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collections found in different locations within the IN ATTEMPTING TO GIVE an outline of Hittite literature we shall try to take the term "literature" Hittite capital, Bogazkoy. in its specific sense, considering as literary mainly Such a study is rendered difficult by the fact such compositions as myths, epics, prayers, and that unfortunately the tablets found before what little exists of poetry. We shall have to in- World War I in three different locations were clude historiography, because historical narrative hopelessly mixed after they had reached the was a field in which the Hittites excelled from museum. In contrast to this, the find spots of all early times on and because many historical texts tablets found after the First War have been carehave their merits also as literary compositions. fully recorded. Some notes of the first excavator, We are, however, aware of the fact that our defini- Hugo Winckler, were recently rediscovered by tion of "literature" is not that of the ancients. Professor Otten; they give the find spots of a little Professor Oppenheim in a recent article' pointed over one hundred texts2-out of 10,000 fragments out that the great majority of the texts forming found in those early excavations! Taken together what he calls "the main stream of tradition" of with what was later found in the same buildings Babylonia-others have called it the "canon" as well as in some others, and also taking into because of the standardization it underwent account what texts were absent in the places rearound 1000 B.C.-is scholarly literature in the cently excavated, one can get a rough, though sense that it consists of the material the scribes incomplete, picture of the contents of the various considered essential for their training, and that its collections. bulk is made up by word lists, omens, and preIt would seem that one building in particular scriptions for exorcistic rites. The preference given deserves the name "library." This is a building to these kinds of texts reflects an encyclopedic ap- situated on the slope of the acropolis, above the proach, as Professor Landsberger was the first to main temple of the city, partly excavated by point out, insofar as the word lists aim at covering Winckler in 1911 and re-investigated in recent the entire vocabulary, the omens consider all pos- years including the campaigns of 1960 and 1961.3 sible occurrences that could be taken as porten- Most of what may be called "scholarly" and tous, and the magic rites also aim at complete "literary" texts seem to have been kept there: coverage. vocabularies, omens, epics, and texts of the "hisAs far as the Hittites are concerned, we shall see torical tradition"-categories to which we shall that their scribes used this "main stream of return. On the other hand, the largest number of Babylonian tradition" as syllabus in their train- state treaties was found by Winckler in the temple ing, too. But they also produced other classes of precinct; this fits the statement contained in some texts that from our point of view are non-literary, treaties that they were deposited in the temple. while they themselves treated them as part of However, the majority of the texts found in each their literature. This last statement is based on an observation of the contents of the various tablet 2 Cf. H. Otten, MIOF 5 I am
* Presidential address, read at the 172nd meeting of the Society at Cambridge, Mass., on April 4, 1962. 1 Current Anthropology 1 (1960) 409-423. (1957) 26. indebted to Prof. Otten for a copy of his list of texts thus identified. 3 Tablets found in and near this building are published in vols. XII and XIII of Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazkbi (KBo).


