collections found in different locations within the IN ATTEMPTING TO GIVE an outline of Hittite literature we shall try to take the term "literature" Hittite capital, Bogazkoy. in its specific sense, considering as literary mainly Such a study is rendered difficult by the fact such compositions as myths, epics, prayers, and that unfortunately the tablets found before what little exists of poetry. We shall have to in- World War I in three different locations were clude historiography, because historical narrative hopelessly mixed after they had reached the was a field in which the Hittites excelled from museum. In contrast to this, the find spots of all early times on and because many historical texts tablets found after the First War have been carehave their merits also as literary compositions. fully recorded. Some notes of the first excavator, We are, however, aware of the fact that our defini- Hugo Winckler, were recently rediscovered by tion of "literature" is not that of the ancients. Professor Otten; they give the find spots of a little Professor Oppenheim in a recent article' pointed over one hundred texts2-out of 10,000 fragments out that the great majority of the texts forming found in those early excavations! Taken together what he calls "the main stream of tradition" of with what was later found in the same buildings Babylonia-others have called it the "canon" as well as in some others, and also taking into because of the standardization it underwent account what texts were absent in the places rearound 1000 B.C.-is scholarly literature in the cently excavated, one can get a rough, though sense that it consists of the material the scribes incomplete, picture of the contents of the various considered essential for their training, and that its collections. bulk is made up by word lists, omens, and preIt would seem that one building in particular scriptions for exorcistic rites. The preference given deserves the name "library." This is a building to these kinds of texts reflects an encyclopedic ap- situated on the slope of the acropolis, above the proach, as Professor Landsberger was the first to main temple of the city, partly excavated by point out, insofar as the word lists aim at covering Winckler in 1911 and re-investigated in recent the entire vocabulary, the omens consider all pos- years including the campaigns of 1960 and 1961.3 sible occurrences that could be taken as porten- Most of what may be called "scholarly" and tous, and the magic rites also aim at complete "literary" texts seem to have been kept there: coverage. vocabularies, omens, epics, and texts of the "hisAs far as the Hittites are concerned, we shall see torical tradition"-categories to which we shall that their scribes used this "main stream of return. On the other hand, the largest number of Babylonian tradition" as syllabus in their train- state treaties was found by Winckler in the temple ing, too. But they also produced other classes of precinct; this fits the statement contained in some texts that from our point of view are non-literary, treaties that they were deposited in the temple. while they themselves treated them as part of However, the majority of the texts found in each their literature. This last statement is based on an observation of the contents of the various tablet 2 Cf. H. Otten, MIOF 5 I am
* Presidential address, read at the 172nd meeting of the Society at Cambridge, Mass., on April 4, 1962. 1 Current Anthropology 1 (1960) 409-423. (1957) 26. indebted to Prof. Otten for a copy of his list of texts thus identified. 3 Tablets found in and near this building are published in vols. XII and XIII of Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazkbi (KBo).


