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CONCRETE WORKS (PRODUCTION , HAULAGE AND PLACING )

Objective To define the standard procedures for production, transportation, placement/compaction, curing and protection of plain and reinforced structural concrete

Scope This methodology covers all plant, labor, equipment, materials to be used in performing all operations in connection with the furnishing, manufacturing, transportation, placement, vibration, finishing and curing of plain & reinforced concrete as per applicable codes and standards given there in the contract documents. All concrete work will conform to requirements of ACI 318-08 and modifications. Procedures Concrete Materials and Arrangements Submittals Samples of specified materials such as cement, admixtures, coarse and fine aggregates including names of sources and their description along with relevant literature, delivery and storage record, details of construction plant, shop drawings , method statements, certificates and mill test data, results of routine tests and daily reports, bar bending schedules and concreting record will be submitted for approval.

Cement Ordinary Portland cement and slag cement as specified conforming to ASTM C-150-98 type - 1 standard shall be brought, stored in dry place, and tested whenever required. Only one brand of each type of cement will be used for concrete in any individual member of the structure and will be used as early as possible after delivery at site. The mixing of different types of cements shall not be adopted. Mill testing certificates will be produced from time to time. Admixtures Admixtures such as air entraining agents, water reducing admixtures including plasticizers or super plasticizers or retarders will be used as approved and required by the Engineer. Admixtures will be well agitated to ensure uniformity before use in concrete. Admixtures will comply with ASTM Designation C-494 Type D and will not contain calcium chloride. Admixture will be handled and stored in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. Coarse Aggregates Specified coarse aggregate will be obtained and used of sizes given in mixed design from the approved sources. The grading of the aggregates used will be conforming to ASTM C33-74 standards as specified in specifications. The size of the aggregates will fall within the range of 3/16of an inch to 3 inches. Coarse aggregate will consist of natural deposits or quarried and crushed rock or boulders. The sum of the percentages of all the deleterious substances will not exceed three percent, by weight. Fine Aggregate - Fine aggregates will be hard coarse sand, crushed stone or gravel obtained from approved quarry/source and shall conform to requirements of ASTM C-33-99. The sum of the

percentages of all the deleterious substances will not exceed five percent, by weight. Water - Potable water will be used for cleaning of aggregates, mixing in concrete, mortar and grout and their curing. Water will be obtained from source approved by the engineer and would be free from injurious amounts of oil, acid, salt, alkali, organic matter. The water for curing shall have PH value of 6 to 8 and shall not contain impurities which cause de-coloration of concrete. The contaminated water may only be used having specified impurities with their permissible limits in unavoidable circumstances. Delivery and Storage Record comprising details of cement, aggregates, chemicals/admixtures delivered at Batching Plant will be maintained for any time inspection. Deliveries of different types of concrete supplied at site shall also be recorded in details. Covered Sheds (if required) will be installed to protect aggregates from direct sun-heat. Separate stockpiles will be provided for each size or classification of aggregates. Constructional Plant Details of major constructional plants such as batching plants, mixers, concrete pumping equipment, hoists and cranes along with general layout plans and flow diagram will be submitted for the review and approval of the Engineer. Inspection of Concrete Pouring Arrangements Verification and approval of formwork and rebar fixing will be assured before the preparation of delivery of any type of concrete. Batching Plant operators will be very well conversant with the Concrete Mix Designs of all required types of concrete.

Quality Assurance ICPL will furnish certificates, mill-test-data, calibration certificates of scales and machines. Concrete Records ICPL will submit record of daily poured concrete on approved format and pour slips.