covering most of the 14th and all of the 13th century B. whether they are for us "literary" or "non-literary. already taken during Hattusili's own reign. 9 Cat. are immediately dated. 20. for we have fragments of an elaborate account of his war against the town of Hassuwa and its ally. the fact that it was also written in Akkadian seems to indicate that this was still regarded the proper means of written expression. during the New Kingdom. Laroche.108 GtTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature closest analogies in Syria. "The Akkado-Hittite Syllabary and the Problem of the Origin of the Hittite Script. on the other. photograph in MDOG 86 (1953) 60 Abb. "Bibliotheken im Alten Orient. H. 8 Cat. 21. On the analogy of later civilizations it may be assumed that the Hittites at first used the newly acquired script to write the language for which it had been used by their teachers. Laroche. and in Syria. that is." Arch. Akkadian. a. are rituals. has made possible the recognition of original Old Kingdom manuscripts as opposed to later copies of Old Kingdom texts. That the language underwent a development over this long time span has long been seen. V. then. 7Cat. Concerning the problem of when and where the Hittites learned the cuneiform system. and E. and historical texts. This assumption finds some support in the fact that the annals of Hattusili I were written in Akkadian and only centuries later. and only secondarily proceeded to write their own language as well. containing the names of rulers and often written in the name of a certain king. For ancient tablet catalogues see there. Or.. The same is true of the famous Proclamation of Telipinu. which clearly show that all the categories so far mentioned. around 1650 B. Yet. Gamkrelidze.5 and the oldest texts preserved date from the reign of king Hattusili I. I still think-despite other theories-that it was during the early part of the Old Kingdom. "Catalogue des textes hittites.6 A literary composition about events taking place during the siege of the Syrian town of Urshu also is in Akkadian. . of the six or seven buildings that contained tablets. there is the possibility of a diachronic study.C. so that we may assume that it was composed in both languages from the outset. The Old Hittite texts contain some 5 Th." RHA 14-16 (1956-58).C. Otten. cf. for magic or exorcistic rites. This is borne out by the colophons or scribal subscripts and by the Hittite catalogues of tablets. MDOG 91 (1958) 75-84." Das Altertum 1 (1955) 67-81.8 The political testament of the same king9 is a bilingual. Akkadian and Hittite. beginning in the 17th century (according to the "middle" chronology). 17/2 (1949) 7-23. who was also the first Hittite king to extend his activities into northern Syria. with number. and many later treaties. must have been considered part of the literature deemed worthy of being kept in a library.) and that some old texts were copied in the New Kingdom. and a New Kingdom or Empire period. "La bibliotheque de IJattusa. old form of handwriting. translated into Hittite. '1 Cat. for the performance of the cult festivals and. 7. Or. 6 KBo X 1-3. found only in texts that are old also on linguistic grounds. the king of Aleppo. written in the Old Hittite language and in the old handwriting. however. 29 (1961) 406-18. Thus we know that old manuscripts were kept until the end of the Empire (shortly after 1200 B.C. on the one hand.7 The step to writing Hittite was. by the same king. No. 28. that is.4 Apart from this approach based on the local distribution of texts." Another observation also points in the same direction. detailed prescriptions. for it seems more than accidental that the details of orthography have their 4A classified list of Hittite texts with bibliographical references was published by E. These texts. in which the Hittite version shows the characteristics of the old language (although the preserved manuscript is late). 29.10 of which an Akkadian version exists although this king lived several generations later and although this regulation of the succession to the throne is a purely internal affair (in contrast to international treaties which were written in Akkadian because this was the language of diplomacy)-. 6. were registered and catalogued in the same way. Hittite history can be roughly divided into an Old Kingdom. also H. Otten. 10 Cat." as well as some others not enumerated here. In recent years the observation of a special. 188." Arch. hereafter Cat.

