put on her right foot.. 1. [. and other religious compositions.43 The midwife speaks as follows: . were afflictied.fascicles 1-3.. It is to these ancient scholars that we owe our knowledge of Hittite literature..GtTERBOCK: A Viewof HittiteLiterature 115 sions. Mh. his wife [. Languages: Amh." The mention of the wife-presumably the wife of the man for whom the ritual was performed-is of interest. If I may briefly sum up the points that seem essential. Hattic. has recently been reconstructed by Professor Laroche for the version concerning the goddess Anzili. Other versions of the Vanishing God myth 43 RHA 19/68 (1961) 25 f. She rose and left the bed-chamber. we may safely say that in this case the ritual for appeasing the angry goddess was performed for a woman who had difficulties in giving birth. = Mehri. = Tigrinya. also beginning in the Old Kingdom. Hebr. We have tried to give a picture of the scope of Hittite literature.. Dillmann = A. of her veil she let the rear part come down in front and the front part in back. = Amharic. Lo s ANGELES IN A PREVIOUS I suggested some ARTICLE' Southeast Semitic2 cognates to the Akkadian vocabulary published by Wolfram von Soden. Dillmann. but there is no hint at any connection with the seasons. including rituals.. WOLF LESLAU UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. Akkadisches Handw6rterbuch. in the fireplace the logs were afflicted. SOUTHEAST SEMITIC COGNATES TO THE AKKADIAN VOCABULARY.... perhaps referring to an offering) Anzili was enraged.

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