28. containing the names of rulers and often written in the name of a certain king. has made possible the recognition of original Old Kingdom manuscripts as opposed to later copies of Old Kingdom texts. then. This assumption finds some support in the fact that the annals of Hattusili I were written in Akkadian and only centuries later. "Catalogue des textes hittites. 20. written in the Old Hittite language and in the old handwriting." Arch. for the performance of the cult festivals and. That the language underwent a development over this long time span has long been seen. and only secondarily proceeded to write their own language as well. On the analogy of later civilizations it may be assumed that the Hittites at first used the newly acquired script to write the language for which it had been used by their teachers." RHA 14-16 (1956-58).5 and the oldest texts preserved date from the reign of king Hattusili I. of the six or seven buildings that contained tablets. 8 Cat. 10 Cat. the fact that it was also written in Akkadian seems to indicate that this was still regarded the proper means of written expression. H. old form of handwriting. and in Syria. for we have fragments of an elaborate account of his war against the town of Hassuwa and its ally. which clearly show that all the categories so far mentioned. who was also the first Hittite king to extend his activities into northern Syria.C. 9 Cat. for magic or exorcistic rites. Thus we know that old manuscripts were kept until the end of the Empire (shortly after 1200 B. and historical texts. were registered and catalogued in the same way. Yet. beginning in the 17th century (according to the "middle" chronology). Otten. Concerning the problem of when and where the Hittites learned the cuneiform system. that is. Gamkrelidze. Hittite history can be roughly divided into an Old Kingdom." as well as some others not enumerated here. MDOG 91 (1958) 75-84. already taken during Hattusili's own reign.10 of which an Akkadian version exists although this king lived several generations later and although this regulation of the succession to the throne is a purely internal affair (in contrast to international treaties which were written in Akkadian because this was the language of diplomacy)-. by the same king.. and many later treaties. that is. '1 Cat. so that we may assume that it was composed in both languages from the outset. 7Cat. covering most of the 14th and all of the 13th century B. found only in texts that are old also on linguistic grounds. Otten. also H. a.C. are immediately dated. Laroche. Laroche. "The Akkado-Hittite Syllabary and the Problem of the Origin of the Hittite Script. with number. 188. This is borne out by the colophons or scribal subscripts and by the Hittite catalogues of tablets. For ancient tablet catalogues see there. Akkadian and Hittite. are rituals. on the one hand. 29. "La bibliotheque de IJattusa. whether they are for us "literary" or "non-literary. "Bibliotheken im Alten Orient. translated into Hittite. The same is true of the famous Proclamation of Telipinu.7 The step to writing Hittite was. 6 KBo X 1-3." Das Altertum 1 (1955) 67-81." Arch. cf. .6 A literary composition about events taking place during the siege of the Syrian town of Urshu also is in Akkadian. These texts. The Old Hittite texts contain some 5 Th. I still think-despite other theories-that it was during the early part of the Old Kingdom.108 GtTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature closest analogies in Syria. Akkadian. and a New Kingdom or Empire period. Or. V. and E. detailed prescriptions. In recent years the observation of a special. hereafter Cat. for it seems more than accidental that the details of orthography have their 4A classified list of Hittite texts with bibliographical references was published by E. 29 (1961) 406-18. Or. around 1650 B. 7.4 Apart from this approach based on the local distribution of texts." Another observation also points in the same direction. in which the Hittite version shows the characteristics of the old language (although the preserved manuscript is late). there is the possibility of a diachronic study.) and that some old texts were copied in the New Kingdom. during the New Kingdom. 17/2 (1949) 7-23. on the other. photograph in MDOG 86 (1953) 60 Abb. however. 6. must have been considered part of the literature deemed worthy of being kept in a library. No. 21.8 The political testament of the same king9 is a bilingual. the king of Aleppo.C.