A fragment found in 1960. copy A in old writing. . 16 (1962) 17-23. they are the oldest known example of annalistic writing. Riemschneider. iv f. a time that preceded the foundation of the Hittite kingdom. both copies are in the old handwriting. was found in the city of Kanesh)14 and also speaks of the troops of Zalpa. there are other Old Hittite texts mixing history with myth. In addition. as well as the phrase "he notices [no thing" seem to point in this direction. "Gruppe II. Cat. are the Old Hittite texts?12 We already mentioned the annals of Hattusili I written in Akkadian. 531... enumerative style. The events told in the inscription of king Anitta of Kussar"5belong to a Cf. Letter of King Anum-hirbi (Ankara. that is. too. ZA 52 (1957) 216-23 (KUB XXXVI 106 and KBo IX 73 are parts of one tablet!). since they are written in stanzas of a fixed number of verses. KBo XII 3. 16 Cat. of Mama 19 The ffapiru treaty. some 150 years after the events. of cattle and a sack filled with chaff. must have been written shortly after the events. Others. antedating the Assyrian annals by about three centuries. A Kammenhuber. 12. esp. The figure of Anum-hirwe takes us back to the latest phase of the age of the Assyrian merchant colonies. 154. which mentions a certain Anum-herwal3(probably identical with king Anum-hIirbiof Ma'ama whose letter. 21 KUB XXVIII..C. MIOF 6 (1958) 321-81. p. and Cat. But it is significant that the 16 17 Cat.21 Since they cannot as yet be understood I refrain from giving examples.. 5. The mention of a boy who grew up." Saecutum 9 (1958) 136-55. . words written syllabically in Akkadian in a Hittite context and read in Hittite) that later fell into disuse. But in contrast to the partly legendary Anum-h1irwestory this is the translation of an authentic historical account. K. "Die heth. 324." No. Cat. in Old Assyrian. Some of these Hattic texts are literary in the proper sense: they are even poems. In order to gain an impression of the scope of writing during the Old Kingdom we may briefly list other texts of which old manuscripts exist. which still use Akkadian for their legal stipulations20 some texts in the Hattic language. then. 136-44 on the Old Kingdom.. there are: An elaborate ritual for the purification of the royal couple" fragments of festival rituals"7 (it will be noticed that these belong to the two categories of ritual texts mentioned before as worthy of inclusion in the "libraries"). the Laws"8and two treaties19 some land deeds. although the list will contain genres that we would not call literary by our modern standards. This text is in Old Hittite. Otten. like the above-mentioned text about the war against Hassuwa and others. 1 and 3 (Riemschneider Nos. which contain motifs belonging to the realm of myth or fairytale. 12 13 14 period slightly after Anum-hirwe but still earlier than the Hittite kingdom. Geschichtsschreibung. seems to belong in this category if the badly mutilated text is correctly understood. 20 Cat. one of them again dealing with the history of the Anatolian town of Zalpa. 156. A. can best be explained under the assumption that the stage at which writing Akkadian was considered natural was not yet forgotten. 18 by king Zidanda. other historical compositions of the Old Kingdom are very elaborate and detailed. both the language and the handwriting would point to the Old Kingdom. edited by K. and one of the manuscripts is old. Balkan. It seems to me that the most likely theory about the origin and age of this inscription still is that it was originally written by Anitta in Old Assyrian. 24 is in old handwriting. This phenomenon. While these annals are written in a rather dry. 156. 3 and 4) are the oldest. that is. that is in the language of the indigenous. Since his reign can be dated to about 1630 B.GtTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature 109 Akkadograms (that is. JCS 15 (1961) 64 f. pre-IndoEuropean inhabitants of the land of Hatti. 18 Cf. Some of these. 1957). may reflect a popular tradition about the remote past. In addition to the historiographic texts already mentioned. and translated into Hittite in the early part of the Old Kingdom. What.

And therein lies the value of the discovery of the Hittite tablets. 1 (1929) 297. the Sumerian town of the hero.110 GUTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature of which it is hard to tell whether it is genuinely old or merely archaizing. to reconstruct a large part of the first tablet of the Hittite Gilgamesh Epic and to show that it is very much abridged. put (them) on me. In the poetic passages we may very well have before us the first record of a poetry that was until then transmitted orally. rituals and incantations. or to regard the literature of the Hittites as an offshoot of that of Babylonia. In order to justify his regulation of the succession to the throne and of jurisdiction over the royal house. lines 13-15. Indo-European-speaking Hittites began already in the old Kingdom to write down the religious litanies of their predecessors. B. and proverbs.22a The main categories of this learned Babylonian literature are: vocabularies. a. clothes of Nesa put on me. 22 . put! Before leaving the Old Kingdom we should mention the historical introduction to the Proclamation of Telipinu. leaving out some of the episodes taking place in Uruk. medical texts. 