Proportioning of Concrete Trial mixes and tests will be carried out for the purpose of designing the mixes and for quality control with regard to the required strength, density and durability. It is pertinent to mention here that different compressive strengths of concrete are required keeping in view the size and load carrying capacity of the structural members. Material Engineer will conduct trial mixes as directed by the Engineer and cylinders samples will be casted with complete testing record such as mix proportions, temperature, slump etc. The trials will be done using at least 03 different w/c ratios which will produce a range of strength required for the works. For each w/c ratio cylinders will be casted and tested. From compressive strength test results, curve for strength vs w/c ratio will be drawn to ascertain accurate w/c ratio required for desirable compressive strength. The cement contents and mixed proportions to be used will be such that w/c ratio is not exceeded when maximum slump is permitted. Concrete mixes will be designed to use the larger size and maximum amount of coarse aggregate to produce the proper placeability, durability, compressive strength and other required

properties.

Aggregates will be batched by weight. The weighing machine will be accurate within 2% limits. In case of volumetric measurement, control on volume shall be assured. The measuring boxes should be deep and narrow and fitted with handle. Calculated water will be added within 25 % of specified mixing time. Approved Design Mixes will be conveyed to all lab & Production control staff to avoid any mistake in the mix proportion handling. Before raising formal inspection request, ICPL QA/QC Engineer shall inspect the works and if found satisfactory, shall proceed with the Engineers representative for final inspection & approval. Concrete Production & Transportation Batching Plant of sufficient capacity will be set up as per the requirements of the project. All types of concrete specified in the contract documents shall be designed, produced and supplied by the in-house batch plants. All constructional plant will be set up as per approved Layout plan. In case mixing machines are to be used, they must have sufficient capacity to produce the concrete continuously without having any cold joint. Minimum mixing time of 2 min shall be used for mixers with 0.25 to 0.2 cum capacity. Preferably computerized scales for weigh measurement of raw material at batching plant will be installed and maintained. An accurate recorder will be provided that shows batching weights. Imprint made by a calendar type showing day, time etc.

Approved Design Mixes will be conveyed to all lab & Production control staff to avoid any mistake in the mix proportion handling. Concrete will be transported from production to final deposit location as rapidly as practicable to control the segregation and any loss of required workability. The concrete will not be dropped more than 900 mm for transportation to prevent the segregation. The w/c ratio shall be adjusted such that concrete with suitable workability, density, impermeability, durability and required strength could be obtained without the use of excessive amount of cement. Addition of water to compensate the stiffening of concrete will not be adopted. Uniformity in concrete consistency from batch to batch shall be assured. Concrete will be transported with concrete pumps directly in contact with batching plants and through transit mixers to the remote work locations or any other arrangement like hoists or bucket operated with tower crane.

Concrete Placing After production and transportation of concrete all type of confirmatory tests will be managed by Q/A & Q/C staff. This will include slump test at batch plant & site, temperature control, lead time control & homogeneity of concrete. Concrete will be placed only after the approval of formwork, steel fixing, embedded parts installation, bracing of form etc by the Engineer. The concrete will be placed in such a manner which will require as little re-handling as possible.

Immediately before placing concrete, all surfaces upon or against which the concrete is to be places will be free from standing water, mud, debris or loose material. The surfaces of all absorptive materials against which the concrete is to be placed shall be thoroughly moistened in order to avoid any suction of water from freshly placed concrete. Placing will be carried out at such a rate that the concrete which is being integrated with fresh concrete is will plastic. Concrete will be places and compacted well within the initial setting time. Concrete will be deposited as close as possible to its final position in the form and avoiding to maximum its horizontal movement. The concrete will be consolidated by vibration so that concrete is thoroughly worked around reinforcement, embedded items, into corners of form eliminating all air and stone pockets which may cause honeycombing and planes of weakness. Internal vibrators shall have sufficient frequency and amplitude to achieve

consolidated concrete. At each insertion of vibrating shaft for 5 to 15 sec time shall be given for thorough consolidation. The time between the mixing and placing will be reduced for rich mixes or if the work is carried out at high temperature or exposed to dry weather. In any circumstances this time span shall not exceed 30-45 minutes. During placement care will be taken not to disturb rebar, have proper walkways / passages, standby vibrators (mechanically or electrically operated), temperature observation, approved