But in contrast to the partly legendary Anum-h1irwestory this is the translation of an authentic historical account. 5. although the list will contain genres that we would not call literary by our modern standards. 12 13 14 period slightly after Anum-hirwe but still earlier than the Hittite kingdom. . 18 Cf. Cat. 324. 16 Cat. the Laws"8and two treaties19 some land deeds. too. there are: An elaborate ritual for the purification of the royal couple" fragments of festival rituals"7 (it will be noticed that these belong to the two categories of ritual texts mentioned before as worthy of inclusion in the "libraries").. of Mama 19 The ffapiru treaty. may reflect a popular tradition about the remote past. K. 156. 156. The mention of a boy who grew up. was found in the city of Kanesh)14 and also speaks of the troops of Zalpa. . In addition. In order to gain an impression of the scope of writing during the Old Kingdom we may briefly list other texts of which old manuscripts exist. KBo XII 3. 154.. This text is in Old Hittite. Letter of King Anum-hirbi (Ankara. While these annals are written in a rather dry. 21 KUB XXVIII. in Old Assyrian. antedating the Assyrian annals by about three centuries. 3 and 4) are the oldest. The events told in the inscription of king Anitta of Kussar"5belong to a Cf.C. which mentions a certain Anum-herwal3(probably identical with king Anum-hIirbiof Ma'ama whose letter. 1957). ZA 52 (1957) 216-23 (KUB XXXVI 106 and KBo IX 73 are parts of one tablet!). that is. esp. 136-44 on the Old Kingdom. as well as the phrase "he notices [no thing" seem to point in this direction.. and one of the manuscripts is old. This phenomenon. seems to belong in this category if the badly mutilated text is correctly understood. p. and Cat. both the language and the handwriting would point to the Old Kingdom. Balkan. Some of these Hattic texts are literary in the proper sense: they are even poems. A. there are other Old Hittite texts mixing history with myth. a time that preceded the foundation of the Hittite kingdom. Cat. MIOF 6 (1958) 321-81. words written syllabically in Akkadian in a Hittite context and read in Hittite) that later fell into disuse.GtTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature 109 Akkadograms (that is. Riemschneider.. JCS 15 (1961) 64 f. and translated into Hittite in the early part of the Old Kingdom. enumerative style. A Kammenhuber. edited by K. Otten. It seems to me that the most likely theory about the origin and age of this inscription still is that it was originally written by Anitta in Old Assyrian. 24 is in old handwriting. 12. 1 and 3 (Riemschneider Nos." No. since they are written in stanzas of a fixed number of verses. of cattle and a sack filled with chaff. both copies are in the old handwriting. can best be explained under the assumption that the stage at which writing Akkadian was considered natural was not yet forgotten. other historical compositions of the Old Kingdom are very elaborate and detailed. Some of these. pre-IndoEuropean inhabitants of the land of Hatti. some 150 years after the events. 16 (1962) 17-23.21 Since they cannot as yet be understood I refrain from giving examples. But it is significant that the 16 17 Cat. one of them again dealing with the history of the Anatolian town of Zalpa. 18 by king Zidanda. that is in the language of the indigenous. "Gruppe II. which still use Akkadian for their legal stipulations20 some texts in the Hattic language. then.. A fragment found in 1960. must have been written shortly after the events. 531." Saecutum 9 (1958) 136-55. What. Others. The figure of Anum-hirwe takes us back to the latest phase of the age of the Assyrian merchant colonies. Since his reign can be dated to about 1630 B. which contain motifs belonging to the realm of myth or fairytale. that is. Geschichtsschreibung. like the above-mentioned text about the war against Hassuwa and others. In addition to the historiographic texts already mentioned. they are the oldest known example of annalistic writing. iv f. 20 Cat. "Die heth. copy A in old writing. are the Old Hittite texts?12 We already mentioned the annals of Hattusili I written in Akkadian.

a. and proverbs. lines 13-15. In order to justify his regulation of the succession to the throne and of jurisdiction over the royal house. this king tells the entire history of the Old Kingdom under the motto that unity makes strong while disunity leads to disaster. cf.22a The main categories of this learned Babylonian literature are: vocabularies. put! Bring down to me those of my motherput (them) on me. Already what we have said about the Old Kingdom shows that this people developed a literature of its own. Even in some fields in which Babylonian models were used. put! Before leaving the Old Kingdom we should mention the historical introduction to the Proclamation of Telipinu. 