27. the old capital: Nesas waspas. This has been shown for two categories of texts: hymns and the Gilgamesh Epic.. The great majority of all Hittite texts belong to this period. After a dark period from which texts are lacking there follows the New Kingdom or Empire which lasted from shortly after 1400 to shortly after 1200 B. It would be wrong to judge the Hittite scribes only on the basis of their-admittedly not always very successful-Assyriological endeavors. Apart from very few Akkadian texts in a kind of Old Babylonian writing Cat. cf. in contrast to contemporary Greece. omens. a text already alluded to. whose gods they also took over.22 In this story someone sings as follows. referring to Nesa. Or.C. at least its Akkadian version. the texts of the "main stream of Babylonian tradition" mentioned earlier were written during the New Kingdom. put! Bring down to me those of my motherput (them) on me. partly historical Old Hittite texts mentioned before. put! Bring down to me those of my . from where so far only administrative documents are known but no literary texts. Arch. It is contained in one of the partly legendary. the discovery. and concentrating on his adventure 22a However. hemerologies. in 1964.. The achievement of the Hittites is just this: that they learned the Babylonian writing and put it to good use in writing down their own literature. The main reason for this activity must have been that this was the way in which learning was organized in Babylonia and that the knowledge of Akkadian was necessary not only for those scribes who were to serve in the foreign office but even for the writing of Hittite. and often provided with Hittite translations. To the still unintelligible Hattic poems may be added the only example of a Hittite poem discovered so far. Professor Otten was able. Even in some fields in which Babylonian models were used. Already what we have said about the Old Kingdom shows that this people developed a literature of its own. HroznyV. This is a remarkable achievement. Such texts were copied in the schools in their original languages. of a fragment of Hittite omens in the old writing now pushes the date back at least for this class of texts. either on the same tablet or on separate tablets. hymns and prayers. this king tells the entire history of the Old Kingdom under the motto that unity makes strong while disunity leads to disaster. on the basis of new fragments. unique in its period (sixteenth century). since it is historiography from a definite viewpoint. Nesas waspas tiya-mu tiya nu-mu annas-mas katta arnut tiya-mu tiya nu-mu uwas-mas katta arnut tiya-mu tiya A tentative translation may be offered although some details remain problematic: Clothes of Nesa. Sumerian and Akkadian. the Hittites freely changed and adapted them. The Gilgamesh Epic may also be included.

. 284. The piety expressed in the introduction is not an empty phrase. When the latter died." And although none of these statements refers specifically to Mursili. Mursili wrote his own annals in two versions. I first took care of the regular festivals of the Sun-goddess of Arinna. he was a mighty king and kept the enemy countries subdued. But when my brother Arnuwanda became god. if he did not actually dictate them. and smote them. we shall see more of this king's religious feelings. he. but afterwards he fell ill. were neglected.C. reverse. My Majesty. and performed them. all the neighboring enemy countries began hostilities against me. my lady. E. And I lifted my hands to the Sungoddess of Arinna.27 The request of the Egyptian queen had led to the assassination of the Hittite prince by those 26 Gilterbock. ed. 24 26 JAOS 78 (1958) 237-45. he tarried on that sojourn. Mursili also wrote a detailed work about the deeds of his father. And they said. this is the story of the request of the widow oi Tutankhamon for a son of Suppiluliuma whom she wanted to become her husband and king of Egypt. who reigned around 1330 B. 27 Cat. And when the enemy countries heard of the illness of my brother Arnuwanda. who was a Babylonian princess. "The Deeds of Suppiluliuma.GUTERBOCK: A Viewof HittiteLiterature 111 in the Cedar Mountain. his personality speaks so vividly from the texts that go under his name that it is obvious that he must at least have given directions for their formulation. When I call a king an author I am aware of the fact that kings in general were illiterate and had to rely on the services of the learned scribes. 56. caused trouble in the palace by introducing foreign mores and by her hostility toward Mursili's wife. For lack of time I refrain from quotations. his stepmother. The dowager queen." JCS 10 (1956). and he addressed several prayers to the gods in order to justify this harsh treatment of the old queen.24 One of the most prolific authors of the Hittites was king Mursili II. Apart from the constant wars in which he had to face many difficult situations. my lady. when I. and adding some details of his own. This act weighed on his conscience. Gilgameg et sa 16gende (1960) 139-43. 