construction joints, avoiding cold joints & stability of embedded

parts. Voids in sleeves, inserts and anchor slots will be filled temporarily with readily removable material to prevent the entry of concrete into the voids. From weather forecast favorable weather conditions will be assured during the placement and initial consolidation. Construction joints shall be approved by the Engineer with necessary measures as per structural requirements. The surface of the construction joint shall be kept continuously wet for at least eighteen hours during the 24 hours period prior to placing concrete. Just before placing new concrete surface of construction joint shall be made dry. Forms will not be removed before minimum time as specified in the specifications. Forms will be removed in such a way to prevent any damage to the already constructed members. Tolerances against dimensions and plumbs will be followed for finished concrete works as described in specifications.

Concrete Temperature & Extreme Weather Conditions During hot weather the temperature of the concrete as placed will not be so high as to cause difficulty from loss of slump, flash set or cold joint and should not exceed 32 C and not less than 5 C. When the temperatures of reinforcing steel become more than 50 C then it will be sprayed with water just prior to placing the concrete. For all Sections of concrete, placing temperature will be as per specifications (max limit of 32 C as specified, preferably 21 C for

mass concrete & 32 C for Normal concrete) in addition to the approval of the Engineer. The water for mixing concrete will be cooled by the use of crushed ice & chillers. The ingredients will also be cooled before mixing with water. The aggregates may be stacked under shade if required. This will be further cooled by sprinkling cold water on coarse aggregate.

Curing of Concrete Freshly placed concrete will be protected against any premature drying, excessively hot and cold temperature and will be maintained with minimum moisture loss at constant temperature for the period necessary for hydration of cement consequently hardening of concrete. Curing of concrete surfaces not in contact with form will be done with water sprinkling, wet hessian cloth, covering with waterproof sheet or application of curing compound (if necessarily required). Horizontal members like raft, foundations and slabs will be cured with ponding on their top surface. Vertical members like walls, columns and vertical sides of the beams will be cured with water sprinkler and hessian cloth periodically is wetted. Moisture loss from surfaces in contact with form shall be continuously wet for controlling the temperature till the form is safely removed. Curing will be continued for 14 days for all types of concrete

Curing period may be terminated earlier if the cylinders casted from the relevant concrete member are placed in the vicinity with all similar conditions shows 70% of average compressive strength on their early testing (usually after 07 days). During the curing period concrete will be protected from damaging due to mechanical disturbances and excessive vibrations. Testing of Concrete During placement of concrete, cylinders will be casted for compressive strength test as per the standards mentioned in the specifications. ICPLs QA& QC engineer shall assist to the Engineers staff from casting to crushing of cylinders at every stage. After 07 & 28 days testing of the samples, report will be submitted for approval of the Engineer. Generally one test sample consisting of 06 # cylinders shall be prepared from any one class of concrete per day or 50 cum of concrete whichever is greater. All six samples will be tested with division of 02# each on 03 days, 07 days & 28 days. Test cylinders will be clearly marked with date identification mark and location of concrete. A test sample data sheet for record purposes will be prepared for each set of samples. For any concrete mix, compressive strength of any one specimen or average compressive strength of three specimens is not less than specified strength or the difference between the greatest and least strengths is not more than 20% of that average value.

The test results will be compiled on monthly basis for complete recording and ready references.

TOOLS & EQUIPMENTS Batching plant, Concrete pumps, Vibrators, Slump cones, Personal Protective Equipment, Cylinders, Wheel-barrows etc Related documents Corrective Action Request (CAR) form Quality of Coarse/Fine aggregate. Survey Report Weather record Flat and elongated particles Calculation Sheet Aggregate Combination for Concrete Design Mix. Specific gravity test Cement Soundness test Unit weight (Loose / Rodded) Summary of Daily Concrete Concrete compression test Monthly / Weekly summary of compression strength of concrete Request/Report for Inspection/Test (RIT)