22 . the old capital: Nesas waspas. leaving out some of the episodes taking place in Uruk. and concentrating on his adventure 22a However. the Hittites freely changed and adapted them. Nesas waspas tiya-mu tiya nu-mu annas-mas katta arnut tiya-mu tiya nu-mu uwas-mas katta arnut tiya-mu tiya A tentative translation may be offered although some details remain problematic: Clothes of Nesa. hemerologies. The great majority of all Hittite texts belong to this period. hymns and prayers. Apart from very few Akkadian texts in a kind of Old Babylonian writing Cat. since it is historiography from a definite viewpoint. whose gods they also took over. put! Bring down to me those of my . referring to Nesa. either on the same tablet or on separate tablets. This is a remarkable achievement.C.110 GUTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature of which it is hard to tell whether it is genuinely old or merely archaizing.22 In this story someone sings as follows. It would be wrong to judge the Hittite scribes only on the basis of their-admittedly not always very successful-Assyriological endeavors. in contrast to contemporary Greece. rituals and incantations. or to regard the literature of the Hittites as an offshoot of that of Babylonia. After a dark period from which texts are lacking there follows the New Kingdom or Empire which lasted from shortly after 1400 to shortly after 1200 B. 27. and often provided with Hittite translations. unique in its period (sixteenth century). clothes of Nesa put on me. This has been shown for two categories of texts: hymns and the Gilgamesh Epic. Arch. the Sumerian town of the hero. a text already alluded to. on the basis of new fragments. Or. The main reason for this activity must have been that this was the way in which learning was organized in Babylonia and that the knowledge of Akkadian was necessary not only for those scribes who were to serve in the foreign office but even for the writing of Hittite.. The achievement of the Hittites is just this: that they learned the Babylonian writing and put it to good use in writing down their own literature. from where so far only administrative documents are known but no literary texts. The Gilgamesh Epic may also be included. Sumerian and Akkadian. at least its Akkadian version. Professor Otten was able. B. 1 (1929) 297. the texts of the "main stream of Babylonian tradition" mentioned earlier were written during the New Kingdom. It is contained in one of the partly legendary. HroznyV. the discovery. Indo-European-speaking Hittites began already in the old Kingdom to write down the religious litanies of their predecessors.. omens. in 1964. medical texts. to reconstruct a large part of the first tablet of the Hittite Gilgamesh Epic and to show that it is very much abridged. of a fragment of Hittite omens in the old writing now pushes the date back at least for this class of texts. partly historical Old Hittite texts mentioned before. To the still unintelligible Hattic poems may be added the only example of a Hittite poem discovered so far. put (them) on me. In the poetic passages we may very well have before us the first record of a poetry that was until then transmitted orally. And therein lies the value of the discovery of the Hittite tablets. Such texts were copied in the schools in their original languages.

Otten. JAOS 78 (1958) 244 n. 93-125. whom he therefore banished. 27 Cat. them:25 Even before I sat down on the throne of my father. we shall see more of this king's religious feelings. and smote them. 23 H. the great conqueror Suppiluliuma. his personality speaks so vividly from the texts that go under his name that it is obvious that he must at least have given directions for their formulation. this is the story of the request of the widow oi Tutankhamon for a son of Suppiluliuma whom she wanted to become her husband and king of Egypt. . The dowager queen. And I lifted my hands to the Sungoddess of Arinna. Gilgameg et sa 16gende (1960) 139-43. For lack of time I refrain from quotations. if he did not actually dictate them. while may father sojourned in Mitanni-land. The most famous episode is also the one told with the greatest skill. who reigned around 1330 B. and he addressed several prayers to the gods in order to justify this harsh treatment of the old queen. 284. And when the enemy countries heard of the illness of my brother Arnuwanda. my lady.23About hymns to the Sun-god I published a paper some years ago in the Journal of this Society. my lady. this episode on pp. caused trouble in the palace by introducing foreign mores and by her hostility toward Mursili's wife. even before I went against any of those neighboring enemy countries that had opened hostilities against me. my brother Arnuwanda ascended to the throne of his father. situated in a region in which the Hittites were more interested. Cat. E. but he became god! "His son who ascended to the throne. 24 26 JAOS 78 (1958) 237-45.GUTERBOCK: A Viewof HittiteLiterature 111 in the Cedar Mountain. As an example I read the introduction to one of Therefore." JCS 10 (1956). 