23 H. Cat. who was king of Hatti. 93-125. but he fell ill and became god. my lady! Those neighboring enemy countries that called me a child and belittled me and tried to take thy territory away--thou. so that the festivals of the Sungoddess of Arinna. even before I went against any of those neighboring enemy countries that had opened hostilities against me. formerly was a hero. 283. Otten. the great conqueror Suppiluliuma. As an example I read the introduction to one of Therefore. them:25 Even before I sat down on the throne of my father. showing how the author had made free use of Babylonian motifs without following a Babylonian model as a whole. there was trouble at home.23About hymns to the Sun-god I published a paper some years ago in the Journal of this Society. When my father became god. then even those enemy countries that had not been hostile before began hostilities. in P.26 Mursili had no easy life. they began hostilities. 48. situated in a region in which the Hittites were more interested. the king ascribed her death to the curses of the old lady. The so-called Ten-year Annals. JAOS 78 (1958) 244 n. and in Istanbuler Mitteilungen 8 (1958) The text then gives the detailed account of the campaigns of these first ten years of Mursili's reign. too. my lady. I. Garelli. And from the time when I ascended to my father's throne. o Sungoddess of Arinna. whom he therefore banished. this episode on pp. stand by me and smite those neighboring enemy countries for me!" And the Sun-goddess of Arinna listened to my word and stood by me. too! "But he who now sat down on his father's throne is a child and will not be able to save Hatti-land and the frontiers of Hatti!" Now. my lady. ascended to the throne of my father. in which he repeatedly stresses his father's personal courage. "His father. my brother Arnuwanda ascended to the throne of his father. The most famous episode is also the one told with the greatest skill. . Cat. but he became god! "His son who ascended to the throne. I defeated those neighboring enemy countries within ten years. while may father sojourned in Mitanni-land. But sometimes we are told by the scribes that they took down one or the other text "from the mouth of the king. 94-98. and prayed thus: "O Sun-goddess of Arinna.

second version. my lords: it is so. Gurney's Section III. Kleinas. how the Storm-god made a treaty between 28 Cat. or one person. After this we read: "When I had found this tablet about Egypt. fourth version: ibid." Apart from the true religious feeling that speaks out of this prayer. . One tablet about the offerings to the river Euphrates (neglected since the time of his father). but there is no time to follow this one type of religious literature here. Mursili then says: "Behold. whether he be one town. 1 (1930) 206-19. Cat. . he sees in the pestilence the result of a transgression of his father. G6tze. 34KBo XI 1." The gods answered that indeed this breach of an oath was the cause of their anger. but I together with my family shall make amends. Let me only mention a recently published prayer of Muwatalli. In an early prayer he asks the gods to reveal the cause of their anger and not to let the good perish with the evil. It is so. 396.. p. have mercy upon me!" 279. and the beginning of the epidemic. RHA 18/66 (1960) 57-63. (However. Gtiterbock. and the Hittites suddenly broke the oath. And again he dispatched. In Mursili's prayers one may discern a development of his approach. and Suppiluliuma had to take revenge by a campaign into Egyptian territory from which his troops brought home an epidemic that lasted long into Mursili's reign. A. 1 (1930) 164-77. 281. 33 Cat. (It tells) how the Storm-god of Hatti led the people of Kurustamma into Egypt. 29 And so on. it is also interesting because it shows that historical records kept in the archives were read and used by later generations. 32 Cat. (which was) Egyptian territory. we did it! Now since I have confessed the sin of my father.112 GUTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature them (i. and again they attacked. but I did in no way sin." 30 Cat. we did it!" Later he says: "O gods. the Storm-god. and so my father's sin came upon me.e. The prayers which Mursili wrote on that occasion are among the most outstanding works of Hittite writing because of the personal piety expressed in them.33 I found two old tablets. but rather to punish the culprit alone." Still later he mentions the fact that the epidemic came in the wake of his father's Egyptian campaign. . but he stresses his own ignorance of these happenings of the past generation. I have confessed it to the Storm-god of Hatti and to the gods.) thus it happens: The father's sin comes upon his son. The second tablet about Kurustamma. My father dispatched troops and chariots.34the son and successor of Mursili II. who broke the oath he had sworn to his older brother and even killed that brother.29In another prayer. 279. I have confessed my sin in front of the Storm-god. The gist of this prayer" is: "All those responsible have died. 242-51. 279. The occasion for this prayer seems to be the calamity that befell the Hittite kingdom at his time: the loss of the capital which forced the king to take the gods to Kummanni (as this new text puts it). But the Hittites proceeded to desregard the fact that the Hittites and the Egyptians had been taken under oath by the Storm-god. first version: A. and they attacked Amka. Plague Prayer "a. as well as to other deities. Kleinas. but complains that its real cause was not found out by the oracles. one house. Forsch.28 The concept underlying these prayers is that the epidemic is the punishment for some transgression. And behold. Goetze in ANET. Egyptians who opposed the marriage plan. his assassination upon arrival.3' In the next prayer he states that he learned from an old tablet that a treaty had existed between Hatti and Egypt and that in spite of it Suppiluliuma had attacked Egyptian territory. "b. 279. 31 Cat. ANET 394-6. I asked the gods through the oracles. which was. Prayers exist of many rulers and members of the royal family. Forsch. There follows the well-known story of the Egyptian request for a prince. . according to the colophon. the Egyptians) and the Hittites and they took an oath by the Storm-god." In it the king confesses the sins of the people to Teshub. Suppiluliuma's punitive expedition. thus it happens: people always sin! My father sinned and transgressed the command of the Storm-god.32Then in the final prayer he assumes the responsibility as his own. 283. taken down "from the mouth of His Majesty.

were strengthened in the thirteenth century. 125-6.C.40 In connection with Babylonian gods we already mentioned the r6le of the Hurrians as intermediaries between Mesopotamia and Anatolia. was written as a result. Among them there is a ritual for the "Mouth Washing.38 probably to be identified with king Pilliya of about 1500 B. The majority of the Hurrian texts belongs to the New Kingdom. one of the earliest names mentioned in Hurrian texts One ritual is Tadubepa. . of WorldHistory 2 (1954)390 with notes 61-63. Mythologiesof the Ancient World (1961)141-79. Journ. There is a Hurrian version of the Gilgamesh Epic and a Hurrian composition about the kings of Akkad. either because fragments of Hurrian versions exist or because of the names of gods and heroes contained in them." in S. 6. not all epics have a MesopotamianHurrian background. Relations with Kizzuwatna. 42 Myths and epics are listed in Cat. H. the Hittite versions of the epics in question contain a great amount of Luwian words. that is. and during his reign his brother. 381. They are religious in nature. Ghterbock. "Hittite Mythology. under Nos. was close to Kizzuwatna. There are other literary works that can be traced to the same source. under Muwatalli may have been a factor in this development. a town in Kizzuwatna. Cf. 230. The region of Kizzuwatna. 0 Storm-god. we should stress a few points. the Sea. ed. It is well known that Hurrian texts were found in Bowazk6y. the wife of Suppiluliuma. look again at the country with a peaceful eye and cause good peace. Thus they must have been written by scribes of Luwian background but familiar with Hurrian and other foreign stories.42 First. Kramer. Like other Mesopotamian names of deities it came to the Hittites through the Hurrians.39The 36 36 37 Storm-god of Aleppo. Second. Cat. 6. ZA 54 (1961) 114-57. married Puduljepa. There are also some that come from Canaan. in this period a Hurrian Teshub. and a large description of a purification rite. let the Anunnaki reconcile the Storm-god with that god! Thou. Having thus reached such literary compositions in the narrowest sense as epics and myths. for duplicates see KBo XIV. is ascribed to king Palliya of Kizzuwatna. The same role can also be seen in literature. 389 f. Ugarit. 390. N. Otten. Guterbock. the action of the Gurparanzah epic is located in Akkad. growth. 38 39 Nos. would be a likely place of origin for the authors of these Hittite versions. The above-mentioned transfer of the gods to Kummanni. was worshipped even in the Hittite capital already under Muwatalli. Hattusili. written in Hittite but containing Hurrian terms. Later on. but very little can be said about their contents. For example. in Hittite but full of Hurrian elements. One Ugaritic myth. 426.4' Thus it is a fair assumption that these Babylonian literary works came to the Hittites through the Hurrians. 