283.24 One of the most prolific authors of the Hittites was king Mursili II. when I. but he fell ill and became god. 94-98. my lady! Those neighboring enemy countries that called me a child and belittled me and tried to take thy territory away--thou. I first took care of the regular festivals of the Sun-goddess of Arinna. Cat. the king ascribed her death to the curses of the old lady. formerly was a hero.26 Mursili had no easy life. But sometimes we are told by the scribes that they took down one or the other text "from the mouth of the king. I. ascended to the throne of my father. "The Deeds of Suppiluliuma. and in Istanbuler Mitteilungen 8 (1958) The text then gives the detailed account of the campaigns of these first ten years of Mursili's reign.. When my father became god. 56. all the neighboring enemy countries began hostilities against me. there was trouble at home. so that the festivals of the Sungoddess of Arinna. too. "His father. The piety expressed in the introduction is not an empty phrase. When I call a king an author I am aware of the fact that kings in general were illiterate and had to rely on the services of the learned scribes. they began hostilities. stand by me and smite those neighboring enemy countries for me!" And the Sun-goddess of Arinna listened to my word and stood by me. but afterwards he fell ill. The so-called Ten-year Annals. o Sungoddess of Arinna. reverse. my lady. Garelli. ed. showing how the author had made free use of Babylonian motifs without following a Babylonian model as a whole. then even those enemy countries that had not been hostile before began hostilities. Apart from the constant wars in which he had to face many difficult situations. my lady. and performed them. And they said. in P. his stepmother. and prayed thus: "O Sun-goddess of Arinna. too! "But he who now sat down on his father's throne is a child and will not be able to save Hatti-land and the frontiers of Hatti!" Now.27 The request of the Egyptian queen had led to the assassination of the Hittite prince by those 26 Gilterbock. Mursili wrote his own annals in two versions. When the latter died. he. he tarried on that sojourn. who was king of Hatti. This act weighed on his conscience. My Majesty. in which he repeatedly stresses his father's personal courage. But when my brother Arnuwanda became god. and adding some details of his own. Mursili also wrote a detailed work about the deeds of his father. who was a Babylonian princess. were neglected. he was a mighty king and kept the enemy countries subdued. And from the time when I ascended to my father's throne. 48.C." And although none of these statements refers specifically to Mursili. I defeated those neighboring enemy countries within ten years.

the Egyptians) and the Hittites and they took an oath by the Storm-god. In Mursili's prayers one may discern a development of his approach. I have confessed it to the Storm-god of Hatti and to the gods. Gtiterbock. 396. how the Storm-god made a treaty between 28 Cat. 34KBo XI 1. The prayers which Mursili wrote on that occasion are among the most outstanding works of Hittite writing because of the personal piety expressed in them. second version. (It tells) how the Storm-god of Hatti led the people of Kurustamma into Egypt. But the Hittites proceeded to desregard the fact that the Hittites and the Egyptians had been taken under oath by the Storm-god. 31 Cat. first version: A. There follows the well-known story of the Egyptian request for a prince. Egyptians who opposed the marriage plan. . The second tablet about Kurustamma. according to the colophon. A. The occasion for this prayer seems to be the calamity that befell the Hittite kingdom at his time: the loss of the capital which forced the king to take the gods to Kummanni (as this new text puts it). Let me only mention a recently published prayer of Muwatalli. he sees in the pestilence the result of a transgression of his father. . ANET 394-6. Goetze in ANET." In it the king confesses the sins of the people to Teshub. and the beginning of the epidemic. 279. fourth version: ibid. 279. Gurney's Section III. I asked the gods through the oracles. have mercy upon me!" 279. but complains that its real cause was not found out by the oracles. and they attacked Amka. Kleinas.112 GUTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature them (i. 29 And so on. Suppiluliuma's punitive expedition.28 The concept underlying these prayers is that the epidemic is the punishment for some transgression.33 I found two old tablets. And again he dispatched. it is also interesting because it shows that historical records kept in the archives were read and used by later generations. and again they attacked. I have confessed my sin in front of the Storm-god. G6tze. we did it! Now since I have confessed the sin of my father." Apart from the true religious feeling that speaks out of this prayer. who broke the oath he had sworn to his older brother and even killed that brother. And behold. 283. the Storm-god. we did it!" Later he says: "O gods. ." The gods answered that indeed this breach of an oath was the cause of their anger." Still later he mentions the fact that the epidemic came in the wake of his father's Egyptian campaign.32Then in the final prayer he assumes the responsibility as his own. 242-51. as well as to other deities. Prayers exist of many rulers and members of the royal family. . and so my father's sin came upon me. (which was) Egyptian territory. 