41 Cat. and the essentially Babylonian concepts underlying the Kumarbi myth are well known. and before entering into their contents. The text describes purification rites for Teshub of Kizzuwatna initiated by Palliya. Cat. the daughter of a priest of Lawazzantiya.37 text. the victory of Hadad over Yam. 433 with bibliography. and strength to be in the country! Anunnaki is the Babylonian term for the gods of the Netherworld. for which both the Hurrian and Luwian languages are attested. Puduhepa sent a mission to Kizzuwatna to collect tablets. Introd.. esp. 227256 (of south-eastern origin) and 257-271 (Anatolian). regardless of the origin of the stories. as queen. Cf."36 a rite known from Babylonia. a Hittite vasal kingdom. 40 Cf. Cat. which is another name of the same region.GttTERBOCK: A View of HittiteLiterature 113 A great part of the prayer consists of sections of the following type: If any god of the country has enraged the Storm-god. 115. prosperity. ad Cat. is at least alluded to in one of these Hittite fragments. 389. dealing with El and Ashertu or with a Syrian deified mountain.35 At this point we may turn to the Hurrian elements in Hittite literature. 4. well-being. South-east Anatolia including the Cilician plain.

This is in contrast to the Anatolian myths. which is of Hurrian background. the Hittite versions of these foreign myths and epics are the only ones that have a fixed literary form and are-to some extent at least-written in bound language or verse. Nor do these myths have a fixed form. All texts written wholly or partly in these languages are rituals. and the God Who Hides. But there is also a difference in the sophistication and the involved plots of the foreign myths as compared to the Anatolian ones. as a rival to Teshub. He approaches the house of Teshub to break the news to him. which are simpler both in plot and style. they laid a table for him to eat. The Dragon Fight is told in two different versions in the same ritual text. They set up a chair for him to sit. but he did not reach out. the struggle. The Sun-god is the first to see the monster as it grows in the sea. it is not to be cast aside! Strong is it. broken in most ver- . the new ruler. let them lay a table for him to eat!" While thus they were speaking. but inserted in the spells some mythological tales are found which. that matter is grave. so that thou drankest not?" Third. the king of the lands? The matter about which he comes. When he saw the Sun-god coming Tashmishu began to speak to his brother Teshub: "Why does he come. begotten and raised by Kumarbi. And there are many gods in the role of the Vanishing or Hiding God: the great Stormgod. Most of the deities have Hattic names. or Mesopotamian. Thus it seems that we are here dealing with "oral literature" in the sense of myths living in the oral tradition of Hatti since pre-Indo-European times. The beginning of the story. The stories themselves are well known and available in translations. but he did not put his lip to it. Telipinu. Also goddesses: Inara and Anzili. and the myth of the Hiding God in a ritual aimed at bringing him back and reconciling him with the person afflicted by his anger.114 GtTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature Is the cupbearer bad who gave thee the cup. appear in the same role. We find a similar situation with regard to the other two Indo-European languages of Anatolia. I choose one from the Ullikummi Epic. so that thou sattest not down? Is the steward bad who laid the table. are close in content and form to Anatolian stories written in Hittite. The meter. which lack standardization and metric form. but he did not sit down. the Sun-god of Heaven. whether the motifs are Canaanite. and the local Storm-god of the town of Kuliwisna. The stories are relatively simple: the fight of the Storm-god with the Dragon. from which the authors of the individual rituals could freely draw. We shall try to illustrate the difference between the foreign and the Anatolian myths by a few examples. so we can limit ourselves to short samples. Luwian and Palaic. Teshub began to speak to the Sun-god: "Is the chamberlain bad who set up the chair. who also belongs to the type of Storm-gods. is lost in translation. they gave him a cup. Even rituals dealing with one single god contain different versions of his story. Hurrian. the dethroned king of the gods. leaving one out or changing one there. In contrast. As example of an Anatolian myth I choose an episode from the Vanishing God type of stories. These myths were not transmitted as literary works in their own right but rather as stories told in the course of a ritual: the Dragon Fight on the occasion of the spring festival. of course. the battle! Heaven's uproar it is. Ullikummi is a stone monster. many consist of litanies or magic spells. the land's hunger and thirst it is!" Teshub began to speak to Tashmishu: "Let them set up a chair for him to sit. as far as they can be understood. the Sun-god arrived at their house. adding a detail here. Both are recognizable as nature myths. so that thou atest not? As a common feature of these foreign myths it can be said that they belong into the great tradition of Near Eastern epic literature. strong is it. no Mesopotamian motifs are found in the Anatolian myths.

Dillmann. in the corral the cows were afflicted. 4-Historiography was highly developed.. in the fold the sheep were afflicted. and other religious compositions. Soq. It is to these ancient scholars that we owe our knowledge of Hittite literature. Luwian and Palaic liturgies and tales. Ar.fascicles 1-3." The mention of the wife-presumably the wife of the man for whom the ritual was performed-is of interest. her right shoe she put on her left foot. Dillmann = A." 3-The most common types of texts. I would repeat the following: 1-What the Hittites considered literature includes categories that for us are non-literary.GtTERBOCK: A Viewof HittiteLiterature 115 sions. = Sbauri. 6-Hittite literature contained many different elements: The "main stream of Babylonian tradition" in the school.. Leslau. of her veil she let the rear part come down in front and the front part in back. S9. = Amharic. Fog seized the house. Lexicon linguae aethiopicae.. On the pedestal the gods were afflicted.. [. his wife [. (first line not clear. = Mehri. smoke seized the window. = Hebrew. 'JAOS 82 (1962) 1-4. She rose and left the bed-chamber.. If I may briefly sum up the points that seem essential.. see W. also beginning in the Old Kingdom.. = Arabic. Te. were afflictied. including rituals. JAOS 63 (1943) 4-14. 5-The personality of individual rulers vividly speaks from their historical accounts and particularly from prayers... Hurrian epics. in the fireplace the logs were afflicted. = Tigre. has recently been reconstructed by Professor Laroche for the version concerning the goddess Anzili. Mh.43 The midwife speaks as follows: . G. Akkadisches Handw6rterbuch. = Soqotri. (one sentence lost again)] Her left shoe she put on her right foot. [the . Her dress [she. = Geez.3 The 3 The books and languages are abbreviated as follows. Other versions of the Vanishing God myth 43 RHA 19/68 (1961) 25 f.. . was afflicted. Hattic. In view of the fact that the person reciting this particular story is a midwife.. some Cannanite myths. SOUTHEAST SEMITIC COGNATES TO THE AKKADIAN VOCABULARY. 7-All these diverse elements were controlled by a class of learned men who wrote in the language which we call Hittite.. perhaps referring to an offering) Anzili was enraged. 2-Most categories of texts are found in all tablet collections with a preference for scholarly and truly literary works in the "House on the Slope. Lo s ANGELES IN A PREVIOUS I suggested some ARTICLE' Southeast Semitic2 cognates to the Akkadian vocabulary published by Wolfram von Soden. we may safely say that in this case the ritual for appeasing the angry goddess was performed for a woman who had difficulties in giving birth. but there is no hint at any connection with the seasons..II.. WOLF LESLAU UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. She pinned her pectoral on the back of her dress. begin in the Old Kingdom. since it is new here. Languages: Amh. Tna.. 1. Hebr. were probably used for other occasions. myths. = Tigrinya. We have tried to give a picture of the scope of Hittite literature. 2For Southeast Semitic.