1 (1930) 206-19. and Suppiluliuma had to take revenge by a campaign into Egyptian territory from which his troops brought home an epidemic that lasted long into Mursili's reign. After this we read: "When I had found this tablet about Egypt. 281. "b.34the son and successor of Mursili II..3' In the next prayer he states that he learned from an old tablet that a treaty had existed between Hatti and Egypt and that in spite of it Suppiluliuma had attacked Egyptian territory. It is so. One tablet about the offerings to the river Euphrates (neglected since the time of his father). (However. 1 (1930) 164-77. Mursili then says: "Behold. 33 Cat. taken down "from the mouth of His Majesty.29In another prayer. which was. or one person. p. his assassination upon arrival. one house. thus it happens: people always sin! My father sinned and transgressed the command of the Storm-god. 32 Cat. but I together with my family shall make amends. The gist of this prayer" is: "All those responsible have died. but he stresses his own ignorance of these happenings of the past generation. whether he be one town. Kleinas. Forsch. my lords: it is so. but there is no time to follow this one type of religious literature here.e. 279. Plague Prayer "a. RHA 18/66 (1960) 57-63. In an early prayer he asks the gods to reveal the cause of their anger and not to let the good perish with the evil. My father dispatched troops and chariots." 30 Cat. Cat. but I did in no way sin. Forsch.) thus it happens: The father's sin comes upon his son. but rather to punish the culprit alone. and the Hittites suddenly broke the oath.

Later on. For example. the Sea. as queen. 41 Cat. was worshipped even in the Hittite capital already under Muwatalli. the Hittite versions of the epics in question contain a great amount of Luwian words. dealing with El and Ashertu or with a Syrian deified mountain. Second.40 In connection with Babylonian gods we already mentioned the r6le of the Hurrians as intermediaries between Mesopotamia and Anatolia. were strengthened in the thirteenth century. would be a likely place of origin for the authors of these Hittite versions. that is. a Hittite vasal kingdom. is ascribed to king Palliya of Kizzuwatna. in Hittite but full of Hurrian elements. 390. the action of the Gurparanzah epic is located in Akkad.39The 36 36 37 Storm-god of Aleppo. The above-mentioned transfer of the gods to Kummanni. under Muwatalli may have been a factor in this development. Mythologiesof the Ancient World (1961)141-79. ed. and before entering into their contents. regardless of the origin of the stories. There are other literary works that can be traced to the same source. which is another name of the same region. either because fragments of Hurrian versions exist or because of the names of gods and heroes contained in them. married Puduljepa. Relations with Kizzuwatna.. 381.37 text. The text describes purification rites for Teshub of Kizzuwatna initiated by Palliya.C.4' Thus it is a fair assumption that these Babylonian literary works came to the Hittites through the Hurrians. for duplicates see KBo XIV. not all epics have a MesopotamianHurrian background. 227256 (of south-eastern origin) and 257-271 (Anatolian). Introd. It is well known that Hurrian texts were found in Bowazk6y. one of the earliest names mentioned in Hurrian texts One ritual is Tadubepa. 40 Cf. One Ugaritic myth. The region of Kizzuwatna."36 a rite known from Babylonia. the victory of Hadad over Yam. 125-6. They are religious in nature. under Nos. 433 with bibliography. let the Anunnaki reconcile the Storm-god with that god! Thou. 38 39 Nos. for which both the Hurrian and Luwian languages are attested. Cat.35 At this point we may turn to the Hurrian elements in Hittite literature. Cat. . Thus they must have been written by scribes of Luwian background but familiar with Hurrian and other foreign stories. 230. Hattusili. Ghterbock. 42 Myths and epics are listed in Cat. but very little can be said about their contents. Like other Mesopotamian names of deities it came to the Hittites through the Hurrians. look again at the country with a peaceful eye and cause good peace. Kramer. There is a Hurrian version of the Gilgamesh Epic and a Hurrian composition about the kings of Akkad. 4. a town in Kizzuwatna. Journ. Ugarit. ZA 54 (1961) 114-57. was close to Kizzuwatna.42 First. Cat. 6. the daughter of a priest of Lawazzantiya. in this period a Hurrian Teshub. well-being. There are also some that come from Canaan. the wife of Suppiluliuma.GttTERBOCK: A View of HittiteLiterature 113 A great part of the prayer consists of sections of the following type: If any god of the country has enraged the Storm-god. esp. of WorldHistory 2 (1954)390 with notes 61-63. "Hittite Mythology. Among them there is a ritual for the "Mouth Washing. and during his reign his brother.38 probably to be identified with king Pilliya of about 1500 B. Guterbock. N. we should stress a few points. Having thus reached such literary compositions in the narrowest sense as epics and myths. is at least alluded to in one of these Hittite fragments. Puduhepa sent a mission to Kizzuwatna to collect tablets. The majority of the Hurrian texts belongs to the New Kingdom. H. 6. 389 f. 389. and strength to be in the country! Anunnaki is the Babylonian term for the gods of the Netherworld. prosperity. ad Cat." in S. Cf. The same role can also be seen in literature. growth. and a large description of a purification rite. 426. was written as a result. and the essentially Babylonian concepts underlying the Kumarbi myth are well known. Cf. written in Hittite but containing Hurrian terms. 0 Storm-god. 115. South-east Anatolia including the Cilician plain. Otten.

adding a detail here. or Mesopotamian. they laid a table for him to eat. But there is also a difference in the sophistication and the involved plots of the foreign myths as compared to the Anatolian ones. begotten and raised by Kumarbi. These myths were not transmitted as literary works in their own right but rather as stories told in the course of a ritual: the Dragon Fight on the occasion of the spring festival. We shall try to illustrate the difference between the foreign and the Anatolian myths by a few examples. of course. He approaches the house of Teshub to break the news to him. the land's hunger and thirst it is!" Teshub began to speak to Tashmishu: "Let them set up a chair for him to sit. broken in most ver- . appear in the same role. strong is it. Telipinu. Most of the deities have Hattic names. All texts written wholly or partly in these languages are rituals. let them lay a table for him to eat!" While thus they were speaking. Also goddesses: Inara and Anzili. as far as they can be understood. Teshub began to speak to the Sun-god: "Is the chamberlain bad who set up the chair. but he did not put his lip to it.114 GtTERBOCK: A View of Hittite Literature Is the cupbearer bad who gave thee the cup. We find a similar situation with regard to the other two Indo-European languages of Anatolia. which lack standardization and metric form. the new ruler. the Hittite versions of these foreign myths and epics are the only ones that have a fixed literary form and are-to some extent at least-written in bound language or verse. that matter is grave. the king of the lands? The matter about which he comes. is lost in translation. and the God Who Hides. the dethroned king of the gods. they gave him a cup. The stories are relatively simple: the fight of the Storm-god with the Dragon. The stories themselves are well known and available in translations. as a rival to Teshub. Luwian and Palaic. The meter. The beginning of the story. The Dragon Fight is told in two different versions in the same ritual text. from which the authors of the individual rituals could freely draw. Thus it seems that we are here dealing with "oral literature" in the sense of myths living in the oral tradition of Hatti since pre-Indo-European times. leaving one out or changing one there. so that thou sattest not down? Is the steward bad who laid the table. They set up a chair for him to sit. the struggle. it is not to be cast aside! Strong is it. I choose one from the Ullikummi Epic. so that thou atest not? As a common feature of these foreign myths it can be said that they belong into the great tradition of Near Eastern epic literature. so we can limit ourselves to short samples. no Mesopotamian motifs are found in the Anatolian myths. are close in content and form to Anatolian stories written in Hittite. The Sun-god is the first to see the monster as it grows in the sea. Both are recognizable as nature myths. Nor do these myths have a fixed form. many consist of litanies or magic spells. Hurrian. whether the motifs are Canaanite. Ullikummi is a stone monster. In contrast. And there are many gods in the role of the Vanishing or Hiding God: the great Stormgod. the Sun-god of Heaven. but he did not sit down. and the local Storm-god of the town of Kuliwisna. who also belongs to the type of Storm-gods. but inserted in the spells some mythological tales are found which. but he did not reach out. When he saw the Sun-god coming Tashmishu began to speak to his brother Teshub: "Why does he come. which are simpler both in plot and style. so that thou drankest not?" Third. which is of Hurrian background. This is in contrast to the Anatolian myths. the Sun-god arrived at their house. As example of an Anatolian myth I choose an episode from the Vanishing God type of stories. Even rituals dealing with one single god contain different versions of his story. the battle! Heaven's uproar it is. and the myth of the Hiding God in a ritual aimed at bringing him back and reconciling him with the person afflicted by his anger.

G. smoke seized the window. Leslau. [the .. Soq. some Cannanite myths. We have tried to give a picture of the scope of Hittite literature. 1. (first line not clear. Lo s ANGELES IN A PREVIOUS I suggested some ARTICLE' Southeast Semitic2 cognates to the Akkadian vocabulary published by Wolfram von Soden. Te. has recently been reconstructed by Professor Laroche for the version concerning the goddess Anzili. myths.fascicles 1-3." 3-The most common types of texts. 6-Hittite literature contained many different elements: The "main stream of Babylonian tradition" in the school. see W. Tna.43 The midwife speaks as follows: .GtTERBOCK: A Viewof HittiteLiterature 115 sions. Hurrian epics. since it is new here. Fog seized the house. = Hebrew. SOUTHEAST SEMITIC COGNATES TO THE AKKADIAN VOCABULARY. = Amharic. Dillmann = A. On the pedestal the gods were afflicted. = Sbauri.. Her dress [she. = Soqotri. [. 4-Historiography was highly developed. in the corral the cows were afflicted. 2-Most categories of texts are found in all tablet collections with a preference for scholarly and truly literary works in the "House on the Slope.II.. of her veil she let the rear part come down in front and the front part in back. perhaps referring to an offering) Anzili was enraged. She rose and left the bed-chamber. She pinned her pectoral on the back of her dress." The mention of the wife-presumably the wife of the man for whom the ritual was performed-is of interest. S9. were afflictied. = Geez..3 The 3 The books and languages are abbreviated as follows. It is to these ancient scholars that we owe our knowledge of Hittite literature. 7-All these diverse elements were controlled by a class of learned men who wrote in the language which we call Hittite. Mh. I would repeat the following: 1-What the Hittites considered literature includes categories that for us are non-literary. WOLF LESLAU UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. begin in the Old Kingdom. Hattic. and other religious compositions. 5-The personality of individual rulers vividly speaks from their historical accounts and particularly from prayers. Akkadisches Handw6rterbuch.. If I may briefly sum up the points that seem essential. but there is no hint at any connection with the seasons. we may safely say that in this case the ritual for appeasing the angry goddess was performed for a woman who had difficulties in giving birth. 2For Southeast Semitic. Ar... Dillmann.. = Mehri. Luwian and Palaic liturgies and tales. his wife [. also beginning in the Old Kingdom. JAOS 63 (1943) 4-14. In view of the fact that the person reciting this particular story is a midwife. Other versions of the Vanishing God myth 43 RHA 19/68 (1961) 25 f.. . were probably used for other occasions.. 'JAOS 82 (1962) 1-4... = Tigrinya. Languages: Amh. in the fold the sheep were afflicted. = Arabic. Lexicon linguae aethiopicae. Hebr.. (one sentence lost again)] Her left shoe she put on her right foot.. in the fireplace the logs were afflicted. her right shoe she put on her left foot. = Tigre. including rituals.. was afflicted.

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